A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising bird poxviruses. The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. Transmission is mechanical by ARTHROPODS.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.
A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A poxvirus infection of poultry and other birds characterized by the formation of wart-like nodules on the skin and diphtheritic necrotic masses (cankers) in the upper digestive and respiratory tracts.
A subfamily of the family POXVIRIDAE, containing eight genera comprising all the vertebrate poxviruses.
A genus of POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, infecting humans. Transmission is by direct contact among children, by sexual contact among young adults, or by fomites. MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS is the type species.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, causing tumors in primates. The type species is YABA MONKEY TUMOR VIRUS.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, which infect ungulates and may infect humans. ORF VIRUS is the type species.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
A heterogeneous mixture of glycoproteins responsible for the gel structure of egg white. It has trypsin-inhibiting activity.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
A disorder characterized by incomplete arousals from sleep associated with behavior suggesting extreme fright. This condition primarily affects children and young adults and the individual generally has no recall of the event. Episodes tend to occur during stage III or IV. SOMNAMBULISM is frequently associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)
A group of islands of SAMOA, in the southwest central Pacific. Its capital is Pago Pago. The islands were ruled by native chiefs until about 1869. An object of American interest beginning in 1839, Pago Pago and trading and extraterritorial rights were granted to the United States in 1878. The United States, Germany, and England administered the islands jointly 1889-99, but in 1899 they were granted to the United States by treaty. The Department of the Interior has administered American Samoa since 1951. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p44)
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.

Identification of the canarypox virus thymidine kinase gene and insertion of foreign genes. (1/54)

We mapped the canarypox virus (CaPV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene within a 5.8-kbp XbaI fragment of the genome by Southern blotting using the fowlpox virus (FPV) TK gene as a probe. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the fragment revealed seven open reading frames (ORFs) showing gene organization similar to that of FPV. The TK gene contained in this region had an ORF of 179 amino acids encoding a polypeptide with a putative molecular mass of 20.0 kDa. An A/T-rich region and a transcription termination signal, TTTTTAT, were found upstream and at the end of the ORF, which is consistent with poxvirus early gene regulation. The consensus sequence of the late promoter TAAAT also overlapped with the initiation codon of the ORF. The amino acid sequence similarity between the TK genes of CaPV and FPV, avipoxviruses, was 64.2%, which was lower than the similarities between vaccinia and variola orthopoxviruses (97.2%) and between Shope fibroma and myxoma leporipoxviruses (82.6%). However, the monophyly of avian clades of CaPV and FPV was supported by phylogenetic analysis. We then inserted the genes encoding lacZ, luciferase (luci), and envelope of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 env) into the TK gene of CaPV to evaluate its suitability as an expression vector. The recombinant viruses obtained were unstable, although the foreign genes were expressed efficiently in the mammalian cells infected with the viruses.  (+info)

Antigen gene transfer to cultured human dendritic cells using recombinant avipoxvirus vectors. (2/54)

Advances in understanding the role of dendritic cells (DCs) as the major antigen (Ag)-presenting cell type of the immune system combined with the recent development of methods for the ex vivo expansion of human DCs have opened the possibility for the transfer of tumor Ags to DCs with a view toward tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the feasibility of Ag transfer to cultured human DCs using the host range-restricted avipoxvirus, fowlpoxvirus (FWPV). FWPV was found to infect and express a lacZ marker gene in a number of mammalian cell lines of fibroblastic, epithelial, and hemopoietic lineage origins. LacZ recombinant FWPV (rFWPV) was found subsequently to infect human DCs that had been cultured ex vivo from peripheral blood monocytes. Using rFWPV containing lacZ under the control of a vaccinia virus (VV) early/late promoter (p7.5K) and a 10 plaque-forming units per cell multiplicity of infection, >80% of cells expressed the lacZ marker gene. Quantitative analysis showed that the level of expression continued to rise for 5 days postinfection, at which point the experiments were terminated. Replication-competent recombinant VV (rVV) was also shown to be capable of transferring the marker gene to primary DC cultures. However, neither rFWPV nor rVV were able to express transgenes under the control of late viral promoters, indicating that both rFWPV and rVV infections are arrested at an early stage in human DCs. Infection of CD83 + DCs by rFWPV was confirmed by double-staining cytochemistry. We conclude that host range-restricted FWPV can be used efficiently to transfer Ag genes to human DCs ex vivo and may have a role in the development of tumor immunotherapy protocols.  (+info)

A canarypox vaccine expressing multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genes given alone or with rgp120 elicits broad and durable CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in seronegative volunteers. (3/54)

Induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells is considered one of the important correlates for the protective efficacy of candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines. To induce CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) along with neutralizing antibody and CD4+ T cell help, a live canarypox virus construct expressing gp120, transmembrane gp41, the gag and protease genes, and sequences containing CTL epitopes in nef and pol was given simultaneously with, or followed by, rgp120 SF2. CD8+ CTLs were detected in 61% of volunteers at some time during the trial. Three to 6 months after the last immunization, the gene-specific responses were gag, 26/81; env, 17/77; nef, 12/77; and pol, 3/16. Simultaneous immunization with the canarypox vector and the subunit, beginning with the initial immunization, resulted in earlier antibody responses. In summary, a strategy of immunization with a canarypox vector expressing multiple genes of HIV-1 given with gp120 results in durable CD8+ CTL responses to a broad range of epitopes.  (+info)

A canarypox vector expressing cytomegalovirus (CMV) glycoprotein B primes for antibody responses to a live attenuated CMV vaccine (Towne). (4/54)

To develop a vaccine against cytomegalovirus (CMV), a canarypox virus (ALVAC) expressing CMV glycoprotein (gB) was evaluated alone or in combination with a live, attenuated CMV vaccine (Towne). Three doses of 106.5 TCID50 of ALVAC-CMV(gB) induced very low neutralizing or ELISA antibodies in most seronegative adults. However, to determine whether ALVAC-CMV(gB) could prime for antibody responses, 20 seronegative adults randomly received either 106.8 TCID50 of ALVAC-CMV(gB) or 106.8 TCID50 of ALVAC-RG, expressing the rabies glycoprotein, administered at 0 and 1 month, with all subjects receiving a dose of 103.5 pfu of the Towne vaccine at 90 days. For subjects primed with ALVAC-CMV(gB), neutralizing titers and ELISA antibodies to CMV(gB) developed sooner, were much higher, and persisted longer than for subjects primed with ALVAC-RG. All vaccines were well tolerated. These results demonstrate that ALVAC-CMV(gB) primes the immune system and suggest a combined-vaccine strategy to induce potentially protective levels of neutralizing antibodies.  (+info)

Identification of five MAGE-A1 epitopes recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes obtained by in vitro stimulation with dendritic cells transduced with MAGE-A1. (5/54)

MAGE genes are expressed by many human tumors of different histological types but not by normal cells, except for male germline cells. The Ags encoded by MAGE genes and recognized by T cells are therefore strictly tumor-specific. Clinical trials involving therapeutic vaccination of cancer patients with MAGE antigenic peptides or proteins are in progress. To increase the range of patients eligible for therapy with peptides, it is important to identify additional MAGE epitopes recognized by CTL. Candidate peptides known to bind to a given HLA have been used to stimulate T lymphocytes in vitro. In some instances, CTL clones directed against these synthetic peptides have been obtained, but these clones often failed to recognize tumor cells expressing the relevant gene. Therefore, we designed a method to identify CTL epitopes that selects naturally processed peptides. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells infected with a recombinant canarypoxvirus (ALVAC) containing the entire MAGE-A1 gene were used to stimulate CD8+ T lymphocytes from the blood of individuals without cancer. Responder cell microcultures that specifically lysed autologous cells expressing MAGE-A1 were cloned using autologous stimulator cells either transduced with a retrovirus coding for MAGE-A1 or infected with recombinant Yersinia-MAGE-A1 bacteria. The CTL clones were tested for their ability to lyse autologous cells loaded with each of a set of overlapping MAGE-A1 peptides. This strategy led to the identification of five new MAGE-A1 epitopes recognized by CTL clones on HLA-A3, -A28, -B53, -Cw2, and -Cw3 molecules. All of these CTL clones recognized target cells expressing gene MAGE-A1.  (+info)

Phase I study in cancer patients of a replication-defective avipox recombinant vaccine that expresses human carcinoembryonic antigen. (6/54)

PURPOSE: A phase I clinical trial in patients with advanced carcinoma was conducted, using a replication-defective avipox vaccine containing the gene for the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The canarypox vector, designated ALVAC, has the ability to infect human cells but cannot replicate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The recombinant vaccine, designated ALVAC-CEA, was administered intramuscularly three times at 28-day intervals. Each cohort of six patients received three doses of either 2.5 x 10(5), 2.5 x 10(6), or 2.5 x 10(7) plaque-forming units of vaccine. RESULTS: The vaccine was well tolerated at all dose levels and no significant toxicity was attributed to the treatment. No objective antitumor response was observed during the trial in patients with measurable disease. Studies were conducted to assess whether ALVAC-CEA had the ability to induce cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in patients with advanced cancer. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with the MHC class I A2 allele were obtained before vaccine administration and 1 month after the third vaccination. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with the CEA immunodominant CTL epitope carcinoembryonic antigen peptide-1 and interleukin 2 and quantitated using CTL precursor frequency analysis. In seven of nine patients evaluated, statistically significant increases in CTL precursors specific for CEA were observed in PBMCs after vaccination, compared with before vaccination. CONCLUSION: These studies constitute the first phase I trial of an avipox recombinant in cancer patients. The recombinant vaccine ALVAC-CEA seems to be safe and has been demonstrated to elicit CEA-specific CTL responses. These studies thus form the basis for the further clinical exploration of the ALVAC-CEA recombinant vaccine in phase I/II studies in protocols designed to enhance the generation of human T-cell responses to CEA.  (+info)

Efficient human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV)-1 Gag-Env pseudovirion formation elicited from mammalian cells by a canarypox HIV vaccine candidate. (7/54)

Canarypox viruses undergo abortive replication in mammalian cells. Despite this restriction on replication in mammalian cells, significant immune responses have been shown in animals and in humans receiving recombinant canarypox vaccine vectors expressing heterologous immunogens. A recombinant canarypox vaccine candidate (vCP205), which expresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag, Env, and protease proteins, is presently under investigation in phase I and phase II human trials in the United States and elsewhere. In this study, the ability of vCP205 to elicit HIV Gag-Env pseudovirion formation in avian and mammalian cells was investigated. Gag-Env pseudovirions were produced from both avian and mammalian cell lines infected by this vaccine vector. A subset of mammalian cells was identified in which pseudovirion production and release was very efficient, surpassing the production from infected avian cells. The production of Gag-Env pseudovirions by canarypox HIV vaccine vectors may have important implications for future HIV vaccine design.  (+info)

Viral vector delivery in solid-state vehicles: gene expression in a murine prostate cancer model. (8/54)

BACKGROUND: Although there are increasingly more clinical trials involving gene therapy, efficient gene transfer remains a major hurdle to success. To enhance the efficiency of delivery of viral vectors in gene therapy protocols, we evaluated the effect of various matrices to act as a vehicle for recombinant virus during intratumoral injection. METHODS: The ability of several vehicles (catgut spacer, polyglycolic acid, chromic catgut, and gelatin sponge matrix) to deliver the canarypox virus ALVAC to the cells of the murine prostate cancer cell line RM-1 was studied in vitro and in vivo. ALVAC recombinants encoding the murine cytokines interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were used to assess enhancement of antitumor activity after intratumoral inoculation. Confirmatory experiments were conducted by use of another mouse prostate cancer cell line, RM-11, and a mouse bladder cancer cell line, MB-49. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The gelatin sponge matrix proved to be the most effective solid-state vehicle for delivering viral vectors to cells in culture. In addition, this matrix statistically significantly enhanced expression of ALVAC-delivered reporter genes in tumor models when compared with fluid-phase delivery of virus (P =.037 for the RM-1 model and P =.03 for the MB-49 model). Statistically significant growth inhibition of established tumors was observed when a combination of the three recombinant ALVAC viruses expressing IL-2, IL-12, and TNF-alpha was delivered with the matrix in comparison with 1) fluid-phase intratumoral injection of the ALVAC recombinants, 2) no treatment, or 3) treatment with parental ALVAC (all P<.05). CONCLUSIONS: Viral vector delivery in a solid-state vehicle resulted in improved recombinant gene expression in vivo and translated to greater inhibition of tumor growth in an immunotherapy protocol for heterotopic tumor nodules. The efficient delivery of reporter genes described herein may prove useful in many solid tumor gene therapy protocols.  (+info)

Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of |8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (|1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple
Advances in understanding the role of dendritic cells (DCs) as the major antigen (Ag)-presenting cell type of the immune system combined with the recent development of methods for the ex vivo expansion of human DCs have opened the possibility for the transfer of tumor Ags to DCs with a view toward tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we examined the feasibility of Ag transfer to cultured human DCs using the host range-restricted avipoxvirus, fowlpoxvirus (FWPV). FWPV was found to infect and express a lacZ marker gene in a number of mammalian cell lines of fibroblastic, epithelial, and hemopoietic lineage origins. LacZ recombinant FWPV (rFWPV) was found subsequently to infect human DCs that had been cultured ex vivo from peripheral blood monocytes. Using rFWPV containing lacZ under the control of a vaccinia virus (VV) early/late promoter (p7.5K) and a 10 plaque-forming units per cell multiplicity of infection, ,80% of cells expressed the lacZ marker gene. Quantitative analysis showed that the ...
AVIAN POX Cause. Poxvirus, several strains.. Host. Variety of birds worldwide: upland gamebirds, songbirds, marine birds, parrot family, occasionally raptors, rarely waterfowl.. Transmission. Direct contact with infected birds, ingestion of food and water contaminated by sick birds or carcasses, or contact with contaminated surfaces such as bird feeders and perches. The virus enters through abraded skin. Insects, especially mosquitoes, may act as mechanical vectors.. Clinical/Field Signs. Avian pox can occur in two forms: cutaneous pox and diphtheritic or wet pox. In cutaneous pox (the most common form), wartlike growths occur around the eyes, beak or any unfeathered skin. This leads to difficulty seeing, breathing, feeding, or perching. In diphtheritic pox, the growths form in the mouth, throat, trachea and lungs resulting in difficulty breathing or swallowing. Birds with either type may appear weak and emaciated.. Lesions. Warty growths on unfeathered skin, sometimes in large clusters. Size ...
Fowlpox is caused by Avipoxvirus genus Poxviridae family (a large DNA virus) the disease can be transmitted from virus carrier to naive poultry through wounds or spread virus to a nearby poultry house.
Read the latest Meridian stories, Garden birds under threat from new avian pox on ITV News, videos, stories and all the latest Meridian news
Las enfermedades introducidas han sido implicadas en extinciones y declinaciones poblacionales recientes en todo el mundo. Tanto el cambio inducido antropogénicamente como los atributos ambientales naturales pueden afectar la dispersión de la enfermedad. Más aun, la perturbación ambiental puede resultar en cambios en la fisiología del estrés, la nutrición y estructura social, que a su vez puede suprimir el funcionamiento del sistema inmune. Sin embargo, no se conoce si la variación del paisaje resulta en heterogeneidad de la resistencia del huésped a patógenos. El virus de la varicela aviar, un patógeno implicado en declinaciones y extinciones de aves en Hawái, fue introducido a las Galápagos en la década de 1890, y la prevalencia (número total de infecciones actuales) ha incrementado en los pinzones recientemente. Probamos si la prevalencia y las tendencias de recuperación en 7 especies de pinzones de las Galápagos variaron con la elevación y el uso de suelo por humanos. Para ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Eph receptor A2 antibody [RM-0051-8F21] (ab73254) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Phase Ib Trial of Intratumoral Injection of a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human B7.1 (ALVAC-hB7.1) [ALVAC CEA] or a Combination of ALVAC-hB7.1 and a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human Interleukin 12 (ALVAC-hIL-12) in Patients With Surgically Incurable Melanoma ...
In this thesis, two different vaccines were evaluated as adjuvant therapy for patients with colorectal cancer. The ability of the two candidate vaccines to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses, respectively, was studied. The effectiveness of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a cytokine adjuvant to augment the immune response was also examined.. The first vaccination strategy involved immunization with the recombinant tumor-associated protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Recombinant CEA was administered at 4 different dose levels 7 times during one year. Peripheral blood samples were regularly analyzed during 36 months. This vaccination regimen induced a strong immunoglobulin 1 (IgG1) and IgG4 response, a moderate IgG2 response and a weak IgG3 response against CEA. GM-CSF markedly augmented the effect on IgG1 and IgG4 as well as the T cell response. In contrast, dose of rCEA had no or modest effect on induced immune responses. The response gradually ...
One of the earliest observations in the HIV epidemic was the demonstration of HIV infection at mucosal surfaces of cells in the genital tract. These data suggest that priming of immune defenses of viral infected cells may be an important component in the strategy of developing an effective HIV vaccine. Direct immunization of relevant mucosal surfaces with a vectored vaccine may stimulate mucosal immunity. The ALVAC-HIV vCP205 immunogen is constructed from a live recombinant canarypox vector that has a good safety profile in volunteers and should allow mucosal induction of immunity.. This randomized, double-blind trial evaluates the safety of and immune response to vaccination with ALVAC-HIV vCP205 given at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months. Patients are randomly assigned to 1 of 7 drug administration routes as follows:. Group A: Intramuscular Group B: Oral Group C: Intranasal Group D: Intrarectal Group E: Intravaginal Group F: Intranasal/intramuscular Group G: Intrarectal/intramuscular Twelve patients are ...
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV can be caused either by perinatal transmission of HIV or by breastfeeding, a common practice in poorer regions of the world. HIV preventive vaccines are currently under investigation as potential solutions to worldwide MTCT of HIV. This study will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 vaccine, ALVAC-HIV vCP1521, in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers in Uganda. The vaccine is a preparation of a live attenuated recombinant canarypox virus, encoding HIV clades B and E envelope proteins. This study will be conducted at Mulago Hospital in Uganda.. Mothers will enroll in this study during their third trimesters of pregnancy. During screening, mothers will undergo medical history assessment, a physical exam, and blood collection. After delivery and prior to infant enrollment, mothers will have another physical exam; mothers and their infants will be accompanied home by a home visitor who will document contact information.. Infants will be ...
The shock-and-kill method combines latency reversal agents such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists to induce HIV-1 transcription followed by ART, therapeutic vaccines, and/or broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to decrease the latent reservoir. This process of reac-tivation is then followed by immunomodulation with agents such as therapeutic vaccines and/or bNAbs. The aim of therapeutic vaccines (such as the modi-fied vaccinia Ankara B and the recombinant canarypox virus) is to elicit an antigenic immune response to suppress viral replication in the absence ofART. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (such as VRC01 and 3BNC117) induce hostimmunity by targeting specific epitopes of HIV.. I am are also working on emerging strategies and evolving science regarding genetic modification have unlocked new approaches for HIV cure research. These approaches include using CRISPR and CAR T-cell technology. CRISPR enables DNA cleavage to occur prior to proviral ...
Viral vectors derived from different virus families, including poxvirus (canarypox virus vector ALVAC) and adenovirus (human Ad5 vector), have been widely used in vaccine development for a range of human diseases including HIV/AIDS. Less is known about the mechanisms underlying the host innate response to these vectors. Increasing evidence from clinical vaccine trials testing different viral vectors has suggested the importance of understanding basic elements of host-viral vector interactions. In this study, we investigated the innate interactions of APCs with two commonly used HIV vaccine vectors, ALVAC and Ad5, and identified AIM2 as an innate sensor for ALVAC, triggering strong inflammasome activation in both human and mouse APCs ...
Then the Thai government did an amazing thing: it acknowledged the importance of HIV, identified the source and instituted a prevention program, enforcing condom use in brothels. The impact was dramatic. Rates of infection declined precipitously and prevalence in sentinel populations fell. The epidemic was changing before a vaccine could be brought to the field. As incidence dropped, the trial had to become larger and compromises had to be introduced.. Initial plans called for optimizing both cellular and humoral HIV-specific responses using a prime-boost approach: a single prime (ALVAC-HIV, a CRF01-specific canarypox vaccine) was to be tested with three different boosts (subunit vaccines) in phase II trials from which the best regimen would be chosen for the Phase III trial. Shortly before the Phase II trials were complete, two of the manufacturers withdrew their products. The ALVAC-HIV + AIDSVAX B/E combination, the only regimen remaining, passed immunogenicity criteria for advancement to ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against full length recombinant human Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA). Recombinant protein corresponding to full length human Carcinoembryonic Antigen. (MAB14723) - Products - Abnova
After last weeks post on therapeutic tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), we received a bunch of questions from readers.. I dont have time to answer them all in detail individually (sorry!), but it does provide an opportunity to review the evolving landscape and address some of them within the latest article.. It seems to be a good time to take a broader look at T cell manipulation, especially as it pertains to the application of TILs, chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), and T cell receptors (TCR).. Weve certainly come along way since the historic lecture in 1991 pictured right (photo: National Institutes of Health), but theres still some way to go before the full potential of cancer immunotherapy is reached.. ...
Models include: A 6-42, Al-6, B 10-42. B 15-42, B-17. B-17-LL. B-17, BI-17C, B50-42, B 60-42, Bl-60, B 70-42, BC 5-42, BC 6-42, B 50-42, B 60-42, Bl-60, B70-42, BC5-42, BC 6-42, RK-3, RK-3D, RK-3S, RK-4, RK-4D, RK-10, RK-20, RK-205, RK-40, RK-60, RK-70, R-15, R-17, RM-10, RM-17, RM-3, RM-4, RM-27, RM-30, RM-35, RM-65, RM-45, RL-45, RM-75, RO-10, RO-20, RO-20-2, RO-30, RO-35, RO-30-2, RO-35-2, RO-10-2, RO-12, RO-15-S, RO-40, RO-40-2, RO-50, RO-50-2, RO-60, RO-60-2, RO-70, RO-70-2 ...
PepTivator® HCV1b Core - research grade is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the complete sequence of the human HC virus (HCV) 1b core protein (UniProt ID: P26663 [aa1-191].In vitro stimulation of antigen-specific T cells with PepTivator Peptide Pools causes the secretion of effector cytokines and the up-regulation of activation markers, which then allow the detection and isolation of antigen-specific T cells. - Österreich
موقعي كه زخم آبله در حنجره ايجاد مي شود، نفس كشيدن پرنده مشكل مي‌گردد. اغلب نفس نفس مي زند. اين حالت همزمان با ورود ويروس در خون ايجاد مي شود ولي اگر شدت ويروس و يا مقدار آن زياد باشد پرنده تلف مي‌گردد.. ترکیبات:. -ویال A (ویال جهت درمان موضعی):. Chloramphenicol…………… 4g. Excipient q.s. ………………100ml. -ویال B (ویال جهت درمان خوراکی):. Chloramphenicol…………….. 5,4g. Excipient q.s. ………………100ml. حیوانات هدف:. قناری، فنچ، طوطی، کبوتر و سایر پرندگان زینتی. میزان مصرف:. - تجویز در آب آشامیدنی ( ویال B) :. درمان می بایست در اولین زمان ممکن و از زمانی که احتمال بروز این بیماری وجود دارد، آغاز گردد.. میزان ...
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Manuscript submission - The only peer-reviewed journal focusing solely on the pathophysiology, recognition, and treatment of this major health condition.
Sanofi Pasteur announced the results of a Phase 3 trial with its HIV prime vaccine, ALVAC HIV (recombinant canarypox vCP1521) in combination with the booster AidsVax B/E (recombinant gp120 vaccine, from VaxGen).
protein common to the parapoxvirus, orthopoxvirus, leporipoxvirus and avipoxvirus genera has been identified, prepared by alkaline extraction of the virion. Subsequent investigations have shown four cross-reacting polypeptides between orthopoxviruses and leporipoxviruses, and one between capri-poxviruses and parapoxviruses. However, none of these are significant in cross-immunity between the genera.. Within the orthopoxviruses, there is good cross-immunity between all the members, exemplified by the use of vaccinia to protect against smallpox (variola). The antigens which stimulate protective antibodies are present in the surface tubular elements and in the envelope derived from modified cellular membrane that surrounds the naturally released virion. Virions released from disrupted cells lack this external membrane and are reported to be less infectious. The envelope also contains the glycoprotein hemagglutinin, which is common to all orthopoxviruses but absent from the other seven genera. ...
IL-12 gene therapy may induce antitumor effects and potentially avoid the systemic toxicity associated with IL-12 protein immunotherapy (5, 27, 46-48). Prior studies have tested direct transfer of IL-12 cDNA into tumor, either using certain tumor cells engineered in vitro to release IL-12 (3, 30, 48) or using direct intratumoral injection of an adenovirus expressing IL-12 DNA (34) or a Canarypox virus expressing IL-12 vector (49). In addition, particle-mediated transfer of IL-12 cDNA was effectively used to treat murine tumors (2, 5, 28). All of these methods could inhibit tumor growth and induce antitumor immunity. Direct intratumoral injection of IL-12 cDNA, either naked or in complex with a liposome formulation, may provide an alternative, simpler, and safer gene transfer method compared with localized or systemic viral gene vector therapy. Liposomes have been used previously as a delivery agent incorporating nonviral plasmid vectors encoding other cytokine genes, including IL-2 and IL-4, to ...
A number of immune-based therapies continues to be developed to be able to boost or induce protective Compact disc8+ T cell responses to be able to control HIV replication. [10]. Sadly, these fresh vaccines and therapies usually do not deliver the expected success yet. For example, Autran et al. reported considerably elevated viral lots in chronically contaminated patients set alongside the placebo group after discontinuation of therapy pursuing immunization with vCP1452, the HIV-recombinant canarypox vaccine (ALVAC-HIV) [11]. Incredibly, individuals receiving more dosages from the vaccine rapidly required treatment resumption more. Analysis of the results immensely important how the vaccine didnt elicit protecting HIV-specific Compact disc8+ T cell reactions [12]. Moreover, primarily induction of triggered Compact disc4+ T cell reactions was proven in vaccines, which increased target cell availability and rendered patients even more vunerable to Volasertib distributor disease progression ...
Microsoft Lumia 950 RM-1106 RM-1104 RM-110 McLa. RU: Microsoft BV-T5E. JP Store: Microsoft BV-T5E battery. Handy-Akku: AKKU Für Microsoft BV-T5E, Ersatz für Microsoft Lumia 950 RM-1106 RM-1104 RM-110 McLa.. Fast Shipping ! Cheap BV-T5E Cell Phone Batteries in UK. Deals for high quality Microsoft BV-T5E Cell Phone Batteries. All Microsoft batteries on sale now.. Product details of Lenovo Replacement Battery Microsoft Compatible with Microsoft Lumia 950 RM-1106 RM-1104 RM-110 McLa. This battery is designed to enjoy optimum performance with your Microsoft handset. With it your device will be powered longer and the battery will sustain a greater amount of charge. This Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) replacement battery from Microsoft is always guaranteed to charge to the optimum level. The battery case mould is elegantly styled and great care has been taken to ensure that the design from the original handset is matched. This replacement battery has been manufactured using only the highest quality ...
TABLE-US-00002 [0080] TABLE 2 Paint ID Formulation 1 Formulation 2 Formulation 3 Formulation 4 Polymer ID Acrylic copolymer Acrylic copylymer Acrylic copolymer Acrylic copolymer Grind Surfactant Strodex TH-100/A-34 Strodex TH-100/A-34 Strodex TH-100/A-34 Strodex TH-100/A-34 Neutralizer NBDA NBDA NBDA AEPD Neutralizer Wt (lbs/100 gal) 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.06 Post-Add 0.875% FT-100 (BOPS) 0.875% FT-100 + 2.3% 0.875% FT-100 + 4.6% 0.875% FT-100 Cmpd 2 (BOPS) Cmpd 2 (BOPS) (BOPS) Post-Add Wt (lbs/100 gal) FT (2.16) FT (2.16), PHDA (5.0) FT (2.16) PHDA (10.0) FT (2.16) Optifilm % 3 3 3 3 ICI Build Acrysol RM-5000 Acrysol RM-5000 Acrysol RM-5000 Acrysol RM-5000 ICI Build Wt (lbs/100 gal) 40 40 40 40 KU Build Acrysol RM-895 Acrysol RM-895 Acrysol RM-895 Acrysol RM-895 KU Build Wt (lbs/100 gal) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Total RM Wt. 43 43 43 43 Initial KU 96 94 94 96 Initial ICI 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.40 Initial pH 8.80 8.98 9.05 8.80 Equil. KU 98 96 96 100 Equil. ICI 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 Equil. pH 8.83 9.06 9.13 8.85 ΔKU 2 2 2 4 ...
Salmonellosis, conjunctivitis, aspergillosis, avian pox, trichomoniasis. Droopiness, diarrhea, severe lethargy, lesions, swollen livers, abscesses. Mouth and throat sores, fungus in lungs and air sacs causing bronchitis and pneumonia, wartlike growths on featherless surfaces (can impair vision, ability to stand or perch).
Clone REA428 recognizes an epitope shared by the human CD66a, c, d, and e antigens, which are also known as the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. The CEA family has 7 genes belonging to the CEACAM subgroup. These subgroup members are mainly associated with the cell membrane and show a complex expression pattern in normal and cancerous tissues. CD66a (CEACAM1) is an adhesion molecule that is involved in many immune responses associated with infection, inflammation, and cancer. It interacts homophilically with CD66a and heterophilically with CD66e (CEACAM5), but not with other CEACAM proteins. CD66a is expressed on a variety of cells, e.g., some epithelial cells, melanoma, and activated lymphocytes. Within the hematopoietic system, CD66c (CEACAM6) expression is limited to granulocytes and its precursors, where it serves homotypic and heterotypic adhesion and Ca2+ mediated signaling. It is markedly upregulated from intracellular stores after activatio and is also found in epithelia of various
Viral skin diseases that are commonly observed in avian practice are reviewed. The clinical signs of psittacine circovirus disease, avian pox, and papovavirus diseases are described. Emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and management of these diseases.. ...
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Rhythm announced today results demonstrating that RM-131, the companys novel ghrelin agonist, was highly effective in restoring normal gastric function in animal models of delayed
Aegithalidae: Aegithalidae, songbird family that includes the long-tailed tits (or titmice) of the Old World and the bushtits of North America. Both groups are considered subfamilies of the family Paridae (order Passeriformes) in some classifications. The eight species are small, arboreal insect eaters with
IOC Classification: Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Infraphylum: Gnathostomata • Superclassis: Tetrapoda • Classis: Aves • Superordo: Neognathae • Ordo: Passeriformes • Subordo: Passeri • Infraordo: Passerida • Superfamilia: Sylvioidea • Familia: Paridae • Genus: Periparus Selys-Longchamps, 1884 ...
PerformanceYou dont have to listen real hard to hear the difference between the Debut Carbon and the RM-1.3. With the first tune I played,
BOSTON, May 6, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Rhythm Presents Positive Phase 2 Study Results for Ghrelin Prokinetic Relamorelin (RM-131) in Diabetic Gastroparesis.
Recombinant human monoclonal antibody raised against human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Original antibody is raised against native purified human CEA. (RAB00036) - Products - Abnova
Guide to Assisted Hatching for All Poultry, Egg failure to hatch - Diagnosing incubation problems, Diagnosing causes of malpositions and deformities in chick embryos, Diagnosing hatch failures - It starts with the egg, Avian Pox in Chickens - Warning, Graphic Pictures (under construction), Raising Chickens For Dummies Book - All You Need To Know In One Book, BYC FREE & Premium Feather Memberships (PFM). How to Hatch Chicken Eggs: The Complete Guide. Pipped eggs, but died without hatching. Selection of Hatching Eggs . Bantams will take less long - on average, 18 days. Youll find that more often than not they will need to rest in between periods of activity. Maintain a temperature between 100°-102° with a still air incubator and 99-99.5 with a forced air … An egg that persistently has the small end elevated may cause the embryo to be misoriented with the head toward the small end. i helped a chick out of the shell. Make sure there are no pips in the other shells first, though. Please send out ...
pock definition: A pustule brought on by smallpox or a similar eruptive disease.; A mark or scar remaining within the epidermis by such a pustule; a pockmark.; To mark with pocks; pit.; A pus filled inflammation…
Parapoxvirus, is commonly referred to as farmyard pox and is mostly expressed in hoofed animals. The virus belongs to the Poxviridae family. This infection is identified by scabby lesions that can be seen on the muzzle, lips, face, ears or on the velvet of the Red deer (Cervus elaphus). This virus is zoonotic, meaning infectious diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Humans vulnerable to infection include farmers, butchers, and veterinarians. This virus occurs worldwide. In 1987, deaths[clarification needed] occurred on two Red Deer farms in New Zealand where secondary bacterial infections were seen alongside the lesions. In these particular cases, morbidity rates reached 100%. Parapoxvirus belongs to the family of viruses named Poxviridae, a group one family of double stranded DNA viruses. More specifically Parapoxvirus is classified into the subfamily of Chordopoxvirinae. Other Chordopoxvirinae genuses include; Orthopoxvirus, Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, ...
When a person becomes the victim of chicken pox, he gets rid of this disease within 10-15 days. Marks of chicken pox left behind the disease disappear after 5-6 months.
Today were taking a look at one of DCs most prominent super-heroines, and one who is also sometimes a rock star; Black Canary!
Amongst the nitrogen sources, tryptone and yeast extract at 0.5% and 0.15% level, respectively, caused maximum enzyme production by Bacillus stearothermophilus RM-67. Addition of sodium chloride (0.5%) to the basal medium enhanced the enzyme production by 63%. Various sugars incorporated into the standardized basal medium proved inhibitory to enzyme elaboration. Maximum enzyme production was observed in the early decline growth phase of the organism in tryptone-yeast extract-salt medium (pH 6.5) when inoculated at 4% level and incubated on a rotary shaker at 55°C for 8 h and subsequently at 45°C up to 24 h. ...
The chicken pox virus can infect anybody, but it commonly targets children. Most reported cases occur in children under the age of 10. Heres more.
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What Does Chicken Pox Look Like | Day 1 To 12 What Does Chicken Pox Look Like Find out what does chicken pox look like, I had two over a weekend!
hello , i am 22yrs old . I had chiken pox since many years ago , it was nearly in 2002 or 2004 . At that time i was having really many chicken pox on my full body . But now my question is do you think...
My four year old recently caught chicken pox (two weeks before we went to Disneyland!). As shes my third child, I had a pretty good idea of how to keep her comfortable. I did Google for advice, and s...
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Genus Avipoxvirus. *Genus Capripoxvirus. *Genus Centapoxvirus. *Genus Cervidpoxvirus. *Genus Crocodylidpoxvirus. *Genus ...
Avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.), which causes wart-like lesions to form around a bird's eyes, beak, legs, or feet, may also be ...
The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next ... The species in the genus Avipoxvirus infect birds; those in the genera Caiman poxvirus and Crocodylipoxvirus both infect ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus ...
Avipoxvirus infections have been reported in over 232 bird species in 23 orders of birds, but most of our knowledge comes from ... Turkeypox virus is a virus of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus that causes turkeypox. It is one of the most ... Transmission of avipoxvirus occurs through a mosquito vector. Timoney, John Francis (1988), Hagan and Bruner's Microbiology and ... Turkeypox virus is a member of the family Poxviridae and is in the genus Avipoxvirus. There are currently 9 other species ...
... viruses, as with other bird pox viruses, are in the genera of Avipoxvirus. Nine other species are also in the genus ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an Avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of wild and captive birds that can cause ... "110 years of Avipoxvirus in the Galapagos Islands". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e15989. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...615989P. doi:10.1371/journal. ... Avipoxvirus. These include: Fowlpox virus, Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox ...
The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next ... Of this group Avipoxvirus is the most divergent. The next most divergent is Molluscipoxvirus. Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, ... Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Cervidpoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Suipoxvirus, Yatapoxvirus and one Entomopox genus ( ... Chordopoxvirinae Avipoxvirus Capripoxvirus Centapoxvirus Cervidpoxvirus Crocodylidpoxvirus Leporipoxvirus Macropopoxvirus ...
"110 Years of Avipoxvirus in the Galapagos Islands". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e15989. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...615989P. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
... is the worldwide disease of poultry caused by viruses of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus. The viruses ... Species Profile - Fowlpox (Avipoxvirus), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural ...
"Concurrent avian malaria and avipox virus infection in translocated South Island saddlebacks (Philesturnus carunculatus ...
Since then, avian malaria and avipoxvirus together have devastated the native bird population, resulting in many extinctions. ...
... s, along with great horned owls, had the greatest seroprevalence of Avipoxvirus among several raptorial birds in ...
Other factors that negatively effect raptors have been studied in common buzzards are helminths, avipoxvirus and assorted other ...
The introduction of avian malaria and avipoxvirus, for example, have had a negative impact on the endemic birds of Hawaii. The ...
... can be attributed to birds club that brought nonnative species to replace birds that fell victim to the Avipoxvirus. At least ...
It is a vector for Avipoxvirus, Newcastle disease virus, Falconid herpesvirus 1 (and possibly other Herpesviridae), and some ...
... a pox virus in the genus Avipoxvirus that is spread by mosquitoes and dirty water, but not in droppings. There is a live viral ...
Austintatiousvirus Avastrovirus Avenavirus Aveparvovirus Aviadenovirus Avibirnavirus Avihepadnavirus Avihepatovirus Avipoxvirus ...
... avipoxvirus MeSH B04.280.650.160.100.149 - canarypox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.100.300 - fowlpox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160. ... avipoxvirus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.100.149 - canarypox virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.100.300 - fowlpox virus MeSH B04.909. ...
Avipoxvirus (fowlpox) Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (chytridiomycosis) Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight) Flavivirus ( ...
Avipoxvirus, Capripoxvirus, Leporipoxvirus, Molluscipoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, Parapoxvirus, Suipoxvirus and Yatapoxvirus ...
There is no one specific treatment used for birds who have contracted the avipoxvirus. Often the avipoxvirus acts as an immune ... Viralzone: Avipoxvirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Poxviridae Species Profile- Fowlpox (Avipoxvirus ... Avipoxvirus is a virus that is brick-shaped and is usually 200 nanometres in diameter. This is much larger than many other ... Avipoxvirus (avian pox) is a genus of viruses within the family Poxviridae. Poxviridae is the family of viruses which cause the ...
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There is no one specific treatment used for birds who have contracted the avipoxvirus. Often the avipoxvirus acts as an immune ... Viralzone: Avipoxvirus Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Poxviridae Species Profile- Fowlpox (Avipoxvirus ... Avipoxvirus is a virus that is brick-shaped and is usually 200 nanometres in diameter. This is much larger than many other ... Avipoxvirus (avian pox) is a genus of viruses within the family Poxviridae. Poxviridae is the family of viruses which cause the ...
Beginning with samples collected in 1899, we observed cutaneous lesions consistent with Avipoxvirus on 226 (6.3%) specimens. ... were positive for Avipoxvirus, while alternative diagnoses for some of those testing negative by both methods were feather ...
... pet or wild birds are assigned largely by default to the Avipoxvirus genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae of the family ... Poxviruses identified in skin lesions of domestic, pet or wild birds are assigned largely by default to the Avipoxvirus genus ... Boyle D.B. (2007) Genus Avipoxvirus. In: Mercer A.A., Schmidt A., Weber O. (eds) Poxviruses. Birkhäuser Advances in Infectious ... The safety profile of avipoxvirus recombinants for use as veterinary and human vaccines or therapeutics is now well established ...
Bányai K, Palya V, Dénes B, Glávits R, Ivanics É, Horváth B, et al. Unique genomic organization of a novel Avipoxvirus detected ... Avipoxvirus phylogenetics: identification of a PCR length polymorphism that discriminates between the two major clades. J Gen ... Phylogenetic analyses of the Avipoxvirus genus are usually conducted with the segments of the genes encoding the 4b core-like ... Avipoxviruses are large, enveloped DNA viruses that belong to the genus Avipoxvirus in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of the ...
Identification of Clade E Avipoxvirus, Mozambique, 2016 Lourenço P. Mapaco, Zeiss Lacerda, Iolanda V.A. Monjane, Esayas Gelaye ...
Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the ... "Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the ... "Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the ... and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the obtained sequences found it to be poxvirus of the genus Avipoxvirus and ...
STUDY: Medical Treatment of Avipoxvirus Infections in Birds of Prey. Monday, May 16th, 2011. STUDY: Medical Treatment of ... Poxvirus infections in birds are caused by a large avipoxvirus. This infection (mostly dry form) is now seen more frequently in ...
In French Guiana Avipoxvirus prevalence was 0% (n = 889, 94 bird species). In Ecuador, prevalence was 0.3% (n = 941, 132 bird ... Avipoxvirus assemblages are composed of generalist strains with different ancestry and widespread distribution, a combination ... Next, we analyzed the host specificity and distribution of the worldwide Avipoxvirus diversity in order to understand their ... An analysis of the host specificity and geographic distribution of all Avipoxvirus strains known worldwide finds that these ...
ESCOBAR-ANLEU, Bárbara I. et al. Possible incidence of avipoxvirus or other pathogen affecting Guatemalan birds. Huitzil [ ...
This widespread disease is found in a large number of bird families (The Wildlife Center of Virginia 2019). Most avipoxvirus ... at least of the genus Avipoxvirus, so clinical confirmation is required. This also would be the case of Catharus ustulatus and ... Possible incidence of avipoxvirus or other pathogen affecting Guatemalan birds. Huitzil 20(2): e-557. DOI: https://doi.org/ ...
Genus Avipoxvirus. *Genus Capripoxvirus. *Genus Centapoxvirus. *Genus Cervidpoxvirus. *Genus Crocodylidpoxvirus. *Genus ...
Avipoxvirus. Genetic Vectors. Viral Load. aldesleukin. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Therapeutic Vaccine. ...
Avipoxvirus. HIV Preventive Vaccine. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae ...
Avipoxvirus. Genus. Capripoxvirus. Genus. Cervidpoxvirus. Genus. Leporipoxvirus. Genus. Molluscipoxvirus. Genus. Orthopoxvirus ...
In this study, we examined the feasibility of Ag transfer to cultured human DCs using the host range-restricted avipoxvirus, ... In this study, we examined the feasibility of Ag transfer to cultured human DCs using the host range-restricted avipoxvirus, ... Antigen gene transfer to cultured human dendritic cells using recombinant avipoxvirus vectors.. Authors:. Brown, Michael D; ... Antigen gene transfer to cultured human dendritic cells using recombinant avipoxvirus vectors., 6 (3):238-45 Cancer Gene Ther. ...
Avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.), which causes wart-like lesions to form around a birds eyes, beak, legs, or feet, may also be ...
Lecis R, Secci F, Antuofermo E, Nuvoli S, Cacciotto C et al. Detection and characterization of an Avipoxvirus in a Common ... Alley MR, Hale KA, Cash W, Ha HJ, Howe L. Concurrent avian malaria and avipox virus infection in translocated South Island ... Lecis R, Secci F, Antuofermo E, Nuvoli S, Scagliarini A et al. Multiple gene typing and phylogeny of avipoxvirus associated ... Jarmin S, Manvell R, Gough RE, Laidlaw SM, Skinner MA. Avipoxvirus phylogenetics: identification of a PCR length polymorphism ...
Avipoxvirus. fowlpox virus. Vertebrates. Capripoxvirus. sheeppox virus. Vertebrates. Leporipoxvirus. myxoma virus. Vertebrates ...
The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. The ancestor of the genus Orthopoxvirus was next ... The species in the genus Avipoxvirus infect birds; those in the genera Caiman poxvirus and Crocodylipoxvirus both infect ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Poxviridae Sub-Family: Chordopoxvirinae Genus: Avipoxvirus Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus ...
First phylogenetic analysis of avipoxvirus (APV) in Brazil First phylogenetic analysis of avipoxvirus (APV) in Brazil / ... Full text: Available Index: LILACS (Americas) Main subject: Phylogeny / Poxviridae / Turkeys / Avipoxvirus Limits: Animals ... Animals , Avipoxvirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Turkeys/microbiology , Poxviridae/isolation & purification , ... de poxvírus aviário sequenciado neste estudo foram agrupados no clado A1 de avipoxvirus e foram classificados como Avipoxvirus ...
Recombinant avipox virus and method to induce an immune response. US5580859. Mar 18, 1994. Dec 3, 1996. Vical Incorporated. ... Recombinant avipox virus and immunological use thereof. US5175384. Dec 5, 1988. Dec 29, 1992. Genpharm International. ...
Avipoxvirus. OX NCBI_TaxID=928301; OH NCBI_TaxID=7742; Vertebrata. RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=FP-9 ...
Avipoxvirus. OX NCBI_TaxID=928301; OH NCBI_TaxID=7742; Vertebrata. RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX PubMed= ...
These poxviruses include the following genera and examples: Avipoxvirus (fowlpox); Capripoxvirus (sheep pox, goatpox, and ...
Recombinant fowlpox virus vector vaccine of the genus Avipoxvirus. Administered by subcutaneous injection. ... Recombinant fowlpox virus vector vaccine of the genus Avipoxvirus. Administered by subcutaneous injection. ...
The threats posed by the poxvirus have been effectively dealt with, leading to the eradication of the diseases caused by the virus. Smallpox had already been eradicated from most countries in Europe and the US by 1940s but it still posed a serious threat in the Indian subcontinent and much of Africa in the 1960s. The World Health Organization (WHO) decided to take strong actions for the eradication of the disease and listed smallpox on the top of the list for eradication in 1967. The WHO smallpox eradication unit was set up in the same year. After years of effort and investment into the eradication of smallpox, the last cases of variola major occured in the Indian subcontinent in 1975 while the last case of variola minor occured in Somalia in 1977. The last cases of smallpox occured in a Birmigam laboratory in 1979. Smallpox had been fought, and fought successfully. Smallpox has been eradicated globally but there are concerns about the potential use of variola virus as a weapon of terror. As a ...
Despite the purported role of avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) in the decline of endemic Hawaiian birds, few studies have been ...
Despite the purported role of avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) in the decline of endemic Hawaiian birds, few studies have been ...
2010 Avipoxvirus in great tits (Parus major). European J. Wildlife Res. 6, 529-534. (doi:10.1007/s10344-009-0345-5). ... Analyses of the avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene showed identical DNA sequences to great tits in mainland Europe and GB [42,43 ...
  • Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae Orthopoxvirus Parapoxvirus Avipoxvirus Capripoxvirus Leporipoxvirus Suipoxvirus Molluscipoxvirus Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae Entomopoxvirus A Entomopoxvirus B Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. (statemaster.com)
  • An analysis of the host specificity and geographic distribution of all Avipoxvirus strains known worldwide finds that these viruses are usually host generalists (particularly those in the fowlpox clade), and that many closely related strains are found on multiple continents. (csic.es)
  • We describe here a simple polymerase chain reaction-based method for identification and discrimination of avipoxvirus strains similar to the fowlpox or canarypox viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avipoxvirus (canarypox, fowlpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Avipoxvirus (avian pox) is a genus of viruses within the family Poxviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poxviruses identified in skin lesions of domestic, pet or wild birds are assigned largely by default to the Avipoxvirus genus within the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae of the family Poxviridae . (springer.com)
  • Avipoxviruses are large, enveloped DNA viruses that belong to the genus Avipoxvirus in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of the family Poxviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • Avian poxvirus (genus Avipoxvirus, family Poxviridae) is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that may be transmitted to birds by arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles. (birdforum.net)
  • however, avipoxvirus genomes exhibit large-scale genomic rearrangements with more extensive gene families and novel host range gene in comparison with the other Chordopoxvirinae . (springer.com)
  • Members of the genus Avipoxvirus infect specifically birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines based upon attenuated avipoxvirus strains provide good disease control in production poultry, although with the large and intensive production systems there are suggestions and real risks of emergence of strains against which current vaccines might be ineffective. (springer.com)
  • Poxviruses infecting non-mammalian species belong to the genera Avipoxvirus and Crocodylidpoxvirus . (vetmeduni.ac.at)
  • 2011. Efficacy of a commercial canarypox vaccine for protecting Hawai`i `amakihi from field isolates of Avipoxvirus. (hawaii.edu)
  • Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of birds both in the wild and in commercial aviaries, where significant losses result. (cbd.int)
  • Lesions of the skin and diphtheritic membrane of the respiratory tract are common when domesticated and wild birds are infected with the Avipoxvirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poxvirus infections in birds are caused by a large avipoxvirus. (harrisonsbirdfoods.com)
  • We examined the prevalence, host specificity and evolutionary relationships of Avipoxvirus causing skin lesions in birds in two megadiverse and unexplored geographical regions of South America: an elevational gradient in the south Ecuadorian Andes, and a lowland Amazon rainforest in French Guiana. (csic.es)
  • These were caused by two newly described strains, one of which belonged to an American clade of Avipoxvirus shared by different bird families, and another one closely related to a strain recovered from a different family of birds in Madeira. (csic.es)
  • We determined prevalence and altitudinal distribution of introduced avian malarial infections ( Plasmodium relictum ) and pox-like lesions ( Avipoxvirus ) in forest birds from Kīpahulu Valley, Haleakalā National Park, on the island of Maui, and we identified primary larval habitat for the mosquito vector of this disease. (bioone.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the Avipoxvirus genus are usually conducted with the segments of the genes encoding the 4b core-like protein (P4b) and the DNA polymerase, which are both highly conserved among poxviruses ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The four Avian poxviruses fragments sequenced in this study clustered along the A1 clade of avipoxviruses , and were classified as Avipoxvirus (APV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Researchers from the Institute of Virology at Vetmeduni Vienna have now succeeded in generating the first genome sequence of the virus, which shows that the reptile poxvirus has its closest phylogenetic relationship to avian poxviruses ( Avipoxvirus ). (vetmeduni.ac.at)
  • Despite the purported role of avian pox ( Avipoxvirus spp. (usgs.gov)
  • Avian pox is caused by avipoxvirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study at the community level suggests that distantly related Avipoxvirus strains circulate at very low prevalence in continental tropical South America. (csic.es)
  • Avipoxvirus assemblages are composed of generalist strains with different ancestry and widespread distribution, a combination of characteristics which may make these typically scarce viruses perfect candidates to emerge under favorable ecological conditions. (csic.es)
  • In French Guiana Avipoxvirus prevalence was 0% (n = 889, 94 bird species). (csic.es)
  • Pigeonpox virus (PGPV) A species in the genus Avipoxvirus. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The obtained sequences were aligned with local avipoxvirus of different species with clinical disease (Esteves et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Mosquitoes are the most common vectors for transmission of the Avipoxvirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen gene transfer to cultured human dendritic cells using recombinant avipoxvirus vectors. (openrepository.com)
  • Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of the obtained sequences found it to be poxvirus of the genus Avipoxvirus and clustered with other raptor isolates. (bioone.org)
  • In this study, we examined the feasibility of Ag transfer to cultured human DCs using the host range-restricted avipoxvirus, fowlpoxvirus (FWPV). (openrepository.com)
  • The infection of Avipoxvirus can lead to decreased egg production, reduced growth, blindness, and increased mortality in domestic poultry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presumptive diagnosis, based on typical pocklike skin lesions of papular or nodular hyperplasic and hypertrophic skin foci or upper digestive diphtheritic form in severe cases ( 1 ), may be confirmed by detection of avipoxvirus DNA by PCR ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Unlike other viruses, Avipoxvirus can withstand extreme dryness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The P4b gene partial sequences obtained from the avipoxvirus isolate Betim-1 of the red-and-green macaw ( Ara chloropterus ) (GenBank accession no. (cdc.gov)
  • data) and with previously published avipoxvirus sequences in GenBank ( Technical Appendix Figure 3). (cdc.gov)
  • 2015): Unique genomic organization of a novel Avipoxvirus detected in turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo ). (vmri.hu)
  • Cutaneous samples and the CAM of inoculated embryos were subjected to PCR with specific primers forward 5′-CAGCAGGTGCTAAACAACAA-3′ and reverse 5′-CGGTAGCTTAACGCCGAATA-3′ ( 4 ) to amplify a partial sequence (576 bp) of the gene encoding the core protein P4b ( fpv167 locus) of avipoxvirus ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Avipoxvirus is a virus that is brick-shaped and is usually 200 nanometres in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, we analyzed the host specificity and distribution of the worldwide Avipoxvirus diversity in order to understand their invasion potential. (csic.es)
  • The genus Avipoxvirus diverged from the ancestor 249 ± 69 thousand years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • The safety profile of avipoxvirus recombinants for use as veterinary and human vaccines or therapeutics is now well established. (springer.com)