A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing clinical problems. Transmission is predominantly vertical. HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK is the type species.
Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
"Ducks" is not a recognized medical term or condition in human health; it may refer to various anatomical structures in animals, such as the ducks of the heart valves, but it does not have a standalone medical definition.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Identification and analysis of a new hepadnavirus in white storks. (1/18)

We identified, cloned, and functionally characterized a new avian hepadnavirus infecting storks (STHBV). STHBV has the largest DNA genome of all avian hepadnaviruses and, based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis, is most closely related to, but distinct from, heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV). Unique for STHBV among the other avian hepadnaviruses is a potential HNF1 binding site in the preS promoter. In common only with HHBV, STHBV has a myristylation signal on the S and not the preS protein, two C terminally located glycosylation sites on the precore/core proteins and lacks the phosphorylation site essential for the transcriptional transactivation activity of duck-HBV preS protein. The cloned STHBV genomes were competent in gene expression, replication, and viral particle secretion. STHBV infected primary duck hepatocytes very inefficiently suggesting a restricted host range, similar to other hepadnaviruses. This discovery of stork infections unravels novel evolutionary aspects of hepadnaviruses and provides new opportunities for hepadnavirus research.  (+info)

cis-Acting sequences 5E, M, and 3E interact to contribute to primer translocation and circularization during reverse transcription of avian hepadnavirus DNA. (2/18)

Hepadnaviral reverse transcription requires template switches for the genesis of relaxed circular (RC) DNA, the major genomic form in virions. Two template switches, primer translocation and circularization, are required during the synthesis of the second, or plus, strand of DNA. Studies of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) indicate that in addition to the requirement for repeated sequences at the donor and acceptor sites, template switching requires at least three other cis-acting sequences, 5E, M, and 3E. In this study we analyzed a series of variant heron hepatitis B viruses (HHBV) in which the regions of the genome that would be expected to contain 5E, M, and 3E were replaced with DHBV sequence. We found that all single and double chimeras were partially defective in the synthesis of RC DNA. In contrast, the triple chimera was able to synthesize RC DNA at a level comparable to that of unchanged HHBV. These results indicate that the three cis-acting sequences, 5E, M, and 3E, need to be compatible to contribute to RC DNA synthesis, suggesting that these sequences interact during plus-strand synthesis. Second, we found that the defect in RC DNA synthesis for several of the single and double chimeric viruses resulted from a partial defect in primer translocation/utilization and a partial defect in circularization. These findings indicate that the processes of primer translocation and circularization share a mechanism during which 5E, M, and 3E interact.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel replicative intermediate of heron hepatitis B virus. (3/18)

We have identified and characterized a novel intracellular DNA replicative intermediate that is synthesized by heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV) and not by other avian hepadnaviruses. The new DNA form is synthesized in all host cells tested. The HHBV nucleic acid template, and not HHBV proteins, is responsible for the formation of the new form. The new form is comprised of a full-length minus-strand DNA and an incomplete plus-strand DNA whose 5' ends are mapped to DR2, predominantly. The 3' ends of its plus-strand are located between nucleotides 946 and 1046. Genetic analysis indicates that the sequences responsible for the formation of the new form lie between nucleotides 910 and 1364. The endogenous polymerase activity of capsids isolated from cells converted the new form into RC DNA. Intracellular capsids containing the new form are secreted inefficiently as virions, in comparison to RC- and DL DNA-containing capsids. Our analysis suggests that the new form is an incomplete RC DNA molecule that is due to a specific block or pause in the synthesis of plus-strand DNA. Our analysis also suggests that capsids become competent for efficient secretion sometime after the synthesis of 1500 nucleotides of plus-strand DNA.  (+info)

Avian and Mammalian hepadnaviruses have distinct transcription factor requirements for viral replication. (4/18)

Hepadnavirus replication occurs in hepatocytes in vivo and in hepatoma cell lines in cell culture. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication can occur in nonhepatoma cells when pregenomic RNA synthesis from viral DNA is activated by the expression of the nuclear hormone receptors hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) and the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) plus peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) heterodimer. Nuclear hormone receptor-dependent HBV replication is inhibited by hepatocyte nuclear factor 3 (HNF3). In contrast, HNF3 and HNF4 support duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in nonhepatoma cells, whereas the RXR alpha-PPAR alpha heterodimer inhibits HNF4-dependent DHBV replication. HNF3 and HNF4 synergistically activate DHBV pregenomic RNA synthesis and viral replication. The conditions that support HBV or DHBV replication in nonhepatoma cells are not able to support woodchuck hepatitis virus replication. These observations indicate that avian and mammalian hepadnaviruses have distinct transcription factor requirements for viral replication.  (+info)

Characterization of the cis-acting contributions to avian hepadnavirus RNA encapsidation. (5/18)

Previous analysis of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) indicated the presence of at least two cis-acting sequences required for efficient encapsidation of its pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), epsilon and region II. epsilon, an RNA stem-loop near the 5' end of the pgRNA, has been characterized in detail, while region II, located in the middle of the pgRNA, is not as well defined. Our initial aim was to identify the sequence important for the function of region II in DHBV. We scanned region II and the surrounding sequence by using a quantitative encapsidation assay. We found that the sequence between nucleotides (nt) 438 and 720 contributed to efficient pgRNA encapsidation, while the sequence between nt 538 and 610 made the largest contribution to encapsidation. Additionally, deletions between the two encapsidation sequences, epsilon and region II, had variable effects on encapsidation, while substitutions of heterologous sequence between epsilon and region II disrupted the ability of the pgRNA to be encapsidated efficiently. Overall, these data indicate that the intervening sequences between epsilon and region II play a role in encapsidation. We also analyzed heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV) for the presence of region II and found features similar to DHBV: a broad region necessary for efficient encapsidation that contained a critical region II sequence. Furthermore, we analyzed variants of DHBV that were substituted with HHBV sequence over region II and found that the chimeras were not fully functional for RNA encapsidation. These results indicate that sequences within region II may need to be compatible with other viral components in order to function in pgRNA encapsidation.  (+info)

Chimeras of duck and heron hepatitis B viruses provide evidence for functional interactions between viral components of pregenomic RNA encapsidation. (6/18)

Packaging of hepadnavirus pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) into capsids, or encapsidation, requires several viral components. The viral polymerase (P) and the capsid subunit (C) are necessary for pgRNA encapsidation. Previous studies of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) indicated that two cis-acting sequences on pgRNA are required for encapsidation: epsilon, which is near the 5' end of pgRNA, and region II, located near the middle of pgRNA. Later studies suggested that the intervening sequence between these two elements may also make a contribution. It has been demonstrated for DHBV that epsilon interacts with P to facilitate encapsidation, but it is not known how other cis-acting sequences contribute to encapsidation. We analyzed chimeras of DHBV and a related virus, heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV), to gain insight into the interactions between the various viral components during pgRNA encapsidation. We learned that having epsilon and P derived from the same virus was not sufficient for high levels of encapsidation, implying that other viral interactions contribute to encapsidation. Chimeric analysis showed that a large sequence containing region II may interact with P and/or C for efficient encapsidation. Further analysis demonstrated that possibly an RNA-RNA interaction between the intervening sequence and region II facilitates pgRNA encapsidation. Together, these results identify functional interactions among various viral components that contribute to pgRNA encapsidation.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of avihepadnaviruses isolated from exotic anseriformes maintained in captivity. (7/18)

Five new hepadnaviruses were cloned from exotic ducks and geese, including the Chiloe wigeon, mandarin duck, puna teal, Orinoco sheldgoose, and ashy-headed sheldgoose. Sequence comparisons revealed that all but the mandarin duck viruses were closely related to existing isolates of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), while mandarin duck virus clones were closely related to Ross goose hepatitis B virus. Nonetheless, the S protein, core protein, and functional domains of the Pol protein were highly conserved in all of the new isolates. The Chiloe wigeon and puna teal hepatitis B viruses, the two new isolates most closely related to DHBV, also lacked an AUG start codon at the beginning of their X open reading frame (ORF). But as previously reported for the heron, Ross goose, and stork hepatitis B viruses, an AUG codon was found near the beginning of the X ORF of the mandarin duck, Orinoco, and ashy-headed sheldgoose viruses. In all of the new isolates, the X ORF ended with a stop codon at the same position. All of the cloned viruses replicated when transfected into the LMH line of chicken hepatoma cells. Significant differences between the new isolates and between these and previously reported isolates were detected in the pre-S domain of the viral envelope protein, which is believed to determine viral host range. Despite this, all of the new isolates were infectious for primary cultures of Pekin duck hepatocytes, and infectivity in young Pekin ducks was demonstrated for all but the ashy-headed sheldgoose isolate.  (+info)

Evidence from nature: interspecies spread of heron hepatitis B viruses. (8/18)

Heron hepatitis B viruses (HHBVs) in three subspecies of free-living great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from Florida, USA, were identified and characterized. Eight of 13 samples were positive in all assays used, whereas sera from egrets, which are also members of the family Ardeidae, were negative in the same assays. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of viral DNA sequences from the preS/S region of previously reported and novel HHBV strains isolated from captive grey herons (Germany) and free-ranging great blue herons (USA), respectively, revealed a strong conservation (95 % sequence similarity) with two separate clusters, implying a common ancestor of all strains. Our data demonstrate for the first time that different subspecies of herons are infected by HHBV and that these infections exist in non-captive birds. Phylogenetic analysis and the fact that the different heron species are geographically isolated populations suggest that lateral transmission, virus adaptation and environmental factors all play a role in HHBV spreading and evolution.  (+info)

Avihepadnavirus is a genus of viruses in the family Parvoviridae, which infect birds. These viruses are characterized by their small, single-stranded DNA genomes and icosahedral symmetry. They primarily infect the liver of birds and can cause chronic hepatitis and liver cancer. The most well-known member of this genus is the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), which has been extensively studied as a model for human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, it's important to note that avihepadnaviruses are not known to infect humans or other mammals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parakeets" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to certain types of small to medium-sized parrots, particularly those with long tail feathers. The term is not associated with medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to animals or pets, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is not a medical definition related to human health, but it is a species of hepatitis B virus that primarily infects various species of ducks and other Anseriformes (waterfowl). It is closely related to the human hepatitis B virus (HBV), but it is not known to infect humans or other mammals.

DHBV, like HBV, is a DNA virus that targets the liver and can cause both acute and chronic infections. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route and primarily affects young ducklings. Infection with DHBV can lead to liver damage and death in infected birds.

Researchers study DHBV as a model system for understanding HBV infection and pathogenesis, due to their similarities in viral structure, replication strategy, and host-virus interactions. However, it is important to note that DHBV is not a human health concern and does not pose a risk of infection to humans or other mammals.

Hepadnaviridae is a family of small, enveloped viruses that primarily infect the liver cells (hepatocytes) of various species, including humans. The name "Hepadnaviridae" is derived from "hepa" for hepatotrophic (liver-tropic) and "DNA" for the DNA genome of the viruses.

The most well-known member of this family is the human hepatitis B virus (HBV), which causes acute and chronic liver infections, leading to various clinical manifestations such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepadnaviruses have a unique replication strategy that involves reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, making them distinct from other DNA viruses. Their genome is partially double-stranded, with the minus strand being complete and the plus strand incomplete or absent. The genome encodes for four overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) that give rise to several viral proteins, including the surface antigen (HBsAg), core protein (HBcAg), polymerase, and X protein (HBx).

The family Hepadnaviridae includes several other members that infect animals, such as woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV), and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). These viruses serve as valuable models for understanding the biology and pathogenesis of HBV in humans.

"Ducks" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a group of birds that belong to the family Anatidae, which also includes swans and geese. Some ducks are hunted for their meat, feathers, or down, but they do not have any specific medical relevance. If you have any questions about a specific medical term or concept, I would be happy to help if you could provide more information!

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

... is a genus of viruses, in the family Hepadnaviridae. Birds serve as natural hosts. There are three species in ... Guo, Haitao; Mason, William (2005). "Identification and Characterization of Avihepadnaviruses Isolated from Exotic Anseriformes ... ICTV Report: Hepadnaviridae Viralzone: Avihepadnavirus (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Duck hepatitis B virus Heron hepatitis B virus Parrot hepatitis B virus Viruses in the genus Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, ...
Avihepadnaviruses have been detected in various duck species. As the same with the orthohepadnaviruses, avihepadnaviruses have ... But for the avihepadnaviruses they normally extend plus-strands almost all the way to the modified 5' end. The minus-strand is ... Many cases about avihepadnaviruses transmission between or within species have been studied. DHBV: infects only certain duck ... There is no evidence for transmission of avian hepadnavirus between avian and human, but recombination of avihepadnavirus ...
Avihepadnaviruses lack the X protein but a vestigial X reading frame is present in the genome of duck hepadnavirus. The X ... The genus is classified as part of the Hepadnaviridae family, which contains four other genera, Avihepadnavirus, ... the phylogenetic position of orthohepadnaviruses as a sister clade to avihepadnaviruses suggests a presence of the virus in the ...
Although Protein X is normally absent in the Avihepadnavirus, a vestigial version has been identified in the duck hepatitis ...
The following genera are recognized:[citation needed] Avihepadnavirus Orthohepadnavirus Herpetohepadnavirus Metahepadnavirus ...
Austintatiousvirus Avanivirus Avastrovirus Avenavirus Aveparvovirus Avesvirus Aviadenovirus Avibirnavirus Avihepadnavirus ...
... avihepadnavirus MeSH B04.280.375.100.450 - hepatitis b virus, duck MeSH B04.280.375.650 - orthohepadnavirus MeSH B04.280. ... avihepadnavirus MeSH B04.450.390.100.450 - hepatitis b virus, duck MeSH B04.450.390.650 - orthohepadnavirus MeSH B04.450. ... avihepadnavirus MeSH B04.909.204.340.100.450 - hepatitis b virus, duck MeSH B04.909.204.340.650 - orthohepadnavirus MeSH ...
... , abbreviated DHBV, is part of the genus Avihepadnavirus of the Hepadnaviridae, and is the causal agent ...
Avihepadnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Hepadnaviridae. Birds serve as natural hosts. There are three species in ... Guo, Haitao; Mason, William (2005). "Identification and Characterization of Avihepadnaviruses Isolated from Exotic Anseriformes ... ICTV Report: Hepadnaviridae Viralzone: Avihepadnavirus (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... Duck hepatitis B virus Heron hepatitis B virus Parrot hepatitis B virus Viruses in the genus Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, ...
The genus Avihepadnavirus contains 2 avian species: duck hepatitis B virus and heron hepatitis B virus (1). Hepadnaviruses ... The family Hepadnaviridae comprises 2 genera (Orthohepadnavirus and Avihepadnavirus), and viruses classified within these ... identical to members of the Orthohepadnavirus and Avihepadnavirus genera, respectively. Similar low identities were also ...
and the genus Avihepadnavirus contains viruses of birds.. introns in nuclear genes. They are mostly found in prokary- ...
Gallardo-Escárate, C., Valenzuela-Muñoz, V., Nuñez-Acuña, G., Valenzuela-Miranda, D., Tapia, F. J., Yévenes, M., Gajardo, G., Toro, J. E., Oyarzún, P. A., Arriagada, G., Novoa, B., Figueras, A., Roberts, S. & Gerdol, M., Apr 2023, In: Genes. 14, 4, 876.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
avihepadnavirus Any of the genus ; an avian hepadnavirus.. → Definition and anagrams of avihepadnavirus. → Other senses and ...
Aviewed definition: Simple past tense and past participle of |i||a|aview.|/a||/i|.
Austintatiousvirus Avastrovirus Avenavirus Aveparvovirus Aviadenovirus Avibirnavirus Avihepadnavirus Avihepatovirus Avipoxvirus ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Genus: Avihepadnavirus * Genus: Herpetohepadnavirus * Genus: Metahepadnavirus * Genus: Orthohepadnavirus * Genus: ...
hepatitida B, hepadnaviry, Orthohepadnavirus, hepatitida B - antigeny povrchové, Avihepadnavirus. Perhaps you should try some ...
Avihepadnavirus , Virus de la Hepatitis B del Pato , Hepatitis Viral Animal , Animales , Patos , Granjas , ADN Viral , Virus de ... Identification of avihepadnaviruses and circoviruses in an unexplained death event in farmed ducks. ...
Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses). The genetic variability of HBV ... Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses). The genetic variability of HBV ...
Avihepadnavirus B04.280.375.100.450 Hepatitis B Virus, Duck B04.280.375.650 Orthohepadnavirus B04.280.375.650.425 Hepatitis B ... Avihepadnavirus B04.450.390.100.450 Hepatitis B Virus, Duck B04.450.390.650 Orthohepadnavirus B04.450.390.650.425 Hepatitis B ...
Genus Avihepadnavirus (organism) {417623009 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Duck hepatitis B virus (organism) { ...
Avihepadnavirus Preferred Term Term UI T053556. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag ABX. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Avihepadnavirus Preferred Concept UI. M0027071. Registry Number. txid10437. Scope Note. A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting ... Avihepadnavirus. Tree Number(s). B04.280.375.100. B04.450.390.100. Unique ID. D017917. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih ...
Avihepadnavirus Preferred Term Term UI T053556. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag ABX. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Avihepadnavirus Preferred Concept UI. M0027071. Registry Number. txid10437. Scope Note. A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting ... Avihepadnavirus. Tree Number(s). B04.280.375.100. B04.450.390.100. Unique ID. D017917. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih ...
The syncytin-1 receptor is the Na-dependent amino acid transporter 2 (ASCT2 or SLC1A5).[13][14] This receptor places syncytin-1 in a large viral interference group called retroviral mammalian type D receptor (RDR) interference group.[15] Syncytin-1 has been shown to interfere with viral infection in-vitro by RDR interference group member spleen necrosis virus.[16] Syncytin-1 can also recognize ASCT1 or SLC1A4, but this receptor is not a receptor for the RDR interference group. Mutation studies of syncytin-1 and of ASCT2 have provided insight into potential receptor binding domains and determinants. A putative receptor binding domain was identified in syncytin-1 at residues 117-144.[17] The amino acid sequence at this region is well conserved amongst RDR interference group members. The motif SDGGGX2DX2R is present in all RDR interference group members within this conserved region and may play an important role in binding. Preliminary evidence with syncytin-1 and spleen necrosis virus indicate ...
Avihepadnavirus - Preferred Concept UI. M0027071. Scope note. A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE infecting birds but rarely causing ... Avihepadnavirus. Scope note:. Género de HEPADNAVIRIDAE que infecta a aves pero que rara vez causa problemas clínicos. La ...
The genus Avihepadnavirus contains 2 avian species: duck hepatitis B virus and heron hepatitis B virus (1). Hepadnaviruses ... The family Hepadnaviridae comprises 2 genera (Orthohepadnavirus and Avihepadnavirus), and viruses classified within these ... identical to members of the Orthohepadnavirus and Avihepadnavirus genera, respectively. Similar low identities were also ...
Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
Avihepadnavirus B4.909.204.340.100 Avipoxvirus B4.909.204.783.160.100 Avoidance Learning F2.463.785.373.173 Avulavirus B4.909. ...
DNA viry, viry hepatitidy, Avihepadnavirus, Orthohepadnavirus. Try widening your search to All Fields. ...
Avihepadnavirus Avipoxvirus Avitaminosis Avoidance Learning Avulavirus Avulavirus Infections Awards and Prizes Awareness Axenic ...
  • The genus contains the following species: Duck hepatitis B virus Heron hepatitis B virus Parrot hepatitis B virus Viruses in the genus Avihepadnavirus are enveloped, with spherical geometries, and T=4 symmetry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avihepadnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Hepadnaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family Hepadnaviridae comprises 2 genera ( Orthohepadnavirus and Avihepadnavirus ), and viruses classified within these genera have a narrow host range. (cdc.gov)