Avidin: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.Biotin: A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Egg White: The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.LondonAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animals, LaboratoryTyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Methylmalonyl-CoA Decarboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that catalyzes the decarboxylation of (S)-2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoyl-CoA to propanoyl-CoA. In microorganisms the reaction can be coupled to the vectorial transport of SODIUM ions across the cytoplasmic membrane.Pyruvate Carboxylase: A biotin-dependent enzyme belonging to the ligase family that catalyzes the addition of CARBON DIOXIDE to pyruvate. It is occurs in both plants and animals. Deficiency of this enzyme causes severe psychomotor retardation and ACIDOSIS, LACTIC in infants. EC 220.127.116.11.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Xanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.TexasGenetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation. (1/556)We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime. (+info)
Advanced analysis of biotin metabolites in body fluids allows a more accurate measurement of biotin bioavailability and metabolism in humans. (2/556)In previous studies, the bioavailability of biotin in humans was estimated from the recovery of biotin in urine; urinary biotin was measured by microbial growth assays or assays of avidin-binding activity. These assays underestimate concentrations of biotin metabolites, which originate from beta-oxidation, sulfur oxidation or a combination. We have developed an HPLC/avidin-binding assay that is specific for biotin and its metabolites. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, TLC and derivatization with p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, we have identified and quantitated biotin and metabolites in urine from six healthy adults. Of that total, biotin accounted for 32+/-12%, bisnorbiotin for 52+/-15%, bisnorbiotin methyl ketone for 7.9+/-5.8%, biotin-d,l-sulfoxide for 4.0+/-3.2% and biotin sulfone for 3.6+/-1.9%. After intravenous administration of 18.4 micromol of biotin, the urinary excretion of biotin metabolites increased 21-130 times above baseline values. Because the biliary excretion of biotin is quantitatively minor (1.9+/-0.2% of an intravenous [14C]biotin dose in rats), intravenously administered biotin is not exposed to intestinal microorganisms. Thus we conclude that biotin metabolites in human urine originate from biotin catabolism in human tissues rather than biotin catabolism by intestinal microorganisms. With the use of the HPLC/avidin-binding assay, we estimated the bioavailability of biotin in adults from the urinary excretion of biotin and metabolites after ingestion of 2.1, 8.2 and 81.9 micromol of biotin. These data provide evidence that biotin is nearly completely absorbed. (+info)
Accurate measurement of avidin and streptavidin in crude biofluids with a new, optimized biotin-fluorescein conjugate. (3/556)A new biotin-fluorescein conjugate with an ethylene diamine spacer was found to be the first fluorescent biotin derivative which truly mimicked d-biotin in terms of high affinity, fast association, and non-cooperative binding to avidin and streptavidin tetramers. These exceptional properties were attributed to the small size/length of the new ligand since all larger/longer biotin derivatives are known for their mutual steric hindrance and anti-cooperative binding in 4:1 complexes with avidin and streptavidin tetramers. Specific binding of the new biotin-fluorescein conjugate towards avidin and streptavidin was accompanied by 84-88% quenching of ligand fluorescence. In the accompanying study this effect was used for rapid estimation of avidin and streptavidin in a new 'single tube assay'. In the present study the strong quenching effect was utilized to accurately monitor stoichiometric titration of biotin-binding sites in samples with >/=200 pM avidin or streptavidin. The concentration was calculated from the consumption of fluorescent ligand up to the distinct breakpoint in the fluorescence titration profile which was marked by the abrupt appearance of strongly fluorescent ligands which were in excess. Due to this protocol the assay was not perturbed by background fluorescence or coloration in the unknown samples. The new fluorescence titration assay is particularly suited for quick checks on short notice because getting started only means to thaw an aliquot of a standardized stock solution of fluorescent ligand. No calibration is required for the individual assay and the ligand stock solution needs to be restandardized once per week (or once per year) when stored at -25 degrees C (or at -70 degrees C, respectively). (+info)
Rapid estimation of avidin and streptavidin by fluorescence quenching or fluorescence polarization. (4/556)A new biotin-carboxyfluorescein conjugate has been presented in the accompanying study (G. Kada et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 000 (1999) 000-000) which contains ethylene diamine as a 4-atom spacer. This so-called biotin-4-fluorescein showed exceptionally fast and tight binding to avidin and streptavidin, and binding was accompanied by strong quenching. In the present study the specific quenching of 'biotin-4-fluorescein' was utilized to measure (strept)avidin concentrations (0.2-2 nM) by the extent of fluorescence quenching at 8 nM ligand concentration. Adsorption of (strept)avidin to the assay tubes was suppressed by inclusion of bovine serum albumin (0.1 mg/ml). Virtually the same specific response to avidin and streptavidin was also observed with commercial 'fluorescein-biotin', except that >10 h incubation times were required. The slow association of 'fluorescein-biotin' was attributed to the anti-cooperative binding which is due to the much longer spacer as compared to 'biotin-4-fluorescein'. The third ligand tested in this study was 'biotin-4-FITC' which was analogous to 'biotin-4-fluorescein' except that carboxyfluorescein was replaced by the fluorescein isothiocyanate residue. Surprisingly, this probe was much less quenched by avidin but this was compensated by an exceptionally high fluorescence polarization in the avidin-bound state. In conclusion, the new ligand 'biotin-4-fluorescein' appeared to be the most general and convenient probe: quenching was most pronounced and linearly dependent on (strept)avidin concentrations, the dose response for streptavidin was almost the same as for avidin, and the association kinetics were fast enough to reach equilibrium within 30 min incubation time. (+info)
The relationship of glycosylation and isoelectric point with tumor accumulation of avidin. (5/556)Radiolabeled avidin markedly accumulated in intraperitoneal tumors and was cleared rapidly from circulation when given intraperitoneally. This study investigated the mechanisms of the tumor localization of avidin. METHODS: Avidin was deglycosylated through endoglycosydase-H digestion and/or neutralized by acetylation of its lysine amino acids with acetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Avidin and modified avidins were analyzed using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. A tumor model was established by intraperitoneal injection of human colon cancer cells, LS180, in nude mice. Avidin and modified avidins were labeled with 111In using diethyleneamine pentaacetic acid-biotin and were administered intraperitoneally into the tumor-bearing mice. The biodistribution of radioactivity was examined 2 and 24 h postinjection. RESULTS: Deglycosylated avidins revealed a major band of smaller molecules on SDS/PAGE. The isoelectric point of neutralized avidins was reduced to less than 5, whereas that of unneutralized avidins was more than 9.5. Biodistribution study demonstrated that liver uptake was decreased by deglycosylation and kidney accumulation was decreased by neutralization, respectively. The blood clearance was remarkably slowed by combined modification of deglycosylation and neutralization. The tumor uptake of radioactivity was reduced by either deglycosylation or neutralization and was further decreased with combined modification. CONCLUSION: Both high glycosylation and positive charge of avidin contributed to its accumulation in tumor. This study may facilitate development of a new vehicle for the delivery of therapeutic agents to intraperitoneal tumors. (+info)
Orientation of the pore-forming peptide GALA in POPC vesicles determined by a BODIPY-avidin/biotin binding assay. (6/556)We determined the orientation of a biotinylated version of the pore-forming peptide GALA (WEAALAEALAEALAEHLAEALAEALEALAA) at pH 5.0 in large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine vesicles, using the enhancement of BODIPY-avidin fluorescence subsequent to its irreversible binding to a biotin moiety. GALA and its variants were biotinylated at the N- or C-terminus. BODIPY-avidin was either added externally or was pre-encapsulated in vesicles to assess the fraction of liposome-bound biotinylated GALA that exposed its labeled terminus to the external or internal side of the bilayer, respectively. Under conditions where most of the membrane-bound peptides were involved in transmembrane aggregates and formed aqueous pores (at a lipid/bound peptide molar ratio of 2500/1), the head-to-tail (N- to C-terminus) orientation of the membrane-inserted peptides was such that 3/4 of the peptides exposed their N-terminus on the inside of the vesicle and their C-terminus on the outside. Under conditions resulting in reduced pore formation (at higher lipid/peptide molar ratios), we observed an increase in the fraction of GALA termini exposed to the outside of the vesicle. These results are consistent with a model (Parente et al., Biochemistry, 29:8720, 1990) that requires a critical number of peptides (M) in an aggregate to form a transbilayer structure. When the peptides form an aggregate of size i, with i < M = 4 to 6, the orientation of the peptides is mostly parallel to the membrane surface, such that both termini of the biotinylated peptide are exposed to external BODIPY-avidin. This BODIPY-avidin/biotin binding assay should be useful to determine the orientation of other membrane-interacting molecules. (+info)
Chemical cleavage of the overexpressed mitochondrial F1beta precursor with CNBr: a new strategy to construct an import-competent preprotein. (7/556)We have isolated a soluble import-competent 15 kDa N-terminal fragment of the overexpressed Nicotiana plumbaginifolia F1beta precursor of the ATP synthase (N15pF1beta). The isolation was achieved after chemical cleavage, with CNBr, of the insoluble precursor collected in inclusion bodies, followed by purification of the fragment using ion-exchange chromatography. The purity of the final product was estimated to be more than 99%. N15pF1beta contained a presequence of 54 amino acid residues (except for the N-terminal methionine residue) and 82 N-terminal residues of the mature protein. N15pF1beta was shown to be imported into isolated potato tuber mitochondria and to be processed by the isolated mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP) integrated into the cytochrome bc1 complex of the respiratory chain. Addition of N15pF1beta at micromolar concentrations resulted in the inhibition of import of F1beta precursor and alternative oxidase precursor, synthesized in vitro, into isolated mitochondria as well as the processing of these precursors catalysed by the isolated MPP-bc1 complex. N15pF1beta conjugated via a biotin link to avidin blocked import sites even after the reisolation of mitochondria and inhibited the import of the mitochondrial precursors, indicating that it can be used as a substrate for the generation of a stable translocation intermediate. Our results present a novel procedure for the production of an N-terminal fragment of the F1beta precursor that contains all information necessary for mitochondrial targeting and processing and that can be used for structural and functional studies of the mitochondrial protein import system. This procedure has a general value because it can be used for the production of chemical quantities of any mitochondrial import substrate and presequence peptide. (+info)
Tumor pretargeting with avidin improves the therapeutic index of biotinylated tumor necrosis factor alpha in mouse models. (8/556)The clinical use of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) as an anticancer drug is limited to local or locoregional administration because of dose-limiting systemic toxicity. We investigated in animal models whether the therapeutic index of systemically administered human or murine TNF can be increased by tumor pretargeting strategies based on the biotin-avidin system. Pretargeting of s.c. mouse WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma and RMA lymphoma genetically engineered to express the Thy 1.1 antigen on the cell membrane was achieved by i.p. injection of a biotinylated anti-Thy 1.1 antibody and avidin. This pretreatment increased the antitumor activity of systemically administered biotin-TNF conjugates by at least 5-fold. In contrast, pretargeting did not increase the toxicity of biotin-TNF, as judged by animal survival and weight loss after treatment. Ex vivo analysis of tumor cells 24 h after treatment showed that biotin-TNF persisted for several hours on the surface of pretargeted tumors, but not when avidin was omitted. The potentiation of the antitumor effects was related primarily to indirect mechanisms, involving a host-mediated response. The results indicate that tumor pretargeting improves the antitumor activity of TNF. Tumor pretargeting with avidin, which is currently used to increase the uptake of radioactive-labeled biotin in patients, could represent a new strategy for improving the therapeutic index of TNF. (+info)
Avidin is a basic charged glycoprotein present in the egg white and in some extent in tissues of various animals. Avidin is a homotetrameric protein that contains 4 identical subunits which bind to Biotin with high extent of affinity and specificity consisting of 128 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 67K Daltons. Avidin-Biotin is a modified form of affinity purified avidin that combines the high affinity specific activity of the native egg white avidin to biotin molecule together with a very low background of the streptavidin produced by the bacteria Streptomyces avidinii.
Although thoroughly studied in terms of structural, biochemical and biophysical characteristics, the biological functions of avidins are not fully understood. Here, we expand the research on avidins by reporting xenavidin, the first avidin-like protein from a frog, which was identified as an expressed sequence tag (EST) from the Xenopus tropicalis genome project. Avidins appear to be conserved among egg-laying vertebrates [3, 4, 6] and are thought to have a role as defence proteins against microbial infections [43, 44]. Bird eggs contain egg yolk, the compartment for embryonic development, and the egg white that surrounds the egg yolk provides both nutrients and protection for the embryo. In frogs, the equivalent to egg white is called egg jelly . The avidin content of egg jelly may have an important role in the embryonic development of frogs, a hypothesis that is also supported by recent studies within natural bird populations, in which the concentration of avidin in egg white appears to be ...
Background: Cell proliferation occurs not only in normal but also in cancer cells. Most of cell proliferation inhibition can be done by inhibiting the DNA synthesis, notably by intervening the formation of purine or pyrimidine. In purine de novo synthesis, it was assumed that biotin plays a role as a coenzyme in carboxylation reaction, one of the pivotal steps in the purine de novo pathways. The aim of this study was to see the avidin potency to bind biotin and inhibit mitosis.. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) was cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in the presence or absence of interleukin-2 (IL-2), with or without avidin. The effect of avidin addition was observed at 24, 48, and 72 hours for cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA.. Results: Avidin inhibited cell proliferation and viability in culture under stimulation by PHA with and without IL-2. Cell cycle analysis showed that avidin ...
The Fluorescent Avidin Kit contains 500g of three fluorescent avidin products: Fluorescein Avidin DCS, Texas Red Avidin D and AMCA Avidin D.
One of the most popular methods of noncovalent conjugation is to make use of the natural strong binding of avidin or its derivative streptavidin to biotin. Each avidin molecule contains a maximum of four biotin binding sites thereby increasing the strength of their interaction with biotin. Depending on the functionality present on the biotinylation compounds, specific reactive groups on antibodies may be modified to create a avidin binding site. Amines, carboxylates, sulfhydryls, and carbohydrate groups can be specifically targeted for biotinylation through the appropriate choice of biotin derivative.. Avidin is a glycoprotein found in egg whites that contains four identical subunits of 16,400 Da each. The subunits each contain one binding site for biotin also known as vitamin H. The biotin interaction with avidin is the strongest noncovalent affinity known, exhibiting a dissociation constant of about 1.3×10-15M. Tryptophan and lysine residues in each subunit are involved in forming the binding ...
The avidin-biotin system is a technique for studying the interaction between two biomolecules in an indirect manner, as follows: Biotin is chemically coupled to a binder molecule (e.g., a protein, DNA, hormone, etc.) without disturbing the interaction with its target molecule; avidin is then used to "sandwich" between the biotinylated binder and a reporter molecule or probe. This allows for a variety of tasks, including localization and identification of the binder or target molecule. Consequently, the avidin-biotin system can frequently replace radioactive probes. Together with Ed Bayer, Wilchek established the Avidin-biotin system as a powerful tool in biological sciences. Early in the 1970s, they exploited Avidin as a probe and developed new methods and reagents to biotinylate antibodies and other biomolecules. Today, the system is applied in research and diagnostics as well as medical devices and pharmaceuticals. Examples include western blot, ELISA, ELISPOT and pull-down assays. More ...
Biotin Agarose Resin is used for purification or removal of avidin or streptavidin samples. Biotin is immobilized through a spacer arm by means of covalent binding that minimize leakage. The binding is very strong, making it suitable for non-reversible b
Abstract The avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ABC-ELISA) and standard ELISA were used for the detection of Echinococcus granulosus antibody in sera of 101 patients operated on for hydatid disease, 40 patients with miscellaneous nonhydatid diseases, and 61 normal subjects. Sensitivity and specificity of the two procedures were comparable and the geometric mean antibody titer detected with ABC-ELISA was higher than with standard ELISA. The ABC-ELISA is a sensitive, specific, simple, and convenient method for diagnosing hydatidosis.
Avidin and streptavidin reagents are powerful tools to detect or purify biotinylated proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules.
1. The reaction between avidin and biotin was found to be exothermic, DeltaH being -20.3kcal./mole of biotin bound. The corresponding value of DeltaH for streptavidin was -23kcal./mole. 2. The heat evolved was independent of the pH (between 5 and 9), of the buffer (borate or ammonia) and of the fractional saturation of the avidin with biotin. 3. The entropy change for the reaction was zero, and it is suggested that the entropy increase to be expected from hydrophobic interactions was counterbalanced by a decrease in entropy accompanying the formation of buried hydrogen bonds. 4. Modification of the potential hydrogen-bonding sites of the imidazolidone ring led to a decreased heat output and a positive entropy of reaction.. ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Endogenous Avidin + Biotin Blocking System (ab3387) : Endogenous Avidin + Biotin Blocking System
... is a glycoprotein found in the egg white and tissues of birds, reptiles and amphibians. It contains four identical subunits having a combined
In biochemistry, biotinylation is the entire process of covalently attaching biotin to a protein, nucleic acid or other molecule. Biotinylation is quick, certain and is not likely to perturb the natural operate from the molecule due to the small dimension of biotin (MW = 244.31 g/mol). Biotin binds to streptavidin and avidin with an especially superior affinity, quick on-price, and higher specificity, and these interactions are exploited in many areas of biotechnology to isolate biotinylated molecules of desire. Biotin-binding to streptavidin and avidin is resistant to extremes of heat, pH and proteolysis, earning capture of biotinylated molecules attainable in numerous types of environments ...
2000 Da) were able to fill all three of the remaining avidin-binding sites, while only one molecule of biotinylated PEG5000 or stem cell factor bound to each avidin. The resulting biotin−avidin−biotin linkages were stable for prolonged periods under continuous perfusion, even in the presence of excess free biotin. Hematopoietic M07e cells bound to immobilized peptide ligands for α5β1 (cyclic RGD) and α4β1 (cylic LDV) integrins in a DPB-dose-dependent manner, with near-maximal binding to cylic LDV for surfaces containing 1% DPB. Multiple ligands were adsorbed in a controlled manner by incubating NeutrAvidin with the respective ligands in the desired molar ratio and then adding the resulting complexes to DPB-containing surfaces. Cell adhesion to surfaces containing both cylic LDV and cyclic RGD increased in an additive manner compared to that for the individual ligands. The bioactivity of adsorbed biotinylated stem cell factor was retained, as demonstrated by DPB-dose-dependent M07e cell ...
In the biotin-avidin method, cells are incubated first with biotin-conjugated monoclonal antibody and then subsequently incubated with fluorochrome-conjugated avidin. In the second antibody method, cells are incubated with an unconjugated monoclonal antibody followed by fluorochrome-conjugated goat anti-mouse Ig.. These sandwich techniques provide increased fluorescence intensity, which is valuable for microscopy. However, indirect methods can result in the formation of complexes that will artifactually stain Fc receptor-binding cells. The biotin-avidin method gives the least amount of artifactual staining particularly when streptavidin conjugates are used. Indirect methods will alter the proportionality between the amount of antigen and the fluorescence intensity per cell, therefore, these methods are not recommended for assessing the absolute number of antigenic determinants per cell. However, indirect methods can be used to determine the relative brightness differences between cell ...
Adenoviral vectors have great potential for use in gene therapy and genetic immunization. The targeting of Ad vectors to the relevant tissue and cell types in vivo could greatly improve their safety and performance by lowering the effective dosage required for therapeutic levels of gene expression. Redirection of Ad vector tropism will require physical modifications of the adenoviral capsid but direct genetic modification of the Ad capsid has so far been limited to small peptides. A novel system for the attachment of targeting ligands to the Ad capsid, based on the extremely strong avidin-biotin interaction, is described herein. The genetic insertion of a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) into the fiber, protein IX, or hexon components of the Ad capsid has resulted in vectors that are metabolically biotinylated upon production in host cells. Avidin-dependent redirection of transduction through a variety of biotinylated ligands is greatly dependent on the nature of the biotinylated capsid protein. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An avidin-based assay for histone debiotinylase activity in human cell nuclei. AU - Chew, Yap Ching. AU - Sarath, Gautam. AU - Zempleni, Janos. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - The covalent binding of biotin to histones participates in heterochromatin formation, cell cycle progression and cellular response to DNA breaks. Biotinylation of histones appears to be a reversible process, but the identity of enzymes that remove biotin marks is largely unknown. Our long-term goal is to identify histone debiotinylases in human cells. Here we developed an avidin-based plate assay to quantify histone debiotinylase activities in nuclear extracts. This assay is an essential first step in purifying and identifying histone debiotinylases from human cells. Using this assay, we demonstrated that debiotinylation of histones depends on temperature and pH, consistent with enzyme catalysis. Experiments with purified histones, proteases and protease inhibitors provide evidence that removal of biotin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An equilibrium model of endothelial cell adhesion via integrin-dependent and integrin-independent ligands. AU - Chan, Bernard P.. AU - Bhat, Vinayak D.. AU - Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan. AU - Reichert, William M.. AU - Truskey, George A.. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Endothelial cell adhesion can be enhanced by supplementing integrin-mediated adhesion via fibronectin with the high-affinity avidin-biotin system in which biotin is covalently linked to membrane proteins and avidin binds to biotinylated surfaces (Bhat et al. J Biomed Mater Res 1998;41:377-85). An equilibrium model was extended to explain detachment of spreading cells following exposure to flow for this two ligand system. The two different receptor-ligand systems were treated as springs in parallel in which the equilibrium dissociation constant was a function of the separation distance of the cell from the surface. Flow experiments were performed to measure the endothelial cell adhesion strength as a function ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pilot therapy trial of CEA positive tumours using a three-step pretargeting approach. AU - Paganelli, G.. AU - Magnani, P.. AU - Chinol, M.. AU - Sudati, F.. AU - Zito, F.. AU - Mangili, F.. AU - Li, M.. AU - Meares, C. F.. AU - Siccardi, A. G.. AU - Fazio, F.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The three-step pretargeting approach, based on the avidin-biotin system, has been shown to improve the target/non target ratio in radioimmunoscintigraphy. This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility of applying the same strategy to radioimmunotherapy. Five patients, with advanced metastatic CEA positive carcinomas were studied. All patients received two cycles of therapy with an interval of 3 months in between. The protocol consisted of an i.v. injection of 10 mg of biotinylated anti-CEA antibody, followed 24h later by avidin: 3 mg as rapid bolus (chase effect) plus 50 mg in 100 ml of saline. Biotin-LC-DOTA (2.5 mg) was labelled with Y-90 and injected i.v. 24 h later. The injected ...
Numerous spider toxins are of interest as tools for neurophysiological research or as lead molecules for the development of pharmaceuticals and insecticides. Direct detection and identification of the interacting proteins of a spider toxin are helpful for its action-mechanism analysis and practi...
Our family of biotin-binding proteins includes streptavidin, avidin, and NeutrAvidin® protein. See all conjugated and unconjugated streptavidin products.
Immunoelectron microscopy identifying avidin (8-nm gold) and cathepsin L (15-nm gold) immunoreactivity in organelles from late endosome, lysosome, and hybrid
Buy AVD recombinant protein, Avidin (AVD) Recombinant Protein-NP_990651.1 (MBS1122773) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
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Structural Characterization of the Avidin Interactions with Fluorescent Pyrene-Conjugates: 1-Biotinylpyrene and 1-Desthiobiotinylpyrene†. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
In the first part of this work, microfabricated Capillary Electrophoresis devices were integrated with microfabricated PCR devices for fast DNA amplification and separation., rapid on-chip amplification and separation of genes of interest was performed. A micro DNA extraction device using paramagnetic micro silica beads was consequently developed, subsequently a combined on-chip DNA extraction from a single drop of blood and PCR amplification were performed. In the second part of this work, micro array-based strategies for proteomics studies were developed. Two new strategies for site-specific immobilization of kinase substrates onto functionalized slides were developed: In addition, a novel fluorescent antibody-based detection was developed to rapidly screen for kinase substrate phosphorylation. Avidin-biotin is one of the strongest know non-covalent interaction, and by arraying C-terminal biotinylated proteins on avidin functionalized slides, a very stable array of functionally active proteins ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Although ovarian cancer implants can be targeted using an avidin-3 rhodamineX complex, there are several reasons to consider alternative complexes. GmSA-20ROX is substantially less immunogenic compared with avidin, and GmSA has been used as the basis for a technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceutical to assess hepatic reserve in humans. Additionally, GmSA-20ROX binds target cells more rapidly and more efficiently than avidin due to its multivalency (7, 16). Because GmSA synthesis involves the conjugation of 23 d-galactosamines reacted with carboxyl groups rather than amino groups on an albumin molecule (7), there are multiple binding sites for the d-galactose receptor and the molecule has a favorably high isoelectric point (7, 16). Moreover, activation via dequenching of the rhodamineX after cellular internalization provides a generalizable platform for targeted fluorescent probes by exchanging the targeting moiety (5). We used the d-galactose receptor as a target in this study because it is ...
Unless specified otherwise, MP Biomedicals products are for laboratory research use only, not for human or clinical use. For more information, please contact our customer service department ...
Fluorescent microscopy is a technique where a lower wavelength of light is applied to a sample, but only the light emitted at a higher wavelength is detected. Fluorescent microscopy allows for the sensitive visualization of fluorescent molecules against a dark background. Let Protein Mods label your primary antibody, so you can avoid wasting time with secondary antibodies. In addition to services, Protein Mods offers a number of proteins modified with fluorescein, tetramethylrhodamine, and CY5.5 for your fluorescent microscopy needs. Additional fluorophore options are available upon request. Anti-rabbit IgG Anti-mouse IgG Avidin Protein A Negative controls available in our catalog: Rabbit IgG Mouse IgG Canine IgG Rat IgG BSA
Rachel Teitelbaum wrote: , Hi Have you done a dilution experiment? Are you using a 2nd AB or a biotin avidin system? What is the enzyme read out or are you using fluorescence? Can you stain lymphocytes and pick up positives on a FACS ...
Tumour pretargeting is a promising strategy for cancer diagnosis and therapy allowing for the rational use of long circulating, highly specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for both non-invasive cancer radioimmunodetection (RID) and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). In contrast to conventional RID/RIT where the radi
Labelling antibodies and proteins is easier than ever with SureLINK Protein Labelling Kits and Reagents! These fast, convenient, ready-to-use kits are sure to work every time whether you are labelling your proteins with biotin, enzymes, or fluroescein.. SureLINK AP Conjugation Kits and Reagents. These kits are based on novel conjugation chemistry far superior to conventional methods such as maleimide/thio, glutaraldehyde and avidin/biotin. Kits and modified enzymes are capable of conjugating a variety of proteins in a range of sizes.. SureLINK HRP Conjugation Kits and Reagents. These kits are based on the well-established periodate chemistry that yields consistent, reproducible antibody or protein conjugates. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is pre-activated and supplied in reaction size vials. Kits and enzymes are capable of conjugating a variety of proteins in a range of sizes.. SureLINK Chromophoric Biotin Labelling Kits. These kits provide an easy-to-use method for biotinylating antibodies and ...
Hi, One of my pathologists is asking if I can take a slide that has already been stained with a peroxidase/avidin/biotin/DAB detection system and re-stain with an Alkaline Phosphotase detection system. Can it work? Must it be de-stained? Any info will help. Thanks, Dana Settembre Immunohistochemistry Lab University Hospital - UMDNJ Newark, NJ _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
10-plate (plates NOT included). Monoclonal antibody to human interleukin 17A (IL-17). Mouse IgG|sub|2b. Biotinylated monoclonal antibody to human interleukin 17A (IL-17) Mouse IgG|sub|2b. The cytokine ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSPOT) assay is designed to enumerate cytokine-secreting cells in single cell suspensions of lymphoid tissue, central nerve system (CNS) tissue, bone marrow or preparations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The assay has the advantage of detecting only activated/memory T cells and has the ability to detect cytokine release in response to antigen by a single cell thereby permitting direct calculation of responder T cell frequencies. The high sensitivity and easy performance, allowing the determination of peptide-reactive T cells without prior in vitro expansion, makes the ELISPOT assay eminently well suited to monitor T cell responses. The higher sensitivity of ELISPOT in comparison to that of ELISA or intracellular staining is due to the plate-bound antibodies
20-plate (plates NOT included). Monoclonal antibody to mouse interleukin 4 (IL-4). Rat IgG|sub|1. Biotinylated monoclonal antibody to mouse interleukin 4 (IL-4). Rat IgG|sub|1. The cytokine ELISPOT (Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSPOT) assay is designed to enumerate cytokine-secreting cells in single cell suspensions of lymphoid tissue, central nerve system (CNS) tissue, bone marrow or preparations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The assay has the advantage of detecting only activated/memory T cells and has the ability to detect cytokine release in response to antigen by a single cell thereby permitting direct calculation of responder T cell frequencies. The high sensitivity and easy performance, allowing the determination of peptide-reactive T cells without prior in vitro expansion, makes the ELISPOT assay eminently well suited to monitor T cell responses. The higher sensitivity of ELISPOT in comparison to that of ELISA or intracellular staining is due to the plate-bound antibodies directly
Hello, all, I am going to do Immunostaining of Frozen Sections . I have some questions: 1. What to do with slides after remove them from --80 o C freezer? 2. How long the slides have to come to room temperature? 3. How the OCT compound has to be dissolved? 4. What is general protocol for frozen sections? 5. Am I have to apply Avidin/biotin? My appreciation for any suggestion, Naira Naira V. Margaryan, Ph.D, D.V.M. Research Associate II Childrens Memorial Research Center 2300 Childrens Plaza, Box 222 Chicago, IL 60614-3394 Tel: 773-880-4000/5-6740 Fax: 773-755-6594 [email protected] ...
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TY - CONF. T1 - Quantitative transcriptional profiling with the aid of affinity capture. AU - Kataja, Kari. AU - Satokari, Reetta. AU - Arvas, Mikko. AU - Kivioja, Teemu. AU - Takkinen, Kristiina. AU - Ukkonen, Esko. AU - Söderlund, Hans. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - We have developed a novel method for a truly quantitative analysis of transcriptional profiles in cell samples. This low cost method is based on liquid sandwich hybridization between mRNA molecules, fluorophore labelled DNA-fragments of given sizes as probes and biotinylated oligo(dT). The mRNA : probe : biotin-oligo(dT) -complexes are separated in an automated fashion using magnetic (strept)avidin-coated microparticles. After washes the probes are eluted and their identity and quantity determined by electrophoretic analysis on an automated sequencer or by MS analysis.This method, which can be used also for uncharacterised genomes, gives the data as the copynumber of each identified mRNA. As a practical performance the process is ...
The reactivity of the antiserum is directed to the Fc and Fab subunits of the IgG molecule. It includes a certain degree of reactivity with other immunoglobulins via the common Fab portion. The reactivity against Fab of IgG is less pronounced than in the corresponding antiserum produced in rabbit. It does not react with any non-Ig protein in bovine serum, as tested by immunoelectrophoresis and double radial immunodiffusion. In immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical staining to identify and measure IgG, antigen or antibody, at the cellular and subcellular level by staining of appropriately treated cell and tissue substrates, and to demonstrate circulating antibodies in serodiagnostic microbiology and autoimmune diseases; to identify a specific antigen or immune complex using a reference antibody of bovine origin in the middle layer of the indirect test procedure. As a second step an avidin or streptavidin conjugate of the ...
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Rabbit Polyclonal Avidin antibody for EIA, IHC (fro), IHC (p), WB. Published in 1 Pubmed Reference. Order this anti-Avidin antibody. | Product number ABIN116961
Either a direct or an indirect assay principle can be chosen, and one can select from a large number of detection and labeling formats. Under certain conditions, one has to adapt a specific staining technique according to the needs of the tissue and the molecules under study. The principles of immunohistological staining can be also applied for the detection of target molecules other than antigens supposed that selective probes are available. With the experience of immunocytochemistry, a number of non-immunological affinity detection principles have become developped. For example, molecular affinity bindings of lectins and nucleic acids (in situ hybridization, FISH etc.) evolved from immunohistological detection principles. The detection formats include enzymatic and nonenzymatic labels, avidin-biotin principles, antibody-protein A bindings and other types of ligand bindings ...
We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F,sub,1,/sub,-ATPase expressed in ,i,E.coli,/i,, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F,sub,1,/sub,-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F,sub,1,/sub,-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F,sub,1,/sub,-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F,sub,1,/sub,-ATPase corresponding to ...
Non-covalent binding of avidin to biotinylated erythrocytes results in complement-dependent haemolysis. Biotinylated erythrocytes, as well as native cells, are not lysed by complement. Complement activation requires a tight contact between avidin and the erythrocyte membrane, since avidin does not in itself activate complement and does not inhibit lysis of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The efficiency of haemolysis depends on avidins surface density. When the avidin concentration in the reaction mixture is less than 15 micrograms/ml, erythrocyte lysis is not induced. However, the attachment of biotinylated antibodies to avidin-carrying erythrocytes decreases dramatically. Acylation of avidin with succinic anhydride strongly decreases its ability to induce complement-dependent haemolysis. However, the ability of avidin to cross-link the biotin-containing structures decreases after acylation. A 50% modification of avidin by succinic anhydride (pI about 7.0) allows preparation of ...
Looking for online definition of avidin in the Medical Dictionary? avidin explanation free. What is avidin? Meaning of avidin medical term. What does avidin mean?
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of immunochemistry in serous effusions.STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed cell blocks of 18 pleural and 18 peritoneal effusions diagnosed as malignant (18), benign (14) and suspicious (4). They were immunostained by the avidin-biotin complex method with a panel of four monoclonal antibodies-CEA, Ber-EP4, LeuM1 (CD15) and r53-and for lectins (Ulex europaeus) UEA-1, ConA and ConBr. RESULTS: Seventeen of the 18 cases of adenocarcinoma were positive for CEA (95%), 12 (66.6%)for Bev-EP4, 11 (61 %)for CD15 nild 11 (62 %)for p53. Twelve of the 18 (66.6%) were positive for UEA-1, CEA, Ber-EP4 and CD15. UEA-1 did not react with mesothelial cells. p53 Gave a positive reaction in only one case, reactive mesothelial cells. ConA and ConBr reacted indiscriminately with benign and malignant cells; thus, it was not useful in distinguishing between these cells.CONCLUSION: In this context no antibody used alone is reliable for corroborating a diagnosis, but the selective use of a small panel ...
So, who is Muscle Egg egg whites? "Muscle Egg is a Family owned enterprise. We are a state of the art egg processing facility that has been providing the highest quality eggs and egg products for over 50 years. Muscle Egg Liquid Egg Whites are produced in a USDA compliant facility with state of the art equipment. This ensures the safest, highest quality liquid egg whites possible. Our egg whites are salmonella, listeria and avidin free. Avidin, found in raw eggs, affects B vitamin biotin, stops it being absorbed, and causes problems with fatty acid synthesis and blood sugar levels. The pasteurising process for the liquid egg whites removes the avidin, and any salmonella or listeria, but the egg whites remain liquid, ready for cooking or immediate consumption." ...
Fluorescent Dyes , Biotins and Streptavidins , Fluorescein biotin; Green fluorescent biotin used for studying avidin binding; C42H50 N6O8S2
In 2012, Roux et al. published a nice paper, that received no less than four article recommendations from F1000 researchers. The paper described a method for tracking the interaction partners a protein has had within a cell (a history of its interacting partners). The method, called BioID, is based on proximity-dependent biotinylation of proteins by a promiscuous biotin ligase mutant BirA (R118G), which is fused to your protein of interest. After an overnight incubation with biotin, cells can be subjected to harsh lysis and biotinylated proteins can be isolated and identified by mass spectroscopy to determine the proteins that had come into contact with the chimeric BirA (R118G) protein. This method is a bit different from standard co-IP or pull-down experiments, because it allows one to identify proteins who interact transiently or weakly with the protein of interest. Also, due to the strong biotin-avidin binding affinity, harsh washes can greatly reduce background protein binding. [Read ...
Isolated C7 (m.w. 120,000) in 1% deoxycholate (DOC) forms dimers with an apparent m.w. of 230,000 and a DOC-binding capacity of 82 mol per mol of dimer. Dimerization of C7 also occurs in the presence of DOC-phospholipid mixed micelles and eventuates in the insertion of C7 dimers into the lipid bilayer upon the removal of the detergent. C5b-7 complex formation in the fluid phase or on lipid vesicles likewise involves polymerization. C5b-7 sedimented with 17-40S, which suggests a dimeric to hexameric composition. In avidin-biotin binding experiments in which two differentially labeled forms of C5b,6 (biotinyl 125I-C5b,6, and 131I-C5b,6) were used in equimolar amounts to assemble C5b-7, more than 50% of the biotinyl 125I-C5b,6-containing complexes also contained 131I label; again suggesting that C5b-7 consisted of oligomers rather than monomers. The conformation of C7 in C5b-7 and in dimeric C7 appeared similar by the following criteria. On formation of C5b-7 from C5b,6 and C7, a 20% increase in ...
Arrayit microarray substrate and microarray slide products are polished to atomic smoothness and treated and coated with clean, amine, aldehyde, epoxy, mirror, avidin, streptavidin, gold, sputtered, nitrocellulose, and PVDF surface chemistries for superior performance in research, genomics, proteomics and diagnostics. Substrate slide dimensions are standard 25 x 76 x 1 mm open platform. Arrayit also offers custom microarray substrates and microarray slides to any dimension with laser etching, chrome fiducials, and custom glass formulations.
Biotin is an important molecule for modern biological studies including, e.g., cellular transport. Its exclusive affinity to fluorescent streptavidin/avidin proteins allows ready and specific detection. As a consequence methods for the attachment of biotin to various biological targets are of high importance, especially when they are very selective and can also proceed in water. One useful method is Hüisgen dipolar [3+2]-cycloaddition, commonly referred to as
Dear everone, I am a research asssitant working in Cincinnati Childrens Hospital Research Foundation. I am currently doing dual-label FISH (Fluorecent Insitu Hybridization). I choosed the following schema: 1. dig labeld mRNA probe of gene1---------mouse anti-dig(Roche)---------Goat anti mouse with HRP(Molecular Biology)------Tyramide Signal Amplification (Molecular Biology) 2. biotin labeld mRNA probe of gene2------------strepavidin-HRP (Jacson Immuno)------Tyramide Signal Amplification (Molecular Biology) The first one (dig) gave me nice staining, but the second one (strepavidin) always gave high background. I know the biotin labeled probe is good, since when I use this probe tested with mouse-anti-bio antibody, then followed by Goat-anti-mouse-HRP second antibody, it works beautifully. So, the problem could be biotin-avidin problem. Did anyone experience same problem when doing FISH? Appreciate it! Sincerely Yours, Ying Wen -------------- next part -------------- An HTML attachment was ...
Detecting ligand-receptor binding on cell membrane surfaces is required to understand their function and behavior. Detection platforms can also provide an avenue for the development of medical devices and sensor biotechnology. The use of fluorescence techniques for such purposes is highly desirable as they provide high sensitivity. Herein, we describe a technique that utilizes the sensitivity of fluorescence without directly tagging the analyte of interest to monitor ligand-receptor interactions on supported lipid bilayers. The fluorescence signal is modulated according to the charge state of the target analyte. The binding event elicits protonation or deprotonation of pH-responsive reporter dyes embedded in the lipid bilayer. Supported lipid membranes containing ortho-conjugated rhodamine B-POPE (1-hexadecanoyl-2-(9Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), which fluoresces in its protonated but not in its deprotonated form, were utilized as sensor platforms for biotin-avidin and biotin
For histological analyses, we have chosen the two major branches of the femoral nerve, the quadriceps muscle nerve, and the cutaneous saphenous nerve of the mouse. In some experiments, sciatic nerves have been investigated at the level of the sciatic notch. In addition, we investigated the spinal roots of the third and fourth lumbar segment.. For detection and quantification of T lymphocytes, antibodies to CD8 (a gift from R. Zinkernagel, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland) have been used on serial nerve cryosections as described previously (Schmid et al. 2000).. For detection of macrophages, antibodies to mouse F4/80 (1:300; Serotec) were applied overnight on 14-μm-thick serial sections from fresh frozen femoral nerves and spinal roots. To visualize primary antibodies, a biotinylated secondary antibody to rat Igs was applied for 1 h, followed by avidin/biotin reagent (Dako) and staining with diaminobenzidine-HCl and H2O2. For negative control, the primary antibody was omitted. In ...
Representative HSP-70-immunostained lung sections obtained following administration of AdGFP or AdHSP. C48 indicates 2CLP with virus administration; tissue was fixed 48 hours afterward. Primary antibody was polyclonal goat anti-rat HSP-70; secondary antibody was rabbit anti-goat IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Detection was performed with immunoperoxidase/avidin/biotin and metal-enhanced 3,3-diamino-benzidine. Arrows indicate HSP-70 staining, primarily in type II pulmonary epithelial cells ...
Surface biotinylation and NeutrAvidin pull-down were performed similar to what has been described previously (Zha et al., 2009a; Jing et al., 2011). For biotinylation of organotypic hippocampal slices, each filter, which contained 6-8 slices, was cut out and put in a six-well plate. CHO cells or slices were then washed three times with ice-cold PBS+/+, followed by 30 min incubation at 4°C in 1.5 ml (for CHO cells in 60 mm dishes) or 1 ml (for slices in each well of the 6-well plate) of PBS+/+ containing 0.5 mg/ml Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin. Cells were washed once with cold PBS+/+ and the reaction was quenched by 100 mm glycine in PBS+/+. Of note, it is essential, especially for biotinylation of slices, to keep the solution and plates ice cold during the whole procedure. Cells were lysed in 300 μl of NeutrAvidin lysis buffer (PBS, 1% Triton, 0.5% SDS, 0.5 mg/ml N-ethylmaleimide, with protease inhibiters). Cell lysates were sonicated briefly and centrifuged at full speed with a desktop centrifuge for ...
Biotin-labeled oligonucleotides have become extremely popular in DNA capture and detection applications, due to their very high sensitivity and strong, specific binding affinity with avidin and streptavidin proteins. Biotin-based detection methods are widely used by researchers. Biotin labeling is compatible with PCR and most hybridization techniques.
Key Features of the Biotin Phosphoramidite
Key Features of the Biotin Phosphoramidite
- Behaves like any standard amidite on the DNA synthesizer
- Readily soluble in acetonitrile
- Biotin compound has a dimethozytrityl (DMT) - group on the ring structure, which allows coupling-yield determination and trityl-selective purification
- A long, water-compatible linker arm ensures maximum sensitivity
- The labeled oligonucleotide is ready for use in most applications after the evaporation of ammonia. Standard procedures can be used if additional purification is required
- Provides a coupling efficiency of 95%
Due to the immobilization of the capture enzyme HRP in close proximity to the marker enzyme (GOD), more intense and specific staining is produced than can be obtained with soluble HRP as coupling enzyme in the substrate medium. Indirect antibody labelled and antibody bridge techniques including the avidin (streptavidin)-biotin principle have proven the usefulness of this GOD labelling procedure for antigen localization in paraffin sections. Antigens such as IgA in tonsil, alpha-fetoprotein in liver and tissue polypeptide antigen in mammary gland served as models ...
Catalytic colloidal metal particles bound to a biomolecule such as an antibody, avidin, or streptavidin are useful for detecting the presence of the biomolecule in an assay such as an immunoassay.
Our biotin-coated microspheres have been fully characterized in terms of their ability to bind free avidin, and therefore will require minimal optimization when determining the correct concentration of ligand to be bound.
Our biotin-coated microspheres have been fully characterized in terms of their ability to bind free avidin, and therefore will require minimal optimization when determining the correct concentration of ligand to be bound.
Lakkey, HV and Rao, AGA and Prakash, V and Krishnaswamy, PR and Savithri, HS and Rao, NA and Ramadoss, CS (1999) Affinity properties of phosvitin: Interaction of phosvitin with serine hydroxymethyl transferase. In: Indian Journal Of Biochemistry & Biophysics, 36 (2). pp. 69-76. Shenai, BR and Komalam, BL and Arvind, AS and Krishnaswamy, PR and Rao, Subba PV (1996) Recombinant antigen-based avidin-biotin microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of invasive amebiasis. In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 34 (4). pp. 828-833. Nagpal, S and Sriramarao, P and Krishnaswamy, PR and Metcalfe, DD and Rao, PV (1990) Demonstration of IgE Antibodies to Nucleic Acid Antigens in Patients with Sle. In: Autoimmunity, 8 (1). pp. 59-64. ...
Eyes removed from normal or immunized animals at the various stages of EAU were embedded in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound, snap frozen, and stored at −30°C. Serial 8-μm cryostat sections of the eyes were taken onto poly(l-lysine)-coated slides and air dried overnight. Cells were isolated from diseased eyes at various phases of disease and cytospins made with ∼5 × 105 cells per slide. Before staining, tissue sections or cytospins were fixed in an acetone-methanol (1:1) mix at −20°C for 5 to 10 minutes and air dried. Sections were stained using either single or dual fluorescence for the following Abs: nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2 (Clone 6, 1:100; Transduction Laboratories, Nottingham, UK) and infiltrating blood-borne macrophage marker ED1 (1:50, FITC conjugate; Serotec), and also through a standard avidin-biotin (alkaline phosphatase) technique for ED1 (1:100, purified, Serotec). The number of ED1-positive cells infiltrating throughout the retina and subretinal space, were ...
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Vitamin H (D-biotin) is a white to off-white crystalline powder. It is important for the degeneration of amino and fatty acids. Applications for Vitamin...
... ,This kit is designed to select cells labeled with biotinylated antibodies. Kit includes reagents for labeling 3 x 10 cells and EasySep magnet.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
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Does anyone experience this? Whenever I get the flu it doesnt affect my bgs at all and when its a bacterial infection requiring antibiotics (like strept throat), my bgs immediately shoot to over 400 and I know that I need antibiotics to bring it down. As soon as I take them, it goes down in a few hours. I also have found that if I am getting strept throat, I can take 3 echinachea (sp?) and it makes my bgs come down, too. Personally, I prefer taking the herbs so I dont have to go to the Dr. :) Jenie _________________________________________________________________ Get your FREE download of MSN Explorer at http://explorer.msn.com/intl.asp ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] send a DONATION http://www.Insulin-Pumpers.org/donate.shtml ...
Each set comes with six, themed puzzles, a matching puzzle piece for each of the six puzzles for cognitive associative development and then a wooden figure for imaginative story play. The chunky, high glass, soft snap cardboard puzzle pieces make them easy enough for a 1 ½ year old to complete all by themselves. Three styles available: Farm, Animals, Construction ...
Equilife Biotin Plus Small Animal Formulation. Biotin Plus is a small animal formulation of concentrated biotin that improves skin and coat health of all your small
Rat PAI-1 biotin labeled latent fraction - Biotin labeled latent rat PAI-1 is a useful control for experiments involving the biotinylated stable mutant.
抗鼠IgA alpha chain Biotin (ab97233)经WB, ELISA, IHC-P, ICC/IF实验严格验证。其他多种Biotin偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证，提供全方位技术支持，中国80%以上现货。
I had been skeptical After i very first began using Biotin, and shortly turned a believer in the efficacy of the products supplied by Bulk Materials. As time goes on, and I use the biotin I am gaining strength, equipped to maneuver way more freely, have energy to final each day, and am within the verge of commencing a Full Article energy regimen that I have not been capable of do in Learn More Here above ten years. ;)* On twelve/21/2015 Robert explained ...
Biotin helps your body produce energy from carbohydrate, proteins, and fats. Learn about food sources of biotin & problems associated with deficiency
抗马Biotin (ab6920)经WB, ELISA, IHC-P, IHC-Fr, IM, Dot, ICC/IF实验严格验证。被多篇发表文献引用。其他多种Biotin偶联二抗可供选择。品质保证，中国80%以上现货。
I had been skeptical when I very first commenced utilizing Biotin, and shortly became a believer while in the efficacy of your item provided by Bulk Provides. As time goes on, And that i utilize the biotin Im getting energy, equipped to move a great deal more freely, have energy to very last learn the facts here now throughout the day, and am to the verge of starting a strength schedule that I have not been capable to do in about a decade. ;)* On 12/21/2015 Robert stated ...
I had been skeptical After i to start with commenced utilizing Biotin, and soon became a believer within the efficacy with the product provided by Bulk Provides. As time goes on, And that i use the biotin I am gaining power, in a position to move way more freely, have energy to previous throughout the day, and am over the verge of beginning a toughness routine that I havent been ready to do in above ten years. ;)* On 12/21/2015 Robert claimed ...
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전세계 고객의 Biotin, 비오틴등급을 인증 한 한국 최대 소스. 오늘 방문하여 Biotin, 비오틴부작용, 혜택 등에 대해 알아보십시오.
Biotin 0.2% Fuso is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Biotin 0.2% Fuso is available on the Drugs.com website.
Ive heard of a whole lot of individuals owning problems using biotin. I havent professional any sort of change nonetheless. My pores and skin is undertaking great however its only been two months or so due to the fact Ive commenced taking it.I am taking the biotin as though I used to be associated with among the list of ms trials. I are… Read More. ...
国内在庫あります！Biotin標識済みマウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab28107 交差種: Hu 適用: Flow Cyt…CD45抗体一覧 一次抗体にBiotinを直接標識し、操作時間の短縮と低いバックグラウンドを実現。
Buy our Synthetic Mouse MCP1 protein (Biotin) (Animal Free). Ab176032 is a protein fragment produced syntheticaly (animal free) and has been validated in HPLC…
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Assaypro \ tPA, anti_human Biotin_IgG \ 11631-05021 for more molecular products just contact us
Product Page for Biotin 5000 mcg 60 Vcaps made by natural-factors offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Product Page for Biotin 8000 mcg 60 Vcaps made by natures-life offering price, ingredients and full item description from betterlife
Production of polyclonal antisera -- Efficient elution of purified proteins from polyvinylidene difluoride membranes (immobilon) after transfer from SDS-PAGE and their use as immunogens -- Raising polyclonal antibodies using nitrocellulose-bound antigen -- Synthesis of peptides for use as immunogens -- Production and characterization of antibodies against synthetic peptides -- Preparation and testing of monoclonal antibodies to recombinant proteins -- Screening of monoclonal antibodies using antigens labeled with acetylcholinesterase -- Purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG) -- Epitope mapping -- Enzyme-antienzyme method for immunohistochemistry -- Double label immunohistochemistry on tissue sections using alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase conjugates -- Immunohistochemical detection of bromodeoxyuriding-labeled nuclei for in vivo cell kinetic studies -- Avidin-biotin technology: preparation of biotinylated probes -- Avidin-biotin technology: preparation of avidin conjugates -- Immunochemical ...
The tissue sections were deparaffinized and rehydrated, and endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched with 0.6% H2O2 in methanol. A mouse monoclonal antibody (18.104.22.168, a kind gift from Dr C. Hart, ZymoGenetics, Seattle, Wash) was used for detection of bFGF. This antibody was raised against human recombinant bFGF, and its specificity was determined by Western blot analysis and with an affinity support column containing immobilized human recombinant bFGF.17 A previously described method served for detection of bFGF in MCs.11 Briefly, the sections were treated with hyaluronidase for antigen retrieval. To exclude nonspecific binding, the sections were incubated in a blocking solution containing 3% normal horse serum, 0.5% BSA, and 0.3% Triton X-100 in PBS. They were then incubated overnight with the anti-bFGF antibody (0.05 μg/mL) diluted in PBS containing 2% normal horse serum. The avidin-biotin complex method (ABC-AP Kit, Vector Laboratories) was used to detect the primary antibody with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subepithelial myofibroblasts express cyclooxygenase-2 in colorectal tubular adenomas. AU - Adegboyega, Patrick A.. AU - Ololade, Omiyosoye. AU - Saada, Jamal. AU - Mifflin, Randy. AU - Di Mari, John F.. AU - Powell, Don W.. PY - 2004/9/1. Y1 - 2004/9/1. N2 - Purpose: Recent data support the hypothesis that the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) plays a role in the early stages of colonic carcinogenesis and that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) retard the development of colon cancer by modulating COX-2. However, the cell types responsible for producing COX-2 in colorectal adenomas remain a subject of controversy. Experimental Design: COX-2 expression in normal colonic mucosa (n = 50), hyperplastic polyps (n = 43), sporadic adenomas (n = 67), and invasive colonic adenocarcinoma (n = 39) was studied in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from endoscopy biopsy and colonic resection specimens. Immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin complex technique ...
Background: Of the many molecular substances known to assist in wound repair, the Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 molecule (TGF-Beta 1) is known to play a crucial role in various stages of wound healing. Recently, researchers found the role of TGF-Beta 1 acting as a regulator of vaginal tropoelatin production in the vaginal wall. In this study, we assessed the potency of TGF-Beta 1 expression in epithelial vaginal cells to help with increasing vaginal wall thickness and collagen production, as well as its responses to Centella asiatica leaves extract as a potential postmenopausal hormone therapy for vaginal atrophy healing in a rat model. Methods: We explored the effect of Centella asiatica leaves extract to TGF-Beta 1 expression in epithelial vaginal cells of Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. The extract was administered orally for 40 days after the animals declared experiencing atrophy in doses of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg/Kbw/day. A modified Avidin-Biotin Complex (ABC) staining method was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The membrane attack complex of complement. T2 - Relation of C7 to the metastable membrane binding site of the intermediate complex C5b-7. AU - Preissner, K. T.. AU - Podack, E. R.. AU - Muller-Eberhard, H. J.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - Isolated C7 (m.w. 120,000) in 1% deoxycholate (DOC) forms dimers with an apparent m.w. of 230,000 and a DOC-binding capacity of 82 mol per mol of dimer. Dimerization of C7 also occurs in the presence of DOC-phospholipid mixed micelles and eventuates in the insertion of C7 dimers into the lipid bilayer upon the removal of the detergent, C5b-7 complex formation in the fluid phase or on lipid vesicles likewise involves polymerization, C5b-7 sedimented with 17-40S, which suggests a dimeric to hexameric composition. In avidin-biotin binding experiments in which two differentially labeled forms of C5b,6 (biotinyl 125I-C5b,6, and 131I-C5b,6) were used in equimolar amounts to assemble C5b-7, more than 50% of the biotinyl 125I-C5b,6-containing ...
5. A compound for capturing or inhibiting avian influenza virus, represented by the following Chemical Formula 1: ##STR00007## whereinX and X are independently H; a functional group selected from the group consisting of biotin, streptavidin and avidin; or a functional moiety composed of a functional group selected from the group consisting of biotin, streptavidin and avidin, and a linker which connects the functional group to the backbone of the compound of Chemical Formula 1 therethrough, with a proviso that X and X are not H at the same time;m is an integer of 2.about.10;n is 0 or 1; andR is selected from the group consisting of --H, --CH3, --CH(CH3)2, --CH2CH(CH3)2, --CHCH3CH2CH3, --CH2OH, --CHOHCH3, --CH2SH, --(CH2)2SCH3, --CH2COOH, --CH2CONH2, --(CH2)2COOH, --(CH2)2CONH2, --(CH2)3CH2NH2, --(CH2)3NHCNHNH2, ##STR00008## --CH2CH2CH2-- and --CH2SSCH.sub.2--. ...
Bradyrhizobium japonicum bradavidin protein: a biotin-binding protein that, due to its different immunoreactivity, may prove useful in gene therapy, imaging, and drug delivery; amino acid sequence in first source
골내 칼슘침적에 관여하는 osteocalcin(OCN)과 산화스트레스에 의한 유전자손상에 관여하는 8-OHdG의 분포변화를 조사하기 위해 mouse anti OCN와 mouse anti 8-OHdG를 이용한 면역조직화학적 염색을 실시하였다. 우선 뼈조직절편을 proteinase K (20 μg/ml)에 5분 동안 proteolysis 과정을 거친 후 blocking serum인 10% normal goat serum에서 2시간 동안 반응시켰다. 그리고 1차 항체인 mouse anti OCN(1:50, Santa Cruz Biotec, USA)과 mouse anti 8-OHdG(1:100, Santa Cruz Biotec, USA)에 4 ℃ humidified chamber에서 72시간 동안 반응시켰다. 그런 다음 2차 항체인 biotinylated goat anti-mouse IgG1(1:100, DAKO, USA)에 실온에서 24시간 link 하였고, 그런 다음 avidin biotin complex kit(Vector Lab, USA)에 1시간 동안 실온에서 반응시켰다. 0.05% 3,3-diaminobenzidine과 0.01% HCl이 포함된 0.05M tris-HCl 완충용액(pH 7.4)에서 발색시킨 후, hematoxylin으로 대조염색하였다 ...
A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. Present in many foods; particularly rich sources include yeast, eggs, liver, certain fish (e.g. mackerel, salmon, sardines), soybeans, cauliflower and cow peas. Dietary supplement. Isol. from various higher plant sources, e.g. sweet corn seedlings and radish leaves Biotin D(+) is a cofactor responsible for carbon dioxide transfer in several carboxylase enzymes:; Biotin binds very tightly to the tetrameric protein avidin (also streptavidin and neutravidin), with a dissociation constant Kd in the order of 10?15 mol/L which is one of the strongest known protein-ligand interactions, approaching the covalent bond in strength. This is often used in different biotechnological applications. Until 2005, very harsh conditions were required to break the biotin-streptavidin bond.; Biotin is a water-soluble B-complex ...
Avidin biotin media is used in the purification process of biotin/avidin and their derivatives. ...
The avidin-biotin system. The avidin-biotin system is a technique for studying the interaction between two biomolecules ... and the avidin-biotin system. The Avidin-biotin complex is the highest affinity interaction in nature, and its utilization to ... "Three-dimensional structures of avidin and the avidin-biotin complex". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 90 (11): 5076-5080. Bibcode: ... The studies have culminated in the determination of the 3D structure of the avidin-biotin complex by X-ray crystallography, ...
Green NM (1975). "Avidin". Advances in Protein Chemistry. 29: 85-133. doi:10.1016/s0065-3233(08)60411-8. PMID 237414. Holmberg ...
Avidin is the other most notable biotin-binding protein. Originally isolated from egg yolk, avidin only has 30% sequence ... it has the advantage of much lower nonspecific binding than avidin. Deglycosylated avidin (NeutrAvidin) is more comparable to ... Also, streptavidin is the better biotin-conjugate binder; avidin has a lower binding affinity than streptavidin when biotin is ... Protein tag Green, NM (1975). "Avidin". Advances in protein chemistry. 29: 85-133. doi:10.1016/s0065-3233(08)60411-8. PMID ...
Avidin. 0.05% Cystatin. 0.05% Ovalbumin is the most abundant protein in albumen. Classed as phosphoglycoprotein, during storage ...
"Components of Avidin-Biotin Technology: A Handbook." Pierce Biotechnology, Inc. Rockford, IL: June, 2003. "Photobiotin acetate ... Dontha, Narasaiah; Nowall, Wilbur B.; Kuhr, Werner G. (1997). "Generation of Biotin/Avidin/Enzyme Nanostructures with Maskless ...
This may be overcome through the use of a biotin-avidin or biotin-streptavidin bridge. In this type of system biotin is coupled ... The biotin molecule has no influence on the working of the antibodies and is easily detectedusing avidin or streptavidin ...
Because both streptavidin and avidin bind biotin with high affinity (Kd of 10−14 mol/l to 10−15 mol/l) and specificity, ... To circumvent this problem, beads conjugated to monomeric avidin can be used, which has a decreased biotin-binding affinity of ... Biotin binds tightly to the tetrameric protein avidin (also streptavidin and neutravidin), with a dissociation constant Kd on ... The sample is incubated with streptavidin/avidin beads, allowing capture of the biotinylated protein of interest. Any other ...
"Artificial metalloenzymes for enantioselective catalysis based on biotin-avidin". J Am Chem Soc. 125: 9030-1. doi:10.1021/ ...
A new avidin-biotin ELISA assay for its measurement". J Immunoassay. 13 (1): 47-60. doi:10.1080/15321819208019824. PMID 1569212 ...
The biotin-avidin system quickly became a central method in cell biology, immunology, and protein engineering, as well as ... doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68)90086-7. Heitzmann H, Richards FM (1974). "Use of the avidin-biotin complex for specific staining of ... Diamandis EP, Christopoulos TK (1991). "The biotin-(strept)avidin system: principles and applications in biotechnology". ... new types of chemical tags such as biotin/avidin, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift index, and structural and ...
Gyorgy, P.; Rose, C. S. (1943). "The Liberation of Biotin from the Avidin-Biotin Complex (AB)". Experimental Biology and ... work on biotin and in 1941 published a paper demonstrating that egg-white injury was caused by the binding of biotin by avidin ...
"Adoptive immunotherapy by avidin-driven cytotoxic T lymphocyte-tumor bridging". Cancer research. 60 (15): 4211-5. PMID 10945632 ...
Livnah, O.; Bayer, E.; Wilchek, M.; Sussman, J. (1993). "Three-dimensional structures of avidin and the avidin-biotin complex ... Biotin and avidin bind with a dissociation constant of roughly 10−15 M = 1 fM = 0.000001 nM. Ribonuclease inhibitor proteins ...
Biotin je prisutan u svakodnevnom životu ćelije, sintezi masnih kiselina i amino kiselina. Ima bitnu ulogu u Krebsovom ciklusu, u kojem se stvara energija preko potrebna ćeliji. Biotin je takođe bitan u održavanju korektnog nivoa šećera u krvi. Osobe sa dijabetesom često imaju veoma nizak nivo biotina. Istraživanja su i dalje u toku, ali do sada je utvrđeno da je biotin uključen u sintezu insulina. Preporučuje se za ojačavanje kose i noktiju. Može se naći kao sastavni deo mnogih kozmetičkih proizvoda, naročito onih namenjenih za kosu i kožu. ...
The avidin-peroxidase labeling TUNEL assay is applicable for light absorption microscopy. Many TUNEL-related kits are ...
Previously, a biotin-avidin magnetic bead system was used for this purpose. Acrydite technology has been evaluated by Exact ...
When cooked, avidin is partially denatured and binding to biotin is reduced. However one study showed that 30-40% of the avidin ... Egg whites contain high levels of avidin, a protein that binds biotin strongly. ...
Avidin Biotin - Used in the purification process of biotin/avidin and their derivatives. Carbohydrate Bonding - Most often used ...
He also worked on discovering and isolating vitamin B6, lipoic acid, and avidin. Throughout his career Williams was a prolific ... and avidin. He served as the founding director of the Clayton Foundation Biochemical Institute from 1941 to 1963, was elected ...
The non-covalent bond formed between biotin and avidin or streptavidin has a binding affinity that is higher than most antigen ... The biotin tag can be used in affinity chromatography together with a column that has avidin (or streptavidin or Neutravidin) ... However, harsh conditions (e.g., 6M GuHCl at pH 1.5) are needed to break the avidin/streptavidin - biotin interaction, which ... This biotin analogue gives strong binding to avidin/streptavidin at alkaline pH, but the affinity is reduced upon lowering the ...
31-36 Recombinant NeutraLite Avidin: a non-glycosylated, acidic mutant of chicken avidin that exhibits high affinity for biotin ... Avidin has a high pI but NeutrAvidin has a near-neutral pI (pH 6.3), minimizing non-specific interactions with the negatively- ... Like avidin itself, NeutrAvidin is a tetramer with a strong affinity for biotin (Kd = 10−15 M). In biochemical applications, ... Avidin immobilized onto solid supports is also used as purification media to capture biotin-labelled protein or nucleic acid ...
... so as to denature the protein avidin, that occurs in the albumen. Raw avidin immobilises biotin, so excessive feeding of raw ...
Parsons is well known for her early work on eggs, which was critical to the discovery of biotin and avidin in 1940. Her later ... Parsons hypothesized that there was an 'anti-vitamin' in the egg-white (later discovered to be avidin) that was abstracting and ... Her work on this topic later proved crucial in helping to identify biotin and avidin. Parsons' graduated with her doctoral ... was able to expand work done during her doctoral period and perform experiments critical to the discovery of biotin and avidin ...
These monomers then bind to a backbone, such as streptavidin or avidin, creating a tetravalent structure. These backbones are ...
Structures: Avidin/streptavidin (IPR005468). PDBe. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for the 3-D structural data of ...
Egg-White Avidin in its functional complex with Biotin Avidin is a glycoprotein made of four identical subunits. Biotin is a ... Two Avidin chains are contained in an asymmetric unit. Avidins binding with biotin is one of the tightest binding ... The avidin-biotin complex is extremely tight and stable, the complex is stable in 9 M Urea. Tryptophan residues 70, 97 and 110 ... In each chain of avidin, when biotin is bound it is in close contact with Trp 70 and Trp 97 ...
... is a glycoprotein found in the egg white and tissues of birds, reptiles and amphibians. It contains four ... Relationship between avidin and biotin Avidin has a very strong affinity for biotin with a KD (dissociation constant) of ... Carbohydrate accounts for about 10% of the total mass of avidin. Avidin has a basic isoelectric point (pI) of 10-10.5 and is ... Avidin is a glycoprotein found in the egg white and tissues of birds, reptiles and amphibians. It contains four identical ...
The monomeric avidin is created by treatment of immobilized native avidin with urea or guanidine HCl (6-8 M), giving it a lower ... dimeric members of the avidin family are also found in some bacteria. In chicken egg white, avidin makes up approximately 0.05 ... A 1991 assay for the Journal of Food Science detected substantial avidin activity in cooked egg white: "mean residual avidin ... Aware of the strength and specificity of the avidin-biotin complex, researchers began to exploit avidin and streptavidin as ...
The biological function of avidin is not known. Forms a strong non-covalent specific complex with biotin (one molecule of ...
Biotin-(strept)avidin complex is widely used in biotechnology because of its extremely high binding constant, but there is no ... Biotin-(strept)avidin complex is widely used in biotechnology because of its extremely high binding constant, but there is no ... avidin, but recover native affinity after UV irradiation. For application at the cell surface, we introduced an amine-reactive ...
Avidin is a glycosylated biotin-binding protein that has a basic isoelectric point and is widely used to detect biotinylated ... Our avidin, fluorescein conjugate has excitation and emission maxima ~494/518. ... Our avidin, fluorescein conjugate has excitation and emission maxima ~494/518. Avidin is a glycosylated biotin-binding protein ...
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE-AVIDIN. (Avidin-AP). This conjugate is prepared using avidin from egg white. It is provided lyophilized ... AVIDIN-HRP. Liquid in 0.02M PBS, pH 7.3, with 10% glycerol and 0.01% thimerosal.. ...
... Ying Wen wenvt5 at yahoo.com Sat Dec 17 09:35:42 EST 2005 * ... So, the problem could be biotin-avidin problem. Did anyone experience same problem when doing FISH? Appreciate it! Sincerely ...
Forms a strong non-covalent specific complex with biotin (one molecule of biotin per subunit of avidin). ... The biological function of avidin is not known. ... IPR005469 Avidin. IPR017889 Avidin-like_CS. IPR036896 Avidin- ... IPR005469 Avidin. IPR017889 Avidin-like_CS. IPR036896 Avidin-like_sf. IPR005468 Avidin/str. ... "Egg white avidin. II. Isolation, composition, and amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides.". Huang T.-S., DeLange R.J.. J ...
LumAvidin Microspheres are avidin-coupled polystyrene microparticles that have been color coded into 100 spectrally distinct ... Avidin coupled, non-magnetic microspheres-the easiest way to get your peptide or protein of interest on a bead. ... LumAvidin® Microspheres are avidin-coupled polystyrene microparticles that have been color coded into 100 spectrally distinct ... sets, or "regions." Similar to an avidin-coated ELISA plate, when reacted with a biotinylated ligand, such as a peptide, each ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Endogenous Avidin + Biotin Blocking System (ab3387) : Endogenous Avidin + Biotin Blocking ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Avidin antibody (HRP) (ab7233) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Western blot ...
Fluorescein Avidin DCS, Texas Red Avidin D and AMCA Avidin D. ... Avidin Kit contains 500g of three fluorescent avidin products: ... The Fluorescent Avidin Kit contains 500g of three fluorescent avidin products: Fluorescein Avidin DCS, Texas Red Avidin D and ... 500 µg of three fluorescent avidin products: Fluorescein Avidin DCS, Texas Red® Avidin D and AMCA Avidin D. ... Texas Red Avidin D is deep red (excites at 595 nm and emits at 615 nm), and AMCA Avidin D is blue (excites at 350 nm and emits ...
... is a highly fluorescent conjugate of Avidin D and sulforhodamine 101. Texas Red,sup,®,/sup, Avidin D excites at about 595 nm ... Avidin D, Texas Red® labeled, is a highly fluorescent conjugate of Avidin D and sulforhodamine 101. Texas Red® Avidin D excites ... Avidin D, Texas Red® labeled, is a highly fluorescent conjugate of Avidin D and sulforhodamine 101. Since the excitation and ... Avidin D can be employed with Fluorescein Avidin D or other fluorescein conjugates to simultaneously localize two antigens in ...
Choose from among purified avidin & streptavidin proteins conjugated with a range of fluorophores for fluorescence detection of ... Fluorophore Avidin/Streptavidin. Ultrapure reagents conjugated with a variety of fluorophores. Choose from among purified ... avidin and streptavidin proteins conjugated with a range of fluorophores for fluorescence detection of biotinylated ...
... is made from our highly purified Avidin D by a special labeling technique. ... Avidin D, Fluorescein labeled, having an excitation at 495 nm and an emission at about 515 nm, ... Avidin D, Fluorescein labeled, is made from our highly purified Avidin D by a special labeling technique. This product has an ... Avidin D, Fluorescein labeled, having an excitation at 495 nm and an emission at about 515 nm, is made from our highly purified ...
... be amplified using our biotinylated secondary antibodies followed by our highly purified fluorescent streptavidin and avidin ... Fluorochrome-Labeled Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents * Fluorescent Streptavidin and Avidin Reagents * Anti-Streptavidin and Anti- ... Biotin and Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents * Biotinylated Products * Biotinylated Secondary Antibodies * Biotinylated Lectins, ... Using a biotin/avidin or biotin/streptavidin detection system results in an additional layer of amplification over a directly ...
... is a cell sorter grade of Fluorescein Avidin D. Through the development of a new method of fluorescein labeling we are able to ... Avidin DCS, Fluorescein labeled, is a cell sorter grade of Fluorescein Avidin D. Through the development of a new method of ... Avidin DCS, Fluorescein labeled, is a cell sorter grade of Fluorescein Avidin D. Through the development of a new method of ... This derivative is preferred when using the amplification procedure with Biotinylated Anti-Avidin D. Fluorescein Avidin DCS has ...
Fluorochrome-Labeled Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents * Fluorescent Streptavidin and Avidin Reagents * Anti-Streptavidin and Anti- ... Biotin and Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents. When we introduced the Biotin-Avidin (now also Streptavidin) System a substantial ... Biotin and Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents * Biotinylated Products * Biotinylated Secondary Antibodies * Biotinylated Lectins, ... Avidin is an egg-white derived glycoprotein with an extraordinarily high affinity (affinity constant , 1015 M-1) for biotin. ...
p,Vector Laboratories enzyme-conjugated avidin and streptavidin are produced with the highest specific activity enzymes in ... Fluorochrome-Labeled Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents * Fluorescent Streptavidin and Avidin Reagents * Anti-Streptavidin and Anti- ... Avidin and Streptavidin Enzyme Conjugates. Avidin and streptavidin reagents are powerful tools to detect or purify biotinylated ... Biotin and Avidin/Streptavidin Reagents * Biotinylated Products * Biotinylated Secondary Antibodies * Biotinylated Lectins, ...
... avidin explanation free. What is avidin? Meaning of avidin medical term. What does avidin mean? ... Looking for online definition of avidin in the Medical Dictionary? ... These technical questions were examined several years ago with a proof-of-principle product, avidin. Avidin is a protein ... Avidin , definition of avidin by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/avidin ...
Order this anti-Avidin antibody. , Product number ABIN116961 ... Rabbit Polyclonal Avidin antibody for EIA, IHC (fro), IHC (p), ... anti-Avidin antibody (Biotin) Avidin antibody (Biotin). Details for Product anti-Avidin Antibody No. ABIN116961, Supplier: Log ... Product Details anti-Avidin Antibody References Handling Application Details Target details back to top ... References for anti-Avidin antibody (ABIN116961) Handling Application Details Target details back to top ...
... avidin used in a wide variety of protein detection applications, from Santa Cruz. , Molecular Weight: ~60kD ... Avidin-D is a deglycosylated avidin purified from egg white with a neutral isoelectric point (pI = 6.3). Avidin-D is preferred ... Avidin-D (deglycosylated) Neutralized (pI = 6.3) avidin used in a wide variety of protein detection applications *Home. ... Native Avidin (sc-362068), and/or Streptavidin (sc-363872) bind extremely well with Biotin, but they may exhibit non-specific ...
Streptavidin, Horseradish Peroxidase conjugated, Concentrate, for ELISAs and Blots ... Streptavidin, Horseradish Peroxidase, R.T.U. (Ready-to-Use) ... Avidin D, Peroxidase labeled (Av-HRP), Ready-to-Use (R.T.U.) ... Streptavidin, Horseradish Peroxidase, Concentrate, for IHC ... ABC (Avidin/Biotin) Systems 1 item * ABC (Streptavidin/Biotin) ...
ProteinConjugateConjugatesProteinsReagentsStreptAntibodyAntibodiesNeutrAvidinMoleculeHigh affinity for biotinWhite avidinDetectionFluoresceinImmunohistochemistryFluorescentTetramericBinds biotinPeroxidaseChickenComplexesExtremely high affinityAssaySpecificityFunction of avidinComplexIsoelectric pointGlycoprotein foundMolecularAgaroseInteraction between biotinLaboratoriesLigandTissuesVitaminReversibleSubunitsBinding of a biotinylatedBindPeptidesDissociationReptiles and amphibiansSystemStructures
- Avidin is a tetrameric biotin-binding protein produced in the oviducts of birds, reptiles and amphibians and deposited in the whites of their eggs. (wikipedia.org)
- In chicken egg white, avidin makes up approximately 0.05% of total protein (approximately 180 μg per egg). (wikipedia.org)
- Functional avidin is found only in raw egg, as the biotin avidity of the protein is destroyed by cooking. (wikipedia.org)
- The name of the protein was later revised to "avidin" based on its affinity for biotin (avid + biotin). (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Avidin immobilized onto solid supports is also used as purification media to capture biotin-labelled protein or nucleic acid molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Given the strength of the avidin-biotin bond, dissociation of the avidin-biotin complex requires extreme conditions that cause protein denaturation. (wikipedia.org)
- Extensive chemical modification has little effect on the activity of avidin, making it especially useful for protein purification . (bionity.com)
- Avidin has a very strong affinity for biotin with a K D ( dissociation constant ) of approximately 10 -15 M -1 , the highest known affinity between any protein and its ligand, and, as such, prevents biotin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. (bionity.com)
- Avidin is a glycosylated biotin-binding protein that has a basic isoelectric point and is widely used to detect biotinylated probes. (thermofisher.com)
- Avidin DCS, Fluorescein labeled, is a cell sorter grade of Fluorescein Avidin D. Through the development of a new method of fluorescein labeling we are able to incorporate more fluorochrome into a protein without altering the properties of the protein. (vectorlabs.com)
- Many biotin molecules can be coupled to a protein, enabling the biotinylated protein to bind more than one molecule of avidin. (vectorlabs.com)
- The activity of Avidin-D is approximately 13-14 units per mg of protein. (scbt.com)
- The avidin- biotin interaction is widely employed in the design of functional protein self-assemblies. (rsc.org)
- Herein we assessed how the spatial arrangement of the avidin- biotin interaction between protein building blocks affects the formation of a protein supramolecular complex (PSC). (rsc.org)
- 1. After protein blocking step, soak blot in avidin reagent A, diluted 1:20 with tris/saline buffer for 5-10 minute. (genetex.com)
- We modified avidin by the means of protein engineering using a rational mutation design strategy. (jyu.fi)
- While a control protein (Avitag-GFP) is successfuly purified on monomeric avidin column, our protein always goes through the column and does not bind. (protocol-online.org)
- Avidin, a biotin-binding protein known to be insecticidal, was evaluated as a possible 'carrier' protein. (bl.uk)
- Recombinant avidin was produced in high yields using Pichia pastoris and was compared to the native egg white protein. (bl.uk)
- Numerous attempts were made to produce a fully functional insecticidal avidin-based fusion protein containing scorpion or spider toxins by expression as recombinant proteins in P. pastoris but, following tests against Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth) larvae, the fusion proteins were found to be non-toxic. (bl.uk)
- The OX26 antibody was affinity purified from ascites fluid and was covalently coupled via a thioether linkage to avidin, and the conjugate was purified to homogeneity by gel filtration fast protein liquid chromatography. (aspetjournals.org)
- Avidin-dependent redirection of transduction through a variety of biotinylated ligands is greatly dependent on the nature of the biotinylated capsid protein. (rice.edu)
- In this study, we applied sonodynamic therapy to cancer cells based on the delivery of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) modified with avidin protein, which preferentially discriminated cancerous cells from healthy cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Background and aims: Chicken avidin is a homotetrameric β-barrel protein, whose affinity towards its natural ligand biotin is the strongest non-covalent protein-ligand interaction known. (uta.fi)
- Residues lining these cavities have been selected as targets for mutagenesis in studies aiming towards the development of novel avidin-based protein structures with different functions. (uta.fi)
- Hydrogen bonding patterns, ligand motion, the mobilities of individual residues as a function of time and with respect to those of apo-avidin were calculated, and protein-ligand contact area was estimated. (uta.fi)
- Below are the list of possible Avidin-related protein products. (mybiosource.com)
- Alternatively, protein immobilization techniques on chemically derivatized beads are well described.10 Herein, we report the detection of the interaction between avidin immobilized onto acrylic resin beads and biotin labelled with a metallocarbonyl tag via an amineterminated polyethylenimine dendrimer. (docme.ru)
- Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for UBP1 / upstream binding protein 1 (LBP-1a) and Streptavidin / Avidin. (chromocyte.com)
- Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for NALCN / Sodium leak channel non-selective protein and Streptavidin / Avidin. (chromocyte.com)
- High-resolution crystal structure of an avidin-related protein: insight into high-affinity biotin binding and protein stability. (semanticscholar.org)
- Avidin is a homotetrameric protein that contains 4 identical subunits which bind to Biotin with high extent of affinity and specificity consisting of 128 amino acids and has a molecular mass of about 67K Daltons. (neobiolab.com)
- Binding activity of Avidin-Biotin is 10-15units/mg protein. (neobiolab.com)
- The avidin-biotin system utilizes biotin, a low molecular weight vitamin, which can be chemically coupled to low or high molecular weight molecules such Protein, DNA or hormones. (blogspot.com)
- In this study, Tat protein, which has been proposed as the specific target for AIDS vaccine, was separated and purified from a complex mixture of proteins, known as bacterial lysate (BL) using avidin-biotin interaction in 4-stack microfiltration membranes system. (elsevier.com)
- The critical factors involved in the process, mainly, the accessibility of the covalently immobilized avidin sites by the biotinylated protein and the associated fouling of the membranes due to the permeation of proteins, were also studied. (elsevier.com)
- Avidin biotin-binding protein immobilized onto beaded agarose resin for affinity purification methods involving biotinylated proteins and ligands. (fishersci.com)
- The extraordinary affinity of avidin for biotin is one the strongest known non-covalent interactions of a protein and ligand (Ka=10 15 M -1 ) and allows biotin-containing molecules in a complex mixture to be discretely bound with avidin conjugates. (thermofisher.com)
- Proteins that are biotin labeled (i.e., biotinylated) are routinely detected or purified with avidin conjugates in many protein research applications, including the enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunoprecipitation (IP) and other methods of affinity purification, cell surface labeling and flow cytometry/fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). (thermofisher.com)
- First, biotin is comparatively smaller than globular proteins, which minimizes any significant interference in many proteins and allows multiple biotin molecules to be conjugated to a single protein for maximum detection by avidin. (thermofisher.com)
- Biotin binds tightly to the tetrameric protein avidin (also streptavidin and neutravidin), with a dissociation constant Kd on the order of 10−15 M, which is one of the strongest known protein-ligand interactions. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to the protein crystallography and biochemistry of ribonuclease S, these included solvent accessibility and internal packing of proteins, the first side-chain rotamer library, high-pressure crystallography, new types of chemical tags such as biotin/avidin, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift index, and structural and biophysical characterization of the effects of mutations. (wikipedia.org)
- Egg whites contain high levels of avidin, a protein that binds biotin strongly. (wikipedia.org)
- Also, multiple biotin molecules can be conjugated to a protein of interest, which allows binding of multiple streptavidin, avidin or Neutravidin protein molecules and increases the sensitivity of detection of the protein of interest. (wikipedia.org)
- As the biotin binding pocket in avidin / streptavidin is buried beneath the protein surface, biotinylation reagents possessing a longer linker are desirable, as they enable the biotin molecule to be more accessible to binding avidin/streptavidin/Neutravidin protein. (wikipedia.org)
- NeutrAvidin protein is a deglycosylated version of avidin, with a mass of approximately 60,000 daltons. (wikipedia.org)
- However, there is evidence that, as in most husbandry of carnivores, it is good practice to cook most of the egg in the diet, so as to denature the protein avidin, that occurs in the albumen. (wikipedia.org)
- The DNA template is biotinylated and is bound to avidin that is pre-coated onto the protein capture surface. (wikipedia.org)
- While working to characterize the yeast growth factor that would become known as biotin, Snell and coworkers discovered the egg white protein avidin, which binds biotin with extremely high affinity. (wikipedia.org)
- 2013 Invited Member of the European Academy of Microbiologists Wilchek, M., Bayer, E. A. & Livnah, O. Essentials of biorecognition: The (strept)avidin-biotin system as a model for protein-protein and protein-ligand interaction. (wikipedia.org)
- It has the same pentasaccharidic structure as idraparinux sodium, but with biotin attached, which allows its neutralisation with avidin, an egg-derived protein with low antigenicity. (wikipedia.org)
- Our avidin, fluorescein conjugate has excitation and emission maxima ~494/518. (thermofisher.com)
- Avidin D, Texas Red ® labeled, is a highly fluorescent conjugate of Avidin D and sulforhodamine 101. (vectorlabs.com)
- This Avidin, Peroxidase Conjugate is validated for use in EIA Immunohistochemistry. (emdmillipore.com)
- A conjugate between avidin and biotinylated leucomyosuppressin (LMS), a myoinhibitory peptide hormone that affects gut contractions in insects, was prepared and fed to aphids. (bl.uk)
- The avidin : biotin-LMS conjugate had insecticidal activity towards A. pisum when fed in diet at levels which neither of the components (avidin or biotin-LMS) caused significant mortality. (bl.uk)
- It was hypothesised that binding to the gut, through the avidin moiety, was responsible for the observed oral toxicity of the avidin : biotin-LMS conjugate. (bl.uk)
- A conjugate between avidin and biotinylated allatostatin was prepared and fed to M. brassicae larvae. (bl.uk)
- Biotin delivery to brain with a covalent conjugate of avidin and a monoclonal antibody to the transferrin receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
- The biotin binding capacity of the avidin-OX26 conjugate was measured, and 2.3 biotin binding sites per avidin-OX26 (1:1) conjugate were detected. (aspetjournals.org)
- Transcytosis through the BBB of [3H]biotin bound to either unconjugated avidin or to the avidin-OX26 conjugate was measured with an internal carotid artery perfusion/capillary depletion technique. (aspetjournals.org)
- 3H]Biotin bound to the avidin-OX26 conjugate was transported through the BBB at rates that equaled the rate of transcytosis of the unconjugated OX26 antibody. (aspetjournals.org)
- The clearance from plasma of [3H]biotin bound to the avidin-OX26 conjugate approximated the rate of clearance of the unconjugated OX26 antibody, and not the rate of clearance of [3H]biotin bound to avidin, which was cleared from plasma at much faster rates. (aspetjournals.org)
- and (c) lipid encapsulated particles activated with a biotin activating agent, whereby the ligand is conjugated to the particles through an avidin-biotin interaction and the resulting conjugate is bound to the molecular epitopes on such surface. (patents.com)
- whereby said ligand is conjugated to said emulsion through an avidin-biotin interaction and the resulting conjugate is bound to said biological surface to enhance the acoustic reflectivity thereof for ultrasonic imaging. (patents.com)
- Pharmacokinetics and organ clearance of a 3'-biotinylated, internally [32P]-labeled phosphodiester oligodeoxynucleotide coupled to a neutral avidin/monoclonal antibody conjugate. (aspetjournals.org)
- At first, an antibody-drug conjugate is administered, which consists of a monoclonal antibody designed to target the tumour, and a chemical marker which in the case of DOTA-biotin therapy is one of the proteins avidin and streptavidin. (wikipedia.org)
- Since the excitation and emission maxima are well separated from those of fluorescein, Texas Red ® Avidin D can be employed with Fluorescein Avidin D or other fluorescein conjugates to simultaneously localize two antigens in the same tissue section. (vectorlabs.com)
- Fluorescent signals can be amplified using our biotinylated secondary antibodies followed by our highly purified fluorescent streptavidin and avidin conjugates. (vectorlabs.com)
- Suitable for immunoblotting, ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunomicroscopy as well asother antibody based assays using streptavidin or avidin conjugates requiring lot-to-lotconsistency. (antibodies-online.com)
- Thermo Scientific™ DyLight™ streptavidin and avidin conjugates are preparations of biotin binding proteins labeled with Thermo Scientific™ DyLight™ fluorescent dyes for use in high-performance fluorescence assays and cellular imaging experiments. (thermofisher.com)
- Feeding conjugates of avidin with fluorescently labelled biotin, or a fluorescently labelled, biotinylated peptide, showed that the conjugated compound was also retained in the aphid gut after feeding. (bl.uk)
- Avidin conjugates of peptides that have little or no oral toxicity to insects, as a result of restricted access to sites of action, could have the potential to form a novel class of insecticidal compounds. (bl.uk)
- These reagents are primarily conjugated and unconjugated antibodies, augmented by avidin and streptavidin conjugates for detecting biotinylated proteins and lectin conjugates for detecting glycoproteins. (thermofisher.com)
- Alternatively, the target-specific molecule might be conjugated to either biotin or fluorescent dyes, thereby creating a molecule that can be detected with any of our avidin and streptavidin conjugates or our anti-fluorescent dye antibodies ( Antibodies, Avidins and Lectins-Chapter 7 ). (thermofisher.com)
- For example, cell surface proteins can be specifically labelled with membrane impermeable biotin reagent, then specifically captured using an avidin-based support. (wikipedia.org)
- Deglycosylated, neutral forms of avidin are available through Sigma-Aldrich (Extravidin), Thermo Scientific (NeutrAvidin), Invitrogen (NeutrAvidin), and e-Proteins (NeutraLite). (wikipedia.org)
- Choose from among purified avidin and streptavidin proteins conjugated with a range of fluorophores for fluorescence detection of biotinylated macromolecules in a range of research applications. (vectorlabs.com)
- Avidin and streptavidin reagents are powerful tools to detect or purify biotinylated proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules. (vectorlabs.com)
- Native Avidin (sc-362068), and/or Streptavidin (sc-363872) bind extremely well with Biotin, but they may exhibit non-specific binding of lectins or other carbohydrate binding proteins, cell surface proteins and Fibronectin. (scbt.com)
- Avidin and streptavidin reagents are powerful tools in detection and purification applications of biotinylated proteins, nucleic acids and other macromolecules. (vectorlabs.com)
- Avidin is readily transported to the haemolymph of lepidopteran larvae after feeding, which suggested that it might replace GNA in synthetic insecticidal fusion proteins. (bl.uk)
- Conversely, beads made of natural or synthetic polymers are widely used as solid phases for immunoassays.9 Beads covered with a large variety of proteins, including avidin, are commercially available. (docme.ru)
- Avidin or streptavidin can be chemically coupled and are fluorescent, radioactive, or other types of macromolecules (proteins,polysaccharides, etc. (blogspot.com)
- Reversibly bind biotinylated proteins and other ligands with monomers of avidin covalently attached as individual subunits onto beaded resins. (fishersci.com)
- The biotin-avidin interaction is commonly exploited to detect and/or purify proteins because of the high specificity that these two molecules have for each other. (thermofisher.com)
- Our 48-page Avidin-Biotin Technical Handbook brings together everything needed to biotinylate, purify or detect proteins. (thermofisher.com)
- Besides a strong affinity for avidin, biotin exhibits two characteristics that make the molecule ideal for labeling proteins and macromolecules. (thermofisher.com)
- Soon after, researchers Bayer and Wilchek developed new methods and reagents to biotinylate antibodies and other biomolecules, allowing the transfer of the avidin-biotin system to a range of biotechnological applications. (wikipedia.org)
- The variability of these reagents substantially expand the range of applications for avidin-biotin chemistry. (thermofisher.com)
- To minimize error, both samples are then combined, digested with a protease (i.e., trypsin), and subjected to avidin affinity chromatography to isolate peptides labeled with isotope-coded tagging reagents. (wikipedia.org)
- Biotin-(strept)avidin complex is widely used in biotechnology because of its extremely high binding constant, but there is no report describing spatiotemporally controlled formation of the complex in live cells. (rcsb.org)
- Here, based on X-ray crystal structure analysis and calorimetric data, we designed and synthesized photoreleasable biotins, which show greatly reduced affinity for (strept)avidin, but recover native affinity after UV irradiation. (rcsb.org)
- Incorporation of achiral biotinylated rhodium−diphosphine complexes into (strept)avidin yields artificial metalloenzymes for the hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroamino acids. (unibas.ch)
- Using a biotin/avidin or biotin/streptavidin detection system results in an additional layer of amplification over a directly conjugated secondary antibody. (vectorlabs.com)
- Labeled avidin is allowed to bind to biotin-tagged antibodies to amplify antigen-antibody reactions that may be difficult to visualize. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In all cases, we observe an improved performance of the biosensor, i.e., lower limit of detection and wide linear dynamic range, for the assays in which the antibody is immobilized via avidin-biotin bridges compared to covalent attachment method. (spie.org)
- The avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ABC-ELISA) and standard ELISA were used for the detection of Echinococcus granulosus antibody in sera of 101 patients operated on for hydatid disease, 40 patients with miscellaneous nonhydatid diseases, and 61 normal subjects. (ajtmh.org)
- Dye/anti-dye antibody affinity pairs can also be used as alternatives to biotin/avidin detection methods in applications such as in situ hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). (thermofisher.com)
- The ABC methodology consists of using an unlabeled primary antibody, a biotinylated secondary antibody, and a complex of avidin-biotin peroxidase. (labce.com)
- To simplify coupling of therapeutics to the OX26 antibody, the present studies examine the use of the avidin/biotin system to promote coupling of biotin and biotinylated drugs to brain transport vectors. (aspetjournals.org)
- Small volumes of Avidin, HRP Labeled secondary antibody vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
- Due to the high affinity of biotin to avidin and streptavidin, the radiotherapy accumulates where the antibody is, namely in the tumour, where it delivers its radioactivity. (wikipedia.org)
- The Biotin-Avidin/Streptavidin System has proven to be particularly useful in the detection and localization of antigens, glycoconjugates, and nucleic acids by employing biotinylated antibodies, lectins, or nucleic acid probes. (vectorlabs.com)
- In this paper, we report on the immobilization of antibodies onto the surface of an optical fiber through an avidin-biotin bridge for the detection of ricin, ovalbumin, and Bacillus globigii (Bg). (spie.org)
- However, the attachment of biotinylated antibodies to avidin-carrying erythrocytes decreases dramatically. (biochemj.org)
- Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for EAAT1 / Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 and Streptavidin / Avidin. (chromocyte.com)
- Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for P2RX7 / P2X7 receptor / P2X purinoceptor 7 / P2X7 and Streptavidin / Avidin. (chromocyte.com)
- Antibodies in the Chromocyte database for LAR / PTPRF / Leukocyte antigen related PTP receptor and Streptavidin / Avidin. (chromocyte.com)
- These membrane-bounded organelles from the interface peak fractions were immunolabeled with antibodies to both cathepsin L and avidin. (nih.gov)
- Neutravidin, a deglycosylated avidin with modified arginines, exhibits a more neutral isoelectric point (pI) and is available as an alternative to native avidin, whenever problems of non-specific binding arise. (wikipedia.org)
- In biochemical applications, streptavidin or NeutrAvidin, which also bind very tightly to Biotin, are often used in place of avidin. (bionity.com)
- Avidin has a high pI but NeutrAvidin has a near-neutral pI (pH 6.3), minimizing non-specific interactions with the negatively-charged cell surface or with DNA/RNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Like avidin itself, NeutrAvidin is a tetramer with a strong affinity for biotin (Kd = 10−15 M). In biochemical applications, streptavidin, which also binds very tightly to biotin, may be used interchangeably with NeutrAvidin. (wikipedia.org)
- Forms a strong non-covalent specific complex with biotin (one molecule of biotin per subunit of avidin). (rcsb.org)
- Ark Therapeutics has developed Scavidin, a version of a naturally occurring molecule called avidin , which recognises the cancer-fighting drug used in radiotherapy and chemotherapy and then "shuttles" it back and forth in the body, picking up the cancer drugs and taking them to the heart of the tumour. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The avidin : biotin-allatostatin was non-toxic, most likely due to cleavage between the biotin molecule and allatostatin as a result of the high levels of gut proteolysis in lepidoptera. (bl.uk)
- Avidin-Biotin is a modified form of affinity purified avidin that combines the high affinity specific activity of the native egg white avidin to biotin molecule together with a very low background of the streptavidin produced by the bacteria Streptomyces avidinii. (neobiolab.com)
- avidin is then used to "sandwich" between the biotinylated binder and a reporter molecule or probe. (wikipedia.org)
- A 68-kD tetrameric glycoprotein found in egg white which has a high affinity for biotin, an association used in immunology for the avidin-biotinylated immunoperoxidase method. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 2000) Recombinant NeutraLite avidin: a non-glycosylated, acidic mutant of chicken avidin that exhibits high affinity for biotin and low non-specific binding properties. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
- A new 'bead method' for Candida mannan detection was compared with avidin biotin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AB-ELISA) using the serum of mice infected with C. albicans. (eurekamag.com)
- Avidin-Fluor 550 product is streptavidin-linked fluorophore with 550 absorbance maximum used for fluorescence-based detection of biotinylated molecules. (tymora-analytical.com)
- The interaction between biotin (vitamin H) and avidin is a useful tool in nonradioactive methods of purification, detection, immobilization, labeling, viral vector-targeting and drug targeting systems. (thermofisher.com)
- The rarity and expense of obtaining biotin at the time limited further investigations, but the extremely high avidin-biotin binding affinity was later exploited and is now widely used in molecular biology for purification and molecular detection applications. (wikipedia.org)
- 500 µg of three fluorescent avidin products: Fluorescein Avidin DCS, Texas Red ® Avidin D and AMCA Avidin D. (vectorlabs.com)
- Avidin D, Fluorescein labeled, is made from our highly purified Avidin D by a special labeling technique. (vectorlabs.com)
- Compared to conventional primary and secondary fluorescent labeling techniques, Fluorescein Avidin D can provide greater sensitivity and lower background staining. (vectorlabs.com)
- For even higher sensitivity and specific applications, see Fluorescein Avidin DCS. (vectorlabs.com)
- Avidin D, Fluorescein labeled, having an excitation at 495 nm and an emission at about 515 nm, is made from our highly purified Avidin D by a special labeling technique. (vectorlabs.com)
- Not only does the Fluorescein Avidin DCS have an optimal F/P ratio, the efficiency of fluorescence is also increased. (vectorlabs.com)
- This derivative is preferred when using the amplification procedure with Biotinylated Anti-Avidin D. Fluorescein Avidin DCS has an excitation at 495 nm and an emission at about 515 nm. (vectorlabs.com)
- Avidin can be labeled with peroxidase or fluorescein. (labce.com)
- Tissues may also bind avidin, biotin, peroxidase biotin, peroxidase streptavidin in avidin biotin based Immunohistochemistry. (genetex.com)
- The surface of the fluorescent SiNPs was biotinylated, and binding of labeled avidin to the surface was studied via FRET in two model cases. (uni-regensburg.de)
- In the first, FRET occurs from the biotinylated fluorescent SiNP (the donor) to the labeled avidin (the acceptor). (uni-regensburg.de)
- Aside from its use in the biotin-avidin system, such SiNPs also are believed to be generally useful fluorescent markers in various kinds of FRET assays, not the least because the fluorophore is located on the surface of the SiNPs (and thus always much closer to the second fluorophore) rather than being doped deep in its interior. (uni-regensburg.de)
- In its tetrameric form, avidin is estimated to be 66-69 kDa in size. (wikipedia.org)
- Avidin is a basic and rather stable tetrameric glycoprotein found in chicken egg-white. (jyu.fi)
- We showed also that the tetrameric quaternary structure of avidin can be broken by only two crucial point mutations in the interface residues and that the resultant monomeric avidin was biologically active in the sense of biotin binding. (jyu.fi)
- The resultant pseudo-tetrameric fusion avidin, in which half of the binding sites can be further modified independently of the other half, has enormous potential in new applications. (jyu.fi)
- Avidin is a 68,000 M.W. tetrameric biotin-binding glycoprotein with four high affinity binding sites (dissociation constant of 10 -15 M). Conjugated avidin may be used to enhance the sensitivities of immunoassays and immunohistochemical techniques. (emdmillipore.com)
- Horseradish Peroxidase Avidin D (Av-HRP), Ready-to-Use (R.T.U. (vectorlabs.com)
- Horseradish Peroxidase Avidin D (HRP Avidin D) is produced by our own coupling procedure which preserves the high specific activity of the peroxidase. (vectorlabs.com)
- Using biotinylated primary or secondary intermediates and peroxidase-labeled Avidin D, antigens can be localized in histological sections, cytospin preparations, or smears. (vectorlabs.com)
- Horseradish Peroxidase Avidin D is offered as a concentrate (5 mg/ml) or in a ready-to-use (R.T.U.) stabilized solution (100ml,1µg/ml) in a bottle fitted with a drop dispenser top. (vectorlabs.com)
- One other method uses complexes of injected biocytin with avidin or streptavidin, biotin, and then peroxidase. (wikipedia.org)
- Concurrently, the avidin-peroxidase labeling assay applicable for light absorption microscope was described by Gavrieli et al. (wikipedia.org)
- BDA is delivered into the nervous system by iontophoretic or pressure injection and visualized with an avidin-biotinylated Horseradish peroxidase procedure, followed by a standard or metal-enhanced diaminobenzidine (DAB) reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- The avidin- GdL 3-4 complexes thus obtained exhibit changes in both r 1 and r 2 that are pH dependent. (rsc.org)
- We found that immobilization resulted in both a decrease in the rate of binding and an increase in the rate of dissociation leading to immobilized complexes having equilibrium dissociation constants of 7 ± 3 × 10?12 M, higher than the value measured for the complex between biotin-modified oligonucleotide and nonimmobilized avidin and approximately 4 orders of magnitude larger than values for the wild-type avidin?biotin complex. (soton.ac.uk)
- Similar to an avidin-coated ELISA plate, when reacted with a biotinylated ligand, such as a peptide, each of these beads can be used as the substrate on which an assay can be performed. (luminexcorp.com)
- Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Rabbit Serum as well as purified and partially purified Avidin [Hen Egg White]. (antibodies-online.com)
- The binding affinity with avidin was assessed with a fluorescence displacement assay and with MRI phantom experiments in a 3T MRI scanner. (rsc.org)
- The fluorometric assay and MRI E-titrations revealed a 3 : 1 binding mode of GdL 3-4 to avidin with the binding affinity as high as that of the parent avidin-biotin complex. (rsc.org)
- Quantitation of avidin- and cathepsin L-labeled structures in the late endosome preparation used in the fusion assay showed that many endosomes were heavily loaded with avidin but contained very little cathepsin L (Fig. 3). (nih.gov)
- However, since a significant proportion of cathepsin L-positive, avidin-negative structures were also observed in the endosomal preparation, late endosomes were incubated in the content mixing assay in the absence of lysosomes at 37°C for 10 min. (nih.gov)
- Aware of the strength and specificity of the avidin-biotin complex, researchers began to exploit avidin and streptavidin as probes and affinity matrices in numerous research projects. (wikipedia.org)
- Switchavidin: reversible biotin-avidin-biotin bridges with high affinity and specificity. (semanticscholar.org)
- Biotin is a vitamin that is involved in carboxylation-decarboxylation reactions and forms a highly stable complex with Avidin. (csbsju.edu)
- The avidin-biotin complex is extremely tight and stable, the complex is stable in 9 M Urea. (csbsju.edu)
- The non-reversible nature of the avidin-biotin complex can limit avidin's application in affinity chromatography applications where release of the captured ligand is desirable. (wikipedia.org)
- After adding avidin to the modified S1-ADP-Vi, the complex of actin-tropomyosin and S1-ADP-Vi, of which the biotinylated ADP was associated tightly with avidin , was observed by electron microscopy. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Furthermore, we demonstrated that the association of the RGD-avidin-TRAIL complex onto endothelial cells enhanced the tumor cell killing activity. (uu.nl)
- The Avidin-biotin complex is the highest affinity interaction in nature, and its utilization to biochemistry integrates all of the former approaches. (wikipedia.org)
- The Avidin-Biotin cComplex (ABC) method of IHC staining incorporates a large glycoprotein called avidin that has a very high affinity for a low molecular weight vitamin called biotin. (labce.com)
- In this study, I have used computational methods to model the molecular interactions of two mutant avidins named NRMNH and NQNGY, with testosterone, and those of two keto-biotin binders, T35P,N118M and T35K,N118M, with biotin and keto-biotin. (uta.fi)
- Conclusions: Molecular dynamics simulations were found to be a potential tool for studying ligand binding in avidin-based structures. (uta.fi)
- Accepted 24 November 2003 Molecular recognition between avidin covalently immobilized at the surface of acrylic resin beads and a transition metallocarbonyl tracer of the biotin ligand was detected using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. (docme.ru)
- Agarose bound avidin and streptavidin are ideal for isolation of biotinylated macromolecules. (vectorlabs.com)
- The purification of the peptide mixture containing N-biotinylated sequences was performed by affinity chromatography on an avidin-agarose column. (cnrs-orleans.fr)
- Biotin Agarose Resin is used for purification or removal of avidin or streptavidin samples. (abtbeads.com)
- It has an enormous affinity toward biotin (vitamin H), which forms the basis of so called avidin-biotin technology. (jyu.fi)
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- He is known for isolating and naming folic acid and for his roles in discovering pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, lipoic acid, and avidin. (wikipedia.org)
- He also worked on discovering and isolating vitamin B6, lipoic acid, and avidin. (wikipedia.org)
- Researchers have created an avidin with reversible binding characteristics through nitration or iodination of the binding site tyrosine. (wikipedia.org)
- Advantage of Avidin is its ability of reversible interaction, in many applications reversible interaction is desired. (blogspot.com)
- Avidin monomers can be immobilized and can be used for reversible interactions. (blogspot.com)
- The binding is very strong, making it suitable for non-reversible binding applications (e.g. removal of avidin components from a sample). (abtbeads.com)
- Specific binding of a biotinylated metallocarbonyl-labelled dendrimer to immobilized avidin detected by diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. (docme.ru)
- DOI:10.1002/aoc.591 Chemistry Specific binding of a biotinylated, metallocarbonyllabelled dendrimer to immobilized avidin detected by diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy Bogna Rudolf1 , Janusz Zakrzewski1 *, Grzegorz Celichowski2 , Miche?le Salmain3 , Anne Vessie?res3 ** and Ge?rard Jaouen3 1 University of ?o?dz? (docme.ru)
- Avidin fed to A. pisum was found to bind to the stomach region of the gut after ingestion and was retained for at least 72 hours. (bl.uk)
- Functional avidin has four identical cavities that can bind small, hydrophobic molecules. (uta.fi)
- These monomers then bind to a backbone, such as streptavidin or avidin, creating a tetravalent structure. (wikipedia.org)
- ICAT tagged peptides) can be fractionated using Avidin Chromatography on the AB Vision work station or using a cartridge system. (yale.edu)
- The dissociation constant of avidin is measured to be KD ≈ 10−15 M, making it one of the strongest known non-covalent bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- In this work, the kinetics and dissociation constant for the binding of a biotin-modified oligonucleotide to microparticle-immobilized avidin were measured. (soton.ac.uk)
- The measured rate and equilibrium dissociation constants of avidin immobilized by these different methods have been compared with those for nonimmobilized avidin. (soton.ac.uk)
- Research in the 1970s helped establish the avidin-biotin system as a powerful tool in biological sciences. (wikipedia.org)
- When we introduced the Biotin-Avidin (now also Streptavidin) System a substantial amplification over the earlier methods was achieved. (vectorlabs.com)
- By covalently linking avidin or streptavidin with different ligands such as fluorochromes, enzymes or EM markers, what we have termed the Biotin-Avidin System (or Biotin-Streptavidin System) can be utilized to study a wide variety of biological structures and processes. (vectorlabs.com)
- Cereal aphids appear to be less sensitive to sub-optimal levels of biotin and possess a more effective system for scavenging biotin from recombinant avidin in the diet. (bl.uk)
- A novel system for the attachment of targeting ligands to the Ad capsid, based on the extremely strong avidin-biotin interaction, is described herein. (rice.edu)
- When the ABC system was applied, immunostaining was performed with and without blocking of endogenous avidin-binding activity. (ovid.com)
- Meir Wilchek is known for his research in the field of biorecognition or affinity phenomenon, and its various application, e.g. for affinity chromatography, affinity labeling, affinity therapy, and the avidin-biotin system. (wikipedia.org)
- Consequently, the avidin-biotin system can frequently replace radioactive probes. (wikipedia.org)
- Together with Ed Bayer, Wilchek established the Avidin-biotin system as a powerful tool in biological sciences. (wikipedia.org)
- Previously, a biotin-avidin magnetic bead system was used for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the ability of avidin to cross-link the biotin-containing structures decreases after acylation. (biochemj.org)
- Previous studies using site-directed mutagenesis of loop regions have yielded testosterone-binding avidin structures. (uta.fi)
- Methods: A known 3-D sturucture of avidin was used as a template in the modeling of mutant avidin structures. (uta.fi)
- Representative micrographs demonstrating the morphology of the hybrid organelles and of lysosome and late endosome preparations are shown in Fig. 4 (8-nm gold particles label immunoreactive avidin and 15-nm gold particles label cathepsin L). Material from the lysosomal peak at the 45%/20% Nycodenz interface contained mostly electron-dense structures labeled with cathepsin L, but little avidin (Fig. 4 c). (nih.gov)
- Second, as shown in the diagram below, biotin has a valeric acid side chain that is easily derivatized and conjugated to reactive moieties and chemical structures without affecting its avidin-binding function. (thermofisher.com)