A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting birds. It is transmitted horizontally with no known vectors. The type species is INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS.
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
The type species of AQUABIRNAVIRUS, causing infectious pancreatic necrosis in salmonid fish and other freshwater and marine animals including mollusks.
Virus diseases caused by the BIRNAVIRIDAE.
A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
A clinical syndrome characterized by palpitation, SHORTNESS OF BREATH, labored breathing, subjective complaints of effort and discomfort, all following slight PHYSICAL EXERTION. Other symptoms may be DIZZINESS, tremulousness, SWEATING, and INSOMNIA. Neurocirculatory asthenia is most typically seen as a form of anxiety disorder.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.

Blotched snakehead virus is a new aquatic birnavirus that is slightly more related to avibirnavirus than to aquabirnavirus. (1/1)

By different approaches, we characterized the birnavirus blotched snakehead virus (BSNV). The sequence of genomic segment A revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs): a large ORF with a 3,207-bp-long nucleotide sequence and a 417-nucleotide-long small ORF located within the N-terminal half of the large ORF, but in a different reading frame. The large ORF was found to encode a polyprotein cotranslationally processed by the viral protease VP4 to generate pVP2 (the VP2 precursor), a 71-amino-acid-long peptide ([X]), VP4, and VP3. The two cleavage sites at the [X]-VP4 and VP4-VP3 junctions were identified by N-terminal sequencing. We showed that the processing of pVP2 generated VP2 and several small peptides (amino acids [aa] 418 to 460, 461 to 467, 468 to 474, and 475 to 486). Two of these peptides (aa 418 to 460 and 475 to 486) were positively identified in the viral particles with 10 additional peptides derived from further processing of the peptide aa 418 to 460. The results suggest that VP4 cleaves multiple Pro-X-Ala downward arrow Ala motifs, with the notable exception of the VP4-VP3 junction. Replacement of the members of the predicted VP4 catalytic dyad (Ser-692 and Lys-729) confirmed their indispensability in the polyprotein processing. The genomic segment B sequence revealed a single large ORF encoding a putative polymerase, VP1. Our results demonstrate that BSNV should be considered a new aquatic birnavirus species, slightly more related to IBDV than to IPNV.  (+info)

CHEM470Principles of Medicinal Chemistry with Lab This course will survey the world of medicinal drug design, from target choice to structural drug determinants, to drug toxicology and disposition. The course will illustrate to students the significance of chemical structure and their physiochemical properties, and address molecular modification of molecules in the rational design of drug entities. The ultimate goal is to help students relate drug chemistry to therapeutic applications. We will review some general principles learned in Introductory and Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Cell Biology, and will introduce several Pharmacological and Physiological principles, as they relate to the molecular mechanism of action of select drug classes. Emphasis will be placed on drug-target interactions at the molecular level by employing 3-D visualization tools.Prerequisite: CHEM-220 and BIOL/CHEM-352 All course prerequisites must be met with a minimum grade of C-. Senior Chemistry majors only ...
Ella gave Olivia the 8 ball which shows up again in 3.12 Concentrate and ask again. 8 is also Olivias number. Sam knew shes size 8, it shows up throughout S2. In Earthling there is a door number 8 right by her head, In Snakehead when they leave Matts house, the number is 4488, in Jacksonville the building number is 2280, in White Tulip Walter holds two molds together which form an 8 as Olivia sits there with him, in 6B the number on the police car was 4738. I played around with it came up with this: 4 +7= 11, 3+8= 11, 8-3= 5, 7-4= 3, 5+3= 8 which is Olivias number. 8 also stands for infinity. 11+11=22 which is the strongest number. 22 shows up in 3.15 Subject 13. Olivia sits at the table when she sees Peter for the first time and 22 is right behind her ...
Blosnavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Birnaviridae. Blotched snakehead fish serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Blotched snakehead virus. Group: dsRNA Order: Unassigned Family: Birnaviridae Genus: Blosnavirus Blotched snakehead virus Viruses in Blosnavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral and Single-shelled geometries, and T=13 symmetry. The diameter is around 70 nm. Genomes are linear and have 2 segments, around 2.7-3.4kb in length. The genome codes for 6 proteins. Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. Blotched snakehead fish serve as the natural host. Viral Zone. ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Blosnavirus ...
Nearshore habitats are critical habitat for fish and a wide variety of other organisms in the Salish Sea, and have been highly impacted by construction of erosion control structures. Recovery of Pacific salmon, several species of which are listed on the Endangered Species Act, is one current management goal. Soft shore protection has been increasingly applied in Puget Sound, but careful assessment and engineering criteria was lacking. The National Research Council investigated techniques nationally in 2007, with limited information. Additionally, site and drift cell assessment methods have not been previously defined to address these issues. The WDFW, WSDOT, WDOE and other partners who make up the Aquatic Habitat Guidelines group initiated the MSDG, published in 2014. The MSDG was developed to provide a comprehensive framework for site assessment and alternatives analysis to determine the need for shore protection and identify the technique that best suits the conditions at a given site, including where
Firdaus-e-Bareen & Uwe Braun. Mycofalcella iqbalii, a new aquatic hyphomycete, and a discussion about the generic concept of Anguillospora and similar genera. Mycotaxon 102: 355-363. 2007.. ABSTRACT: A new aquatic hyphomycete, Mycofalcella iqbalii, is described and illustrated from canal water in Pakistan. The conidia have been detected in water throughout the year, but sporulation on randomly collected leaves more commonly occurred between August and December. The generic affinity of the new species is debated in the context of a general discussion about the generic concepts of the complex of hyphomycetes resembling Anguillospora, Anguillosporella, Mycofalcella, and aquatic species of Mycocentrospora. It is proposed to confine Anguillospora to species with unilocal conidiogenous cells and rhexolytic conidial secession, and to widen the concept of Pseudoanguillospora to include taxa with unilocal, determinate or percurrent to multilocal, sympodial conidiogenous cells and schizolytic conidial ...
Article: John KR, George MR, Richards R & Frerichs GN (2001) Characteristics of a new reovirus isolated from epizootic ulcerative syndrome infected snakehead fish. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 46 (2), pp. 83-92. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao046083
Snakehead rhabdovirus stored in cell culture medium was found to be relatively temperature resistant with ≥ 99.9% reduction in infectivity only occurring after 6 months at 15°C, 6 weeks at 25°C and 10 days at 35°C. At 25°C, virus stability was greatest in the range pH 5-7. Infectivity was less well retained at pH9 and rapidly lost at pH3 and pH11. Stability was poor in serum-free media with a 99.9% reduction in infectivity occurring in less than 48 hours at 25°C in de-ionized water, tap water, balanced salt solutions and artificial seawater. ...
A funny thing happened during an electroshock study of northern snakehead fish that live in the upper tidal Potomac River and its tributaries. It turned out that the largemouth bass outnumbered the dreaded Chinese invaders by at least 100 to 1.
Infectious bursal disease, IBD (also known as Gumboro disease, infectious bursitis and infectious avian nephrosis) is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), characterized by immunosuppression and mortality generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age. The disease was first discovered in Gumboro, Delaware in 1962. It is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide due to increased susceptibility to other diseases and negative interference with effective vaccination. In recent years, very virulent strains of IBDV (vvIBDV), causing severe mortality in chicken, have emerged in Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Infection is via the oro-fecal route, with affected bird excreting high levels of the virus for approximately 2 weeks after infection. IBDV is a double stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae. There are two distinct serotypes of the ...
Snakehead fish helps to promote wound-healing after injury and surgery. Get it easily in bottled Fish Essence extracts from Chinese medicine shops & NTUC.
We cordially invite you to participate in the Fifth International Symposium, Alien Species in the Holarctic: Borok V, to be held in September, 25-30, 2017 (tentative venue: Uglich, Yaroslavl Province, Russia). Since the second half of the 20th century alien species have been spreading and affecting terrestrial and aquatic, natural and anthropogenic ecosystems. The main goals of the Symposium are: Consolidation of efforts to study the processes of how alien plant and animal species spread in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; Exchange of information on the vectors, causes, scales, and directions of species spread; changes in their properties in new aquatic and terrestrial habitats; Assessment of the role of the alien species in the transformation of endemic communities; evaluation of social and economic consequences of biological invasions as well as development of risk assessment approaches; Discussion of issues related to terminology, theory of species spread and study methods. ... ...
Invasive Species - (Channa argus) Watch List - Prohibited in Michigan Northern Snakeheads can reach up to 33 inches in length. They have a tan color with dark brown mottling, an extended anal fin, a pelvic fin up near the gills and pectoral fins. They have sharp teeth like a pike or pickerel.
To remove the head and tail of fish in possession while at the fishing location, except for snakeheads. The head and tail shall remain attached in such a manner as to permit identification of fish species and total length. A person may take snakehead fish from Maryland waters by any legal means provided that the head of the snakehead fish is immediately removed, or the body is gutted, or the gills are removed from both sides of the fish, or the fish is filleted upon capture ...
The Northern snakehead (Channa argus), a member of Channidae family in Perciformes, is an economically important freshwater fish with its main distributions in Asian and African countries. In North America, it has become notorious as an intentionally released invasive species. Its ability to breathe air with gills and migrate short distances over land makes it a good model for bimodal breath research. Therefore, recent researches have been focused on the identification of relevant candidate genes. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing of C. argus to construct its draft genome, aiming to offer useful information for further functional studies and identification of target genes related to air breathing, a distinguished feature of this teleost fish.|br| We assembled the C. argus genome with a total of 140.3 Gigabases (Gb) of raw reads, which were sequenced by the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The final draft genome assembly is approximately 615.3 million bases (Mb), with contig N50 of 81.4 kb and
IBDV is a double-stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family ...
Aureusvirus Aurivirus Aurunvirus Austintatiousvirus Avastrovirus Avenavirus Aveparvovirus Aviadenovirus Avibirnavirus ...
... avibirnavirus MeSH B04.820.075.060.400 - infectious bursal disease virus MeSH B04.820.075.200 - entomobirnavirus MeSH B04.820. ... avibirnavirus MeSH B04.909.777.123.060.400 - infectious bursal disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.123.200 - entomobirnavirus MeSH ...
Avibirnavirus. Icosahedral. T=13. Non-enveloped. Linear. Segmented Aquabirnavirus. Icosahedral. T=13. Non-enveloped. Linear. ... Avibirnavirus. Birds. None. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Contact Aquabirnavirus. Salmonid fish. ...
Genus Avibirnavirus. *Genus Blosnavirus. *Genus Entomobirnavirus. *Familie Chrysoviridae. *Genus Alphachrysovirus,. *Genus ...
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Ubiquitination Is Essential for Avibirnavirus Replication by Supporting VP1 Polymerase Activity. Huansheng Wu, Liuyuan Shi, ... Ubiquitination Is Essential for Avibirnavirus Replication by Supporting VP1 Polymerase Activity. Huansheng Wu, Liuyuan Shi, ... Ubiquitination Is Essential for Avibirnavirus Replication by Supporting VP1 Polymerase Activity. Huansheng Wu, Liuyuan Shi, ... Ubiquitination Is Essential for Avibirnavirus Replication by Supporting VP1 Polymerase Activity Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Avibirnavirus. Icosahedral. T=13. Non-enveloped. Linear. Segmented Aquabirnavirus. Icosahedral. T=13. Non-enveloped. Linear. ... Avibirnavirus. Birds. None. Cell receptor endocytosis. Budding. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm. Contact Aquabirnavirus. Salmonid fish. ...
IBDV is a double-stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family ...
Genus Avibirnavirus. *Genus Blosnavirus. *Genus Entomobirnavirus. *Familie Chrysoviridae. *Genus Alphachrysovirus,. *Genus ...
Avibirnavirus. Genus. Blosnavirus. Genus. Entomobirnavirus. Family. Chrysoviridae. Genus. Chrysovirus. Family. Cystoviridae. ...
Avibirnavirus. infectious bursal disease virus. Vertebrates. Entomobirnavirus. Drosophila X virus. Invertebrates. Cystoviridae ...
Aureusvirus Aurivirus Aurunvirus Austintatiousvirus Avastrovirus Avenavirus Aveparvovirus Aviadenovirus Avibirnavirus ...
Binding of Avibirnavirus VP3 to the PIK3C3-PDPK1 complex inhibits autophagy by activating the AKT-MTOR pathway. ...
Binding of the pathogen receptor HSP90AA1 to avibirnavirus VP2 induces autophagy by inactivating the AKT-MTOR pathway ...
... the Avibirnavirus VP5, a disordered antiapoptosis protein (36); a disordered tail of the Betatetravirus replicase; a disordered ... Avibirnavirus, Pomovirus, and Tombusvirus, respectively). In the end we found 17 nonhomologous overlaps encoding ancestral ...
Avibirnavirus of the family Birnaviridae (Chettle, Stuart & Wyeth 1989). The virus infects the IgM-bearing B-lymphocytes in the ...
Genus: Avibirnavirus Distinguishing features. Viruses in the genus infect only birds. Virion. See discussion under family ...
The virus responsible is a bisegmented, double-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the Avibirnavirus genus in the family ...
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is ... A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is ...
Avibirnavirus: from Latin avis, "bird".. Birnaviridae: from Latin prefix bi, "two", signifying the bisegmented nature of the ... Members of the Avibirnavirus genus exclusively infect birds. Members of the Aquabirnavirus and Blosnavirus genera, both defined ... The family includes four genera, members of three of which (Aquabirnavirus, Avibirnavirus and Blosnavirus) infect vertebrates ( ... Birnaviridae includes four genera, members of three of which (Aquabirnavirus, Avibirnavirus, and Blosnavirus) infect ...
Genus Avibirnavirus (organism) {422652001 , SNOMED-CT } Other Relationships No other relationships present. ...
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There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for ...
Genus Avibirnavirus (organism) {422652001 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Infectious bursal disease virus ( ...
Genus Avibirnavirus @ @ @ @Genus Entomobirnavirus. @ Family Cystoviridae. @ Family Hypoviridae. @ Family Partitiviridae. @ ...
Il comporte trois genres : AQUABIRNAVIRUS, AVIBIRNAVIRUS et ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. La transmission peut être horizontale ou ...
Viruses › dsRNA virusesBirnaviridaeAvibirnavirus. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_ ...
IBDV (Avibirnavirus, Birnaviridae) is a non-enveloped virus with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome. The virus is ...
Binding of the pathogen receptor HSP90AA1 to avibirnavirus VP2 induces autophagy by inactivating the AKT-MTOR pathway. ...
IBDV is the only species of virus under the Avibirnavirus genus in the Birnaviridae family of viruses. The virus is extremely ...
Binding of the pathogen receptor HSP90AA1 to avibirnavirus VP2 induces autophagy by inactivating the AKT-MTOR pathway. 25714412 ...
The agent of the infectious bursal disease is RNA-containing virus of Avibirnavirus genus in Birnaviridae family. In outbreaks ... caused by double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae. It is characterized by the ...