Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Sarcoma, Avian: Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src): A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Kirsten murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Rous sarcoma virus: A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Moloney murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.DucksBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Harvey murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Oncogene Protein v-crk: A signal transducing adaptor protein that is encoded by the crk ONCOGENE from TYPE C AVIAN RETROVIRUSES. It contains SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and is closely related to its cellular homolog, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Sarcoma, Ewing: A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Avian Leukosis: A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.Sarcoma Virus, Woolly Monkey: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Genes, Synthetic: Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Integrase Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of integrase.Fusion Proteins, gag-onc: General name for the translation products of a fusion mRNA consisting of a gag gene and a viral oncogene (v-onc). These products are thought to have the ability to transform cells.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sarcoma 180Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.PhosphoproteinsTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epsilonretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Histiocytic Sarcoma: Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sarcoma, Myeloid: An extramedullary tumor of immature MYELOID CELLS or MYELOBLASTS. Granulocytic sarcoma usually occurs with or follows the onset of ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal: A highly malignant subset of neoplasms arising from the endometrial stroma. Tumors in this group infiltrate the stroma with a wide range of atypia cells and numerous mitoses. They are capable of widespread metastases (NEOPLASM METASTASIS).West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Sarcoma, Clear Cell: A sarcoma of young, often female, adults of the lower extremities and acral regions, intimately bound to tendons as circumscribed but unencapsulated melanin-bearing tumors of neuroectodermal origin. An ultrastructural finding simulates flattened and curved barrel staves, corresponding to the internal structures of premelanosomes. There is a 45-60% mortality in clear cell sarcoma. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Sarcoma, YoshidaCercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).TritiumLeukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Retroviridae Proteins, Oncogenic: Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.

Inhibition of the rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat-driven transcription by in vitro methylation: different sensitivity in permissive chicken cells versus mammalian cells. (1/1585)

Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) enhancer sequences in the long terminal repeat (LTR) have previously been shown to be sensitive to CpG methylation. We report further that the high density methylation of the RSV LTR-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter is needed for full transcriptional inhibition in chicken embryo fibroblasts and for suppression of tumorigenicity of the RSV proviral DNA in chickens. In nonpermissive mammalian cells, however, the low density methylation is sufficient for full inhibition. The time course of inhibition differs strikingly in avian and mammalian cells: although immediately inhibited in mammalian cells, the methylated RSV LTR-driven reporter is fully inhibited with a significant delay after transfection in avian cells. Moreover, transcriptional inhibition can be overridden by transfection with a high dose of the methylated reporter plasmid in chicken cells but not in hamster cells. The LTR, v-src, LTR proviral DNA is easily capable of inducing sarcomas in chickens but not in hamsters. In contrast, Moloney murine leukemia virus LTR-driven v-src induces sarcomas in hamsters with high incidence. Therefore, the repression of integrated RSV proviruses in rodent cells is directed against the LTR.  (+info)

HMG protein family members stimulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and avian sarcoma virus concerted DNA integration in vitro. (2/1585)

We have reconstituted concerted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration in vitro with specially designed mini-donor HIV-1 DNA, a supercoiled plasmid acceptor, purified bacterium-derived HIV-1 integrase (IN), and host HMG protein family members. This system is comparable to one previously described for avian sarcoma virus (ASV) (A. Aiyar et al., J. Virol. 70:3571-3580, 1996) that was stimulated by the presence of HMG-1. Sequence analyses of individual HIV-1 integrants showed loss of 2 bp from the ends of the donor DNA and almost exclusive 5-bp duplications of the acceptor DNA at the site of integration. All of the integrants sequenced were inserted into different sites in the acceptor. These are the features associated with integration of viral DNA in vivo. We have used the ASV and HIV-1 reconstituted systems to compare the mechanism of concerted DNA integration and examine the role of different HMG proteins in the reaction. Of the three HMG proteins examined, HMG-1, HMG-2, and HMG-I(Y), the products formed in the presence of HMG-I(Y) for both systems most closely match those observed in vivo. Further analysis of HMG-I(Y) mutants demonstrates that the stimulation of integration requires an HMG-I(Y) domain involved in DNA binding. While complexes containing HMG-I(Y), ASV IN, and donor DNA can be detected in gel shift experiments, coprecipitation experiments failed to demonstrate stable interactions between HMG-I(Y) and ASV IN or between HMG-I(Y) and HIV-1 IN.  (+info)

Protective effects of type I and type II interferons toward Rous sarcoma virus-induced tumors in chickens. (3/1585)

Growth of tumors induced by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is controlled by alleles at the major histocompatibility complex locus in chickens, indicating that immunological host defense mechanisms play a major role. We show here that the resistance phenotype of CB regressor chickens can be partially reverted by treating the animals with a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the major serotype of chicken type I interferon, ChIFN-alpha. Injection of recombinant ChIFN-alpha into susceptible CC progressor chickens resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of RSV-induced tumor development. This treatment was not effective, however, in CC chickens challenged with a DNA construct expressing the v-src oncogene, suggesting that the beneficial effect of type I interferon in this system resulted from its intrinsic antiviral activity and probably not from indirect immunmodulatory effects. By contrast, recombinant chicken interferon-gamma strongly inhibited tumor growth when given to CC chickens that were challenged with the v-src oncogene, indicating that the two cytokines target different steps of tumor development.  (+info)

The role of overlapping U1 and U11 5' splice site sequences in a negative regulator of splicing. (4/1585)

Splicing of Rous sarcoma virus RNA is regulated in part by a cis-acting intronic RNA element called the negative regulator of splicing (NRS). An NRS mutant affecting nt 916-923 disrupts U11 snRNP binding and reduces NRS activity (Gontarek et al., 1993, Genes & Dev 7:1926-1936). However, we observed that a U15' splice site-like sequence, which overlapped the U11 site, was also disrupted by this mutation. To determine whether the U1 or the U11 site was essential for NRS activity, we analyzed twelve additional mutants involving nt 915-926. All mutations that disrupted the potential base pairing between U1 snRNA and the NRS reduced NRS activity, including single point mutations at nt 915, 916, and 919. The point mutation at nt 919 was partially suppressed by a compensatory base change mutation in U1 snRNA. In contrast, a mutation which strengthened the potential base pairing between the U1 site and the NRS increased NRS activity. Surprisingly, mutations that specifically targeted the U115' splice site consensus sequence increased the levels of unspliced RNA, suggesting U11 binding plays an antagonistic role to NRS activity. We propose that U1 snRNP binding to the NRS inhibits splicing and is regulated by U11 snRNP binding to the overlapping sequence. Competition between U1 and U11 snRNPs would result in the appropriate balance of spliced to unspliced RNAs for optimal viral replication. Further, a virus mutated in the U1/U11 region of the NRS was found to have delayed replication.  (+info)

Transgenic mice ubiquitously expressing human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP): an additional reporter gene for use in tandem with beta-galactosidase (lacZ). (5/1585)

A fundamental keystone of developmental biology has been the growing use of reporter genes in model transgenic systems. Their use has greatly facilitated investigations of cell lineage and cell fate in addition to aiding experiments aimed at determining patterns of gene expression, gene interaction and gene regulation. Through construction of transgenic mice, ubiquitously expressing human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), we demonstrate the suitability of PLAP as a reporter gene for use in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, beta-galactosidase (lacZ). Our findings demonstrate that over-expression of PLAP has no adverse effects on mouse development or viability, despite a widespread pattern of expression. This technology provides a simple yet effective mechanism based on eukaryotic reporter gene technology to facilitate the identification of transgenic cells within complex in vivo systems.  (+info)

A mutant form of the rho protein can restore stress fibers and adhesion plaques in v-src transformed fibroblasts. (6/1585)

The organization of polymerized actin in the mammalian cell is regulated by several members of the rho family. Three rho proteins, cdc42, rac and rho act in a cascade to organize the intracellular actin cytoskeleton. Rho proteins are involved in the formation of actin stress fibers and adhesion plaques in fibroblasts. During transformation of mammalian cells by oncogenes the cytoskeleton is rearranged and stress fibers and adhesion plaques are disintegrated. In this paper we investigate the function of the rho protein in RR1022 rat fibroblasts transformed by the Rous sarcoma virus. Two activated mutants of the rho protein, rho G14V and rho Q63L, and a dominant negative mutant, rho N1171, were stably transfected into RR1022 cells. The resulting cell lines were analysed for the organization of polymerized actin and adhesion plaques. Cells expressing rho Q63L, but not rho wt, rho G14V or rho N1171, showed an altered morphology. These cells displayed a flat, fibroblast like shape when compared with the RR1022 ancestor cells. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that actin stress fibers and adhesion plaques were rearranged in these cells. We conclude from these data that an active rho protein can restore elements of the actin cytoskeleton in transformed cells by overriding the tyrosine kinase phosphorylation induced by the pp60(v-src).  (+info)

Molecular dynamics studies on the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain. (7/1585)

The HIV-1 integrase, which is essential for viral replication, catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the host chromosome, thereby recruiting host cell machinery into making viral proteins. It represents the third main HIV enzyme target for inhibitor design, the first two being the reverse transcriptase and the protease. Two 1-ns molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on completely hydrated models of the HIV-1 integrase catalytic domain, one with no metal ions and another with one magnesium ion in the catalytic site. The simulations predict that the region of the active site that is missing in the published crystal structures has (at the time of this work) more secondary structure than previously thought. The flexibility of this region has been discussed with respect to the mechanistic function of the enzyme. The results of these simulations will be used as part of inhibitor design projects directed against the catalytic domain of the enzyme.  (+info)

Biodegradable alginate microspheres as a delivery system for naked DNA. (8/1585)

Sodium alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide that can easily be polymerized into a solid matrix to form microspheres. These biodegradable microspheres were used to encapsulate plasmid DNA containing the bacterial beta-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under the control of either the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter or the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) early promoter. Mice inoculated orally with microspheres containing plasmid DNA expressed LacZ in the intestine, spleen and liver. Inoculation of mice with microspheres containing both the plasmid DNA and bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAd3) resulted in a significant increase in LacZ expression compared to those inoculated with microspheres containing only the plasmid DNA. Our results suggest that adenoviruses are capable of augumenting transgene expression by plasmid DNA both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Creation and expression of myristylated forms of Rous sarcoma virus Gag protein in mammalian cells. AU - Wills, John. AU - Craven, Rebecca. AU - Achacoso, J. A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a member of the avian sarcoma and leukosis family of retroviruses, has long been known to be capable of infecting and transforming mammalian cells; however, such transformed cells do not release virus particles. The RSV gag product (Pr76(gag)) produced in these cells is not released into the culture medium or proteolytically processed to release mature products. Thus, the behavior of Pr76(gag) in mammalian cells is much like that of mammalian retroviral Gag proteins which have been altered so as to block the addition of myristic acid at residue 2 (Gly). Because the RSV gag product does not possess a myristic acid addition site, we hypothesized that the creation of one by oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis might permit particles to be released from mammalian cells. ...
Hamster cells transformed with the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of avian sarcoma virus were selected for resistance to ethidium bromide (EB). The resistant cell lines proliferated in the presence of up to 30 µg/ml EB.. From avian sarcoma virus-transformed hamster cells already resistant to bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU), ethidium bromide-resistant cells which were able to grow in 10 µg/ml EB were also prepared. These cells remain deficient in thymidine kinase activity and are suitable for selective preparation of hybrid cells.. The EB resistance was genetically stable. The EB-resistant cell lines, and doubly resistant cells (BrdU, EB) showed no differences in mitochondrial ultrastructure compared with the original cell lines. Thymidine incorporation into mitochondrial DNA was not influenced by EB resistance.. All resistant cell lines, including the doubly resistant cell line, contained the avian sarcoma virus genome. The number of cells needed for positive rescue experiments for avian sarcoma virus genome ...
The mature cores of all retroviruses contain a major structural protein known as the CA (capsid) protein. Although it appears to form a shell around the ribonucleoprotein complex that contains the viral RNA, its function in viral replication is largely unknown. Little sequence similarity exists between the CA proteins of different retroviruses, except for a region of about 20 amino acids termed the major homology region (MHR). To examine the role of the CA protein in particle assembly and release, mutants of Rous sarcoma virus were created in which segments of CA were deleted or single conserved residues in the MHR were altered. The ability of the deletion mutants to release particles at rates similar to the wild-type protein demonstrated that the CA domain of Gag is not an essential component of the minimal budding machinery. Certain point mutations in the MHR region did block assembly and release in certain cell types, presumably by perturbing the global structure of the Gag precursor. Another ...
Balk, Samuel D. et al "Thymidine and Hypoxanthine Requirements for the Proliferation of Normal and Rous Sarcoma Virus-infected Chicken Fibroblasts in the Presence of Methotrexate." Cancer Research 39.5 (1979): 1854-1856. Web. 23 Feb. 2018. ...
Whitmore, A C.; Babcock, G F.; and Haughton, G, "Genetic control of susceptibility of mice to rous sarcoma virus tumorigenesis. II. Segregation analysis of strain a.sw- -associated Resistance to primary tumor induction." (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 4038 ...
This line was derived from an AtT-20ins cell line in which the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat was used for directing insulin cDNA expression.
Transcription from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Long terminal repeat (LTR) in untransformed rat 3Yl fibroblasts is dependent on the presence of serum. Within an hour of addition of serum to a serum-deprived culture there is a 5 fold stimulation in the level of transcripts initiated at the LTR. This stimulation does not require synthesis of new proteins. Mutations in the RSV LTR revealed that serum-stimulated transcription was mostly dependent on two CCAAT boxes in the LTR, though other upstream sequences may play a secondary role. Serum caused the rapid appearance of a nuclear protein that binds to the two CCAAT boxes. This serum-induced CCAAT factor was also bound by CCAAT sequences from other promoters, e.g. those of human heat shock protein 70, human c-Ha-ras, human histone 1 etc, but not by the adenovirus origin of replication, or the SV40 enhancer core sequence. This data suggests that the serum induced CCAAT factor is related to CPl or CP2 rather than the NFl or CjEBP types of CCAAT binding
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Vogt, P.K., Neil, J.C. , Moscovici, C. and Breitman, M.L. (1981) PRCII, a representative of a new class of avian sarcoma viruses. In: Neth, R., Gallo, R.C., Graf, T., Mannweiler, K. and Winkler, K. (eds.) Modern Trends in Human Leukemia IV. Series: Haematology and blood transfusion, 26. Springer, pp. 424-428. ISBN 9783540106227 (doi:10.1007/978-3-642-67984-1_77) ...
In their classic paper on the identification of the transforming principle of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) published 1970 in PNAS (1), Peter Duesberg at the University of California, Berkeley, and Peter Vogt, then at the University of Washington, Seattle, drew a seemingly simple yet groundbreaking conclusion. When they analyzed the genomic RNAs of transforming, acutely oncogenic RSV and of transformation-defective (td) mutant derivatives, they found that all transforming virus stocks contained two classes of RNA subunits, a larger one (a) and a smaller one (b), whereas the nontransforming yet replication-competent mutants contained the smaller b subunits only. Duesberg and Vogt concluded that the larger a subunit contained the transforming principle of RSV. Based on this and on subsequent structural comparisons of the a and b subunits of biologically cloned viruses, the transforming principle was defined by the remarkably simple equation a − b = x and was later termed src (for sarcoma). The first ...
The SRC gene is similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and…
Four previously uncharacterized avian sarcoma viruses were screened and two of these, RPL30 and CTIO, were found to encode apparently novel oncogenes. Biologically active CTIO DNA was molecularly cloned and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The CTIO genome encodes a gag-fusion polypeptide of 47 kilodaltons, termed p47gag-crk. This protein contains blocks of sequence similarity to a noncatalytic, potentially regulatory region found in the nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, a phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, and the ras GTPase activator protein; no homology was found to any known catalytic domain. Potential roles for the homologous domains, termed SH2 and SH3, in normal signal transduction and in the biological activity of p47gag-crk are discussed. Biochemical data demonstrated that phosphotyrosine levels on at least three cellular proteins were greatly elevated in CTI0-infected cells, and that a tyrosine kinase activity was immunoprecipitated in association with p47gag-crk. A specific
Proteins encoded by oncogenes such as v-fps/fes, v-src, v-yes, v-abl, and v-fgr are cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases which, unlike transmembrane receptors, are localized to the inside of the cell. These proteins possess two contiguous regions of sequence identity: a C-terminal catalytic domain of 260 residues with homology to other tyrosine-specific and serine-threonine-specific protein kinases, and a unique domain of approximately 100 residues which is located N terminal to the kinase region and is absent from kinases that span the plasma membrane. In-frame linker insertion mutations in Fujinami avian sarcoma virus which introduced dipeptide insertions into the most stringently conserved segment of this N-terminal domain in P130gag-fps impaired the ability of Fujinami avian sarcoma virus to transform rat-2 cells. The P130gag-fps proteins encoded by these transformation-defective mutants were deficient in protein-tyrosine kinase activity in rat cells. However v-fps polypeptides derived
1D1D: Solution structure and dynamics of the Rous sarcoma virus capsid protein and comparison with capsid proteins of other retroviruses.
Click to launch & play an online audio visual presentation by Prof. Raymond Erikson on Three decades of protein phosphorylation and cancer: the identification and characterization of the src gene product, part of a collection of online lectures.
CrkL antibody (v-crk avian sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog-like) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-CrkL pAb (GTX32539) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
The age of the chicken in which the Rous sarcoma is grown has an influence on the variation and subsequent adaptation of the causative virus to ducks. Adaptation is relatively easy to accomplish when the tumor has been grown in adult chickens several months of age. It has never been accomplished when the tumor has been grown in chicks and only occasionally when it has been grown in old chickens. ...
simarolide: quassinoid which inhibits incorporation of thymidine into chick embryo fibroblasts by Rous sarcoma virus; RN given is from 9th CI Chem Form Index; structure in first source
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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The host ranges of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) pseudotype RSV(HPRS-103) of a novel avian leukosis virus (ALV), strain HPRS-103, and representative RSV pseudotypes of subgroups A to F, have been determined in embryo fibroblasts from 12 avian species. Domestic fowl, red jungle fowl, Sonnerat's jungle fowl and turkey were susceptible to infection by RSV(HPRS-103); ring-necked pheasant, Japanese green pheasant, golden pheasant, Japanese quail, guinea-fowl, Peking duck, Muscovy duck and goose were resistant. The host range pattern of RSV(HPRS-103) differs from those of viruses of subgroups A to G and I, and provides support for placing the HPRS-103 strain of ALV in a new envelope subgroup, designated J.
Chick embryo fibroblasts infected with Rous sarcoma virus in vitro are rendered malignant for such cells produce typical Rous sarcomas when injected into susceptible chicks since the tumors produced predominantly retain the sex chromatin patterns of the donor cells when such cells are injected into a recipient of the opposite sex. However, examination of the sex chromatin of cells at the periphery of the tumor shows presence of recipient cells though the bulk of the tumor is clearly of donor cell origin. Such tumors grow and cause death of the recipient. Injection of RSV induces tumors of the sex of the recipient as also does the injection of transformed cells rendered incapable of multiplication by x-rays. Following their injection into susceptible chicks, the cells transformed in vitro by virus behave in the same manner as tumor cells obtained from tumors induced by virus in vivo and cultivated in the same conditions in vitro.. When such tumors induced by transformed cells are serially ...
The protein kinase activity associated with pp60src, the transforming protein of RSV, phosphorylates tyrosine when assayed in an immunoprecipitate. This observation is surprising because protein modification by way of phosphorylation of tyrosine is unprecedented (28, 29). It is nonetheless real. We have found that chicken cells (Table 1) and mouse, rat, and hamster cells (data not shown) all contain readily detectable amounts of Tyr(P). This modified amino acid appears to have escaped detection before because it is rare (phosphoserine and phosphothreonine together being about 3000 times more abundant) and because it and phosphothreonine are difficult to separate by traditional electrophoretic procedures. Because there is a 7-fold increase in the abundance of Tyr(P) in proteins in cells transformed by RSV and because pp60src itself contains Tyr(P), it seems likely that pp60src phosphorylates tyrosine in vivo as well as in vitro. We suggest that pp60src is a protein kinase and that the ...
Summary Peripheral blood lymphocytes of chickens bearing tumours induced by avian sarcoma virus can be specifically stimulated to divide by the crude culture fluids of virus-infected cells. In this communication, we show that relevant antigenic activity apparently resides in each of the internal virus proteins p15 and p27. The ability of infectious culture fluids to be mitogenic for sensitized lymphocytes is greatly reduced following treatment with antibodies specific for either total avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) protein or for p27.
v-Src is a gene found in Rous sarcoma virus that encodes a tyrosine kinase that causes a type of cancer in chickens. The src gene is oncogenic as it triggers uncontrolled growth in abnormal host cells. It was the first retroviral oncogene to be discovered. The src gene was taken up by RSV and incorporated into its genome conferring it with the advantage of being able to stimulate uncontrolled mitosis of host cells, providing abundant cells for fresh infection. The src gene is not essential for RSV proliferation but it greatly increases virulence when present. Francis Peyton Rous first proposed that viruses can cause cancer. He proved it in 1911 and was later awarded the Nobel prize in 1966. Chickens grow a tumor called a fibrosarcoma. Rous collected and ground up these sarcomas, and then centrifuged them to remove the solid material. Next, the remaining liquid mixture was injected into chicks. The chicks developed sarcomas. The causative agent in the liquid was a virus, this is now called the ...
Arthur D. Levinson, Ph.D., Chairman of Genentech, has replaced Steve Jobs as Chairman of the Board of Apple, Inc. During his scientific career, Levinson did research on different viruses, including adenovirus, retroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. His first virology paper came from his Ph.D. research with Arnold Levine, and is entitled "In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of the adenovirus type 5 single strand-specific DNA-binding protein". He moved to the University of California, San Francisco for postdoctoral work with Harold Varmus and Michael Bishop. There he published on the transforming gene of the retrovirus avian sarcoma virus. This PubMed search string will return Levinsons publications on viruses, of which there are approximately 35. Levinson left virology to work at Genentech in 1980, but clearly could be called a bona fide virologist. Who would have known that Steve Jobs would be replaced by a virologist?. Thanks to Alice Telesnitsky for pointing out this story.. ...
Tumor viruses Tumor viruses are those viruses that are able to infect cells and cause changes within the cells operating machinery such that the cells ability to regulate its growth and division is destroyed and the cells become cancerous. Human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus , human T-cell leukemia virus , SV-40, and Rous sarcoma virus are all tumor viruses. Source for information on Tumor Viruses: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary.
click on the image for a larger view) Figure 2. RSV virion structure and expression. Panel A shows a diagrammatic representation of a mature Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) virion. The legend at the right identifies individual proteins found in the mature virion. The outer membrane of the virion contains the transmembrane protein (TM), which is associated with the surface protein (SU). The matrix protein (MA) lies just under this outer membrane. The core of the virion is structurally delimited by the capsid protein (CA). Inside the capsid are two viral RNA genomes, shown partially covered with nucleocapsid protein (NC). The two genomic RNAs are hydrogen bonded near their 5 ends. The core also contains reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and protease (PR). Panel B shows the relationship of the proviral DNA, the open reading frames, viral RNAs, and proteins of RSV. The LTRs of the provirus are shown as a series of three boxes (U3, R, and U5). The viral genome is divided into gag, pol, env, and ...
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In normal cultures, the transformation of monocytes into fibroblasts generally occurred when cells became packed together through some mechanical factors that prevented their free migration and determined their accumulation. Various modifications of the medium, the addition of dead tissue, and of trypsin or the products of trypsin digestion, failed to bring about the transformation. The inoculation af cultures of monocytes with filtered extract of Rous sarcoma frequently determined the appearance of fibroblasts. The first change undergone by the monocytes cultivated in vitro was a large increase in their size. Later, the giant monocytes became transformed into cells that did not differ essentially from those that grow from a fragment of adult connective tissue.. ...
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Written by: Milan Duda & Petr Vykoukal Photo by: Vojtěch Vlk This Czech scientist has been leading a cancer research team in Copenhagen for thirteen years. We spoke to him about his teams recently published findings, which will have resounding effects on worldwide cancer research for years to come. Your discovery this
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Woolly monkey sarcoma virus (WMSV), with synonym Simian sarcoma virus (often abbreviated by SSV, but this may also stand for some species called Sulfolobus spindle-shaped virus, that belong to different genera in family Fuselloviridae) is a species of gammaretrovirus that infects primates. First isolation was from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey (genus Lagothrix). For its reproduction the virus needs a helper or associated virus which is called Simian sarcoma associated virus (SSAV). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses NCBI Taxonomy Browser Zoologix Simian sarcoma virus (SSV) and simian sarcoma associated virus (SSAV) University of Massachusetts Medical School Umass Profiles: Sarcoma Virus, Woolly Monkey S. G. Devare, E. Premkumar Reddy, J. Doria Law, K. C. Robbins, S. A. Aaronson: Nucleotide Sequence of the Simian Sarcoma Virus Genome: Demonstration that its Acquired Cellular Sequences Encode the Transforming Gene Product p28sis, JSTOR 13744, PMC 393453 E. P. Gelmannn, E. Petri, ...
How is Feline Sarcoma Virus abbreviated? FSV stands for Feline Sarcoma Virus. FSV is defined as Feline Sarcoma Virus somewhat frequently.
The effect of negative stain, freeze-fracture, and thin-sectioning procedures on the size of several oncornaviruses has been determined. After negative staining, the average outer dimensions measured over several experiments for the C-type avian viruses, avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and Rous sarcoma virus, Prague strain, were about 1370 and 1340 Å, respectively. These values were substantially smaller than the outer dimensions of the C-type murine viruses, Friend leukemia virus (FLV), namely, 1470 Å, and Moloney leukemia virus, namely, 1460 Å. The avian viruses were similar in size to the B-type murine virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, which measured about 1290 Å. All experimental values were obtained after glutaraldehyde (1.5%) fixation and uranyl acetate (2%, pH 4.2) staining. Other negative stains, such as sodium phosphotungstate (1%, pH 6.6), lead to disruption of the outer envelope and a concomitant diminution in size. Freeze-fractured preparations of AMV showed particles with or ...
The 5 nucleotide sequences of the transforming gene of simian sarcoma virus (v-sis) and its human cellular homolog (c-sis) were compared. A short homology was found between helper virus and cellular DNA sequences at the junction of v-sis and c-sis, which may have had a role in the original recombination event leading to the generation of simian sarcoma virus. ...
Chicken vertebral chondrocytes, which normally grow in suspension, synthesize large amounts of cartilage extracellular matrix proteins, but little fibronectin. We have analyzed the effects of both substrate attachment and transformation with a temperature-sensitive mutant of Rous sarcoma virus on fibronectin gene expression in these cells. Our experiments show that viral transformation increases fibronectin synthesis to a greater extent than substrate attachment. Furthermore, transformed chondrocytes have lost the ability to decrease fibronectin synthesis in response to suspension culture, suggesting that transformation alters the normal attachment-responsive control of fibronectin gene expression. Finally, infected substrate-attached chondrocytes shifted to the nonpermissive temperature for transformation use fibronectin RNA more efficiently in protein synthesis than cells grown under the other conditions, suggesting for the first time a role for translational control of fibronectin gene ...
Transformation of Rat-1 fibroblasts with the v-src oncogene leads to a 6- to 8-fold enhancement of the activity of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase in cytosolic extracts [Johnson, Wasilenko, Mattingly, Weber and Garrison (1989) Science 246, 121-124]. This study confirms these results using another v-src-transformed Rat-1 cell line (B31 cells) and investigates the molecular mechanism by which pp60v-src activates Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase. The mRNA and protein levels for two rat isoforms of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase were determined in the v-src-transformed cell line. Both the mRNA and protein levels for isoform A were elevated in v-src-transformed Rat-1 cells while those for isoform B were not significantly affected. Moreover, stable expression of either form of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase in the B31 v-src-transformed Rat-1 cell line did not result in tyrosine phosphorylation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase A or B. These results suggest that at least one mechanism by which the v-src oncogene increases the activity of the ...
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This app supports the AMI Prague Conference at the Hilton Prague 17th-18th February 2017. It offers many features including: · Personalised agendas· Hotel information· Meeting bookin
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Book the Sheraton Prague Charles Square Hotel - Located in Nove Mesto, this hotel is within a 10-minute walk of New Town Hall, Lucerna Arcade, and Wenceslas Square. Prague Dancing House and Czech National Museum are also within 10 minutes.
ESA99 will take place in Prague in the Czech Republic on July 16-18, 1999. Prague is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Its magical atmosphere has been shaped over ten centuries. Places of the greatest tourist interest are on the Royal Route running from the Powder Tower through Celetna Street to the Old Town Square, then across the Charles Bridge through the Lesser Town up to the Hradcany Castle. One should not miss the Jewish Town, the National Gallery with its fine collection of Czech gothic art, collection of old European art, and a beautiful collection of French art. Prague has a population of roughly 1.3 million. ESA99 will take place at the PRAHA Hotel***** (Susicka 20, Prague 6), which is located in the residential area of green gardens in suburban district Hanspaulka in Prague 6. The hotel is situated in the middle of an eight hectares park (i.e. nearly twenty acres). The hotel complex offers spacious interior and exterior areas dominated by terraced layout of the hotel ...
Hearty food as self-medication for the long winter., Great places for breakfast, lunch, dinner or just some snack ... Discover Pragues international cuisine on offer, there is something for everyone!
A tiny Lesser Mouse-Deer was born on November 1 at the Prague Zoo. This species is the smallest of all known hoofed mammals. Adults have bodies about the same size as rabbits, have legs the size of pencils, and weigh...
A tiny Lesser Mouse-Deer was born on November 1 at the Prague Zoo. This species is the smallest of all known hoofed mammals. Adults have bodies about the same size as rabbits, have legs the size of pencils, and weigh...
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Ujerumani imefanikiwa kusonga mbele kugombea nafasi katika mashindano ya kandanda ya Ubingwa wa Ulaya mwaka 2008 baada ya kuikandika Jamhuri ya Czech mabao 2-1 mjini Prague.Mabao yote mawili yalitiwa na Kevin Kuranyi.Timu ya Ujerumani haikushindwa katika kundi lake,baada ya michezo mitano na sasa inaongoza kwa pointi tatu katika kundi D.. ...
Bryan Benoit is the national managing partner for the Energy Advisory practice of Grant Thornton LLP. Bryan also leads the Corporate Value Consulting practice in the United States and is a principal in Grant Thornton Financial Advisors LLC, providing fairness opinions and other board services.
Written by: Štěpánka Strouhalová Čapek and his Washman foto archiv Designer Jan Čapek has recently drawn interest for creations as varied as packaging for the
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Two-thirds of Czechs believe the Chamber of Deputies should again lift the immunity of ANOs Andrej Babiš and Jaroslav Faltýnek so they can face trial on charges of abuse of EU subsidies, suggests a poll conducted for Czech Radio by the Median agency. ...
ZTE had a pretty strong presence at MWC 2015 and brought a few phones to the venue. Few among them were actually new. So we decided to go ahead and skip...
used to derive intake values did not include consideration for other applications. However, with the increasing globalization of information and the identification of a variety of factors specific to different population subgroups (e.g ...
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feline sarcoma virus high-molecular-weight polyprotein: high MW polyprotein translational product of Snyder-Theilen feline sarcoma virus; posseses protein kinase activity with specificity for tyrosine acceptor sites
The c-Fos and c-Jun transcription factors are rapidly turned over in vivo. One of the multiple pathways responsible for their breakdown is probably initiated by calpains, which are cytoplasmic calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. The c-fos gene has been transduced by two murine oncogenic retroviruses called Finkel-Biskis-Jenkins murine sarcoma virus (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine sarcoma virus (FBR-MSV); c-jun has been transduced by the chicken avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV17) retrovirus. Using an in vitro degradation assay, we show that the mutated v-FosFBR, but not v-FosFBJ or v-JunASV17, is resistant to calpains. This property raises the interesting possibility that decreased sensitivity to calpains might contribute to the tumorigenic potential of FBR-MSV by allowing greater accumulation of the protein that it encodes in infected cells. It has also been demonstrated that resistance to cleavage by calpains does not result from mutations that have accumulated in the Fos moiety of the ...
Alterations involving the ROS (v-ros UR2 sarcoma virus oncogene homolog 1) gene such as mutations, overexpression and gene rearrangements has been implicated in carcinogenesis and has been demonstrated to be a relevant target for ALK inhibitors. While emerging reports have demonstrated the role of ROS rearrangement in non-small cell lung cancer and cholangiocarcinoma, the functional significance of ROS dysregulation in solid tumors remain largely unstudied. The investigators aims are: (1) To characterize the frequency of ROS gene fusion, ROS protein overexpression and ROS gene mutations in cell lines and tumors from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal, gastric, breast, ovarian, cholangiocarcinoma and non-small cell lung cancer, (2) To identify novel ROS gene variants in human solid tumors harboring ROS aberrations using next generation sequencing (NGS), (3) To determine the functional relevance of novel ROS gene variants identified with NGS, (4) To characterize the sensitivity of ...
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The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of a male adult African green monkey by F.C. Jensen, et al. in March, 1964 for use in Rous sarcoma virus transformation studies.
Onkogen (bahasa Inggris: oncogene) adalah gen yang termodifikasi sehingga meningkatkan keganasan sel tumor. Onkogen umumnya berperan pada tahap awal pembentukan tumor. Onkogen meningkatkan kemungkinan sel normal menjadi sel tumor, yang pada akhirnya dapat menyebabkan kanker. Riset terbaru menunjukkan bawa RNA pendek (small RNA) sepanjang 21-25 nukelotida yang dikenal sebagai RNA mikro (miRNA) dapat mengontrol onkogen. Onkogen pertama kali ditemukan oleh Francis Peyton Rous pada tahun 1910[1] saat mengamati tumor pada unggas yang dapat ditransmisikan ke makhluk lain karena memiliki sel sarkoma yang mengandung retrovirus, yang kemudian disebut RSV (bahasa Inggris: Rous sarcoma virus).[2] Tahun 1976 Dr. John Michael Bishop dan Dr. Harold E. Varmus dari Universitas California San Francisco membuktikan bahwa onkogen berasal dari proto-onkogen yang mengalami kerusakan. Proto-onkogen telah ditemukan pada banyak organisme, termasuk manusia. Atas penemuan penting ini, Dr. Bishop dan Dr. Varmus mendapat ...
The Naming of Prague Salt by Eben van Tonder 8 May 2016 For a booklet version of this article, visit: https://thenamingofpraguesalt.pressbooks.com/ PDF version: The Naming of Prague Salt INDEX INTRODUCTION MEAT CURING: 1600 - 1910 QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ORIGIN OF PRAGUE SALT EARLY EXPERIMENTS WITH SODIUM NITRITE EARLY PUBLIC PERCEPTION ABOUT NITRITE PRAGUE 1800 - 1920…
Materials. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin was from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA) or Pierce (Rockford, IL), carbodiimide was from ICN (Irvine, CA),m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester was from Pierce, Freunds adjuvant was from Difco Laboratories (Detroit, MI), and Tri-Immunol vaccine was from Lederle Laboratories (Pearl River, NY). An ECL detection kit was from Amersham (Arlington Heights, IL). Fura-2 AM and Cell Tracker CM-DiI were from Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR). Affinity-purified goat anti-mouse and goat anti-rabbit IgG, coupled to FITC or Texas Red, were from Cappel Research Products (Durham, NC) or Jackson ImmunoResearch (West Grove, PA). A monoclonal antibody to tachykinins was from Chemicon (Temecula, CA). SP, NKA, and NKB were from Peninsula Laboratories (Belmont, CA). Other reagents were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO).. Cell lines. Sarcoma virus-transformed rat kidney epithelial cells (KNRK) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were from American Tissue Type Culture Collection ...
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
Here, we show that a conditionally replicative oncolytic adenovirus based on the A33 promoter was able to inhibit the in vivo growth in nude mice of established colorectal carcinoma and eliminated established hepatic metastases. AV22EL was highly selective because it was completely ineffective on cells that did not express A33.. Most of the oncolytic viruses are developed based on promoters that can be active in more than a single cancer type to allow for a wider use without the therapeutic limitation of using the oncolytic virus in only one cancer type. This is the case for the CEA, COX-2, T-cell factor, and telomerase promoters that have been mentioned in Introduction. An additional CRAd based on a double heterologous promoter Ki67 and COX-2 showed significant oncolytic activity on s.c. established colorectal tumors, although its effectiveness on established hepatic metastases was not assessed (38). More recently, a CRAd expressing E1A driven by the nonspecific Rous sarcoma virus promoter and ...
Tailor YI, Suskauer SJ, Sepeta LN, Ewen JB, Dematt EJ, Trovato MK, Salorio CF, Slomine BS. Functional status of children with encephalitis in an inpatient rehabilitation setting: a case series. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 2013.. Zhou, J., McAllen, K., Tailor, Y. and Summers, M.F. High Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding to the μΨ RNA Packaging Signal of Rous Sarcoma Virus. Journal of Molecular Biology, 2005. ...
To study the frequency of germ-line transformation and to examine the reproducibility of tissue-specific transgene expression, we produced several lines of transgenic zebrafish expressing a recombinant chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Supercoiled plasmids containing both Rous sarcoma virus and SV-40 promoter sequences upstream of the CAT coding region were injected into zebrafish embryos prior to first cleavage. CAT activity could be detected in batches of injected embryos as early as 8 h and up to at least 12 days post-fertilization. Approximately 18% of injected fish raised to maturity exhibited CAT activity in their fins, and approximately 5% of injected fish became stable germ-line transformants. Breeding studies indicated that although transgenic founder fish were frequently germ-line mosaics, transgenic individuals of subsequent generations were fully hemizygous for the transgene marker. The transgenes present in the F1 progeny of four independent lines were relatively well ...
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sarcoma - MedHelps sarcoma Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for sarcoma. Find sarcoma information, treatments for sarcoma and sarcoma symptoms.
Classic TEM. First description of the endoplasmic reticulum. Whole mount of unfixed, dried chick embryo fibroblast. Embryonic chick cells were grown ...
Prague, the Czech capital, was always considered a center for advanced medical practice and research in the days of the Soviet Union. Now, in the new era, specialists at one of Pragues top hospita...
With a mix of architectural styles that range from Renaissance and Baroque to more modern influences, along with stunning river views, Prague is a dream for photographers.
The Moldau River flows under the Charles Bridge and past buildings in Old Town on April 12, 2009 in Prague, Czech Republic. Prague is among Europe's major tourist destinations.
Im riding in honor and memory of Eric Skogman, and in thanks to Rein in Sarcoma for the support they provided to him and to others with sarcoma cancers.. Sarcoma doesnt get the attention of other cancers, and its just as ugly -- if not uglier. If youre like I was and saying, "Whats a sarcoma?" please take the time to read the information on this website.. 100 percent of your donation will go directly to Rein In Sarcoma - 0 percent of your sponsorship dollars will fund my ride.. Thank you for your support - there is no donation too small.". ...
Because sarcomas are rare, I would like to start a conversation to help connect people living with sarcoma or caring for someone with sarcoma. As you know, sarcoma is the general term for a broad group of cancers that begin in the bones and in the connective or soft […]
Because sarcomas are rare, I would like to start a conversation to help connect people living with sarcoma or caring for someone with sarcoma. As you know, sarcoma is the general term for a broad group of cancers that begin in the bones and in the connective or soft […]
Levels of v-Src kinase activity and Cx43 in the cell clones. (A) In vitro v-Src protein kinase activities. The same amounts of anti-Src TBR serum 6-1-4 were rea
Read the U Krále Karla, Prague hotel review on Telegraph Travel. See great photos, full ratings, facilities, expert advice and book the best hotel deals.
Prague suffers from bad decisions on new constructions. We will bring urban planning as one of the main topics of municipal elections campaign, and will enforce politicians to commitments. Civic initiatives and municipalities will be connected together. ...
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Still on the story that Cohen was in Prague in the summer of 2016: Lots of alternatives here, including spoofing and missing cell phones. BONUS PARANOIA: Suppose Russian Intelligence decided to exploit Hillarys paranoia and opportunism by spoofing a meeting...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Retroviruses that cause tumor growth include Rous sarcoma virus and Mouse mammary tumor virus. Cancer can be triggered by proto ... Walleye dermal sarcoma virus. *Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline ... Rous sarcoma virus contains the src gene that triggers tumor formation. Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is ...
Rubin, H; Vogt PK (1962). "An avian leukosis virus associated with stocks of Rous sarcoma virus". Virology. 17: 184-94. doi: ... Maki, Y; Bos TJ; Davis C; Starbuck M; Vogt PK (1987). "Avian sarcoma virus 17 carries the jun oncogene". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... Toyoshima, K; Vogt PK (1969). "Temperature sensitive mutants of an avian sarcoma virus". Virology. 39 (4): 930-1. doi:10.1016/ ... "Criteria for the classification of avian tumor viruses". Viruses Inducing Cancer. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press: 71- ...
v-CRK avian sarcoma virus CT10-homolog-like contains one SH2 domain and two SH3 domains. CRKL has been shown to activate the ... "Entrez Gene: CRKL v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)-like". Matsuki T, Pramatarova A, Howell BW (June 2008). " ...
"Entrez Gene: ROS1 v-ros UR2 sarcoma virus oncogene homolog 1 (avian)". Berge EM, Doebele RC (February 2014). "Targeted ... Matsushime H, Wang LH, Shibuya M (August 1986). "Human c-ros-1 gene homologous to the v-ros sequence of UR2 sarcoma virus ... Matsushime H, Wang LH, Shibuya M (August 1986). "Human c-ros-1 gene homologous to the v-ros sequence of UR2 sarcoma virus ... sarcoma, cholangiocarcinomas and others. Crizotinib or other ROS1 inhibitors may be effective in other tumor histologies beyond ...
This gene is the putative transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus 17. It encodes a protein that is highly similar to the viral ... Ten undifferentiated and highly aggressive sarcomas showed amplification of the jun gene and JUN overexpression at both RNA and ... Virus Genes. 21 (1-2): 51-64. doi:10.1023/A:1008132313289. PMID 11022789. Velazquez Torres A, Gariglio Vidal P (2002). "[ ... "JUN oncogene amplification and overexpression block adipocytic differentiation in highly aggressive sarcomas". Cancer Cell. 11 ...
Species include the Rous sarcoma virus, avian leukosis virus, and avian myeloblastosis virus. Alpharetrovirus at the US ... Members can cause sarcomas, other tumors, and anaemia of wild and domestic birds and also affect rats. ...
v-Crk, a transforming oncoprotein from avian sarcoma viruses, is a fusion of viral "gag" protein with the SH2 and SH3 domains ... "Entrez Gene: CRK v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)". Tetsuya Nakamoto; Ryuichi Sakai; Keiya Ozawa; Yoshio ... The name Crk is from "CT10 Regulator of Kinase" where CT10 is the avian virus from which was isolated a protein, lacking kinase ...
... of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA". Nature. 260 (5547): 170-173. doi:10.1038/260170a0.. ... that gave rise to the v-src oncogene of Rous Sarcoma Virus, a cancer-causing virus first isolated from a chicken sarcoma by ... Jacks, T. and Varmus, H.E. Expression of the Rous sarcoma virus pol gene by ribosomal frameshifting. Science 230:1237, 1985. ... Bates, P; Young, JA; Varmus, HE (1993). "A receptor for subgroup A Rous sarcoma virus is related to the low density lipoprotein ...
1977). "Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". ... "Uninfected vertebrate cells contain a protein that is closely related to the product of the avian sarcoma virus transforming ... This gene is similar to the v-Src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of ... Eventually this normal gene mutated into an abnormally functioning oncogene within the Rous sarcoma virus. Once the oncogene is ...
1978). "Uninfected avian cells contain RNA related to the transforming gene of avian sarcoma viruses". Cell. 13 (2): 371-379. ... She later worked with the research group of Harold E. Varmus on understanding how avian src protoncogenes worked. She ... at the time when the barriers to infection of bacterial cells by virus (bacteriophage) first became apparent, leading to the ...
... terminus of the avian sarcoma virus genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 74 (4): 1473-7. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... end of the avian sarcoma virus genome". Nucleic Acids Research. 8 (13): 2967-84. doi:10.1093/nar/8.13.2967. PMC 324138 . PMID ... Retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) use this basic mechanism. As 5' and 3' LTRs are identical upon ... Valsamakis, A; Schek, N; Alwine, JC (1992). "Elements upstream of the AAUAAA within the human immunodeficiency virus ...
"Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus." Nature 269.5626 (1977): 346-8. Brugge, ... "Identification of a transformation-specific antigen induced by an avian sarcoma virus." Nature 269.5626 (1977): 346-8. Brugge, ... She continued her studies on the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) that she had discovered in her postdoctorate work. Much of her ... "Rous sarcoma virus-induced phosphorylation of a 50,000-molecular weight cellular protein." Nature 295.5846 (1982): 250-3. Bolen ...
"Evidence that the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus encodes a protein kinase associated with a phosphoprotein". Cell. 15 ... Crise B, Rose JK (Apr 1992). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein precursor retains a CD4-p56lck complex in the ... Soula M, Fagard R, Fischer S (Feb 1992). "Interaction of human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein 160 with CD4 in Jurkat cells ... on the syncytium formation induced by human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein". International Immunology. 4 (2): 233 ...
... of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA". Nature. 260 (5547): 170-173. doi:10.1038/260170a0. Glick, B.; Chang, ... of DNA complementary to nucleotide sequences required for neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts by avian sarcoma viruses". ... the chick was used to isolate the mumps virus for vaccine development and it is still used to culture some viruses and ... Human fascination with the chicken and its egg are so deeply rooted in history that it is hard to say exactly when avian ...
"Nucleotide sequence of an avian sarcoma virus oncogene (src) and proposed amino acid sequence for gene product". Nature. 287 ( ... The chicks developed sarcomas. The causative agent in the liquid was a virus, this is now called the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). ... "Detection and enumeration of transformation-defective strains of avian sarcoma virus with molecular hybridization". Virology. ... v-Src is a gene found in Rous sarcoma virus that encodes a tyrosine kinase that causes a type of cancer in chickens. The src ...
"Entrez Gene: ROS1 v-ros UR2 sarcoma virus oncogene homolog 1 (avian)".. ... "Human c-ros-1 gene homologous to the v-ros sequence of UR2 sarcoma virus encodes for a transmembrane receptorlike molecule". ... "Human c-ros-1 gene homologous to the v-ros sequence of UR2 sarcoma virus encodes for a transmembrane receptorlike molecule". ... sarcoma, cholangiocarcinomas and others.[24] Crizotinib or other ROS1 inhibitors may be effective in other tumor histologies ...
... terminus of the avian sarcoma virus genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 74 (4): 1473-7. PMC 430805. PMID ... end of the avian sarcoma virus genome". Nucleic Acids Research 8 (13): 2967-84. PMC 324138. PMID 6253899. doi:10.1093/nar/8.13. ... Utilízanos os virus que insiren o seu material xenético no xenoma da célula hóspede. ... "Comparison of 5' and 3' long terminal repeat promoter function in human immunodeficiency virus". Journal of virology 68 (6): ...
UTR of Avian sarcoma, Rous sarcoma and Avian leukosis viruses (Alpharetroviruses and Avian type C retroviruses). dr1 is ... Aschoff, JM; Foster D; Coffin JM (1999). "Point Mutations in the Avian Sarcoma/Leukosis Virus 3′ Untranslated Region Result in ...
"Comparison of three recombinant murine leukemia viruses carrying the v-src oncogene of avian sarcoma virus: Differences in in ... As a specific case, a Gag-v-Onc fusion protein from the Rous sarcoma virus is useful in illustrating the dual role that the ... Rous sarcoma virus Fusion protein Fusion gene Fusion transcript Chimeric gene Bcr-abl fusion protein Oncovirus Retrovirus ... In the case of the murine leukemia viruses, a species of viruses capable of causing cancer in murines (mice), the viral life ...
The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM ... Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses (ASLV) have ten subgroups (A through J). The envelope glycoprotein of subgroup A is called ... Balliet JW, Gendron K, Bates P (April 2000). "Mutational analysis of the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus putative ... "Low pH is required for avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral ...
Ancient DNA Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous retrovirus ERV3 HERV-FRD Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) Koala ... Murine leukemia virus (MLV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Paleovirology Polydnavirus Viral ... An endogenous viral element (EVE) is a DNA sequence derived from a virus, and present within the germline of a non-viral ... For most non-retroviral viruses, germline integration appears to be a rare, anomalous event, and the resulting EVEs are often ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ( ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... RNA viruses[edit]. Not all oncoviruses are DNA viruses. Some RNA viruses have also been associated such as the hepatitis C ...
The AP-1 subunit Jun was identified as a novel oncoprotein of avian sarcoma virus, and Fos-associated p39 protein was ... Xie J, Pan H, Yoo S, Gao SJ (December 2005). "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus induction of AP-1 and interleukin 6 ... "Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB pathways by a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K15 membrane ...
... such as Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), feline leukemia virus (FLV), and feline sarcoma virus (FESV). This family also ... Borisenko L (2003). "Avian endogenous retroviruses". Folia Biol. (Praha). 49 (5): 177-82. PMID 14680291. Stansell E, Tytler E, ... Matrix proteins are also components of beta-retroviruses such as Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) and mouse mammary tumor virus ... "RNA dimerization defect in a Rous sarcoma virus matrix mutant". J. Virol. 74 (1): 164-72. doi:10.1128/jvi.74.1.164-172.2000. ...
... horses Leucosis in sheep Feline leucosis Feline leukemia virus Avian leucosis and related diseases Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ... ISBN 0-7020-0718-8. H. Graham Purchase and L.N. Payne, Leukosis/sarcoma Group, in Diseases of poultry, ed. by M.S. Hofstad, ... Bovine leucosis Enzootic bovine leucosis, caused by bovine leukemia virus. Sporadic bovine leucosis Calf lymphosarcoma Leucosis ... "Bovine leukemia virus". The dictionary of virology (4th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 61-62. ISBN 9780080920368 ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... The JC virus or John Cunningham virus is a type of human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). It was identified by ...
"Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-receptor interactions: from classical genetics to novel insights into virus-cell membrane ... Avian sarcoma leukosis virus is characterized by a wide range of tumors, the most common of which are lymphomas. Lymphoid ... Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) is an endogenous retrovirus that infects and can lead to cancer in chickens; experimentally ... In 1961, Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which is closely related to ASLV, was shown to contain RNA, and oncogenic viruses, such as ...
The mechanism of interference between an avian leukosis virus and Rous sarcoma virus. II. Early steps of infection by RSV of ...
... avian)), Authors: Shinya Tanaka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... CRK (v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)). Written. 2012-03. Shinya Tanaka. ... Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. ... Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. ...
... as the virus replicates and takes its first step toward virus formation and budding. ... Researchers used NMR to detail how the matrix domain of the Avian Sarcoma Virus Gag protein binds to certain phospholipids. ... Uncovering a key mechanism in assembly of Avian Sarcoma Virus, a 100-year-old oncogenic virus often used to study HIV-1. ... "Structural basis for targeting avian sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein to the plasma membrane for virus assembly," are Jiri Vlach, ...
V-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (Avian), isoform CRA_aImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another ... tr,Q5ND51,Q5ND51_MOUSE V-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (Avian), isoform CRA_a OS=Mus musculus GN=Crk PE=2 SV=1 ... V-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene-like proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ...
A Nonviral, Virus Strain-specific Antigen Expressed on Rat Cells Transformed by Avian Sarcoma Virus. Edwin R. Phillips and ... A Nonviral, Virus Strain-specific Antigen Expressed on Rat Cells Transformed by Avian Sarcoma Virus ... A Nonviral, Virus Strain-specific Antigen Expressed on Rat Cells Transformed by Avian Sarcoma Virus ... A Nonviral, Virus Strain-specific Antigen Expressed on Rat Cells Transformed by Avian Sarcoma Virus ...
... contained the avian sarcoma virus genome. The number of cells needed for positive rescue experiments for avian sarcoma virus ... Avian Sarcoma Virus Transformed Hamster Cells made Resistant to Ethidium Bromide Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... From avian sarcoma virus-transformed hamster cells already resistant to bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdU), ethidium bromide-resistant ... Hamster cells transformed with the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of avian sarcoma virus were selected for resistance to ethidium ...
Virus-Cell Interactions. Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ...
Extensive in vitro transcription of rous sarcoma virus RNA by avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase and concurrent ... Extensive in vitro transcription of rous sarcoma virus RNA by avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase and concurrent ... Extensive in vitro transcription of rous sarcoma virus RNA by avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase and concurrent ... Extensive in vitro transcription of rous sarcoma virus RNA by avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase and concurrent ...
... ... Uncovering a key mechanism in assembly of Avian Sarcoma Virus, a 100-year-old oncogenic virus often used to study HIV-1. by ... Citation: Uncovering a key mechanism in assembly of Avian Sarcoma Virus, a 100-year-old oncogenic virus often used to study HIV ... Structural basis for targeting avian sarcoma virus Gag polyprotein to the plasma membrane for virus assembly, Journal of ...
... of avian sarcoma virus integrase (ASV-IN) dimer. ... of avian sarcoma virus integrase (ASV-IN) dimer. Starting model ... Computer Aided Study of Ligand Binding to with Catalytic Domain of Avian Sarcoma Virus Integrase. We report here 500 pico ...
Receptor specificity in avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV) maps to the central region of the envelope surface protein, ... of the ASLV envelope sequences revealed a cluster of basic residues within hr2 that is unique to the subgroup A viruses, ... Receptor-induced conformational changes in the subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein.. *J M Gilbert ... Receptor specificity in avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV) maps to the central region of the envelope surface protein, ...
Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ... Reply to commentary by D. Elleder and J. Hejnar on the article "Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag gene in the Anser anser ... Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ... Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ...
... or combined irradiation and BCNU were studied in the avian sarrcoma virus (ASV)-induced glioma model in rats. Whole-head ... An in vivo study using the avian sarcoma virus-induced glioma model.. *. Paul Steinbok, M. Stephen Mahaley, +4 authors Darell D ... An in vivo study using the avian sarcoma virus-induced glioma model.}, author={Paul Steinbok and M. Stephen Mahaley and ... The therapeutic effects of irradiation, BCNU, or combined irradiation and BCNU were studied in the avian sarrcoma virus (ASV)- ...
Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subgroup A or B envelope proteins and bearing bi-functional ... Our results indicate that the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus bridge strategy provides a reliable approach for cell-specific ... An alternative approach involved soluble avian sarcoma/leukosis virus receptors fused to cell-specific ligands including stem ... encoding erythropoietin or stem cell factor fused to the soluble extracellular domains of the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus ...
... of a novel avian leukosis virus (ALV), strain HPRS-103, and representative RSV pseudotypes of subgroups A to F, have been ... The host range pattern of RSV(HPRS-103) differs from those of viruses of subgroups A to G and I, and provides support for ... determined in embryo fibroblasts from 12 avian species. Domestic fowl, red jungle fowl, Sonnerat's jungle fowl and turkey ... The host ranges of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) pseudotype RSV(HPRS-103) ...
Biologically active molecular clones of avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17) contain a replication-defective proviral genome of 3.5 ...
We describe 12 nonconditional mutants of avian sarcoma virus. Eleven were replication defective and one appeared to retain wild ... Alterations in the genomes of avian sarcoma viruses. Virology, 117 (2). pp. 456-474. ISSN 0042-6822 ... Defective Viruses/isolation & purification; Genetic Complementation Test; Helper Viruses/metabolism; Mutation; Quail; RNA, ...
Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ~~~ Title: What is Avian sarcoma leukosis virus?, Explain Avian sarcoma leukosis virus Created on ... What is Avian sarcoma leukosis virus?, Explain Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. by admin · April 14, 2019. ...
Four previously uncharacterized avian sarcoma viruses were screened and two of these, RPL30 and CTIO, were found to encode ... Four previously uncharacterized avian sarcoma viruses were screened and two of these, RPL30 and CTIO, were found to encode ... Molecular Cloning of Avian Sarcoma Virus CT10 and Characterization of its Protein Product ... Mayer, Bruce J., "Molecular Cloning of Avian Sarcoma Virus CT10 and Characterization of its Protein Product" (1989). Student ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Retroviruses that cause tumor growth include Rous sarcoma virus and Mouse mammary tumor virus. Cancer can be triggered by proto ... Walleye dermal sarcoma virus. *Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Retroviruses that cause tumor growth include Rous sarcoma virus and Mouse mammary tumor virus. Cancer can be triggered by proto ... Walleye dermal sarcoma virus. *Genus Lentivirus; type species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1; others include Simian, Feline ... Rous sarcoma virus contains the src gene that triggers tumor formation. Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is ...
Asp-Ser-Gly is found in avian sarcoma leukaemia viruses (ASLV) and Asp-Thr-Gly in mammalian oncoretroviruses. We have mutated ... However, this mutation reduced the production of reverse transcriptase-containing particles and infectious virus following ... as well as synthetic peptides homologous to ASLV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cleavage sites. Bacterially produced ... Point mutation in avian sarcoma leukaemia virus protease which increases its activity but impairs infectious virus production * ...
Mechanistically, high BCL2 family member and CDK4, but low P53 and INK4A protein expression synergized in Ewing-like sarcoma ... Blocking apoptosis through enforced BCL2 family member expression in MSCs promoted efficient and rapid sarcoma formation when ... Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent childhood bone cancer driven by the EWS/FLI1 (EF) fusion protein. Genetically ... used mesenchymal Prx1-directed conditional EF expression in mice to study bone development and to establish a reliable sarcoma ...
Herpes Viruses VIII. Adenoviruses IX. Papova Viruses X. Myxoviruses XL Avian Sarcomas and Lymphomas XII. Picorna Viruses XIII. ... Isolation of Viruses in Tissue Culture III. Identification of Viruses IV. Titration of Viruses. V. Replication of Viruses VI. ... Production of Virus Vaccines VIII. Transformation of Cells by Viruses IX. Virus Studies in Organ Cultures References 5. ... Miscellaneous Viruses XV. Apologia and Epilogue References 4. Cell, Tissue and Organ Cultures in Virus Research. I. ...

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