Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Amino Acid Sequence
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Biological Science Disciplines
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Directories as Topic
Influenza A virus
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Intermediate Filament Proteins
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (1/1107)The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart. (+info)
MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (2/1107)Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin. (+info)
Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (3/1107)Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb. (+info)
Dynamic expression of lunatic fringe suggests a link between notch signaling and an autonomous cellular oscillator driving somite segmentation. (4/1107)The metameric organization of the vertebrate trunk is a characteristic feature of all members of this phylum. The origin of this metamerism can be traced to the division of paraxial mesoderm into individual units, termed somites, during embryonic development. Despite the identification of somites as the first overt sign of segmentation in vertebrates well over 100 years ago, the mechanism(s) underlying somite formation remain poorly understood. Recently, however, several genes have been identified which play prominent roles in orchestrating segmentation, including the novel secreted factor lunatic fringe. To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lunatic fringe controls somite development, we have conducted a thorough analysis of lunatic fringe expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of chick embryos. Here we report that lunatic fringe is expressed predominantly in somite -II, where somite I corresponds to the most recently formed somite and somite -I corresponds to the group of cells which will form the next somite. In addition, we show that lunatic fringe is expressed in a highly dynamic manner in the chick segmental plate prior to somite formation and that lunatic fringe expression cycles autonomously with a periodicity of somite formation. Moreover, the murine ortholog of lunatic fringe undergoes a similar cycling expression pattern in the presomitic mesoderm of somite stage mouse embryos. The demonstration of a dynamic periodic expression pattern suggests that lunatic fringe may function to integrate notch signaling to a cellular oscillator controlling somite segmentation. (+info)
Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (5/1107)The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development. (+info)
Expression of Zkrml2, a homologue of the Krml1/val segmentation gene, during embryonic patterning of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). (6/1107)We have identified Zkrml2, a novel homologue of the segmentation gene Krml/val in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zkrml2 shows 72% and 92% identity in its basic leucine zipper domain with mouse Krml1 and zebrafish val, respectively. Zkrml2 is expressed coincident with MyoD throughout the somites starting at the three somite stage, becomes restricted to the dermomyotome, and subsequently disappears. Transient expression is also detected in the reticulospinal and oculomotor neurons. Zkrml2 maps to the Oregon linkage group 11 (Boston Linkage group 14) with no mapped zebrafish mutations nearby. (+info)
Role of Pitx1 upstream of Tbx4 in specification of hindlimb identity. (7/1107)In spite of recent breakthroughs in understanding limb patterning, the genetic factors determining the differences between the forelimb and the hindlimb have not been understood. The genes Pitx1 and Tbx4 encode transcription factors that are expressed throughout the developing hindlimb but not forelimb buds. Misexpression of Pitx1 in the chick wing bud induced distal expression of Tbx4, as well as HoxC10 and HoxC11, which are normally restricted to hindlimb expression domains. Wing buds in which Pitx1 was misexpressed developed into limbs with some morphological characteristics of hindlimbs: the flexure was altered to that normally observed in legs, the digits were more toe-like in their relative size and shape, and the muscle pattern was transformed to that of a leg. (+info)
Production and characterization of a soluble, active form of Tva, the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor. (8/1107)The receptor for the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(A)] is the cellular glycoprotein Tva. A soluble form of Tva, sTva, was produced and purified with a baculovirus expression system. Using this system, 7 to 10 mg of purified sTva per liter of cultured Sf9 cells was obtained. Characterization of the carbohydrate modification of sTva revealed that the three N glycosylation sites in sTva were differentially utilized; however, the O glycosylation common to Tva produced in mammalian and avian cells was not observed. Purified sTva demonstrates significant biological activity, specifically blocking infection of avian cells by ASLV(A) with a 90% inhibitory concentration of approximately 25 pM. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, developed to assess the binding of sTva to ASLV envelope glycoprotein, demonstrates that sTva has a high affinity for EnvA, with an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 0.3 nM. Once they are bound, a very stable complex is formed between EnvA and sTva, with an estimated complex half-life of 6 h. The soluble receptor protein described here represents a valuable tool for analysis of the receptor-envelope glycoprotein interaction and for structural analysis of Tva. (+info)
Teneurin-1 is expressed in interconnected regions of the developing brain and is processed in vivo<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Teneurin-1 is expressed in interconnected regions of the developing brain and is processed in vivo. AU - Kenzelmann, Daniela. AU - Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth. AU - Leachman, Nathaniel T.. AU - Tucker, Richard P. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Background. Teneurins are a unique family of transmembrane proteins conserved from C. elegans and D. melanogaster to mammals. In vertebrates there are four paralogs (teneurin-1 to -4), all of which are expressed prominently in the developing central nervous system. Results. Analysis of teneurin-1 expression in the developing chick brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry defined a unique, distinct expression pattern in interconnected regions of the brain. Moreover we found complementary patterns of teneurin-1 and-2 expression in many parts of the brain, including the retina, optic tectum, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum as well as in brain nuclei involved in processing of sensory information. Based on these expression patterns, we ...
AccessObGyn | Albertina icome Praha
AccessObGyn je integrovaný online zdroj, ktorý poskytuje študentom medicíny a lekárom širokú škálu informácií z gynekológie a pôrodníctva vrátane urogynekológie, gynekologickej onkológie a fetológie.. Súčasťou sú príručky, učebnice a materiály na dištančné vzdelávanie vydavateľstva McGraw-Hill:. ...
CALEB BLOOD SMITH | C-SPAN.org
Watch the C-SPAN collection of videos, access clips including recent appearances by CALEB BLOOD SMITH. View positions held along with a brief bio.
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the brain and pituitary<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone action in the brain and pituitary. AU - Ubuka, Takayoshi. AU - Son, You Lee. AU - Tobari, Yasuko. AU - Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was first identified in the Japanese quail as a hypothalamic neuropeptide inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion. Subsequent studies have shown that GnIH is present in the brains of birds including songbirds, and mammals including humans. The identified avian and mammalian GnIH peptides universally possess an LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini. Mammalian GnIH peptides are also designated as RFamide-related peptides from their structures. The receptor for GnIH is the G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147), which is thought to be coupled to Gαi protein. Cell bodies of GnIH neurons are located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in birds and the dorsomedial hypothalamic area (DMH) in mammals. GnIH neurons in the PVN or DMH project to the median ...
Stress and Infertility - My Little Soldiers
New research has highlighted the importance of stress in understanding infertility.. Studies have shown that stress can prevent pregnancy by increasing too many of the fight-or-flight hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, which can reduce sperm count and prevent ovulation. Stress hormones can interfere with these steps by preventing the actions of a key reproductive hormone known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).. When GnRH is inhibited, it does not trigger the pituitary gland to produce and secrete other reproductive hormones.. New research from the University of California Berkeley is now showing that stress can also impact fertility by causing the increase of another reproductive hormone called Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH). This hormone further impedes procreation by preventing the GnRH hormone from being released.. ...
Apollo Master Health Check (AMHC)
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Druge publikacije društva
2019. Knjižice Sprejmi me za bolnike z revmatoidnim artritisom, psoriatičnim artritisom in ankilozirajočim spondilitisom, ki so nastael v sodelovanju s slovenskimi revmatologi in podjetjem ...
Izobraževanje | PGD Črnuče
Operativni člani društva smo se v soboto, 10.10.2015 udeležili medobčinske vaje v Trzinu. Namen vaje je bil preizkusiti pripravljenost ob izrednem dogodku na objektu plinarne podjetja Interina, d.o.o. Na lokaciji se nahaja 5 plinskih rezervoarjev za shranjevanje utekočinjenega naftnega plina … Continue reading →. ...
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Comparative and evolutionary aspects of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and FMRFamide-like peptide systems<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative and evolutionary aspects of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and FMRFamide-like peptide systems. AU - Ubuka, Takayoshi. AU - Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2018/10/18. Y1 - 2018/10/18. N2 - Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that was found in the brain of Japanese quail when investigating the existence of RFamide peptides in birds. GnIH was named because it decreased gonadotropin release from cultured anterior pituitary, which was located in the hypothalamo-hypophysial system. GnIH and GnIH precursor gene related peptides have a characteristic C-terminal LPXRFamide (X = L or Q) motif that is conserved in jawed vertebrates. Orthologous peptides to GnIH are also named RFamide related peptide or LPXRFamide peptide from their structure. A G-protein coupled receptor GPR147 is the primary receptor for GnIH. Similarity-based clustering of neuropeptide precursors in metazoan species indicates that GnIH precursor of vertebrates is evolutionarily ...
The Lunatic Fringe (Part 2) - Page 1029
Before you think of posting here, read back here , then read ahead The Lunatic Fringe (Part 1) http://www.colorado4x4.org/gallery/files/3/1/5/2/Untitled-1.jpg
Most recent papers with the keyword VBP | Read by QxMD
Purpose of the present study is to point-out a number of psychiatric-forensic remarks about the management of violent behavior against the person (VBP) amongst psychiatric patients. The study is the authors personal contribution based on clinical and forensic experience as experts in the management of psychiatric patients with VBP. Twelve psychiatric-forensic remarks have been highlighted in the present study: 1) VBP is a multifactorial event; 2) the risk of VBP against the person may change rapidly over time in quantity and quality; 3) there are no methods for reliable prediction of VBP in a single clinical-case; 4) there are no medications with an indication of heal the VBP; 5) there are no therapeutic measures that neutralize always, quickly and without recurrences VBP; 6) there exist clinical hypotheses to assess VBP; 7) there exist principles of victimology to assess VBP; 8) there are emotional reactions that can affect the evaluation and clinical and forensic management of VBP; 9) the ...
Blood- Caleb 1:6 scale
Monolith released the FPS Blood in 1997. The hero of the game was an undead man named Caleb. http://i269.photobucket.com/albums/jj72/diosoth/GI%20Joe%20Customs/caleb_1.jpg http://i269.photobucket.com/albums/jj72/diosoth/GI%20Joe%20Customs/caleb_2.jpg I just got the last few parts in the mail to wrap up a pending project, though Im still waiting on the shotgun. The parts I used- hat- eBay listing, unknown brand head- Hot Toys standard tan male head, with the eyes painted red
Lunatic fringe in peripheral T cells alters Notch-mediated Th2 pathology in viral - Sumanta Mukherjee
Childhood allergic asthma has been and still is a growing health problem in the western world. Many children begin to have significant complications from severe...
Reasonably Well: ...I Am Hardly Sorry For Upending Thee..
Say the Act of Contrition, I demanded before I even said good morning. Now, before you think Im a crazy lunatic you must know that tonight was her first reconciliation. A big night. So Im not a crazy lunatic, just a regular kind of fathery type lunatic whos been studying the Act of Contrition to the point where at night we all dream about how heartily sorry we all are. Just say the Act of Contrition, I said. One last time and Ill never ask again ...
SZÓLÓZNOM KELL | Súlyosbítva azt, ami amúgy is.
A bárdok remegve reménykednek, hogy nem megy el a Nouvelle Secheux (Dezheuxiana, a Misishayaux-mente) eisteddfodra OlTiby a Sajó-deltáből, ahol lassan folyik a víz és lassan jön a szó…... ...
SZÓLÓZNOM KELL | Súlyosbítva azt, ami amúgy is.
A bárdok remegve reménykednek, hogy nem megy el a Nouvelle Secheux (Dezheuxiana, a Misishayaux-mente) eisteddfodra OlTiby a Sajó-deltáből, ahol lassan folyik a víz és lassan jön a szó…... ...
Pepsi - Everything2.com
Pepsi was invented around 1900 by Caleb Bradham, a New Bern, NC. druggist who first formulated Pepsi-Cola. If you live in New Bern, NC all the Pepsi bil...
Can our products be used on different species? The simple answer is yes. BSG offers distinct and diverse separations tools that work with virtually all species. Read to learn more.
Silvano Galbusera Interview, Part 2: On What Makes Working With Valentino Rossi So Special | MotoMatters.com | Kropotkin Thinks
At Valencia last year, working for the Belgian magazine Motorrijder, I interviewed Valentino Rossis crew chief Silvano Galbusera. The interview lived up to expectations, providing a fascinating insight into working with the nine-time world champion, and the pressures of replacing legendary crew chief Jeremy Burgess as Rossis right-hand man. Yesterday, we published the first part of the interview, in which Galbusera spoke of his switch to MotoGP, and replacing Jerry Burgess. In the second part of the interview, Galbusera talks specifically about working with Valentino Rossi, and what makes him such a special rider.. Q: When Valentino announced he would be changing crew chiefs, he said he needed a bigger challenge. It seems to me that the biggest change was in his mind, rather than in the garage. Is that the right impression, did you make the difference or did Valentino make the difference?. SG: Really I dont know 100%. But from what I understood, Valentino never do something without having a ...
Basigin - Wikipedia
Basigin is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, with a structure related to the putative primordial form of the family. As members of the immunoglobulin superfamily play fundamental roles in intercellular recognition involved in various immunologic phenomena, differentiation, and development, basigin is thought also to play a role in intercellular recognition (Miyauchi et al., 1991; Kanekura et al., 1991). It has a variety of functions. In addition to its metalloproteinase-inducing ability, basigin also regulates several distinct functions, such as spermatogenesis, expression of the monocarboxylate transporter and the responsiveness of lymphocytes. Basigin is a type I integral membrane receptor that has many ligands, including the cyclophilin (CyP) proteins Cyp-A and CyP-B and certain integrins. It is expressed by many cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells and leukocytes. The human basigin protein contains 269 amino acids that form two heavily ...
Valentino VLoveTN Capsule Collection for Men & Women 2020 | Valentino.com
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Browsing National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science (Scholarly Articles) by Subject NONMUSCLE MYOSIN-II
Background: Obesity is becoming an increasing problem in obstetric practice; it has led to an increase in the risk of caesarean delivery, prolonged pregnancy and dysfunctional labour. It has been postulated that many of ...
Blood vessel epicardial substance - Wikipedia
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) also known as popeye domain-containing protein 1 (POPDC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BVES gene. Bves is a highly conserved, transmembrane protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, and most recently has been shown to play a role in vesicular transport. Bves is found in a wide variety of organisms (from flies to humans) and is a member of the evolutionarily conserved Popdc family of proteins. Although the precise molecular function of Bves is unknown, disruption of this protein results in developmental defects and impaired cellular processes fundamental to living organisms. Bves was discovered simultaneously by two independent labs in 1999 (Bves was also named Popdc1 at the time of discovery; the current accepted convention is Bves). Although initially isolated from cardiac tissue, it was later revealed that Bves is highly expressed in muscle, epithelial and brain tissue. Most studies have focused on determining the ...
God has been guiding our steps the whole way, Caleb Freeman is back in high school | KFOR...
NEWCASTLE, Okla. - Caleb Freeman continues on a miraculous road to recovery supported by the faithful prayers of people around the world. Caleb and his brother Clayton Freeman were in a serious wreck last Christmas. Caleb was crushed by a semi, torn from his life as a star athlete and trapped in a body that did […]
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TVA - Watauga Reservoir
The ecological health of Watauga Reservoir scored at the upper end of the fair range in 2012. Watauga has scored within the mid-fair to good range most years. The score of 60 in 1998 was the lowest recorded for Watauga. This was the result of several indicators concurrently scoring at the lower end of their historical ranges, rather than of a substantial change in any indicator. However, sediment quality has exhibited an overall improvement over the years.. TVA monitors two locations on Watauga Reservoir - the deep still water near the dam called the forebay, and the middle part of the reservoir.. ...
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padanie vlasov pri umyvani - Žijeme zdravo
Každá žena má aj mužské pohlavné hormóny, ktorých účinky sú normálne potláčané prevahou väčšieho množstva ženských pohlavných hormónov. Nádorové ochorenia - Aj nádorové ochorenia môžu byť spojená so zvýšenou tvorbou cytokínov, preto sa padanie vlasov môže objaviť aj u nich. Príčiny: Príčin straty vlasov je celý rad a nie vždy je ľahké sa tej pravej dopátrať. Väčšina ľudí predpokladá, že ide o rastové centrum vlasu, ale to je len kyjakovitá časť dolného konca vlasu. Dermálnej papila a rastové centrum vlasov centrum zostáva v pokožke hlavy. Dnes sa pozrieme na padanie vlasov pri umyvani. Na liečbu je neskoro vo chvíli, keď sa pôvodná hustá štice premení v plešinu a vlasové vačky sú už neaktívne. Veľakrát pomôže zmena životného štýlu a jedálnička a rôzne doplnky stravy. Za 4 roky úplne nové vlasy Vypadávanie vlasov - príčiny. Androgénny alopécia. S liečbou treba začať skôr, než dôjde k zničeniu ...
Colníci sprísňujú opatrenia na kontrolu rádioaktivity dovážaných tovarov | Zzz.sk
Generálny riaditeľ Colného riaditeľstva (CR) SR v týchto dňoch vydal rozkaz pre všetky colné úrady na Slovensku, ktorý spresňuje postupy pre výkon colníkov pri realizácii primeraných a účinných opatrení na zabezpečenie zvýšenej ostražitosti vo vzťahu k možnému výskytu zvýšenej úrovne rádioaktivity, a to nad rámec existujúcich štandardných bezpečnostných opatrení. Dôvodom je snaha predísť situácii, v ktorej by mohlo vzniknúť vážne a bezprostredné ohrozenia zdravia verejnosti a životného prostredia
Caleb Crain - Neuron Culture
Caleb Carr Crain on why he remains pessimistic about reading despite the recent National Endowment of the Arts report showing a reversal last year in a 25-year decline in reading. Its a good consideration of several ways i which the data might be a mismeasure or a misleading anomaly. Why arent I celebrating the new…. ...
CALEB CARTER AND WIFE, JULIA - NEZ PERCE, GELATIN | Lot #50210 | Heritage Auctions
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CALEB JANG , DDS | Dentist in 20017
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Pitvarfibrill ci ban, a K-vitamin antagonist kkal sszehasonl tva, a direkt hat s anticoagul nsok s az aspirin is 2-szeres re...
A direkt hat s or lis anticoagul nsok (DOAC-ok) a pitvarfibrill ci ban szenved betegek sz l t s nek a megel z s re m r sz les k rben rendelkez sre llnak. Az irodalomban ellentmond sos eredm nyek l ttak napvil got az akut myocardi lis infarktus kock zat ra vonatkoz an att l f gg en, hogy a bete...
Društva | EFnet Portal
Na Ekonomski fakulteti smo izjemno veseli, da ste pobudo Re.misli vzeli za svojo tudi študenti, kar ste nekateri že dokazali z včlanitvijo v Eko Tim. Prve korake od besed k dejanjem bomo lahko skupaj naredili že prihodnji teden, in sicer v četrtek, 19. marca 2009, ob 15.30 v klubski sobi Cisef-a, kjer se bo prvič […]. >>> ...
CERERE OFERTA - Algorithm Constructii S3
1 Set preducele profesionale pcntru piele/cauciuc dirnensiune ¢ 2 -22 rnrn - YT-3591. Adresa la care trebuie transmise/depuse ofertele este: Bulevardul Basarabia nr. 256, Sector 3, tel. 0722384001, sau completati formularul de comanda.. Oferta: OFERTA trebuie să specifice valoarea produsului solicitat, în RON, fără TVA.. ...
Pose like a Super-hero! - My Aria
I was watching a television show today, and one of the characters--a surgeon, posed like a super-hero before performing a surgery. They said it inspires confidence and improves performance. I had to look it up, and sure enough:
Louie Arias - Raleigh, NC 27615
Darius, Paul Check, i do not know if you know who he is? But he made a comment once that made an inpact on me many years ago, he said something like .... Read More ...
Neural and neuroendocrine processing of a non-photic cue in an opportunistically-breeding songbird | Journal of Experimental...
Recent studies of the onset of breeding in long-day photoperiodic breeders have focused on the roles of type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO2 and DIO3) in the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) and subsequent activation of the reproductive axis. It has been hypothesized that an increase in DIO2 and reciprocal decrease in DIO3 causes the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, setting off a reproductive cascade, and that this DIO mechanism for GnRH release is conserved across vertebrate taxa. We sought to test whether social cues that are known to stimulate reproductive behaviors can activate the DIO system to initiate reproduction in a non-photoperiodic bird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Isolation of males and subsequent presentation of females did not increase DIO2 or GnRH expression in the hypothalamus, nor did it decrease gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) or DIO3. Males receiving a female stimulus showed significantly ...
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AHCYL1 (Human) Recombinant Protein (P01) - (H00010768-P01) - Products - Abnova
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Fire Emblem Awakening Lunatic units
The following units are the units, pairings, and skillsets easiest to integrate into a successful Lunatic Mode that doesnt use any form of grinding to level up
Clare Genealogy - 1901 Census of Population of County Clare - Ennis Rural DED, Lifford: Ennis Workhouse Lunatic Asylum 26/28/2
County Clare Genealogy: 1901 Census of Population of County Clare - Ennis Rural DED, Lifford: Ennis Workhouse Lunatic Asylum 26/28/2
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Po skončení pilotnej štúdie európskeho charakteru EHES (Europe health examination survey) odštartovala po prípravnej fáze aj na Slovensku národná štúdia merania zdravotného stavu obyvateľstva
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CD147/Basigin (2Q516) | ALZFORUM
If you know of any papers that use this antibody, please contact us at antibodies [at] alzforum [dot] org for consideration in the References section.. ...
PressReader - Poslovni Dnevnik: 2017-07-13 - Na Za-pad-nom Bal-ka-nu tre-ba ja-ča-ti SME
Na. Za-pad-nom Bal-ka-nu su po-treb-ni do-dat-ni ko-ra-ci za ra-zvoj ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva (SME) te je nuž-no pro-na-ći me-ha-niz-me za pot-po-ru ras-ta tog sek-to-ra, po-ru-čio je Pi-er-re He-il-bronn, pot-pred-sjed-nik EBRDa za po-li-ti-ke i part-ner-stva. Na pa-ne-lu o fi-nan-cij-skim ins-tru-men-ti-ma SMEu, odr-ža-nom u sklo-pu sum-mi-ta ze-ma-lja Za-pad-nog Bal-ka-na u Tr-stu, He-il-bronn je seg-ment ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva oci-je-nio mo-to-rom ino-va-ci-ja u re-gi-ji i ge-ne-ra-to-rom eko-nom-skog ras-ta.. Re-kao je da potpora mo-ra ići kroz po-bolj-ša-nja u fi-nan-cij-skom me-nadž-men-tu i kor-po-ra-tiv-nom uprav-lja-nju, ključ-nim fak-to-ri-ma da ma-li po-du-zet-ni-ci pos-ta-nu kre-di-bil-ni kli-jen-ti ba-na-ka. U sri-je-du su EBRD, Svjet-ska ban-ka, EK i EIF pot-pi-sa-li pi-smo na-mje-re za osi-gu-ra-nje dalj-njih 48 mi-li-ju-na eura ma-lom po-du-zet-niš-tvu.. ...
Predstavitev - ŠMOCL
if(!is_single() && $avia_config[blog_content] == excerpt_read_more). Društvo izvaja tiste dejavnosti za študente, mlade in otroke, ki pomenijo splošno družbeno korist ter predvsem v smislu izgradnje njihove samostojne in neodvisne osebnosti, ki se bo sposobna prilagajati in vključevati tudi v delovanje skupin. Tako je smisel izvajanja dejavnosti društva predvsem v pripravljanju, izobraževanju, vzpodbujanju in dajanju različnih oblik pomoči študentom, mladim in otrokom z namenom pomoči na življenjski in poklicni poti.. V društvu ŠMOCL stremimo k temu, da mladim omogočimo bogatitev kulturnega življenja s spodbujanjem kreativnosti ter razvojem njihovih potencialov in sposobnosti pri realizaciji njihovih idej in projektov. Glavni namen društva je kvalitetno zapolniti prosti čas mladostnikov, jim pomagati do izobrazbe in poklica s pomočjo neformalnega izobraževanja, prostovoljnega dela ali preko motivacijskih delavnic. Neformalno izobraževanje mladih poteka v sklopu izvedbe ...
Live every day (every so often) like a lunatic. | Guapola
Todays Music: The Allman Brothers Band - Jessica *Note on Todays Music: I absolutely love this song. Hope you enjoy it too. Days Til Spring: 16!!! And if you can, please help out Merbear.===========================||| Live every day like its your last! Im not a big fan of that phrase. To me it always meant Go…
Live every day (every so often) like a lunatic. | Guapola
Todays Music: The Allman Brothers Band - Jessica *Note on Todays Music: I absolutely love this song. Hope you enjoy it too. Days Til Spring: 16!!! And if you can, please help out Merbear.===========================||| Live every day like its your last! Im not a big fan of that phrase. To me it always meant Go…
Fabbri, Enrica Brognara, Eleonora Montagner, Giulia Ghimenton, Claudio Eccher, Albino Cantù, Cinzia Khalil, Susanna Bezzerri, Valentino Provezza, Lisa Bianchi, Nicoletta Finotti, Alessia Borgatti, Monica Moretto, Giuseppe Chilosi, Marco Cabrini, Giulio Gambari, Roberto ...
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... and avian) proteins. On January 26, 2004, FDA officials said they would expand the feed ban by prohibiting, from ruminant feeds ... regulations that since 1997 have prohibited the feeding of most mammalian-derived proteins to cattle as a method of preventing ...
Glossary of bird terms
ISBN 978-0-643-10293-4. Klasing, Kirk C. (1999). "Avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology". Seminars in Avian and Exotic ... It is extremely high in protein and fat, containing higher levels than cow or human milk and has been shown to also contain ... ISBN 978-1-60342-561-2. Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan: USDA Avian Anatomy Project ... In Avian Flight (2005), the author notes that "most birds open and close their wings during every wing beat cycle", and ...
Romanoff, A.L., A.J. Romanoff (1949) The avian egg. New York, Wiley. Burley, R.W., D.V. Vadehra (1989) The Avian Egg: Chemistry ... Without the protein, the crystal structure would be too brittle to keep its form and the organic matrix is thought to have a ... While the bulk of eggshell is made of calcium carbonate, it is now thought that the protein matrix has an important role to ... Softer shells are mostly protein. It may be fibrous or quite liquid. Some arthropod eggs do not actually have shells, rather, ...
Fry (1992) 6-27 Sibley, Charles G (1960). "The electrophoretic patterns of avian egg-white proteins as taxonomic characters". ... Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural ...
"Localization of a T-cell epitope within the nucleocapsid protein of avian coronavirus". Immunology. 74 (1): 8-13. ISSN 0019- ... These particles contain Gag protein and HIV-Env surface protein. These particles can be recognized by B cells and subsequently ... Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV ...
The occupations most at risk are: adhesive handlers (e.g. acrylate), animal handlers and veterinarians (animal proteins), ... high-molecular-weight proteins from plants and animal origins, or low-molecular-weight agents that include chemicals, metals ...
Bird fancier's lung
... (BFL) is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). It is triggered by exposure to avian proteins present ... However, the only recommended long-term treatment is avoidance of the avian proteins that trigger BFL. Unless fibrosis has ... Upon re-exposure to avian proteins, sensitized individuals will typically experience symptoms within 4-6 hours or sooner. In ... may be advised to evacuate their homes permanently and to get rid of all possessions that have been exposed to avian proteins ...
Smith DF, Albers MW, Schreiber SL, Leach KL, Deibel MR (1993). "FKBP54, a novel FK506-binding protein in avian progesterone ... FK506 binding protein 5, also known as FKBP5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FKBP5 gene. The protein encoded by ... along with the 90 kDa heat shock protein and P23 protein. The FKBP5 gene has been found to have multiple polyadenylation sites ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...
Plant defense against herbivory
Witmer, M.C. (1998). "Ecological and evolutionary implications of energy and protein requirements of avian frugivores eating ... The bacterium produces proteins that, when ingested, kill lepidopteran caterpillars. The gene encoding for these highly toxic ... Certain alkaloids bind to nucleic acids and can inhibit synthesis of proteins and affect DNA repair mechanisms. Alkaloids can ... proteins, when introduced into the host plant genome, confers resistance against caterpillars, when the same toxic proteins are ...
Eggshell - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The chicken eggshell is 95-97% calcium carbonate crystals, which are held together by a protein matrix. ... Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hincke, Maxwell T. (2004). "Avian eggshell mineralization: biochemical and ... While the bulk of eggshell is made of calcium carbonate, it is now thought that the protein matrix has an important role to ... functional characterization of matrix proteins". Comptes Rendus Palevol. 3: 549-62. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2004.08.002.. ...
"Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene ... The hydrogen on the amide of one protein chain is hydrogen bonded to the amide oxygen of the neighboring protein chain. The ... In this structure, individual protein chains are aligned side-by-side with every other protein chain aligned in an opposite ... "corneous beta-proteins" or "keratin-associated beta-proteins." β-keratins add much more rigidity to reptilian skin than alpha- ...
... properties and homology with mammalian and avian stress proteins". Biochemistry. 29 (21): 5138-44. doi:10.1021/bi00473a020. ... Heat shock protein 90kDa beta member 1 (HSP90B1), known also as endoplasmin, gp96, grp94, or ERp99, is a chaperone protein that ... GP96 Heat Shock Protein-Peptide Complex Vaccine in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Glioma Bloch O, Crane CA, ... Li Z, Dai J, Zheng H, Liu B, Caudill M (March 2002). "An integrated view of the roles and mechanisms of heat shock protein gp96 ...
"Evidence that the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus encodes a protein kinase associated with a phosphoprotein". Cell. 15 ... Lck is a 56-kilodalton protein. The N-terminal tail of Lck is myristoylated and palmitoylated, which tethers the protein to the ... Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune ... a transmembrane protein that serves as a docking site for a number of other proteins, the most important of which are Shc-Grb2- ...
This region gets its name from a viral protein called Myb derived from the avian myeloblastosis virus. Specifically, the ... There are 4 domain categories on the TERF2 protein that allow it to bind to both other proteins in the shelterin protein ... TERF2 is also known to recruit certain client proteins, also known as accessory factors. These client proteins are often ... Two other domains also work to bind and influence the activity of proteins associated with the TERF2 protein. Both are unique ...
Common raven physiology
Glucose, calcium and proteins are other components of avian blood's chemical properties. Blood glucose levels range from 200 to ... Avian kidneys do not send urine to a bladder. Instead it is sent via the ureters to the cloaca to be deposited into the lower ... Avian blood possesses a more alkaline pH ranging from 7.5 to 7.6, and blood bicarbonate values are between 16 and 32 mmol/L. In ... Avian blood has counts of between 2.5 and 4 million red blood cells per cubic millimetre. The red blood cells of birds are ...
A form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pigeon lung is caused by the inhalation of the avian proteins found in feathers and ... Hagstrum, J.T. (2001). Infrasound and the avian navigational map. In: Orientation and Navigation: Birds, Humans and other ... Wiltschko, W.; Wiltschko, R. (2003). "Avian navigation: from historical to modern concepts". Animal Behaviour. 65 (2): 257-272 ...
National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease
The lab has diagnostic capabilities for a large number of FADs including, but not limited to: avian influenza, foot-and-mouth ... These services involve the production and characterization of: 1) monoclonal antibodies 2) recombinant proteins and 3) ... In addition to OIE Reference Laboratory status for classical swine fever and avian influenza, this Section is also the National ... This unit is involved in assays for the determination of pathogenicity indices for avian viruses, the production of serum ...
"Subcellular localization of proteins encoded by oncogenes of avian myeloblastosis virus and avian leukemia virus E26 and by ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... MYB factors represent a family of proteins that include the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. Plants contain a MYB-protein ... "Molecular cloning reveals that the p160 Myb-binding protein is a novel, predominantly nucleolar protein which may play a role ...
... proteins. Alternative start codons are common in the avian species. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is ... are similar in length and contain two major open reading frames similar to the capsid and replication associated protein genes ...
The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM ... the surface protein (SU) and the transmembrane protein (TM). The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain ... The protein is called syncytin in mammals. Viral structural protein Gene+Products,+env at the US National Library of Medicine ... This precursor is cleaved by host cell enzymes to yield the surface protein subunit, gp85, and the transmembrane protein ...
... a component of the lamin B receptor complex and a new integral membrane protein of the avian erythrocyte nuclear envelope". J. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ... Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. CDKN2C has ...
Spanish flu research
In avian virus the HA protein preferentially binds to alpha-2,3 sialic acid, which is the major form in the avian enteric tract ... Kou Z, Lei FM, Yu J, Fan ZJ, Yin ZH, Jia CX, Xiong KJ, Sun YH, Zhang XW, Wu XM, Gao XB, Li TX (2005). "New genotype of avian ... Such mutations in avian H5N1 viruses can change virus strains from being inefficient at infecting human cells to being as ... Altogether, only a handful of mutations may need to take place in order for H5N1 avian flu to become a pandemic virus like the ...
... an avian cell surface protein expressed during terminal neuronal differentiation, is closely related to the human tumor ... Neogenin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEO1 gene. NEO1 has been shown to interact with PTK2. Also Neogenin ... a DCC-related protein, and the mapping of its gene (NEO1) to chromosomal position 15q22.3-q23". Genomics. 41 (3): 414-21. doi: ...
Prion - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
"Copper binding to the N-terminal tandem repeat regions of mammalian and avian prion protein". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 207: ... Natančneje gre za protein z oznako PrPSc, ki je napačno zvita oblika endogenega prionskega proteina z oznako PrPC in je ... Hegde, R.S. s sod. (1998). "A transmembrane form of the prion protein in neurodegenerative disease". Science. 276: 827-834. doi ... Protein, iz katerega so sestavljeni tudi prioni, se nahaja v številnih tkivih, tudi pri zdravih ljudeh in živalih. Poglavitni ...
Avian proteins in bird feces and feathers Whole body or chest radiation therapy used for cancer treatment Physical ... The production of anti-inflammatory proteins, and the degeneration of mRNA encoding inflammatory proteins, can also be ... These particles can be proteins, bacteria, or mold spores and are usually specific to an occupation. Acute ...
Harold E. Varmus
... of avian sarcoma viruses is present in normal avian DNA". Nature. 260 (5547): 170-173. doi:10.1038/260170a0.. ... discovery of ribosomal frameshifting to make retroviral proteins (with Tyler Jacks); isolation of a cellular receptor for ... avian retroviruses (with John Young and Paul Bates); characterization of mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor ...
... heterotrimeric G protein Gi-mediated pathway in mammalian and avian tissues. Opsins are members of the G protein-coupled ... Neuropsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN5 gene. It is a photoreceptor protein sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) ... Neuropsin belongs to the seven-exon subfamily of mammalian opsin genes that includes peropsin (RRH) and retinal G protein ... "The G protein-coupled receptor repertoires of human and mouse". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
... establishing in 1984 the close similarity between this cellular growth regulatory protein and the avian retroviral oncogene, v- ... which controls the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Julian was first to demonstrate that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI ...
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). *Genus Orthopneumovirus, mit Species Humanes Respiratorisches Synzytial-Virus - en. Human ... Orsay virus utilizes ribosomal frameshifting to express a novel protein that is incorporated into virions, in: Virology 450-451 ...
Modern non-avian reptiles exhibit some form of cold-bloodedness (i.e. some mix of poikilothermy, ectothermy, and ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... Modern non-avian reptiles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica, although some birds are found on the periphery of ... At best, the cladists suggest, we could say that the traditional Reptilia are 'non-avian, non-mammalian amniotes'. ...
The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... Avian sapelovirus Sapelovirus A Sapelovirus B Genus: Senecavirus Senecavirus A Genus: Sicinivirus Sicinivirus A Genus: ... The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ... The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation, directing the ... virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins ...
分子演化 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... Organ, C. L.; Shedlock, A. M.; Meade, A.; Pagel, M.; Edwards, S. V. Origin of avian genome size and structure in nonavian ... De novo origination of a new protein-coding gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008, 179 (1): 487-496. PMC 2390625. ... Knowles DG, McLysaght A. Recent de novo origin of human protein-coding genes. Genome Res. 2009, 19 (10): 1752-1759. PMC 2765279 ...
Proteins: consisting of gag proteins, protease (PR), pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are ... Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell. Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ...
Հեպարին - Վիքիպեդիա՝ ազատ հանրագիտարան
Fractionation of proteins by heparin chromatography։ Methods Mol Biol։ Methods in Molecular Biology™ 424։ 2008։ էջեր 213-21։ ... Comparative structural studies of intestinal avian and mammalian glycosaminoglycans»։ Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B Biochem. Mol. ... Cell surface heparin sulfate is a receptor for attachment of envelope protein-free retrovirus-like particles and VSV-G ... Coombe D.R., Kett W.C. (2005)։ «Heparan sulfate-protein interactions: therapeutic potential through structure-function insights ...
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2
Avian influenza virus H3N2 is endemic in pigs in China, and has been detected in pigs in Vietnam, contributing to the emergence ... Its name derives from the forms of the two kinds of proteins on the surface of its coat, hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N ... Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. Harder and Ortrud Werner from excellent free on-line book Influenza Report 2006 ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs ...
... fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly (like a human using a bow ... it has been shown that avian fleas that exploit a range of hosts, only parasitise species with low immune responses. In general ... at least sixteen separate groups of fleas switched to avian hosts during the evolutionary history of the Siphonaptera. ... "Adult Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Excretion of Host Blood Proteins in Relation to Larval Nutrition" (PDF). Journal of ...
... by comparing sequences of DNA or proteins. The result of a successful analysis is a hierarchy of clades - groups that share a ... killed off the non-avian dinosaurs - birds are the only surviving dinosaurs - mammals increased rapidly in size and diversity, ... Although this early study compared proteins from apes and humans, most molecular phylogenetics research is now based on ...
... matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase ... "Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... An avian-adapted, highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 (called HPAI A(H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A ... Capua I, Alexander DJ (June 2006). "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community". Avian Pathology. 35 (3): 189 ...
A number of avian species use nasal salt glands, alongside their kidneys, to control hypertonicity in their blood plasma. ... The end-product of catabolism of protein metabolism in animals is nitrogen. Animals must excrete this in the form of ... The use of air sacs forms the basis for the three main avian respiratory characteristics: *Air is able to flow continuously in ... Morphology of the common ostrich lung indicates that the structure conforms to that of the other avian species, but still ...
Pages in category "Animal proteins". The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total. This list may not reflect ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Animal_proteins&oldid=874561447" ...
Anaphylaxis from the injection of serum and other nonspecific proteins has been rarely documented. Due to each bite ... Avian Advice 2: 10,15. *^ Forbes: Bed Bugs on Airplanes?! Yikes! How to Fly Bed Bug-Free, 21 November 2011 ... Reactions often become more brisk after multiple bites due to possible sensitization to the salivary proteins of the bed bug.[3 ...
Platypus sex chromosomes have strong sequence similarity with the avian Z chromosome, (indicating close homology), and the ... So CCDS's gene number prediction represents a lower bound on the total number of human protein-coding genes. ... at least 72 of which code for proteins. Traits that are inherited via the Y chromosome are called Y-linked traits, or ... with between 45 and 73 of these protein-coding. All single-copy Y-linked genes are hemizygous (present on only one chromosome) ...
DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ... Avian Diseases. 49 (1): 50-55. doi:10.1637/7237-071004r. ISSN 0005-2086. Spear, Patricia G.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary ... Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. gB, gD, gH, ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ...
Felix Rey, of the Pasteur Institute in Paris has constructed the 3D structure of the EFF1 protein and shown it does the ... About 800 million years ago, a minor genetic change in a single molecule called guanylate kinase protein-interaction domain ... part of a whole family of FF proteins. ... Avian flight. *Biological complexity. *Cooperation. *Color ...
Category:Low-importance virus articles
Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA. *Talk:Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5' UTR stem-loop ... Talk:Avian reovirus. *Talk:Avian reovirus (version 2). *Talk:Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ...
Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy-integument. East Lansing, Michigan, US: USDA Avian Anatomy Project, Michigan State ... Some migratory birds have adapted to use protein from many parts of their bodies, including protein from the intestines, as ... "The Avian Skeleton". paulnoll.com. Retrieved 13 December 2007.. *^ "Skeleton of a typical bird". Fernbank Science Center's ... "Avian Biology. Eastern Kentucky University. Retrieved 10 April 2008.. *^ Clements, James F. (2007). The Clements Checklist of ...
Evolution of mammals
After the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs (birds being the only surviving dinosaurs) ... "Assessing the Cretaceous superordinal divergence times within birds and placental mammals by using whole mitochondrial protein ...
Carnivorous and vampire bats consume large amounts of protein and can output concentrated urine; their kidneys have a thin ... "Viral zoonotic risk is homogenous among taxonomic orders of mammalian and avian reservoir hosts". Proceedings of the National ... is due to the upregulation of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps). During embryonic development, the gene controlling Bmp ...
They were the first avian hosts discovered for the organism.. The Hawaiʻi Dept. of Health states that it is the fresh water ... These granules contain proteins that are toxic to parasites. When these granules degranulate, or break down, chemicals are ... Once activated, eosinophils can begin the process of degranulation, releasing their toxic proteins in the fight against the ... Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 19 (4): 289-293. doi:10.1647/2004-024.1.. ...
Pandemic H1N1/09 virus
"Influenza polymerase fragment". Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/pdb2w69/pdb. "Swiss-Prot: 81929174". entrez Protein. National ... Unlike H5N1 avian flu and SARS which provoke a runaway body-wide immune response, H1N1/09 destroys the lungs' alveoli, often ... "Influenza virus polymerase basic protein 1 interacts with influenza virus polymerase basic protein 2 at multiple sites". J ... "Nuclear export protein - Influenza A virus (strain A/Hong Kong/156/1997 H5N1 genotype Gs/Gd)". Uniprot.org. 2006-01-24. ...
It is extremely high in protein and fat, containing higher levels than cow or human milk. It has also been shown to contain ... Journal of Avian Biology. 39 (2): 247-251. doi:10.1111/j.0908-8857.2008.04053.x.. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ... pigeon crop milk consists of a suspension of protein-rich and fat-rich cells that proliferate and detach from the lining of the ...
Evolution of nervous systems
Recent studies have shown that sponge cells express a group of proteins that cluster together to form a structure resembling a ... In choanoflagellates and mesomycetozoea, these proteins are upregulated during colonial phases, suggesting the importance of ... have been found to have synaptic protein homologs, including secretory SNAREs, Shank, and Homer. ... these proto-synaptic proteins for cell to cell communication. The history of ideas on how neurons and the first nervous ...
2008). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-6444-5. .. ... providing additional protein, and change to a vegetation-based diet over the first few months. ...
The ability of the viral protein hemagglutinin to bind red blood cells together into a detectable matrix may also be ... is a vector that transmits the pathogens that cause West Nile fever and avian malaria among others. ... For example, immunoassay A may detect the presence of a surface protein from a virus particle. Immunoassay B on the other hand ... The antigen, usually a protein or carbohydrate made by an infectious agent, is bound by the antibody. This binding then sets ...
It has been suggested that the evolution of the tetrapod limb from lobe-finned fishes is related to the loss of these proteins. ... The genetic basis for the formation of the fin rays is thought to be genes coded for the production of certain proteins. ... Gatesy, J. (1 May 1997). "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen ... filaments of elastic protein resembling the horny keratin in hair and feathers. Originally the pectoral and pelvic girdles ...
The treasure house of wild life 13 Nov, More meat from game than cattle 13 Nov, Cropping the wild protein 20 Nov, Wild life as ... His 1914 paper on the great crested grebe, later published as a book, was a landmark in avian ethology; his invention of vivid ...
M2 - Matrix protein M2-2 - Avian metapneumovirus - M2 gene & protein
Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... tr,C4PKN4,C4PKN4_9MONO Matrix protein M2-2 OS=Avian metapneumovirus OX=38525 GN=M2 PE=4 SV=1 ... p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different ...
Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Proteins: Novus Biologicals
Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) | Abcam
Rabbit polyclonal Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen ... Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody. See all Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I primary antibodies. ... Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) at 0.5 µg/ml (Western blot analysis of Avian Flu Matrix Protein 1.). ... corresponding to amino acids 9-28 of Chicken Avian Influenza Matrix Protein 1. ...
Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue | PNAS
Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue. W J Boyle, J S ... Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue ... Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue ... Identification of the leukemogenic protein of avian myeloblastosis virus and of its normal cellular homologue ...
Isoforms of tau protein from mammalian brain and avian erythrocytes: structure, self-assembly, and elasticity. - PubMed - NCBI
Isoforms of tau protein from mammalian brain and avian erythrocytes: structure, self-assembly, and elasticity.. Lichtenberg- ... Previous studies on tau protein showed that the protein forms paracrystals which are unusually elastic. The paracrystals were ... Second, we have prepared tau from avian erythrocytes where it is found in the membrane-associated marginal band microtubules ( ... obtained from a mixture of isoforms prepared from brain tissue, and the protein was in a mixed state of phosphorylation. ...
The avian retroviral IN protein is both necessary and sufficient for integrative recombination in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI
Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins | Cancer Research
Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins. Bettina S. Freyaldenhoven, Markus P. Freyaldenhoven, Jason S. ... Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins. Bettina S. Freyaldenhoven, Markus P. Freyaldenhoven, Jason S. ... Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins. Bettina S. Freyaldenhoven, Markus P. Freyaldenhoven, Jason S. ... Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ...
Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air | PNAS
Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air. Neal Van Hoeven, ... Recent work has examined the sequences of human and avian PB2 proteins and, based on amino acid alignments, have identified a ... Mutations to PB2 and NP Proteins of an Avian Influenza Virus Combine To Confer Efficient Growth in Primary Human Respiratory ... Our findings suggest that human adaptation of the PB2 proteins of avian influenza viruses, including potentially pandemic H5N1 ...
Frontiers | The Role of Matrix Gla Protein in Ossification and Recovery of the Avian Growth Plate | Endocrinology
... white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes ... white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes ... Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to ... Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to ...
Frontiers | Proteomic Analysis of Differential Expression of Cellular Proteins in Response to Avian H9N2 Virus Infection of...
Proteins located in the downstream of the NF-κB and IFN transcription factor pathways were identified, e.g. ISG15. Actin and ... infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different ... infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different ... differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) ...
Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. | Journal of...
... coterminal proteins referred to as small (S), middle (M), or large (L) surface protein. These proteins are also secreted from ... Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles.. E Gerhardt, V ... Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. ... Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. ...
A soft tick Ornithodoros moubata salivary protein OmCI is a potent inhibitor to prevent avian complement activation
These results provide the foundation for further use of this protein as a tool to study the molecular basis of avian complement ... These results provide the foundation for further use of this protein as a tool to study the molecular basis of avian complement ... A soft tick Ornithodoros moubata salivary protein OmCI is a potent inhibitor to prevent avian complement activation. Frye, ... This protein binds to a mammalian complement protein C5 and blocks further activation of complement cascades, which results in ...
Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian...
Left) Proteins analyzed with anti-NDV antibodies. The major band represents the NDV F1 protein, migrating at 50 kDa. (Center) ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ...
Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance...
Prepandemic priming of humans with avian-derived HA proteins devoid of other internal virion proteins would likely poise humans ... This was done to assess whether avian HA proteins differ from seasonal HA proteins in their ability to be processed and ... This leads us to conclude that avian HA proteins do not have a paucity of CD4 T cell epitopes that can be presented by human ... Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance ...
Get PDF - Sequencing and sequence analysis of S1 spike protein gene from avian infectious bronchitis virus proventriculus...
Sequencing and sequence analysis of S1 spike protein gene from avian infectious bronchitis virus proventriculus strain isolated ... Cloning of spike protein S1 gene of avian infectious bronchitis virus H strain and its expression in Pichia pastoris. Chinese ... Cloning and identification of S1 spike protein gene from avian infectious bronchitis virus provetriculus strain isolated from ... Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for the peplomer protein equals spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus strain d274 ...
Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of...
"Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is ... Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies. Li, Xiaofei; Qin ...
Intranasally administered protein coated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating influenza H9N2 HA2 and M2e mRNA molecules elicit...
Consequently, upon challenge with either H7N9 or H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), efficient protection, in the context of ... CNPs delivering HA2 and M2e in both mRNA and protein formats (CNPs + RNA + Pr) or CNPs delivering antigens in protein format ... Intranasally administered protein coated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating influenza H9N2 HA2 and M2e mRNA molecules elicit ... we prepared CNPs encapsulating mRNA molecules followed by surface coating with conserved H9N2 HA2 and M2e influenza proteins. ...
Efficacy of Zanamivir against Avian Influenza A Viruses That Possess Genes Encoding H5N1 Internal Proteins and Are Pathogenic...
These viruses and a third avian virus [A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1)] have six highly related genes encoding internal proteins. ... In 1997, an avian H5N1 influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/156/97 (A/HK/156/97), caused six deaths in Hong Kong, and in 1999, an avian ... Efficacy of Zanamivir against Avian Influenza A Viruses That Possess Genes Encoding H5N1 Internal Proteins and Are Pathogenic ... Overall efficacy appears lower for these avian strains, but this could relate to the relatively high pathogenicities of avian ...
Isolation of a new high molecular weight protein associated with desmin and vimentin filaments from avian embryonic skeletal...
Isolation of a new high molecular weight protein associated with desmin and vimentin filaments from avian embryonic skeletal ... Isolation of a new high molecular weight protein associated with desmin and vimentin filaments from avian embryonic skeletal ... The 280,000-dalton protein is undetectable in adult skeletal and smooth muscle, as shown by immunofluorescence and ... The expression of this protein appears to be developmentally regulated and does not appear to parallel the expression of any of ...
Observations on a Fast-Moving Protein in Avian Malarial Serum - NASA/ADS
c-Myc, Avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, Myc protein, Myelocytomatosis oncogene, Niard or Transcription factor p64...
Tissue-specific regulation of avian vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein 28-kDa mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3<...
Tissue-specific regulation of avian vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein 28-kDa mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. / ... Tissue-specific regulation of avian vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein 28-kDa mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. ... T1 - Tissue-specific regulation of avian vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein 28-kDa mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ... Tissue-specific regulation of avian vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein 28-kDa mRNA by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. ...
Effectiveness of esterified whey proteins fractions against Egyptian Lethal Avian Influenza A (H5N1) | Virology Journal | Full...
Both the native and esterified lactoferrin seem to be the most active antiviral protein among the tested samples, followed by β ... Esterification of whey proteins fractions especially lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin enhanced their antiviral activity against ... The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (α- lactalbumin, β- lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was ... Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus is one of the most important public health concerns worldwide. ...
Differential Expression of Genes and DNA Methylation associated with Prenatal Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal in an...
... long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein ... Expression of Genes and DNA Methylation associated with Prenatal Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal in an avian model. ... In conclusion, these results demonstrated that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal leads to long-term ... protein synthesis. Three key central genes interacting with many DE genes were identified: UBC, NR3C1, and ELAVL1. The DNA ...
Effects of phosphorylation of avian retrovirus nucleocapsid protein pp12 on binding of viral RNA<...
The major nucleocapsid protein of avian retroviruses, pp12, preferentially binds to the single-stranded regions of 60 S viral ... Effects of phosphorylation of avian retrovirus nucleocapsid protein pp12 on binding of viral RNA. / Leis, J.; Johnson, S.; ... Leis, J. ; Johnson, S. ; Collins, L. S. ; Traugh, J. A. / Effects of phosphorylation of avian retrovirus nucleocapsid protein ... Leis, J, Johnson, S, Collins, LS & Traugh, JA 1984, Effects of phosphorylation of avian retrovirus nucleocapsid protein pp12 ...
Classification of Avian Paramyxoviruses by Immunodiffusion on the Basis of Antigenic Specificity of their M Protein Antigens |...
... isolates were classified by immunodiffusion into six species on the basis of the antigenic specificity of their M protein (MP) ... Summary Seventeen avian paramyxoviruses consisting of ten reference strains and seven recent ... Classification of Avian Paramyxoviruses by Immunodiffusion on the Basis of Antigenic Specificity of their M Protein Antigens * ... Seventeen avian paramyxoviruses consisting of ten reference strains and seven recent isolates were classified by ...
Outer membrane protein patterns mark clones of Escherichia coli O2 and O78 strains that cause avian septicemia<...
Outer membrane protein patterns mark clones of Escherichia coli O2 and O78 strains that cause avian septicemia. / Kapur, V.; ... Outer membrane protein patterns mark clones of Escherichia coli O2 and O78 strains that cause avian septicemia. Infection and ... title = "Outer membrane protein patterns mark clones of Escherichia coli O2 and O78 strains that cause avian septicemia", ... T1 - Outer membrane protein patterns mark clones of Escherichia coli O2 and O78 strains that cause avian septicemia ...
Cell-specific targeting of lentiviral vectors mediated by fusion proteins derived from Sindbis virus, vesicular stomatitis...
Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subgroup A or B envelope proteins and bearing bi-functional ... bridge proteins encoding erythropoietin or stem cell factor fused to the soluble extracellular domains of the avian sarcoma/ ... In one of the strategies, vector particles bearing a membrane-bound stem cell factor sequence plus a separate fusion protein ... Our results indicate that the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus bridge strategy provides a reliable approach for cell-specific ...
Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV) genome has a unique organization of the early...
The E8 is maybe part of a remnant of a very ancient common evolutionary origin of the early region proteins of avian ... Nakai K: Protein sorting signals and prediction of subcellular localization. Adv Protein Chem. 2000, 54: 277-344.View Article ... DNA and protein sequence analysis. DNA and protein similarity searches were performed using the NCBI WWW-BLAST (Basic local ... An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus ...
Investigations on avian adeno-associated virus based protein expression for poultry vaccination, the VG/GA strain of Newcastle...
Investigations on avian adeno-associated virus based protein expression for poultry vaccination, the VG/GA strain of Newcastle ... protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or the viral protein 2 (VP2) of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Transgene ... The avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) is a replication defective non-pathogenic virus proved useful as a viral vector for ... Index words: Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease, avian adeno-associated virus, hemaglutinin-neuraminidase, ...
VirusesAbstractHemagglutininH9N2IsolatesMonoclonalChickensSpeciesSarcomaNucleocapsid proteinSubtypeMyeloblastosis virusMammalian uncoupliAntibodyInfectiousGenomeSequenceMRNAViral proteinsInfectionChickenVirusNeuraminidaseInducesHighly pathogeniVirulenceStrainPoultryReceptorsStrains were identifiedDifferentially expressed proteinsVirion proteinsGeneticCharacterizationGenomesElectrophoresisMolecular1997Recombinant ProteinFusion proteinsDifferentialInfluenza strainsPandemicVectorsWikimedia CommonsAmino acidsHumansBindKinaseCapsid
- This virus possesses similar genes encoding internal proteins as in the human H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses. (abcam.com)
- In 1999, influenza viruses from quail infected two humans in Hong Kong, suggesting the potential for avian influenza viruses to cross the species barrier and infect humans without prior reassortment in an intermediate host, such as the pig. (abcam.com)
- The common features shared by H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans are the genes encoding the proteins of the replicating complex, the matrix protein (M) gene, the nonstructural protein (NS) gene, N1 neuraminidase (NA), This virus essentially represents the reemergence of the H5N1 influenza viruses with a different hemagglutinin (HA). (abcam.com)
- Here, we used a series of human 1918-avian H1N1 influenza reassortant viruses to identify the genetic determinants that govern airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
- These findings demonstrate that the adaptation of the HA and PB2 proteins are critical for the development of pandemic influenza strains from avian influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
- Studies to investigate the transmissibility of the 1918 pandemic virus have been carried out in ferrets, which, based on accumulated data, are the best available animal model to study transmission of avian and human influenza viruses ( 7 , 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
- Avian influenza virus HAs preferentially recognize α2,3 linked SA receptors, which are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and wild birds ( 13 ), whereas those from human viruses preferentially recognize α2,6 linked SA receptors, which are present in the upper respiratory tract of both humans and ferrets ( 14 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
- Human H1 proteins that bind α2,6 SA, including the parental South Carolina HA of 1918, contain an aspartate at both positions (Asp 190 and Asp 225 ), whereas α2,3 binding avian viruses contain glutamate at position 190 (Glu 190 ) and glycine at position 225 (Gly 225 ) ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
- This contrasts with the ability of, e.g., rhabdoviruses or retroviruses, to incorporate envelope proteins even from unrelated viruses. (asm.org)
- Avian influenza viruses remain a significant concern due to their pandemic potential. (asm.org)
- These studies revealed that the diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells specific for HA do not segregate on the basis of whether the HA was derived from human seasonal or avian influenza viruses. (asm.org)
- Intranasally administered protein coated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating influenza H9N2 HA2 and M2e mRNA molecules elicit protective immunity against avian influenza viruses in chickens. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Consequently, upon challenge with either H7N9 or H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), efficient protection, in the context of viral load and lung pathology, was observed in chickens vaccinated with CNPs + RNA + Pr than CNPs + Pr vaccinated group. (physiciansweekly.com)
- These viruses and a third avian virus [A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1)] have six highly related genes encoding internal proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus, zanamivir is efficacious in treating avian influenza viruses that can be transmitted to mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Since 1997, two avian H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses have been transmitted directly from birds to humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The H5N1 and H9N2 influenza viruses that were transmitted to humans possess six genes encoding internal proteins that are closely related to each other ( 19 ) and to A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2), the likely source of the H9N2 viruses that were transmitted to children in Hong Kong. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Because the H9N2 and H6N1 influenza viruses containing H5N1 genes encoding internal proteins continue to circulate in poultry in southeast Asia ( 10 ), there is a potential risk of these avian influenza A viruses infecting and causing disease in mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Therefore, it was thought worthwhile to test the efficacy of native and modified whey proteins fractions against influenza virus subtype H5N1which may be useful for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza viruses and at the same time can be a potential and low cost alternative candidate for an anti-influenza agent. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transgene expression of the viral proteins was confirmed and the recombinant viruses tested for immunogenicity and protection. (uga.edu)
- We observed that NS1 proteins of the 1918 pandemic virus (A/Brevig Mission/1/18) and many avian influenza A viruses contain a consensus Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding motif. (semanticscholar.org)
- The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses. (semanticscholar.org)
- Polybasic cleavage sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are considered to be the most important determinants indicating virulence of the avian influenza viruses (AIV). (biomedcentral.com)
- We employed rule-based computational modeling to construct a map, with high statistical significance, of amino acid (AA) residues associated to pathogenicity in 11 proteins of the H5 type viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) pose a threat for yet another epidemic or pandemic, which can potentially result in severe consequences for both animal and human life. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pathogenicity is very strongly linked to the amino acid sequence of the cleavage site for naturally occurring viruses [ 16 ] and thus aligned sequences of the proteins were annotated with the pathogenicity value (high or low) using the presence or absence of insertions in the cleavage site of the corresponding HA protein, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- The PB1-F2 protein of influenza viruses is an accessory protein meaning it is not essential for replication. (zootecnicainternational.com)
- However, the majority of Avian Influenza viruses (93%) are able to produce the PB1-F2 protein compared to human (43%) and swine (48%) influenza viruses. (zootecnicainternational.com)
- The fact the protein is conserved at such a high rate in Avian Influenza strains indicated to us that this protein must provide some sort of advantage for the survival of the virus in birds ", said Dr Holly Shelton, Head of the Influenza Viruses Group at Pirbright . (zootecnicainternational.com)
- Through understanding how Avian Influenza viruses interact with the avian host, such as how PB1-F2 proteins prevent cells mounting an effective antiviral response, better strategies can be devised that can prevent virus replication, reducing disease burden and enhancing virus control in birds. (zootecnicainternational.com)
- By indirect immunofluorescence and neutralisation tests it was determined that MAbs against oC of avian reovirus 1091 cross-reacted only with oC of viruses of the homologous antigenic type, confirming previous reports that oC was the type-specific avian reovirus protein. (edu.au)
- Development of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies for detecting H6 avian in?uenza viruses. (nchu.edu.tw)
- In contrast to human seasonal influenza strains, virulence-associated residues are present in PB1-F2 proteins from pandemic H1N1 1918, H2N2 1957, and H3N2 1968, and highly pathogenic H5N1 strains, suggesting their contribution to viruses' pathogenic phenotypes. (cdc.gov)
- All four inflammatory residues were found in PB1-F2 proteins from these viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic markers of virulence in the PB1-F2 proteins from influenza viruses of domestic mammals. (cdc.gov)
- The main objective of this study is to evaluate M gene of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 subtype in order to find adamantane drug resistance mutations. (ac.ir)
- Further, the crystal structures of the VN1203mut and its complexes with either human or avian receptors demonstrate that the VN1203mut binds the human receptor in the same binding manner (cis conformation) as seen for the HAs of previously reported 1957 and 1968 pandemic influenza viruses. (bvsalud.org)
- Position-specific entropy profiles created from scan- comparison of human versus avian influenza A viruses ning 306 human and 95 avian influenza A viral genomes would show the evolutionary similarities and differences showed that 228 of 4,591 amino acid residues yielded sig- between them and thus provide information for studying nificant differences between these 2 viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Specific mutations on those points molecular evolution of specific genes of influenza viruses, may enable an avian influenza virus to become a human comprehensive comparisons among the nucleotide virus. (cdc.gov)
- Influenza Virus Resources at the National Center for human and avian influenza viruses, followed by PA and Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (http://www.ncbi.nlm. (cdc.gov)
- Throat swabs from patients with influenzalike syn- ment of human and avian viruses ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Subtyping was conducted by avian virus, it is the most avianlike of all mammalian reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with subtype-specific influenza viruses ( 2,3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Sequence editing and process- position for 95 avian influenza viruses and 306 human ing were performed with Lasergene, version 3.18 (DNAS- influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Global sequence chose this entropy threshold on the basis of the entropy comparison that yielded pairwise sequence identities used value -0.379, calculated at position 627 of PB2 for the 95 in histogram analysis was done with the program Needle in avian viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Despite these differences in receptor binding, many avian viruses are internalized by human cells and initiate expression of the viral genome. (nature.com)
- Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, can evolve to high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses and therefore are notifiable. (wur.nl)
- M. Koopmans et al, Profiling of humoral immune responses to influenza viruses by using protein microarray. (wur.nl)
- Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (H5N6, H4N2 and H1N1). (eurosurveillance.org)
- Molecular Characterizations of Surface Proteins Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase from Recent H5Nx Avian Influenza Viruses. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N5) viruses in domestic ducks, China. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
- abstract = "The major nucleocapsid protein of avian retroviruses, pp12, preferentially binds to the single-stranded regions of 60 S viral RNA with an apparent binding constant (K(app)) of 1.2 x 1011 M-1. (northwestern.edu)
- abstract = "Major outer membrane proteins were isolated from 36 Escherichia coli strains representing six common clones of the O2 and O78 serogroups implicated in avian colisepticemia. (elsevier.com)
- abstract = "The specific high affinity binding of the avian oviduct progesterone receptor (PR) to target cell nuclei and chromatin has been shown to involve DNA complexed with specific chromatin acceptor proteins. (elsevier.com)
- abstract = "A primer-directed cDNA library was used to obtain cDNA clones corresponding to the 5′ end (i.e., the ligand-binding domain) of the avian c-erbB gene. (elsevier.com)
- It is important to understand, first, if there is a general deficiency in the ability of avian hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to generate immune responses and, if so, what underlies this defect. (asm.org)
- The first set of studies aimed the development recombinant AAAV virions expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or the viral protein 2 (VP2) of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). (uga.edu)
- With a few amino acid substitutions of the hemagglutinin H5 protein in the laboratory, two H5 mutants have been shown to obtain an air-borne transmission in a mammalian ferret model. (bvsalud.org)
- For example, the avian virus receptor hemagglutinin (HA) recognizes oligosaccharides containing terminal sialic acid (SA) that are linked to galactose by α2,3 2 . (nature.com)
- In this study, differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, there is a growing need to investigate host cells infected with the H9N2 virus to elucidate potential target proteins for viral infection and adaptation studies. (frontiersin.org)
- However, alterations of cellular proteins in human airway epithelial cell lines infected by H9N2 influenza virus have not been reported. (frontiersin.org)
- To better understand the molecular and cellular basis of H9N2 infection and adaptation in human airway cells, we used proteomic approaches to study the patterns of cellular proteins with variable expression upon H9N2 virus infection. (frontiersin.org)
- Our findings may assist with the investigations into the pathogenesis and adaptation of H9N2 virus in airway epithelial cells, and with the search for potential protein targets for further studies. (frontiersin.org)
- Herein, we prepared CNPs encapsulating mRNA molecules followed by surface coating with conserved H9N2 HA2 and M2e influenza proteins. (physiciansweekly.com)
- In 1997, an avian H5N1 influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/156/97 (A/HK/156/97), caused six deaths in Hong Kong, and in 1999, an avian H9N2 influenza virus infected two children in Hong Kong. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Differential regulation of antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines and suppression of Fas-mediated apoptosis by NS1 of H9N2 avian influenza virus in chicken macrophages. (semanticscholar.org)
- Seventeen avian paramyxoviruses consisting of ten reference strains and seven recent isolates were classified by immunodiffusion into six species on the basis of the antigenic specificity of their M protein (MP) antigens. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- In the present study, a proteomic approach was used to evaluate APEC proteins that were differentially expressed after exposure to chicken serum to identify specific proteins that may be involved in serum resistance of APEC isolates. (utmb.edu)
- Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against avian reovirus sigmaC protein and their application in detection of ARV isolates. (npust.edu.tw)
- The competitive binding assay indicated that all mAbs recognized the same epitope on sC protein that was conserved in different isolates. (npust.edu.tw)
- In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3A9, that is specific for the P27 protein. (deepdyve.com)
- This Anti avian leukosis virus P27 protein monoclonal antibody is used in immunoassays to detect ALV specificly. (antibodymall.com)
- This product is a murine monoclonal antibody against avian leukosis virus. (antibodymall.com)
- Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against virion proteins of avian reovirus strain 1091 were produced and used to study the structural and biological function of avian reovirus proteins. (edu.au)
- The major epitopes of chicken riboflavin carrier protein were shown to be conserved in the fish protein as probed with monoclonal antibodies to the avian vitamin carrier. (ias.ac.in)
- Crude antigen preparations from avian reovirus (ARV)-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (sigmaNS) or from bacterially expressed protein sigmaNS (esigmaNS) were captured by monoclonal antibody 1E1(MAb 1E1) against ARV nonstructural protein sigmaNS immobilized on the ELISA plates and were used as the MAb capture ELISA for antibody detection. (nchu.edu.tw)
- A monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibody production against avian reovirus protein sigma A / Lin, Y.L. (nchu.edu.tw)
- Monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes of nonstructural protein sigma NS of avian reovirus S1133 / Hou, H.S. (nchu.edu.tw)
- 1918 pandemic virus may not have emerged by a reassort- za A virus was then performed with immunofluorescent ment of avian and human virus as did the 2 other pandem- assay by type-specific monoclonal antibody (Dako, ic strains. (cdc.gov)
- I. Properties of monoclonal antibodies directed against virion proteins. (springer.com)
- The genome of the replication-defective avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) contains an inserted cellular sequence (amv) that is part of the oncogene responsible for acute myeloblastic leukemia in chickens infected with AMV. (pnas.org)
- To investigate the potential of CNPs delivering influenza antigens to stimulate protective immunity, we intranasally vaccinated chickens with empty CNPs, CNPs delivering HA2 and M2e in both mRNA and protein formats (CNPs + RNA + Pr) or CNPs delivering antigens in protein format only (CNPs + Pr). (physiciansweekly.com)
- Subgroups A, B, E and J are the major subgroups of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infecting chickens. (antibodymall.com)
- Peripheral blood lymphocytes of chickens bearing tumours induced by avian sarcoma virus can be specifically stimulated to divide by the crude culture fluids of virus-infected cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus avian HEV can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. (duhnnae.com)
- Newcastle Disease (ND) is caused by infection of chickens with virulent strains of the avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1, syn . (biomedcentral.com)
- Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. (frontiersin.org)
- By coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation with species-specific antibodies, we could show the formation of mixed subviral particles and disulfide-linked heterodimers between the WHV S and HBV M proteins whereas the DHBV and HBV surface proteins did not coassemble. (asm.org)
- Therefore I conclude that chicken TGF-ß4 coregulates type I procollagen and Hsp47 protein production in chicken tendon cells as human TGF-ß1 does in mammalian species. (uga.edu)
- Cleavage of either 9 or 12 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus creates two mature CA species, named CA2 and CA3, that can be detected in avian sarcoma/leukemia virus (R. B. Pepinsky, I. A. Papayannopoulos, E. P. Chow, N. K. Krishna, R. C. Craven, and V. M. Vogt, J. Virol. (uthscsa.edu)
- The construct ORF2-3 aa339-507 was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. (duhnnae.com)
- For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species. (duhnnae.com)
- We subse- the mechanism of influenza viral infection and replication quently used 15,785 protein sequences from the National in different host species. (cdc.gov)
- Virus isolated from a human infected with the H5N1 strain in 1997 could bind to oligosaccharides from human as well as avian sources, indicating its species-jumping ability. (abcam.com)
- The species barriers that hinder most avian IAVs from successfully infecting humans are effective at several steps in the viral life cycle. (nature.com)
- In order to address this point, the Avian Genomes consortium has sequenced the genomes of 45 species of bird representing 36 orders. (biomedcentral.com)
- Previously, we demonstrated that avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) IN is able to carry out the first step in the integration process in vitro: nicking of the ends of linear viral DNA. (nih.gov)
- An alternative approach involved soluble avian sarcoma/leukosis virus receptors fused to cell-specific ligands including stem cell factor and erythropoietin for targeting lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with avian sarcoma/leukosis virus envelope proteins to cells that express the corresponding receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subgroup A or B envelope proteins and bearing bi-functional bridge proteins encoding erythropoietin or stem cell factor fused to the soluble extracellular domains of the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus subgroup A or B receptors resulted in efficient transduction of erythropoietin receptor or c-kit-expressing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results indicate that the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus bridge strategy provides a reliable approach for cell-specific lentiviral vector targeting. (biomedcentral.com)
- The formation of the mature carboxyl terminus of CA in avian sarcoma/leukemia virus is the result of a sequence of cleavage events at three PR sites that lie between CA and NC in the Gag polyprotein. (uthscsa.edu)
- pronounced "sarc", as it is short for sarcoma), is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein that in humans is encoded by the SRC gene. (wikipedia.org)
- The major nucleocapsid protein of avian retroviruses, pp12, preferentially binds to the single-stranded regions of 60 S viral RNA with an apparent binding constant (K(app)) of 1.2 x 10 11 M -1 . (northwestern.edu)
- Each mRNA segment is associated with multiple copies of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and an RNA polymerase (made from the viral proteins PB1, PB2, and PA). (hindawi.com)
- At present, the avian influenza H5N1 subtype virus, responsible for at least 387 human H5N1 infections and 245 deaths ( 1 , 2 ), is considered a significant threat to global public health ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
- The avian flu an Influenza A subtype dubbed H5N1 is evolving a resis. (bio-medicine.org)
- The avian flu, an Influenza A subtype dubbed H5N1, is evolving a resistance to a group of antiviral drugs known as adamantanes, one of two classes of antiviral drugs used to prevent and treat flu symptoms, said CU-Boulder doctoral student Andrew Hill, lead study author. (bio-medicine.org)
- While H5N1 is not highly communicable to humans from birds or between humans, experts are concerned future evolution of this subtype or other subtypes, or genetic re-assortment between subtypes, could make an avian influenza strain more contagious with the potential to cause a pandemic. (bio-medicine.org)
- The ability of infectious culture fluids to be mitogenic for sensitized lymphocytes is greatly reduced following treatment with antibodies specific for either total avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) protein or for p27. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The purified integration protein (IN) of avian myeloblastosis virus is shown to nick double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide substrates that mimic the ends of the linear form of viral DNA. (elsevier.com)
- Mechanisms involved in avian NST are still unclear but may involve reduced energetic coupling in skeletal muscle mitochondria through the expression of an avian homologue of mammalian uncoupling proteins. (biologists.org)
- Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) at 0.5 µg/ml (Western blot analysis of Avian Flu Matrix Protein 1. (abcam.com)
- It is possible that preferential boosting of low-frequency, stalk-reactive memory B cells in response to avian influenza HAs ( 12 - 15 ) may be responsible for the low magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response. (asm.org)
- Such targeting approaches have involved engineered versions of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein bearing either a Staphylococcus aureus protein A domain [ 4 - 14 ] or single chain antibody fragments fused in-frame to the E2 glycoprotein coding region [ 15 ], allowing antibody-mediated cell targeting in the presence of the Sindbis virus E1 fusion protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- Generated with recombinant P27 protein of ALV in mouse, this antibody reacts with ALV group specificly. (antibodymall.com)
- Sera collected from the birds were tested for their antibody responses to ARV nonstructural protein sigmaNS. (nchu.edu.tw)
- The results suggest that MAb capture ELISAs can be readily used to detect antibody responses of the birds against ARV nonstructural protein sigmaNS which may reflect an immune status of a chicken flock, receiving ARV vaccine as long as including an inactivated vaccine. (nchu.edu.tw)
- An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibody to avian reovirus by using protein sigma B as the coating antigen / Shien, J.H. (nchu.edu.tw)
- APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to control vaccination, but is hampered by cross-reactivity to other subtypes of avian Avulaviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- The sC protein was involved in induction of apoptosis and neutralization antibody. (npust.edu.tw)
- 13. The transgenic avian of claim 1 wherein the heterologous protein is an antibody is selected from the group consisting of IgG, IgA, IgD, IgM and IgE. (google.com)
- Coronavirus proteins: structure and functions of the oligosaccharides of the avian infectious bronchitis virus glycoproteins. (springer.com)
- An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ). (biomedcentral.com)
- This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. (biomedcentral.com)
- The PePV genome (7304 basepairs) differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. (biomedcentral.com)
- The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- To date no complete avian papillomavirus genome had been sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
- The position of the first nucleotide of the PePV genome corresponds to the start codon of the first major open reading frame in the early protein region. (biomedcentral.com)
- Avian reovirus (ARV) is a non-enveloped virus with a segmented double-stranded RNA genome surrounded by a double icosahedral capsid shell. (npust.edu.tw)
- Specifi c pathogen-free duck eggs were obtained from Seven ABV genotypes have been identifi ed based on the US Department of Agriculture Avian Disease Labora- partial genome sequencing ( 12 , 13 ). (cdc.gov)
- The zebra finch genome will provide valuable insights into whether patterns observed in the chicken can be generalized across all birds or whether there are important differences among avian lineages, such as those that learn songs and those that do not. (genetics.org)
- Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
- p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
- section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
- The CWH proteins bind to conserved DNA binding sites for winged helix proteins in a sequence-specific manner. (aacrjournals.org)
- A pair of primers were designed and synthesized according to the reported S1 spike protein gene sequence of IBV. (eurekamag.com)
- In one of the strategies, vector particles bearing a membrane-bound stem cell factor sequence plus a separate fusion protein based either on Sindbis virus strain TR339 glycoproteins or the vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein were used to selectively transduce cells expressing the corresponding stem cell factor receptor (c-kit). (biomedcentral.com)
- Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch ( Fringilla coelebs ) papillomavirus (FPV) reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. (biomedcentral.com)
- This report describes the first complete nucleotide sequence of an avian papillomavirus from a cutaneous lesion of an African grey parrot: PePV. (biomedcentral.com)
- RBF-1 has an amino acid composition consistent with a hydrophobic protein having an acidic pI and a unique N-terminal sequence. (elsevier.com)
- A novel numerical characterization method was suggested, in which each protein sequence can be transformed into eleven vectors. (hindawi.com)
- 1. A transgenic avian comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a heterologous protein operably linked to an ovomucoid promoter that is at least 95% identical to the nucleotide sequence of about 34,473 to about 36,248 of SEQ ID NO: 36, wherein the heterologous protein is produced in an oviduct cell of the avian. (google.com)
- 2. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence comprises a signal sequence coding region. (google.com)
- 3. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence comprises an IRES. (google.com)
- 4. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence further comprises a vector. (google.com)
- 6. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence further comprises a retrovirus vector. (google.com)
- 7. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the ovomucoid promoter comprises a nucleotide sequence that is at least 99% identical to the nucleotide sequence of about 34,473 to about 36,248 of SEQ ID NO: 36. (google.com)
- We have studied the regulation, by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ), of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (28-kDa CaBP) mRNA in chick tissues in vivo. (elsevier.com)
- Recombinant chicken TGF-ß4 increased Hsp47 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. (uga.edu)
- The product that ensues by insertion into the nascent P mRNA of one non-template G residue at position 401 (+2 reading frame) is referred to as the V protein [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the prognostic significance of PRDM1/Blimp1 and C-MYC at protein and mRNA levels. (bireme.br)
- Brief exposure to 95% oxygen alters surfactant protein D and mRNA in adult rat alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium. (cdc.gov)
- Brief 95% O2 exposure effects on surfactant protein and mRNA in rat alveolar and bronchiolar epithelium. (cdc.gov)
- Differences between the activity of different (uB/uBC and oC MAbs suggested that although these two phenomena were related events, they were associated with different epitopes on the viral proteins. (edu.au)
- The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (α- lactalbumin, β- lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was evaluated against A/chicken/Egypt/086Q-NLQP/2008 HPAI (H5N1) strain of clade 2.2.1 (for multiplicity of infection (1 MOI) after 72 h of incubation at 37°C in the presence of 5% CO 2 ) using MDCK cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
- NF-κB is a protein complex that can induce and regulate the inflammatory response in order to call immune cells to the site of infection. (zootecnicainternational.com)
- One MAb against the pB/pC proteins and some MAbs against the oC protein neutralised the vims to a very high titre suggesting that these two proteins were associated with the virus-cell interaction during the initial stages of infection process. (edu.au)
- Antibodies to the NDV V protein were mounted in poultry following NDV infection but also, albeit at lower rates and titers, after vaccination with attenuated NDV vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Avian influenza A virus continues to pose a global threat with occasional H5N1 human infections, which is emphasized by a recent severe human infection caused by avian-origin H7N9 in China. (bvsalud.org)
- Here we combine metabolic pulse labeling and quantitative proteomics to monitor protein synthesis upon infection of human cells with a human- and a bird-adapted IAV strain and observe striking differences in viral protein synthesis. (nature.com)
- Title: Subtyping of Avian Influenza infection using a protein microarray. (wur.nl)
- SGPLKAEIAQRLEDVFAGKN , corresponding to amino acids 9-28 of Chicken Avian Influenza Matrix Protein 1. (abcam.com)
- We used low-stringency hybridization of a chicken embryonic cDNA library to isolate cDNA clones coding for three chicken winged helix (CWH) proteins, CWH-1, CWH-2, and CWH-3. (aacrjournals.org)
- Expression of the CWH proteins from replication-competent retroviral RCAS vectors induces changes in morphology and growth pattern of chicken embryo fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
- B) Western blot analysis of protein expression by the NDV vectors in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. (asm.org)
- Previously, long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal. (diagenode.com)
- In conclusion, these results demonstrated that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal leads to long-term alterations of the hepatic transcriptome in the chicken. (diagenode.com)
- These antisera and antisera specific for the carboxyl terminal domain of the chicken c-erbB gene product have been used to study the native protein products of the c-erbB locus in primary cell cultures by in vivo labeling and immunoprecipitation. (elsevier.com)
- New research led by scientists at The Pirbright Institute has shown how an Avian Infuenza a virus protein, called PB1-F2, is able to shut down two pathways of the chicken immune response to increase the length of time the virus can be transmitted. (zootecnicainternational.com)
- Plaque reduction neutralisation assay using anti-1091 MAbs revealed that three proteins - B, uB/uBC and oC - were involved in virus neutralisation in Vero cells but only two proteins - uB/uBC and oC - were involved in vims neutralisation in chicken kidney (CK) cells. (edu.au)
- I investigated effects of heat-shock, growth factors and mechanical stress on procollagen and heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) expression in chicken tendon fibroblasts. (uga.edu)
- As a part of my effort I generated the chicken TGF-ß4 cDNA and expressed the corresponding protein and partially characterized it. (uga.edu)
- I failed to recover the active TGF-ß4 after purification and refolding when the chicken mature TGF-ß4 protein was expressed in E. coli using a pET-28 vector. (uga.edu)
- Protein bioassay showed that recombinant chicken TGF-ß4 shares the TGF-ß superfamily-related activities. (uga.edu)
- I also found that human TGF-ß1, chicken TGF-ß4, and mechanical stress increased Hsp47 protein synthesis through activation and translocation of HSF1 into the nucleus as heat stress does. (uga.edu)
- A protein exhibiting immunological cross-reactivity with the chicken egg-white riboflavin carrier protein was detected by radioimmunoassay in the eggs and serum of the fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio and subsequently purified to homogeneity by use of affinity chromatography. (ias.ac.in)
- Fish riboflavin carrier protein resembled chicken riboflavin carrier protein with respect to most of its physicochemical characteristics. (ias.ac.in)
- 9. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the transgenic avian is a chicken or a quail. (google.com)
- Three antisera raised against distinct synthetic peptides predicted from the long open reading frame of amv specifically precipitated the same 48-kilodalton protein (p48amv) from leukemic myeloblasts but not from normal hematopoietic tissue, fibroblasts, or from fibroblasts infected with the AMV helper virus, MAV-1 (myeloblastosis-associated virus type 1). (pnas.org)
- We have demonstrated that the 1918 HA gene was necessary for efficient direct contact transmission, but did not allow respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets of an avian influenza virus possessing an avian polymerase subunit PB2. (pnas.org)
- The 1918 PB2 protein was found to be both necessary and sufficient for airborne transmission of a virus expressing the 1918 HA and neuraminidase. (pnas.org)
- Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. (asm.org)
- Wang, Xiaomei 2016-07-20 00:00:00 Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. (deepdyve.com)
- Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus is one of the most important public health concerns worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
- The titers of unconcentrated vector particles bearing Sindbis virus strain TR339 or vesicular stomatitis virus G fusion proteins plus stem cell factor in the context of c-kit expressing cells were up to 3.2 × 10 5 transducing units per ml while vector particles lacking the stem cell factor ligand displayed titers that were approximately 80 fold lower. (biomedcentral.com)
- Transduction of erythropoietin receptor-expressing cells mediated by bi-functional bridge proteins was found to be dependent on the dose, the correct subgroup-specific virus receptor and the correct envelope protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- The background levels were lower compared to alternative strategies involving Sindbis virus strain TR339 or vesicular stomatitis virus fusion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- The avian adeno-associated virus (AAAV) is a replication defective non-pathogenic virus proved useful as a viral vector for gene delivery. (uga.edu)
- The N-linked glycosylation motif at amino acid position 154-156 of the envelope (E) protein of West Nile virus (WNV) is linked to enhanced murine neuroinvasiveness, avian pathogenicity and vector competence. (elsevier.com)
- Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. (semanticscholar.org)
- NS1 (nonstructural protein 1) is an important virulence factor of the influenza A virus. (semanticscholar.org)
- As the capsid protein, P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites, which enable the easy detection of the virus itself, and based on which ELISA or lateral flow immunoassay were further developed for laboratory testing purpose. (antibodymall.com)
- In this communication, we show that relevant antigenic activity apparently resides in each of the internal virus proteins p15 and p27. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The XB protein was associated with group (broad)-specific virus neutralisation in Vero cells and not in CK cells. (edu.au)
- To study the importance of each of the three CA proteins, we introduced amino acid substitutions into each CA cleavage junction and studied their effects on CA processing as well as virus assembly and infectivity. (uthscsa.edu)
- These results support the idea that infectivity of the virus is closely linked to proper processing of the carboxyl terminus to form two mature CA proteins. (uthscsa.edu)
- Crystals of an MHC class I molecule bound to naturally occurring peptide variants from the dengue virus NS3 protein contained high levels of solvent and required optimization of cryoprotectant and dehydration protocols for each complex to yield well ordered diffraction, a process facilitated by the use of a free-mounting system. (iucr.org)
- Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. (duhnnae.com)
- Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. (biomedcentral.com)
- Data are lacking concerning the applicability of NDV V proteins as differential diagnostic marker to distinguish vaccinated from virus-infected birds (DIVA strategy). (biomedcentral.com)
- Indirect ELISA based on bacterially expressed recombinant full-length NP compared favorably with a commercial NDV ELISA based on whole virus antigen, but cross reactivity between the NP proteins of different APMV subtypes could compromise specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
- PB1-F2 protein, expressed from an alternative reading frame of most influenza A virus (IAV) PB1 segments, may possess specific residues associated with enhanced inflammation (L62, R75, R79, and L82) and cytotoxicity (I68, L69, and V70). (cdc.gov)
- Using the method, we construct the phylogenetic trees of nine proteins of H7N9 influenza virus to analyze the originated source of H7N9. (hindawi.com)
- H7N9 avian influenza virus is previously only isolated from birds. (hindawi.com)
- The Lancet published a research report, in which the H7N9 avian influenza virus has some types of mutations associated with circulation in humans [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- But seriously, why is this so much better than using a virus or phage as the vector for reproducing a protein? (slashdot.org)
- CIDRAP News) - Newly confirmed human cases of H5N1 avian influenza, along with several outbreaks in poultry, are a reminder that the virus still poses a global threat, the World Health Organization (WHO) said yesterday. (umn.edu)
- CIDRAP News) This in-depth article investigates the prospects for development of vaccines to head off the threat of an influenza pandemic posed by the H5N1 avian influenza virus. (umn.edu)
- Development of an Avian Influenza Virus microarray with recombinant H- and N-antigens. (wur.nl)
- In the Netherlands a part of the surveillance programme is based on subtyping monitoring, where each commercial poultry flock is tested with ELISA for the presence of antibodies against nucleoprotein.The subtypes of the AI virus are characterised by two envelope proteins, i.e., haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (wur.nl)
- In contrast resistance of the avian flu virus to the second newer cl. (bio-medicine.org)
- A new University of Colorado at Boulder study shows the resistance of the avian flu virus to a major class of antiviral drugs is increasing through positive evolutionary selection, with researchers documenting the trend in more than 30 percent of the samples tested. (bio-medicine.org)
- In contrast, resistance of the avian flu virus to the second, newer class of antiviral drugs that includes oseltamivir -- a prescription drug marketed under the brand name Tamiflu -- is present, but is not yet prevalent or under positive genetic selection, said Hill of CU-Boulder's ecology and evolutionary biology department. (bio-medicine.org)
- Deep mutational scanning of Env proteins from two transmitted-founder strains of HIV shows how the accessible evolutionary space changes as the virus evolves. (elifesciences.org)
- Low virulence and lack of airborne transmission of the Dutch highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 in ferrets. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Pathobiological features of a novel, highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Phylogenetic analysis of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) virus outbreak strains provides evidence for four separate introductions and one between-poultry farm transmission in the Netherlands, November 2014. (eurosurveillance.org)
- 2012]. In the present study, we present an extension of this platform that also includes the avian haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes (H1-H16 and N1-N9). (wur.nl)
- This induces long-range allostery via protein domain dynamics, causing the structure to be destabilized, resulting in the opening up of the SH3, SH2 and kinase domains and the autophosphorylation of the residue tyrosine 416. (wikipedia.org)
- Glycosylated NYT exhibited similar avian virulence properties as NYS, but resulted in higher mosquito oral infectivity than glycosylated NYS and nonglycosylated, NYP, NYF, SYP and KYS mutants. (elsevier.com)
- Eight proteins were identified among the spots, some of which have previously been associated with the virulence of E. coli. (utmb.edu)
- Non-avian animal reservoirs present a source of influenza A PB1-F2 proteins with novel virulence-enhancing markers. (cdc.gov)
- Full length and C-terminally truncated nucleocapsid (NP) protein, and the unique C-terminal regions of the phospho- (P) and V proteins of the NDV LaSota strain were bacterially expressed as fusion proteins with the multimerization domain of the human C4 binding protein, and used as diagnostic antigens in indirect ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
- Most importantly, the matrix protein M1 is inefficiently produced by the bird-adapted strain. (nature.com)
- Colibacillosis, caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), is an extraintestinal disease that causes great economic loss to the poultry industry each year. (utmb.edu)
- Avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in poultry cause huge economic losses and are a major threat to public health worldwide. (wur.nl)
- First detected in China in 1996, the avian flu has spread throughout Asia and to India, Russia, Pakistan, the Middle East, Africa and Europe by various carriers, including poultry and migratory waterfowl, Hill said. (bio-medicine.org)
- Simplified schematic sagittal view of the avian song control system showing the distribution of steroid receptors. (jneurosci.org)
- c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein coupled receptors and cytokine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
Strains were identified2
Differentially expressed proteins1
- Proteins were isolated and separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and 10 protein spots corresponding to differentially expressed proteins were chosen for sequencing using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (utmb.edu)
- During studies of the effect of MAbs against virion proteins of avian reovimses 1091 and RAMI, two probably cell fusion-related phenomena were observed: inhibition of cell fusion in infected cells overlayed with liquid medium, and inhibition of plaque development in infected cells overlayed with agar containing medium. (edu.au)
- Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
- Upon approaches for finding specific genetic signatures charac- inspecting 21 human-isolated avian influenza viral teristic of human and avian influenza A viral genomes. (cdc.gov)
- Localization and functional characterization of pulmonary bovine odorant binding protein. (uoguelph.ca)
- Complementation of HBV genomes defective in expressing the S or L protein and therefore incompetent to form virions was possible with the closely related WHV S protein or a WHV pre-S-HBV S chimera, respectively, but not with the less related DHBV S or L protein or with a DHBV L-HBV S chimera. (asm.org)
- Thus far, only two avian papillomavirus genomes were cloned, one from a chaffinch and the second from a parrot papilloma. (biomedcentral.com)
- The full collection can be viewed at the Avian Genomes Consortium page . (biomedcentral.com)
- Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and high-performance capillary electrophoresis support the purity of a protein ≊10 kD in size, having an acidic pI, but with evidence of several differently charged isoforms. (elsevier.com)
- Although a number of techniques for protein fractionation have been available for the past thirty years, protein electrophoresis has only been recently applied to avian diagnostics. (miami.edu)
- Protein electrophoresis of psittacine plasma. (miami.edu)
- Application of protein electrophoresis in avian diagnostic testing. (miami.edu)
- The results suggest that the assembly of HBV subviral particles and virion envelopes requires relatively precise molecular interactions of their surface proteins, which are not conserved between the two hepadnavirus genera. (asm.org)
- These results provide the foundation for further use of this protein as a tool to study the molecular basis of avian complement and pathogen evasion to such a defense mechanism. (lu.se)
- The filaments obtained are composed of the two known muscle intermediate-filament proteins, vimentin and desmin, as well as the vimentin- and desmin-associated high molecular weight protein, synemin (230,000 mol. (caltech.edu)
- In addition, they contain a previously unidentified high molecular weight protein (280,000 mol wt) which differs from synemin by isoelectric point, molecular weight, and immunological reactivity. (caltech.edu)
- These results suggest that this newly identified high molecular weight protein is closely associated with intermediate filaments containing either vimentin alone or vimentin, desmin and synemin. (caltech.edu)
- Northern transfer studies reveal a lower molecular weight transcript of ≈2.6 kilobases that selectively hybridizes to the ligand-binding domain of the avian c-erbB gene product but does not hybridize with probes specific for the cytoplasmic kinase domain of c-erbB. (elsevier.com)
- The avian retrovirus S13 codes for an env-linked transformation-specific glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 155,000 (gp155). (scripps.edu)
- Sensitizer-induced occupational asthma immunologic form of asthma which occurs due to inhalation of specific substances (i.e., high-molecular-weight proteins from plants and animal origins, or low-molecular-weight agents that include chemicals, metals and wood dusts) and occurs after a latency period of several weeks to years. (wikipedia.org)
- Implicated antigens include avian (bird) antigens, mammalian proteins, fungi and fungal spores, bacterial antigens, and small-molecular-weight chemicals. (medscape.com)
- Complete mapping of human-adaptive mutations to the avian influenza PB2 protein shows how selection at key molecular interfaces combines with evolutionary accessibility to shape viral host adaptation. (elifesciences.org)
- The term Feed ban is usually a reference to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations that since 1997 have prohibited the feeding of most mammalian-derived proteins to cattle as a method of preventing the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). (wikipedia.org)
- The recombinant protein TGF-ß4 was purified with Probond Resin under native conditions, and then activated by strong acidification. (uga.edu)
- Bacterial c-erbB fusion proteins were synthesized and used to obtain polyclonal antisera specific for the ligand-binding domain of the avian receptor. (elsevier.com)
- These data demonstrated that amino acid polymorphisms at E154/156 dictate differential avian host and vector competence phenotypes independent of E-protein glycosylation status. (elsevier.com)
- Significantly, an outer-membrane protein previously associated with serum resistance, OmpA, was among those proteins identified, further indicating that differential regulation of this protein may be involved in serum resistance. (utmb.edu)
- Six of the eight mRNAs code for single proteins, while the remaining two code for two proteins by differential splicing of the RNA. (hindawi.com)
- Non-human influenza strains may act as donors of virulent PB1-F2 proteins. (cdc.gov)
- The CU findings should help health administrators around the world plan for the possibility of an avian flu pandemic. (bio-medicine.org)
- Wikimedia Commons has media related to Animal proteins . (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, the amino acids involved in OmCI binding are highly conserved among mammalian and avian C5, but the ability of this protein to inhibit the complement from birds remains unclear. (lu.se)
- However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. (duhnnae.com)
- The numbers of inflammatory (indicated as "I1" through "I4") and cytotoxic (indicated as "C1" and "C2") residues were determined for PB1-F2 proteins with length of 62 or more amino acids (e.g. capable of encoding either inflammatory or cytotoxic residues). (cdc.gov)
- According to the indices of some physicochemical properties of the twenty amino acids, some graphical representations of protein sequences have been proposed to compare the similarities/dissimilarities of proteins [ 17 - 26 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Edsall, J.T.: On the laboratory that produced the book, Proteins, Amino Acids and Peptides. (springer.com)
- Sanger, F.: The arrangement of amino acids in proteins. (springer.com)
- Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines relative to seasonal vaccines. (asm.org)
- Because of the generally high levels of cross-reactive CD4 T cells in humans, it is not possible to compare the inherent immunogenicities of avian and seasonal HA proteins in an unbiased manner. (asm.org)
- Therefore, we conclude that failure in responses to avian vaccines in humans is likely due to a lack of cross-reactive CD4 T cell memory perhaps coupled with competition with or suppression of naive, HA-specific CD4 T cells by memory CD4 T cells specific for more highly conserved proteins. (asm.org)
- Although it appears that adjuvants, higher doses, and prime-boost strategies may be effective in overcoming the apparent low immunogenicity, it is still not clear why primary responses to avian influenza vaccines are so weak in humans. (asm.org)
- PB1-F2 can also bind to another protein, called IKKβ, preventing it from activating NF-κB. (zootecnicainternational.com)
- Our receptor binding and crystallographic data shown here further confirm that the ability to bind the avian receptor has to decrease for a higher human receptor binding affinity. (bvsalud.org)
- p48amv is not glycosylated or phosphorylated and does not appear to act as a protein kinase in vitro. (pnas.org)
- The high affinity binding of pp12 to viral RNA can be restored by phosphorylation of the protein with a protein kinase, protease-activated kinase I. The same serine residues phosphorylated in vivo are phosphorylated by protease kinase I in vitro. (northwestern.edu)
- it is phosphorylated, but in immunoprecipitates does not show protein kinase activity. (scripps.edu)
- In this study, we examine whether these effects of TPA may be mediated by changes in endogenous levels of protein kinase C (PKC) activities. (elsevier.com)
- Hess, L, Chamberlin, T & Ciment, G 1988, ' Changes in protein kinase C activities are correlated with the metaplastic transformation of schwann cell precursors of avian embryos into melanocytes ', Journal of Neuroscience Research , vol. 21, no. 2-4, pp. 101-106. (elsevier.com)
- The capsid protein P27 is the group-specific antigen of ALV and has many viral antigen sites that are easy to detect. (deepdyve.com)
- In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins ORF2-1 - ORF2-4 with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. (duhnnae.com)
- Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. (duhnnae.com)