Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Genes, rel: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.Reticuloendotheliosis, Avian: A group of pathologic syndromes found in avian species caused by RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS. The distinct syndromes include non-neoplastic runting, acute neoplastic disease, and chronic neoplastic disease. Humans and mammals appear resistant.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Reticuloendotheliosis Viruses, Avian: A group of viruses in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS comprising a few isolates from birds, with no known corresponding endogenous relatives.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.United StatesNeuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Singing: Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.ArchivesZanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Bird Fancier's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.

Regulation of chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart by Irx4. (1/1107)

The vertebrate heart consists of two types of chambers, the atria and the ventricles, which differ in their contractile and electrophysiological properties. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms by which these chambers are specified during embryogenesis. Here a chicken iroquois-related homeobox gene, Irx4, was identified that has a ventricle-restricted expression pattern at all stages of heart development. Irx4 protein was shown to regulate the chamber-specific expression of myosin isoforms by activating the expression of the ventricle myosin heavy chain-1 (VMHC1) and suppressing the expression of the atrial myosin heavy chain-1 (AMHC1) in the ventricles. Thus, Irx4 may play a critical role in establishing chamber-specific gene expression in the developing heart.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (2/1107)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (3/1107)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Dynamic expression of lunatic fringe suggests a link between notch signaling and an autonomous cellular oscillator driving somite segmentation. (4/1107)

The metameric organization of the vertebrate trunk is a characteristic feature of all members of this phylum. The origin of this metamerism can be traced to the division of paraxial mesoderm into individual units, termed somites, during embryonic development. Despite the identification of somites as the first overt sign of segmentation in vertebrates well over 100 years ago, the mechanism(s) underlying somite formation remain poorly understood. Recently, however, several genes have been identified which play prominent roles in orchestrating segmentation, including the novel secreted factor lunatic fringe. To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lunatic fringe controls somite development, we have conducted a thorough analysis of lunatic fringe expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of chick embryos. Here we report that lunatic fringe is expressed predominantly in somite -II, where somite I corresponds to the most recently formed somite and somite -I corresponds to the group of cells which will form the next somite. In addition, we show that lunatic fringe is expressed in a highly dynamic manner in the chick segmental plate prior to somite formation and that lunatic fringe expression cycles autonomously with a periodicity of somite formation. Moreover, the murine ortholog of lunatic fringe undergoes a similar cycling expression pattern in the presomitic mesoderm of somite stage mouse embryos. The demonstration of a dynamic periodic expression pattern suggests that lunatic fringe may function to integrate notch signaling to a cellular oscillator controlling somite segmentation.  (+info)

Characterization of prethymic progenitors within the chicken embryo. (5/1107)

The thymic primordium in both birds and mammals is first colonized by cells emerging from the intra-embryonic mesenchyme but the nature of these precursors is poorly understood. We demonstrate here an early embryonic day 7 prethymic population with T lymphoid potential. Our work is a phenotypic analysis of, to date, the earliest embryonic prethymic progenitors arising in the avian para-aortic area during ontogeny. The phenotype of these cells, expressing the cell surface molecules alpha2beta1 integrin, c-kit, thrombomucin/MEP21, HEMCAM and chL12, reflects functional properties required for cell adhesion, migration and growth factor responsiveness. Importantly, the presence of these antigens was found to correlate with the recolonization of the recipient thymus following intrathymic cell transfers. These intra-embryonic cells were also found to express the Ikaros transcription factor, the molecular function of which is considered to be prerequisite for embryonic lymphoid development.  (+info)

Expression of Zkrml2, a homologue of the Krml1/val segmentation gene, during embryonic patterning of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). (6/1107)

We have identified Zkrml2, a novel homologue of the segmentation gene Krml/val in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zkrml2 shows 72% and 92% identity in its basic leucine zipper domain with mouse Krml1 and zebrafish val, respectively. Zkrml2 is expressed coincident with MyoD throughout the somites starting at the three somite stage, becomes restricted to the dermomyotome, and subsequently disappears. Transient expression is also detected in the reticulospinal and oculomotor neurons. Zkrml2 maps to the Oregon linkage group 11 (Boston Linkage group 14) with no mapped zebrafish mutations nearby.  (+info)

Role of Pitx1 upstream of Tbx4 in specification of hindlimb identity. (7/1107)

In spite of recent breakthroughs in understanding limb patterning, the genetic factors determining the differences between the forelimb and the hindlimb have not been understood. The genes Pitx1 and Tbx4 encode transcription factors that are expressed throughout the developing hindlimb but not forelimb buds. Misexpression of Pitx1 in the chick wing bud induced distal expression of Tbx4, as well as HoxC10 and HoxC11, which are normally restricted to hindlimb expression domains. Wing buds in which Pitx1 was misexpressed developed into limbs with some morphological characteristics of hindlimbs: the flexure was altered to that normally observed in legs, the digits were more toe-like in their relative size and shape, and the muscle pattern was transformed to that of a leg.  (+info)

Production and characterization of a soluble, active form of Tva, the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor. (8/1107)

The receptor for the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(A)] is the cellular glycoprotein Tva. A soluble form of Tva, sTva, was produced and purified with a baculovirus expression system. Using this system, 7 to 10 mg of purified sTva per liter of cultured Sf9 cells was obtained. Characterization of the carbohydrate modification of sTva revealed that the three N glycosylation sites in sTva were differentially utilized; however, the O glycosylation common to Tva produced in mammalian and avian cells was not observed. Purified sTva demonstrates significant biological activity, specifically blocking infection of avian cells by ASLV(A) with a 90% inhibitory concentration of approximately 25 pM. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, developed to assess the binding of sTva to ASLV envelope glycoprotein, demonstrates that sTva has a high affinity for EnvA, with an apparent dissociation constant of approximately 0.3 nM. Once they are bound, a very stable complex is formed between EnvA and sTva, with an estimated complex half-life of 6 h. The soluble receptor protein described here represents a valuable tool for analysis of the receptor-envelope glycoprotein interaction and for structural analysis of Tva.  (+info)

*Bird fancier's lung

This disease is caused by the exposure to avian proteins present in the dry dust of the droppings and sometimes in the feathers ... If someone with BFL has been exposed to avian proteins they will see symptoms within 4-6 hours. Symptoms include chills, fever ... Certain small mammals kept as pets have the same or similar proteins in their fur and feces and so should be removed. Peak flow ... BFL symptoms improve in the absence of the bird proteins which caused the disease. Therefore, it is advisable to remove all ...

*Feed ban

... and avian) proteins. On January 26, 2004, FDA officials said they would expand the feed ban by prohibiting, from ruminant feeds ... regulations that since 1997 have prohibited the feeding of most mammalian-derived proteins to cattle as a method of preventing ...

*Intrastructural help

"Localization of a T-cell epitope within the nucleocapsid protein of avian coronavirus". Immunology. 74 (1): 8-13. ISSN 0019- ... These particles contain Gag protein and HIV-Env surface protein. These particles can be recognized by B cells and subsequently ... Activities of Env-Specific Human Monoclonal Antibodies Generated from Volunteers Receiving the DNA Prime-Protein Boost HIV ...

*Roller

Fry (1992) 6-27 Sibley, Charles G (1960). "The electrophoretic patterns of avian egg-white proteins as taxonomic characters". ... Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural ...

*AHAS

... may refer to: Acetolactate synthase, a protein Avian Hazard Advisory System, a bird avoidance model developed by the ...

*FKBP5

Smith DF, Albers MW, Schreiber SL, Leach KL, Deibel MR (1993). "FKBP54, a novel FK506-binding protein in avian progesterone ... FK506 binding protein 5, also known as FKBP5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FKBP5 gene. The protein encoded by ... along with the 90 kDa heat shock protein and P23 protein. Genetic studies have identified a role for FKBP5 in posttraumatic ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ...

*HSP90B1

... properties and homology with mammalian and avian stress proteins". Biochemistry. 29 (21): 5138-44. doi:10.1021/bi00473a020. ... Heat shock protein 90kDa beta member 1 (HSP90B1), known also as endoplasmin, gp96, grp94, or ERp99, is a chaperone protein that ... 2007). "Heat Shock Protein gp96 Is a Master Chaperone for Toll-like Receptors and Is Important in the Innate Function of ... GP96 Heat Shock Protein-Peptide Complex Vaccine in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Glioma Bloch, O.; Crane, C. ...

*Plant defense against herbivory

Witmer, M.C. (1998). "Ecological and evolutionary implications of energy and protein requirements of avian frugivores eating ... The bacterium produces proteins that, when ingested, kill lepidopteran caterpillars. The gene encoding for these highly toxic ... Certain alkaloids bind to nucleic acids and can inhibit synthesis of proteins and affect DNA repair mechanisms. Alkaloids can ... proteins, when introduced into the host plant genome, confers resistance against caterpillars, when the same toxic proteins are ...

*Beta-keratin

"Beta-keratins of differentiating epidermis of snake comprise glycine-proline-serine-rich proteins with an avian-like gene ... The hydrogen on the amide of one protein chain is hydrogen bonded to the amide oxygen of the neighboring protein chain. The ... In this structure, individual protein chains are aligned side-by-side with every other protein chain aligned in an opposite ... β-keratin or beta-keratin is a protein in the keratin family. β-keratin is rich in stacked β pleated sheets, in contrast to ...

*NEO1

Vielmetter J, Kayyem JF, Roman JM, Dreyer WJ (1995). "Neogenin, an avian cell surface protein expressed during terminal ... Neogenin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEO1 gene. NEO1 has been shown to interact with PTK2. GRCh38: Ensembl ... a DCC-related protein, and the mapping of its gene (NEO1) to chromosomal position 15q22.3-q23". Genomics. 41 (3): 414-21. doi: ...

*Common raven physiology

Glucose, calcium and proteins are other components of avian blood's chemical properties. Blood glucose levels range from 200 to ... Avian kidneys do not send urine to a bladder. Instead it is sent via the ureters to the cloaca to be deposited into the lower ... Avian blood possesses a more alkaline pH ranging from 7.5 to 7.6, and blood bicarbonate values are between 16 and 32 mmol/L. In ... Avian blood has counts of between 2.5 and 4 million red blood cells per cubic millimetre. The red blood cells of birds are ...

*Env (gene)

The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM ... the surface protein (SU) and the transmembrane protein (TM). The tropism of the virus is determined by the SU protein domain ... This precursor is cleaved by host cell enzymes to yield the surface protein subunit, gp85, and the transmembrane protein ... presumably by stabilizing the protein structure. Without proper folding, protein transport and function can be severely ...

*Lck

"Evidence that the transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus encodes a protein kinase associated with a phosphoprotein". Cell. 15 ... Lck is a 56-kilodalton protein. The N-terminal tail of Lck is myristoylated and palmitoylated, which tethers the protein to the ... Lck (or lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is a 56 kDa protein that is found inside specialized cells of the immune ... Chiang GG, Sefton BM (Jun 2001). "Specific dephosphorylation of the Lck tyrosine protein kinase at Tyr-394 by the SHP-1 protein ...

*CDKN2C

... a component of the lamin B receptor complex and a new integral membrane protein of the avian erythrocyte nuclear envelope". J. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been ... "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/ ... Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. CDKN2C has ...

*Glossary of bird terms

ISBN 978-0-643-10293-4. Klasing, Kirk C. (1999). "Avian gastrointestinal anatomy and physiology". Seminars in Avian and Exotic ... It is extremely high in protein and fat, containing higher levels than cow or human milk and has been shown to also contain ... ISBN 978-1-60342-561-2. Lucas, Alfred M. (1972). Avian Anatomy - integument. East Lansing, Michigan: USDA Avian Anatomy Project ... In Avian Flight (2005), the author notes that "most birds open and close their wings during every wing beat cycle", and ...

*Eggshell

Romanoff, A.L., A.J. Romanoff (1949) The avian egg. New York, Wiley. Burley, R.W., D.V. Vadehra (1989) The Avian Egg: Chemistry ... Without the protein, the crystal structure would be too brittle to keep its form and the organic matrix is thought to have a ... While the bulk of eggshell is made of calcium carbonate, it is now thought that the protein matrix has an important role to ... Softer shells are mostly protein. It may be fibrous or quite liquid. Some arthropod eggs do not actually have shells, rather, ...

*Spanish flu research

In avian virus the HA protein preferentially binds to alpha 2,3 sialic acid, which is the major form in the avian enteric tract ... in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." (from Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. ... Kou Z, Lei FM, Yu J, Fan ZJ, Yin ZH, Jia CX, Xiong KJ, Sun YH, Zhang XW, Wu XM, Gao XB, Li TX (2005). "New genotype of avian ... Such mutations in avian H5N1 viruses can change virus strains from being inefficient at infecting human cells to being as ...

*Glucokinase regulatory protein

"A hepatic protein modulates glucokinase activity in fish and avian liver: a comparative study". J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. ... The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) also known as glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator (GCKR) is a protein produced in ... GKRP is a 68 kD protein of 626 amino acids. It is coded for by a 19 exon gene, GCKR, on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p23). ... In contrast, phosphorylation of GKRP by AMP-activated protein kinase, induced by elevated levels of AMP, reduces its capacity ...

*National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease

The lab has diagnostic capabilities for a large number of FADs including, but not limited to: avian influenza, foot-and-mouth ... These services involve the production and characterization of: 1) monoclonal antibodies 2) recombinant proteins and 3) ... In addition to OIE Reference Laboratory status for classical swine fever and avian influenza, this Section is also the National ... This unit is involved in assays for the determination of pathogenicity indices for avian viruses, the production of serum ...

*TERF2

This region gets its name from a viral protein called Myb derived from the avian myeloblastosis virus. Specifically, the ... There are 4 domain categories on the TERF2 protein that allow it to bind to both other proteins in the shelterin protein ... This domain contains a motif for binding the shelterin protein TIN2, which acts as a stabilizing protein, connecting units that ... TERF2 is also known to recruit certain client proteins, also known as accessory factors. These client proteins are often ...

*Avulavirus

Avian paramyxovirus 6 is unique to the presence of the SH gene between the F and HN genes. Avian paramyxovirus 11 has the ... Avulaviruses have a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase attachment protein and do not produce a non-structural protein C. The most ... Gogoi, P; Ganar, K; Kumar, S (2015). "Avian Paramyxovirus: A Brief Review". Transboundary and Emerging Diseases: n/a. doi: ... All avulaviruses hemagglutinate chicken RBCs except for avian paramyxovirus 5 which does not hemagglutinate RBCs from any ...

*Julian Downward

... establishing in 1984 the close similarity between this cellular growth regulatory protein and the avian retroviral oncogene, v- ... which controls the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Julian was first to demonstrate that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI ...

*Avian adenovirus

The genome codes for 40 proteins. Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral ... Avian Adenoviruses, reviewed and published by WikiVet at http://en.wikivet.net/Avian_Adenoviruses, accessed 18/08/2011. ... Avian adenoviruses have a worldwide distribution and it is common to find multiple species on a single farm. The most common ...

*OPN5

... heterotrimeric G protein Gi-mediated pathway in mammalian and avian tissues. Opsins are members of the G protein-coupled ... Neuropsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN5 gene. It is a photoreceptor protein sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) ... Neuropsin belongs to the seven-exon subfamily of mammalian opsin genes that includes peropsin (RRH) and retinal G protein ... "The G protein-coupled receptor repertoires of human and mouse". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...

*Retroviral matrix protein

It includes Gag polyproteins from several avian endogenous retroviruses. Matrix proteins are also components of beta- ... Gag-derived proteins govern the entire assembly and release of the virus particles, with matrix proteins playing key roles in ... These proteins line the inner surface of viral envelopes and are associated with viral membranes. Matrix proteins are produced ... Typical matrix proteins of retroviruses form an alpha helical bundle structure . One family of these proteins represents matrix ...

*Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src

"Uninfected vertebrate cells contain a protein that is closely related to the product of the avian sarcoma virus transforming ... The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by CSK. ... This protein phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues in other proteins. An elevated level of activity of c-Src tyrosine ... c-Src can be activated by many transmembrane proteins that include: adhesion receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, G-protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Teneurin-1 is expressed in interconnected regions of the developing brain and is processed in vivo. AU - Kenzelmann, Daniela. AU - Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth. AU - Leachman, Nathaniel T.. AU - Tucker, Richard P. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Background. Teneurins are a unique family of transmembrane proteins conserved from C. elegans and D. melanogaster to mammals. In vertebrates there are four paralogs (teneurin-1 to -4), all of which are expressed prominently in the developing central nervous system. Results. Analysis of teneurin-1 expression in the developing chick brain by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry defined a unique, distinct expression pattern in interconnected regions of the brain. Moreover we found complementary patterns of teneurin-1 and-2 expression in many parts of the brain, including the retina, optic tectum, olfactory bulb, and cerebellum as well as in brain nuclei involved in processing of sensory information. Based on these expression patterns, we ...
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Before you think of posting here, read back here , then read ahead The Lunatic Fringe (Part 1) http://www.colorado4x4.org/gallery/files/3/1/5/2/Untitled-1.jpg
Purpose of the present study is to point-out a number of psychiatric-forensic remarks about the management of violent behavior against the person (VBP) amongst psychiatric patients. The study is the authors personal contribution based on clinical and forensic experience as experts in the management of psychiatric patients with VBP. Twelve psychiatric-forensic remarks have been highlighted in the present study: 1) VBP is a multifactorial event; 2) the risk of VBP against the person may change rapidly over time in quantity and quality; 3) there are no methods for reliable prediction of VBP in a single clinical-case; 4) there are no medications with an indication of "heal" the VBP; 5) there are no therapeutic measures that neutralize always, quickly and without recurrences VBP; 6) there exist clinical hypotheses to assess VBP; 7) there exist principles of victimology to assess VBP; 8) there are emotional reactions that can affect the evaluation and clinical and forensic management of VBP; 9) the ...
Monolith released the FPS Blood in 1997. The hero of the game was an undead man named Caleb. http://i269.photobucket.com/albums/jj72/diosoth/GI%20Joe%20Customs/caleb_1.jpg http://i269.photobucket.com/albums/jj72/diosoth/GI%20Joe%20Customs/caleb_2.jpg I just got the last few parts in the mail to wrap up a pending project, though Im still waiting on the shotgun. The parts I used- hat- eBay listing, unknown brand head- Hot Toys standard tan male head, with the eyes painted red
Childhood allergic asthma has been and still is a growing health problem in the western world. Many children begin to have significant complications from severe...
Say the Act of Contrition," I demanded before I even said good morning. Now, before you think Im a crazy lunatic you must know that tonight was her first reconciliation. A big night. So Im not a crazy lunatic, just a regular kind of fathery type lunatic whos been studying the Act of Contrition to the point where at night we all dream about how heartily sorry we all are. "Just say the Act of Contrition," I said. "One last time and Ill never ask again ...
A bárdok remegve reménykednek, hogy nem megy el a Nouvelle Secheux (Dezheuxiana, a Misishayaux-mente) eisteddfodra OlTiby a Sajó-deltáből, ahol lassan folyik a víz és lassan jön a szó…... ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A new member of the hypothalamic rf-amide peptide family, lpxrf-amide peptides. T2 - Structure, localization, and function. AU - Ukena, Kazuyoshi. AU - Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2005/7. Y1 - 2005/7. N2 - Recently, we identified a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide with a C-terminal LPLRF-amide sequence in the quail brain. This avian neuropeptide was shown to inhibit gonadotropin release from the cultured anterior pituitary. This peptide is the first hypothalamic peptide that inhibited gonadotropin release reported in vertebrates. We, therefore, termed it gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). After this finding, we found that GnIH-related peptides were present in the brains of other vertebrates, such as mammals, amphibians, and fish. These GnIH-related peptides possessed a LPXRF-amide (X = L or Q) motif at their C-termini in all investigated animals. Mass spectrometric analyses combined with immunoaffinity chromatography were powerful techniques for the identification of mature ...
Background: Obesity is becoming an increasing problem in obstetric practice; it has led to an increase in the risk of caesarean delivery, prolonged pregnancy and dysfunctional labour. It has been postulated that many of ...
Blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES) also known as popeye domain-containing protein 1 (POPDC1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BVES gene. Bves is a highly conserved, transmembrane protein that is involved in cell adhesion, cell motility, and most recently has been shown to play a role in vesicular transport. Bves is found in a wide variety of organisms (from flies to humans) and is a member of the evolutionarily conserved Popdc family of proteins. Although the precise molecular function of Bves is unknown, disruption of this protein results in developmental defects and impaired cellular processes fundamental to living organisms. Bves was discovered simultaneously by two independent labs in 1999 (Bves was also named Popdc1 at the time of discovery; the current accepted convention is Bves). Although initially isolated from cardiac tissue, it was later revealed that Bves is highly expressed in muscle, epithelial and brain tissue. Most studies have focused on determining the ...
NEWCASTLE, Okla. - Caleb Freeman continues on a miraculous road to recovery supported by the faithful prayers of people around the world. Caleb and his brother Clayton Freeman were in a serious wreck last Christmas. Caleb was crushed by a semi, torn from his life as a star athlete and trapped in a body that did […]
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The ecological health of Watauga Reservoir scored at the upper end of the fair range in 2012. Watauga has scored within the mid-fair to good range most years. The score of 60 in 1998 was the lowest recorded for Watauga. This was the result of several indicators concurrently scoring at the lower end of their historical ranges, rather than of a substantial change in any indicator. However, sediment quality has exhibited an overall improvement over the years.. TVA monitors two locations on Watauga Reservoir - the deep still water near the dam called the forebay, and the middle part of the reservoir.. ...
8/1 Round Sensor Mirror Pro SIMPLEHUMAN(有買有保佑, 大不了被取消訂單, nordstrom周年慶的特價款, 玫瑰金, 最高等級的simple human化妝鏡, 有自動發亮功能的化妝鏡, 充一次電可以用很久, 不需要插著電線, 放大五倍跟放大十倍功能, 你可以自己選擇想要的光線, 我一直勾勾纏, 跟photodog說我想要買一個神奇的鏡子, 可以化妝得更漂亮! 當然是不能說價錢的, 哈哈, 可是我覺得有自然光的鏡子很重要耶, 可以避免畫出紅屁股或是唱戲的白臉, 尤其是光線不好的冬天, 或是暴風雨的停電夜, 有了這個鏡子你任何時候都可以畫得美美) ...
Každá žena má aj mužské pohlavné hormóny, ktorých účinky sú normálne potláčané prevahou väčšieho množstva ženských pohlavných hormónov. Nádorové ochorenia - Aj nádorové ochorenia môžu byť spojená so zvýšenou tvorbou cytokínov, preto sa padanie vlasov môže objaviť aj u nich. Príčiny: Príčin straty vlasov je celý rad a nie vždy je ľahké sa tej pravej dopátrať. Väčšina ľudí predpokladá, že ide o rastové centrum vlasu, ale to je len kyjakovitá časť dolného konca vlasu. Dermálnej papila a rastové centrum vlasov centrum zostáva v pokožke hlavy. Dnes sa pozrieme na padanie vlasov pri umyvani. Na liečbu je neskoro vo chvíli, keď sa pôvodná hustá štice premení v plešinu a vlasové vačky sú už neaktívne. Veľakrát pomôže zmena životného štýlu a jedálnička a rôzne doplnky stravy. Za 4 roky úplne nové vlasy Vypadávanie vlasov - príčiny. Androgénny alopécia. S liečbou treba začať skôr, než dôjde k zničeniu ...
Generálny riaditeľ Colného riaditeľstva (CR) SR v týchto dňoch vydal rozkaz pre všetky colné úrady na Slovensku, ktorý spresňuje postupy pre výkon colníkov pri realizácii primeraných a účinných opatrení na zabezpečenie zvýšenej ostražitosti vo vzťahu k možnému výskytu zvýšenej úrovne rádioaktivity, a to nad rámec existujúcich štandardných bezpečnostných opatrení. Dôvodom je snaha predísť situácii, v ktorej by mohlo vzniknúť vážne a bezprostredné ohrozenia zdravia verejnosti a životného prostredia
Caleb Carr Crain on why he remains pessimistic about reading despite the recent National Endowment of the Arts report showing a reversal last year in a 25-year decline in reading. Its a good consideration of several ways i which the data might be a mismeasure or a misleading anomaly. Why arent I celebrating the new…. ...
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Darius, Paul Check, i do not know if you know who he is? But he made a comment once that made an inpact on me many years ago, he said something like ".... Read More ...
Recent studies of the onset of breeding in long-day photoperiodic breeders have focused on the roles of type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO2 and DIO3) in the conversion of thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) and subsequent activation of the reproductive axis. It has been hypothesized that an increase in DIO2 and reciprocal decrease in DIO3 causes the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, setting off a reproductive cascade, and that this DIO mechanism for GnRH release is conserved across vertebrate taxa. We sought to test whether social cues that are known to stimulate reproductive behaviors can activate the DIO system to initiate reproduction in a non-photoperiodic bird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Isolation of males and subsequent presentation of females did not increase DIO2 or GnRH expression in the hypothalamus, nor did it decrease gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) or DIO3. Males receiving a female stimulus showed significantly ...
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Na. Za-pad-nom Bal-ka-nu su po-treb-ni do-dat-ni ko-ra-ci za ra-zvoj ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva (SME) te je nuž-no pro-na-ći me-ha-niz-me za pot-po-ru ras-ta tog sek-to-ra, po-ru-čio je Pi-er-re He-il-bronn, pot-pred-sjed-nik EBRDa za po-li-ti-ke i part-ner-stva. Na pa-ne-lu o fi-nan-cij-skim ins-tru-men-ti-ma SMEu, odr-ža-nom u sklo-pu sum-mi-ta ze-ma-lja Za-pad-nog Bal-ka-na u Tr-stu, He-il-bronn je seg-ment ma-log i sred-njeg po-du-zet-niš-tva oci-je-nio mo-to-rom ino-va-ci-ja u re-gi-ji i ge-ne-ra-to-rom eko-nom-skog ras-ta.. Re-kao je da potpora mo-ra ići kroz po-bolj-ša-nja u fi-nan-cij-skom me-nadž-men-tu i kor-po-ra-tiv-nom uprav-lja-nju, ključ-nim fak-to-ri-ma da ma-li po-du-zet-ni-ci pos-ta-nu kre-di-bil-ni kli-jen-ti ba-na-ka. U sri-je-du su EBRD, Svjet-ska ban-ka, EK i EIF pot-pi-sa-li pi-smo na-mje-re za osi-gu-ra-nje dalj-njih 48 mi-li-ju-na eura ma-lom po-du-zet-niš-tvu.. ...
if(!is_single() && $avia_config[blog_content] == excerpt_read_more). Društvo izvaja tiste dejavnosti za študente, mlade in otroke, ki pomenijo splošno družbeno korist ter predvsem v smislu izgradnje njihove samostojne in neodvisne osebnosti, ki se bo sposobna prilagajati in vključevati tudi v delovanje skupin. Tako je smisel izvajanja dejavnosti društva predvsem v pripravljanju, izobraževanju, vzpodbujanju in dajanju različnih oblik pomoči študentom, mladim in otrokom z namenom pomoči na življenjski in poklicni poti.. V društvu ŠMOCL stremimo k temu, da mladim omogočimo bogatitev kulturnega življenja s spodbujanjem kreativnosti ter razvojem njihovih potencialov in sposobnosti pri realizaciji njihovih idej in projektov. Glavni namen društva je kvalitetno zapolniti prosti čas mladostnikov, jim pomagati do izobrazbe in poklica s pomočjo neformalnega izobraževanja, prostovoljnega dela ali preko motivacijskih delavnic. Neformalno izobraževanje mladih poteka v sklopu izvedbe ...
Adult Movie Review of Boobstravaganza! 7: Titties Galore! released by Digital Sin. Written by Don Houston. XCritic rating Recommended
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The Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) was announced by the Government of Canada in 1998 to invest CAD 150 million in climate change projects over three years. These investments also leveraged significant funding from project proponents and other private sector and government partners.. The Fund had four components: public education and outreach; technology early action measures (TEAM - to encourage deployment and development of technologies that reduce climate change and help the economy); science, impacts and adaptation; and the foundation analysis (to analyse options to meet Canadas emission target).. In 1999, projects announced under the CCAF included:. ...
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Tokyo Valentino might well have the largest collection of adult videos in South Florida. And unlike your friend who never quite got over her prudish Cat...
Watch this video and answer the following question: Have the humanities gone mad? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDT-Yj5n6zE
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(Qin) Infection of the chANXA2-transfected cells.Geese embryo fibroblasts (GEF) and 293T cells were transfected with chANXA2, and the transfected cells were the
Armando Arias is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Reverse Genetics Mediated Recovery of Infectious Murine Norovirus
As a six foot, four inch man who weighs two-hundred and thirty-five pounds and used to be able to bench two-hundred and fifty, Ive got this.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats. AU - Kirby, Elizabeth D.. AU - Geraghty, Anna C.. AU - Ubuka, Takayoshi. AU - Bentley, George E.. AU - Kaufer, Daniela. PY - 2009/7/7. Y1 - 2009/7/7. N2 - The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail, and orthologous neuropeptides known as RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have also been identified in rodents and primates. It is currently unknown, however, whether GnIH/RFRPs influence HPG axis activity in response to stress. We show ...
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Congratulations to Valentino, who won his 9th world title today in Sepang. Surely, this marks him down as the greatest of all time? Im off to...
Procter & Gamble has picked the French agency Callegari Berville Grey to handle the global advertising for its Valentino fine-fragrance business. P&G acquired the licence for Valentino, which includes Very Valentino and Valentino Gold, last month.
Compensação Ambiental em foco Foi publicada, em 01 de Julho de 2011, a Portaria Conjunta MMA/IBAMA/ ICMBio nº 225, que cria, no âmbito do IBAMA, o Comitê de Compensação Ambiental Federal (CCAF), composto de membros do MMA, do IBAMA e do ICMBio. Novidades no Cadastro Técnico Federal Foi publicada, em 08 de Julho de 2011, a IN IBAMA nº 07, que altera os artigos 2º e 5º da IN IBAMA nº 31/2009. As alterações importaram em maior detalhamento do enquadramento de atividades que estariam sujeitas ao registro junto ao Cadastro Técnico Federal de Atividades Potencialmente Poluidoras ou Utilizadoras de Recursos Ambientais. Cadastro Técnico Estadual: agora no Rio Grande do Sul No estado do Rio Grande do Sul foi publicada, em 18 de julho de 2011, a Lei nº 13.761, que institui o Cadastro Técnico Estadual de Atividades Potencialmente Poluidoras ou Utilizadoras de Recursos Ambientais, a ser administrado pela Secretaria do Meio Ambiente, e a Taxa de Controle e Fiscalização Ambiental, nos ...
The overall ecological health condition for Hiwassee Reservoir rated fair in 2012, similar to all previous years monitored except 2006, when Hiwassee received a good rating. That was largely because bottom life rated at the upper end of its historic range at both monitoring locations in 2006. Throughout the years, common issues have been elevated chlorophyll concentrations, low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lower water column, and poor ratings for bottom life.. TVA monitors two locations on Hiwassee Reservoir-the deep, still water near the dam called the forebay, and the middle part of the reservoir-usually on a two-year cycle.. ...
8/1 Round Sensor Mirror Pro SIMPLEHUMAN(有買有保佑, 大不了被取消訂單, nordstrom周年慶的特價款, 玫瑰金, 最高等級的simple human化妝鏡, 有自動發亮功能的化妝鏡, 充一次電可以用很久, 不需要插著電線, 放大五倍跟放大十倍功能, 你可以自己選擇想要的光線, 我一直勾勾纏, 跟photodog說我想要買一個神奇的鏡子, 可以化妝得更漂亮! 當然是不能說價錢的, 哈哈, 可是我覺得有自然光的鏡子很重要耶, 可以避免畫出紅屁股或是唱戲的白臉, 尤其是光線不好的冬天, 或是暴風雨的停電夜, 有了這個鏡子你任何時候都可以畫得美美) ...
Li Qin joined Certara as an associate scientist in May, 2017, providing PKPD data management and data programming support. Before joining, Li worked as a health scientist in Academic Medical Centers and involved herself in: methodology research in epidemiological and integrated cohort data; clinical research and
How do chickens reproduce? In order to breed chickens, you must know how do chickens reproduce? We are here to explain this to you.
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I admit, I was somewhat dismissive of the impact of the obvious political morass into which Big Chicken had been led by the people in whom he had so naively trusted never, ever to lie to him.
Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks and its effect on early growth.: Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosi
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Avhandlingen undersöker tolkningsprocessen och tolkprodukten hos konferenstolkar med olika lång tolkerfarenhet. Detta görs utifrån expertteorin (jmf Ericsson, Charness och Hoffman 2007) tillämpad på tolkning. Enligt expertteorin använder mycket skickliga utövare, oberoende av fält, samma typer av processer och strategier för att nå den absoluta toppen inom sitt gebit. En viktig del av expertteorin är medveten eller avsiktlig övning (deliberate practice), en särskild typ av övning som mycket skickliga utövare använder sig av för att förbättra sin insats.. Avhandlingen bygger på fyra olika studier om två olika grupper av deltagare. Deltagarna simultantolkar ett eller två tal från engelska till svenska. Två grupper - en tvärsnittsgrupp med nio deltagare på tre olika tolkerfarenhetsnivåer (ingen erfarenhet, kort erfarenhet och lång erfarenhet) samt en longitudinellgrupp med tre deltagare som spelats in vid två olika tillfällen med 15 ...
First of all, since the definition of Emotional gambling according to this article is investing ones emotions in an uncertain outcome, by stating that conservatives are emotionally invested in McCain and his causes, they are by definition emotionally gambling, the same way as liberals are. Theyre doing exactly the same thing. I guess the reference to the protesters is supposed to show that liberals are more emotionally invested, but that doesnt seem too convincing either. If youre arguing that liberals are more emotionally invested, youre only arguing the matter of degree, not that one side gambles and the other doesnt. Next, the "win at all costs" is hardly an accurate description, as even if they do support Obama (which is arguable, if they are true anarchists they support no candidate, if they the lunatic fringe of the left, theyll likely support a fringe candidate) their actions are clearly doing nothing to help him win. Finally, a few dozen radicals cannot be said to represent the ...
Nitrates are traditionally referred to as harmful substances for a human organism, leading to cancer when transforming into a carcinogen nitrosamine. However, the scientists ...
Caleb was born into the powerful Lyrander family on the island of Stormhome, and was given the best education an training that money could buy. As a child he wa
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Enterprises Expand Use of Active Monetization for a Better Way to Drive Growth and Increase Customer Lifetime ValueSan Francisco, CA - December 9, 2014 - Aria Systems, the leading innovator in recurring revenue, today announced record results with a 263% overall increase in annual contract value and 160% growth in total contract value over the previous fiscal year ending October 31, 2013.
I grew up in a suburb of New York City, so we probably had more channels than people in other parts of the country, but we still didnt have shows broadcast all day. I could be wrong about this, but I think the nightly news was only on for 15 minutes each evening. The Today Show didnt even come on the air until 1952. We received most of our news from newspapers ...
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Hello,. Sometime because of large data or output users set the program to execute in background process.. Once the background job is get completed, they execute the SM37 T-code to view the information, but that information is in list view,. their they does not an option like, sorting, filtering and all.. Its a program, where user are getting the same functionality, but the output will display in ALV format, there they will get the all necessary option to format the data.. Basically the program is created based on the Z* programs, so it will be execute in only for the ALV grid output data.. ...
Sep. 9, 2010. The last time I checked, polyvinyl ANYTHING, is a laboratory produced, SYNTHETIC compound that is not Nature produced and certainly not compatible with the body. It would represent a TOXIN to the body which the body would attempt to eliminate, except the body has a very HARD TIME trying to eliminate laboratory produced chemical compounds precisely because they are NOT compatible with the body.
On Monday, the prosecutor in the Jodi Arias murder trial worked to undermine a defense witness credibility and accused her of being biased.
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iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc. ...
Grilled chicken is an American classic. Buttermilk chicken is also a classic. Southern cooks use buttermilk for fried chicken. It work for grilling too.
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Hatching your own eggs is an interesting experience that many of us are tempted to partake in or may have already done. For 21 days, we wait and watch excitedly for baby chicks to appear, eagerly...
He really is a lunatic. Its only a matter of time before he commits some heinous act of violence in his foaming-at-the-mouth prejudicial zeal. I can only hope someone close to him has him institutionalized before it comes to that ...
Meet a man with a powerful addiction - to running. Caleb Daniloff says he believes the sport saved him from addictions that were far worse, and he's
cen - D17S57 ,D17S73 - (5/posterior - HOXB13 - HOXB9 (2E ) - HOXB8 (2D ) - HOXB7 (2C ) - HOXB6 (2B ) - HOXB5 (2A ) - HOXB4 (2F ) - HOXB3 (2G ) - HOXB2 (2H ) - HOXB1 (2I ) - 3/anterior) - D17S74 - ...
Pulmonary artery pressure and iron deficiency in patients with upregulation of hypoxia sensing due to homozygous VHL R200W mutation (Chuvash polycythemia). Haematologica, Vol.97, No.2 (2012): 193-200. Sable, C.A., Zakari Y. Aliyu, Dham, N., Mehdi Nouraie, Sachdev, V., Sidenko, S., Miasnikova, G.Y., Polyakova, L.A., Sergueeva, A.I., Okhotin, D.J., Bushuev, V., Remaley, A.T., Xiaomei Niu, Oswaldo L. Castro, Gladwin, M.T., Kato, G.J., Prchal, J.T., Victor R. Gordeuk.. ...
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During neurogenesis, a large variety of different neuronal cell types are generated in a defined spatial organisation that provides the basis for the functioning of the adult nervous system. Owing to its well-characterised structure and the identification of molecular markers and regulatory genes, the hindbrain has been used as a model system for studying molecular mechanisms that control pattern formation in the central nervous system. Crucial to patterning of this brain region is an early transient subdivision of the neural tube into repeated morphological units, termed rhombomeres (r). Rhombomeres act as compartments in which the movement of cells across rhombomere boundaries is restricted (Fraser et al., 1990). This restriction of cell movements enables rhombomeres to maintain a distinct identity conferred by regulatory genes with rhombomere-specific expression patterns (reviewed by Lumsden and Krumlauf, 1996). Hindbrain segmentation plays an important role in craniofacial morphogenesis ...

Molecular evaluation of M2 protein of Iranian avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype in order to find mutations of adamantane...Molecular evaluation of M2 protein of Iranian avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype in order to find mutations of adamantane...

OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to evaluate M gene of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) of H9N2 subtype in order ... These drugs inhibit M2 protein ion channel which has role on viral replication. ... "Molecular evaluation of M2 protein of Iranian avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype in order to find mutations of adamantane ... Molecular evaluation of M2 protein of Iranian avian influenza viruses of H9N2 subtype in order to find mutations of adamantane ...
more infohttps://ijvm.ut.ac.ir/article_59718.html

Bird fanciers lung - WikipediaBird fancier's lung - Wikipedia

This disease is caused by the exposure to avian proteins present in the dry dust of the droppings and sometimes in the feathers ... If someone with BFL has been exposed to avian proteins they will see symptoms within 4-6 hours. Symptoms include chills, fever ... Certain small mammals kept as pets have the same or similar proteins in their fur and feces and so should be removed. Peak flow ... BFL symptoms improve in the absence of the bird proteins which caused the disease. Therefore, it is advisable to remove all ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird_fancier's_lung

Desmin Antibody ReviewDesmin Antibody Review

Immunohistochemical distribution of vimentin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament proteins in feline ... Immunoelectron and immunofluorescence localization of desmin in mature avian muscles. PMID: 7035176. ... cytoskeletal protein desmin increases in response to a high-tension, concentric-only load consequent to sprint training. Desmin ... desmin is a structural protein that is expressed in smooth muscle cells of both airways and alveolar ducts. PMID: 16387753. ...
more infohttp://antibodybeyond.com/reviews/antigen-d/desmin.htm

Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Proteins: Novus BiologicalsAvian Flu Nucleoprotein Proteins: Novus Biologicals

Browse our Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ...
more infohttps://www.novusbio.com/search?keywords=avian%20flu%20nucleoprotein

Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) | AbcamAnti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF. Referenced in 3 publications. Immunogen ... Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody. See all Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I primary antibodies. ... Anti-Avian Influenza Matrix Protein I antibody (ab25918) at 0.5 µg/ml (Western blot analysis of Avian Flu Matrix Protein 1.). ... corresponding to amino acids 9-28 of Chicken Avian Influenza Matrix Protein 1. ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/avian-influenza-matrix-protein-i-antibody-ab25918.html

Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins | Cancer ResearchAberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins | Cancer Research

Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins. Bettina S. Freyaldenhoven, Markus P. Freyaldenhoven, Jason S. ... Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins. Bettina S. Freyaldenhoven, Markus P. Freyaldenhoven, Jason S. ... Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins. Bettina S. Freyaldenhoven, Markus P. Freyaldenhoven, Jason S. ... Aberrant Cell Growth Induced by Avian Winged Helix Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/57/1/123

The avian retroviral IN protein is both necessary and sufficient for integrative recombination in vitro.  - PubMed - NCBIThe avian retroviral IN protein is both necessary and sufficient for integrative recombination in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI

The avian retroviral IN protein is both necessary and sufficient for integrative recombination in vitro.. Katz RA1, Merkel G, ... the integration protein (IN). Previously, we demonstrated that avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (ASLV) IN is able to carry out the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2170022?dopt=Abstract

Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. | Journal of...Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. | Journal of...

... coterminal proteins referred to as small (S), middle (M), or large (L) surface protein. These proteins are also secreted from ... Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles.. E Gerhardt, V ... Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. ... Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/69/2/1201

Immune Stimulation of Sensitized Chicken Lymphocytes by Avian Retrovirus Proteins | Microbiology SocietyImmune Stimulation of Sensitized Chicken Lymphocytes by Avian Retrovirus Proteins | Microbiology Society

In this communication, we show that relevant antigenic activity apparently resides in each of the internal virus proteins p15 ... be mitogenic for sensitized lymphocytes is greatly reduced following treatment with antibodies specific for either total avian ... Summary Peripheral blood lymphocytes of chickens bearing tumours induced by avian sarcoma virus can be specifically stimulated ... Immune Stimulation of Sensitized Chicken Lymphocytes by Avian Retrovirus Proteins * Mark A. Wainberg and Evelyne Israel ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-60-2-391

Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air | PNASHuman HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air | PNAS

Human HA and polymerase subunit PB2 proteins confer transmission of an avian influenza virus through the air. Neal Van Hoeven, ... Recent work has examined the sequences of human and avian PB2 proteins and, based on amino acid alignments, have identified a ... Mutations to PB2 and NP Proteins of an Avian Influenza Virus Combine To Confer Efficient Growth in Primary Human Respiratory ... Our findings suggest that human adaptation of the PB2 proteins of avian influenza viruses, including potentially pandemic H5N1 ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/9/3366

Frontiers | Proteomic Analysis of Differential Expression of Cellular Proteins in Response to Avian H9N2 Virus Infection of...Frontiers | Proteomic Analysis of Differential Expression of Cellular Proteins in Response to Avian H9N2 Virus Infection of...

Proteins located in the downstream of the NF-κB and IFN transcription factor pathways were identified, e.g. ISG15. Actin and ... infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different ... infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Sixteen different ... differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01962/full

Isoforms of tau protein from mammalian brain and avian erythrocytes: structure, self-assembly, and elasticity.  - PubMed - NCBIIsoforms of tau protein from mammalian brain and avian erythrocytes: structure, self-assembly, and elasticity. - PubMed - NCBI

Isoforms of tau protein from mammalian brain and avian erythrocytes: structure, self-assembly, and elasticity.. Lichtenberg- ... Previous studies on tau protein showed that the protein forms paracrystals which are unusually elastic. The paracrystals were ... Second, we have prepared tau from avian erythrocytes where it is found in the membrane-associated marginal band microtubules ( ... obtained from a mixture of isoforms prepared from brain tissue, and the protein was in a mixed state of phosphorylation. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2129217?dopt=Abstract

How a single Avian Influenza protein can increase period of infection - Zootecnica InternationalHow a single Avian Influenza protein can increase period of infection - Zootecnica International

Researchers analyzed the way how an influenza virus protein can inhibit the chicken immune response increasing the time windows ... "The fact the protein is conserved at such a high rate in Avian Influenza strains indicated to us that this protein must provide ... Through understanding how Avian Influenza viruses interact with the avian host, such as how PB1-F2 proteins prevent cells ... How a single Avian Influenza protein can increase period of infection. 24 February 2019. 51 ...
more infohttps://zootecnicainternational.com/featured/single-avian-influenza-protein-can-increase-period-infection/

Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of...Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of...

"Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is ... Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies. Li, Xiaofei; Qin ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/identification-of-a-linear-b-cell-epitope-on-the-avian-leukosis-virus-6WZYR6RPIc

Frontiers | The Role of Matrix Gla Protein in Ossification and Recovery of the Avian Growth Plate | EndocrinologyFrontiers | The Role of Matrix Gla Protein in Ossification and Recovery of the Avian Growth Plate | Endocrinology

... white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes ... white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes ... Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to ... Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2012.00079/full

Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian...Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian...

Left) Proteins analyzed with anti-NDV antibodies. The major band represents the NDV F1 protein, migrating at 50 kDa. (Center) ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/84/3/1489/figures-only

VP1 - RNA dependent RNA polymerase - Avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) - VP1 gene & proteinVP1 - RNA dependent RNA polymerase - Avian infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) - VP1 gene & protein

Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR007100 ... p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.,p>,a ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A068W8W2

Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance...Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance...

Prepandemic priming of humans with avian-derived HA proteins devoid of other internal virion proteins would likely poise humans ... This was done to assess whether avian HA proteins differ from seasonal HA proteins in their ability to be processed and ... This leads us to conclude that avian HA proteins do not have a paucity of CD4 T cell epitopes that can be presented by human ... Avian and Human Seasonal Influenza Hemagglutinin Proteins Elicit CD4 T Cell Responses That Are Comparable in Epitope Abundance ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/24/3/e00548-16?iss=3

Interpretation of Protein Electrophoresis |

 Avian and Wildlife Laboratory at Miller School of MedicineInterpretation of Protein Electrophoresis | Avian and Wildlife Laboratory at Miller School of Medicine

Introduction Although a number of techniques for protein fractionation have been available for the past thirty years, protein ... Protein Electrophoresis Interpretation of Protein Electrophoresis. Introduction. Although a number of techniques for protein ... protein electrophoresis has only been recently applied to avian diagnostics. Now routinely run in the Avian and Wildlife ... Application of protein electrophoresis in avian diagnostic testing. J Av Med Surg, 12:4-10, 1998. ...
more infohttp://cpl.med.miami.edu/avian-and-wildlife/protein-electrophoresis

Identification of a novel linear epitope on the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus | BMC Microbiology | Full TextIdentification of a novel linear epitope on the NS1 protein of avian influenza virus | BMC Microbiology | Full Text

... and to regulate the process of protein synthesis. The identification of AIV epitopes on NS1 protein is important for ... We identified a conserved linear epitope, WNDNT, on the AIV NS1 protein that is recognized by MAb D9. This MAb and its epitope ... In this paper, we describe the generation, identification, and epitope mapping of a NS1 protein-specific monoclonal antibody ( ... The NS1 protein of avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important virulent factor of AIV. It has been shown to counteract host ...
more infohttps://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12866-015-0507-4

rel - V-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (Avian) - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) - rel gene & proteinrel - V-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog (Avian) - Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) - rel gene & protein

... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91833. A0A1L8G7B6. Xenopus laevis (African ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q91833. P01126. H3AJ67. UPI0003C11C20. ... Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites. More...InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR030505. c ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q91833

What Is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis? Radiology & TreatmentWhat Is Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis? Radiology & Treatment

Avian proteins. Bird droppings and feathers. Mollusc shell HP. Aquatic animal proteins. Mollusc shell dust. ... Pigeon breeders disease from exposure to protein particles in pigeon droppings *Sauna takers disease from exposure to mold ...
more infohttps://www.medicinenet.com/hypersensitivity_pneumonitis/article.htm

c-Myc, Avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, Myc protein, Myelocytomatosis oncogene, Niard or Transcription factor p64...c-Myc, Avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, Myc protein, Myelocytomatosis oncogene, Niard or Transcription factor p64...

The c-Myc protein is a transcription factor, which is encoded by the c-Myc gene on human chromosome 8q24. c-Myc is commonly ... CD71 (Cluster of Differentiation 71)/TfR1 (Transferrin Receptor Protein 1). MO47070. 100 ul. ...
more infohttps://www.neuromics.com/ra25085

Category:Proteins - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons

Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ... protein (hr); протеин, белки, протеины (ru); протеин (tt-cyrl); protein, Bílkoviny ve výživě člověka (cs); Protein (nutrien) ( ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Proteins?uselang=be
  • This disease is caused by the exposure to avian proteins present in the dry dust of the droppings and sometimes in the feathers of a variety of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • These drugs inhibit M2 protein ion channel which has role on viral replication. (ac.ir)
  • We have demonstrated that the 1918 HA gene was necessary for efficient direct contact transmission, but did not allow respiratory droplet transmission between ferrets of an avian influenza virus possessing an avian polymerase subunit PB2. (pnas.org)
  • MAb 3A9 might be a valuable tool for the development of new immunodiagnostic approaches for ALV, and the defined linear epitope might help further our understanding of the antigenic structure of the P27 protein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we empirically examine the epitope diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells elicited by seasonal and avian HA proteins. (asm.org)
  • Further identification of the displayed epitope was performed with a set of truncated polypeptides expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, and the motif 182 WNDNT 186 was defined as the minimal unit of the linear B cell epitope recognized by MAb D9 in western blot assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified a conserved linear epitope, WNDNT, on the AIV NS1 protein that is recognized by MAb D9. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The competitive binding assay indicated that all mAbs recognized the same epitope on sC protein that was conserved in different isolates. (npust.edu.tw)
  • At present, the avian influenza H5N1 subtype virus, responsible for at least 387 human H5N1 infections and 245 deaths ( 1 , 2 ), is considered a significant threat to global public health ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The term Feed ban is usually a reference to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations that since 1997 have prohibited the feeding of most mammalian-derived proteins to cattle as a method of preventing the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). (wikipedia.org)
  • By coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation with species-specific antibodies, we could show the formation of mixed subviral particles and disulfide-linked heterodimers between the WHV S and HBV M proteins whereas the DHBV and HBV surface proteins did not coassemble. (asm.org)
  • Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. (frontiersin.org)
  • We analyze newly available genomes of 17 bird species representing the avian phylogenetic range, and find that more than half of them do not have as fully degenerated W chromosomes as that of chicken. (duke.edu)
  • We show that avian sex chromosomes harbor tremendous diversity among species in their composition of pseudoautosomal regions and degree of Z/W differentiation. (duke.edu)
  • Phenotypic mixing of rodent but not avian hepadnavirus surface proteins into human hepatitis B virus particles. (asm.org)
  • To investigate the assembly of these proteins, we asked whether surface proteins from different hepadnaviruses are able to mix phenotypically with each other. (asm.org)
  • The results suggest that the assembly of HBV subviral particles and virion envelopes requires relatively precise molecular interactions of their surface proteins, which are not conserved between the two hepadnavirus genera. (asm.org)
  • We used low-stringency hybridization of a chicken embryonic cDNA library to isolate cDNA clones coding for three chicken winged helix (CWH) proteins, CWH-1, CWH-2, and CWH-3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Examination by immunofluorescence of frozen sections of developing embryonic skeletal muscle reveals a gradual diminution in the presence of the 280,000-dalton protein. (caltech.edu)
  • In chick embryonic fibroblasts grown in tissue culture, only a subpopulation of the cells is reactive with antibodies to the 280,000-dalton protein even though all these cells contain vimentin. (caltech.edu)
  • Complementation of HBV genomes defective in expressing the S or L protein and therefore incompetent to form virions was possible with the closely related WHV S protein or a WHV pre-S-HBV S chimera, respectively, but not with the less related DHBV S or L protein or with a DHBV L-HBV S chimera. (asm.org)
  • Expression of the CWH proteins from replication-competent retroviral RCAS vectors induces changes in morphology and growth pattern of chicken embryo fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • New research led by scientists at The Pirbright Institute has shown how an Avian Infuenza a virus protein, called PB1-F2, is able to shut down two pathways of the chicken immune response to increase the length of time the virus can be transmitted. (zootecnicainternational.com)
  • It has been shown to counteract host type I interferon response, to mediate host cell apoptosis, and to regulate the process of protein synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 1918 PB2 protein was found to be both necessary and sufficient for airborne transmission of a virus expressing the 1918 HA and neuraminidase. (pnas.org)
  • Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines relative to seasonal vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Because of the generally high levels of cross-reactive CD4 T cells in humans, it is not possible to compare the inherent immunogenicities of avian and seasonal HA proteins in an unbiased manner. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we conclude that failure in responses to avian vaccines in humans is likely due to a lack of cross-reactive CD4 T cell memory perhaps coupled with competition with or suppression of naive, HA-specific CD4 T cells by memory CD4 T cells specific for more highly conserved proteins. (asm.org)
  • Although it appears that adjuvants, higher doses, and prime-boost strategies may be effective in overcoming the apparent low immunogenicity, it is still not clear why primary responses to avian influenza vaccines are so weak in humans. (asm.org)
  • abstract = "We have studied the regulation, by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3), of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (28-kDa CaBP) mRNA in chick tissues in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • The avian retroviral IN protein is both necessary and sufficient for integrative recombination in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that the retroviral IN protein is an integrase. (nih.gov)
  • The major band represents the NDV F1 protein, migrating at 50 kDa. (asm.org)
  • This disease is caused by the exposure to avian proteins present in the dry dust of the droppings and sometimes in the feathers of a variety of birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present study, sC-His protein was expressed in Sf9 insect cells and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. (npust.edu.tw)
  • Although the mechanisms of avian sex determination remains unknown, the genetic sex is experimentally reversible by in ovo exposure to exogenous estrogens (ZZ-male feminization) or aromatase inhibitors (ZW-female masculinization). (biomedsearch.com)
  • More recently, in 2013, an outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza in China exhibited a similarly high case fatality rate of around 35% and showed some evidence of nonsustained, human-to-human transmission ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 transgenic mice were vaccinated with purified HA proteins, and CD4 T cells to specific epitopes were identified and quantified. (asm.org)
  • The identification of AIV epitopes on NS1 protein is important for understanding influenza virus pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Now routinely run in the Avian and Wildlife Laboratory, EPH has become an integral component in well bird/new bird screens as well as an accessory test in chlamydophilosis and aspergillosis testing. (miami.edu)
  • BFL symptoms improve in the absence of the bird proteins which caused the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are also secreted from infected cells as subviral particles consisting of surface protein and lipid (e.g., 20-nm hepatitis B surface antigen for HBV). (asm.org)
  • Isoforms of tau protein from mammalian brain and avian erythrocytes: structure, self-assembly, and elasticity. (nih.gov)
  • The paracrystals were obtained from a mixture of isoforms prepared from brain tissue, and the protein was in a mixed state of phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • B) Western blot analysis of protein expression by the NDV vectors in DF-1 chicken embryo fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • The expression of this protein appears to be developmentally regulated and does not appear to parallel the expression of any of the other three intermediate-filament proteins. (caltech.edu)
  • Certain small mammals kept as pets have the same or similar proteins in their fur and feces and so should be removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • In this communication, we show that relevant antigenic activity apparently resides in each of the internal virus proteins p15 and p27. (microbiologyresearch.org)