Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Marburgvirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mononegavirales: An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.HLA-B37 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*37 allele family.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Orthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Arenaviruses, Old World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein: A highly abundant DNA binding protein whose expression is strongly correlated with the growth phase of bacteria. The protein plays a role in regulating DNA topology and activation of RIBOSOMAL RNA transcription. It was originally identified as a factor required for inversion stimulation by the Hin recombinase of SALMONELLA and Gin site-specific recombinase of BACTERIOPHAGE MU.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Ephemerovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE which primarily infect cattle. EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE is the type species.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Phlebovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Methyl Green: A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Henipavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. It contains species that infect and cause potentially fatal disease in a number of host species, including humans.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Distemper: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.PhosphoproteinsCross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Thogotovirus: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising tick-borne viruses occasionally infecting humans. Dhori and Thogoto viruses were formerly thought to be members of BUNYAVIRIDAE. Thogoto virus is the type species.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Bornaviridae: A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.Borna Disease: An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Unlike H5N1 avian flu and SARS which provoke a runaway body-wide immune response, H1N1/09 destroys the lungs' alveoli, often ... "Crystal structure of Influenza A Virus H5N1 nucleoprotein". Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/pdb2q06/pdb. Retrieved 2009-05-15. " ... But the North American pig strain was itself the product of previous reassortments, and has carried an avian PB2 gene for at ... Henry Niman at FluTrackers has described the homologies of the genes as PB2 Avian North America, PB1 Human circa 1993, PA Swine ...
Bano S, Naeem K, Malik S (2003). "Evaluation of pathogenic potential of avian influenza virus serotype H9N2 in chickens". Avian ... Gorman O, Bean W, Kawaoka Y, Webster R (1990). "Evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A virus". J Virol. 64 (4): ... Capua, I; Alexander D (2006). "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community" (PDF). Avian Pathol. 35 (3): 189- ... 2004). "Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress ...
In avian virus the HA protein preferentially binds to alpha 2,3 sialic acid, which is the major form in the avian enteric tract ... and a nucleoprotein derived from the H5N1 1918 flu samples was enough to trigger similar symptoms in animal testing. Recent ... in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." (from Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. ... Kou Z, Lei FM, Yu J, Fan ZJ, Yin ZH, Jia CX, Xiong KJ, Sun YH, Zhang XW, Wu XM, Gao XB, Li TX (2005). "New genotype of avian ...
The P40 nucleoprotein from BoDV-1 is multi-helical in structure and can be divided into two subdomains, each of which has an ... A Bayesian analysis of Borna disease virus 1 suggests that the current strains diversified ~300 years ago and that avian-host ... The nucleoprotein assembles into a planar homotetramer, with the RNA genome either wrapping around the outside of the tetramer ... Endogenous viral elements homologous to the nucleoprotein gene of BoDV-1 have been shown to exist in the genomes of several ...
"Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein ... An avian-adapted, highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 (called HPAI A(H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A ... Capua I, Alexander DJ (June 2006). "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community". Avian Pathology. 35 (3): 189 ...
Avian influenza virus can survive for 100 days in distilled water at room temperature, and 200 days at 17 °C (63 °F). The avian ... The three genera of Influenza virus, which are identified by antigenic differences in their nucleoprotein and matrix protein, ... Avian influenza viruses can survive indefinitely when frozen. Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, ... The first three genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza), humans ...
One genetic factor in distinguishing between human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 ... NP codes for nucleoprotein. NS: NS codes for two nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NS2 - formerly called NEP). "[T]he ... One genetic factor in distinguishing between human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that "avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 ... H5N1 (like the other avian flu viruses) has strains called "highly pathogenic" (HP) and "low-pathogenic" (LP). Avian influenza ...
Recombination has been extensively studied in avian influenza strains as to how the genetics of H5N1 have changed over time.[16 ... nucleoprotein (NP) and other antigens. These high affinity human monoclonal antibodies can be produced within a month after ... Another example comes from the 1968 Hong Kong flu which acquired 2 genes by reassortment from Eurasian avian viruses with the 6 ... Recombination between segments that encode for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of avian and human influenza virus segments have ...
Suarez, D (2003). "The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR". Avian Dis. ... "Evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A virus". J Virol. 64 (4): 1487-97. PMC 249282 . PMID 2319644.. Pemeliharaan ... Bano S, Naeem K, Malik S (2003). "Evaluation of pathogenic potential of avian influenza virus serotype H9N2 in chickens". Avian ... "Avian influenza ("bird flu") fact sheet". WHO. 2006. Diakses tanggal 2006-10-20.. Parameter ,month=. yang tidak diketahui akan ...
The antigens, matrix protein (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP), are used to determine if an influenza virus is type A, B, or C. The ... "Review of latest available evidence on potential transmission of avian influenza (H5H1) through water and sewage and ways to ... Portela A, Digard P (2002). "The influenza virus nucleoprotein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein pivotal to virus ...
It is a component of the shelterin nucleoprotein complex and a second negative regulator of telomere length, playing a key role ... This region gets its name from a viral protein called Myb derived from the avian myeloblastosis virus. Specifically, the ... Conditional deletion of TERF2 in mice cells effectively removes the shelterin nucleoprotein complex. As a result of removing ...
Avian Bird Flu. 1918 Flu (Spanish flu epidemic). *^ Spanish flu strikes during World War I, Timelines of great Epidemics, ... and a nucleoprotein derived from 1918 flu samples to the ability of the flu virus to invade the lungs and cause pneumonia. The ... in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." (from Chapter Two: Avian Influenza by Timm C. ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
"Evolution of the avian sex chromosomes from an ancestral pair of autosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... and the behaviour of the nucleolar satellite during accelerated nucleoprotein synthesis". Nature. 163: 676-677. doi:10.1038/ ... are homologous to some regions on the avian Z chromosome. Specifically, platypus X1 shares homology with the chicken Z ...
The avian herpes viruses diverged from the branch leading to the mammalian species. The mammalian species divided into two ... They do not have nucleoproteins. The lipids in the viral membrane are unselectively acquired from host cell membranes. The ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... Production of Leukemia and Polycythemia Vera by Means of Cancerous Nucleoproteins from Tissue Cultures". Pharmacology. 2 (6): ... Rous, Peyton (1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 (5): ... could be caused by a virus began with the experiments of Oluf Bang and Vilhelm Ellerman in 1908 who first show that avian ...
The avian virus is inactivated more quickly in manure, but can survive for up to 2 weeks in feces on cages. Avian influenza ... The four genera of Influenza virus, which are identified by antigenic differences in their nucleoprotein and matrix protein, ... "The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR". Avian Diseases. 47 (3 Suppl): ... "Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses". CIDRAP - Center ...
2015), "Cyclic avian mass mortality in the Northeastern United States is associated with a novel orthomyxovirus", Journal of ... which have recently been tentatively assigned to the viral nucleoprotein and matrix protein, respectively. Segment 7 of ...
2015), "Cyclic avian mass mortality in the Northeastern United States is associated with a novel orthomyxovirus", Journal of ... The two viruses have a low degree of sequence identity (37% for the nucleoprotein; 31% for the envelope glycoprotein), and ... In thogotoviruses, segment 4 encodes the glycoprotein and segment 5 the nucleoprotein. The messenger RNA (mRNA) from segment 6 ... and the structural proteins nucleoprotein (NP), which binds the viral genome; matrix protein (M1), which lines the envelope; ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... in the form of single-stranded nucleoprotein complexes, through pores called plasmodesmata. Bacteria, like plants, have strong ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... in the form of single-stranded nucleoprotein complexes, through pores called plasmodesmata.[110] Bacteria, like plants, have ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... Production of Leukemia and Polycythemia Vera by Means of Cancerous Nucleoproteins from Tissue Cultures". Pharmacology. 2 (6): ... "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 (5): 696-705. doi:10.1084/ ... could be caused by a virus began with the experiments of Oluf Bang and Vilhelm Ellerman in 1908 who first show that avian ...
Browse our Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Avian Influenza A Nucleoprotein antibody validated for ELISA and tested in Chk. Immunogen corresponding to ... It is possible that the nucleoprotein binds directly exportin-1 (XPO1) and plays an active role in RNP nuclear export. M1 ... Dissociation of M1 from RNP unmask nucleoproteins nuclear localization signals, targeting the RNP to the nucleus. ... nucleus export of RNP are mediated through viral proteins NEP interacting with M1 which binds nucleoproteins. ...
... and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. ... Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. ... BCI, Bayesian credible interval; HA, hemagglutinin; M, membrane; NA, neuraminidase; NP, nucleoprotein; NS, nonstructural; PA, ... Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014-2015 Dong-Hun Lee, Justin ...
This virus was generated by reassortment between H5N8 subtype virus from sub-Saharan Africa and low pathogenicity avian ... We report detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4b virus in Europe. ... HA, hemagglutinin; M, matrix protein; NA, neuraminidase; NP, nucleoprotein; NS, nonstructural protein; PA, polymerase acidic ... Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia Ancestry of Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, Europe, December 2019 ...
Anti Influenza A N1 Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone A1 , Mouse Anti-Viral Monoclonal Antibody validated in IHC-F, IF (ABD13022), ... Avian. Amphibian. All Species. S. Aureus. ZA. Yeast. Xenopus. Vaccinia Virus. SARS. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. EBV. C.Elegans. Dog ... Mouse anti Influenza A N1 nucleoprotein antibody, clone A1 recognises the Influenza type A nucleoprotein. It demeostrates ... Anti Influenza A N1 Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone A1 is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic ...
Anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone 1341 , Mouse Anti-Viral Monoclonal Antibody validated in IHC-F, IF, E (ABD12961 ... Avian. Amphibian. All Species. S. Aureus. ZA. Yeast. Xenopus. Vaccinia Virus. SARS. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. EBV. C.Elegans. Dog ... Mouse anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein antibody, clone 1341 Influenza A nucleoprotein. Mouse anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone 1341 Anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein ...
Influenza nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T-cell clones are protective in vivo. Immunology. 58:417-420. View this article via ... Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 358:261-273. View this article via: CrossRef ... Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. N. Engl. J. Med. 352:686-691. View this ... Human CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte memory to influenza A viruses of swine and avian species. J. Immunol. 162:7578-7583. View this ...
2009) Adjustment of receptor-binding and neuraminidase substrate specificities in avian-human reassortant influenza viruses. ... Influenza A virus nucleoprotein selectively decreases neuraminidase gene-segment packaging while enhancing viral fitness and ... Influenza A virus nucleoprotein selectively decreases neuraminidase gene-segment packaging while enhancing viral fitness and ... We previously described a single amino acid substitution (F346S) in the nucleoprotein (NP) of mouse-adapted A/Puerto Rico/8/34 ...
Atypical characteristics of nucleoprotein of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 and their roles in reassortment restriction ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence. Chengjun Li ... Reassortment between Avian H5N1 and Human Influenza Viruses Is Mainly Restricted to the Matrix and Neuraminidase Gene Segments ... Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Bearing PB2 Gene From a 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Exhibits Increased Pathogenicity in Mice ...
This family cluster is, therefore, compatible with non-sustained person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A/H7N9. ... A total of 453 laboratory-confirmed cases infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (including 175 deaths) have been ... Nucleoprotein. NS1: Nonstructural protein 1. NS2: Nonstructural protein 2. PA: Polymerase protein ... Human infection with avian influenza A/H7N9 virus was first identified in March 31 of 2013, in China, a total of 453 confirmed ...
In an attempt to assess the importance of the nucleoprotein (NP) in the determination of host specificity, a series of ... The ts mutants could be rescued by all avian H3N2 strains but not by any of the human H3N2 isolates. Only two of the swine H3N2 ... The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses Virology. 1985 Dec;147(2 ... The NP gene of these two swine isolates resembled the NP gene of the avian strains genetically in the hybridization test. ...
Matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of cross-recognition. In addition, cross-reactive ... The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ...
nucleoprotein reverse transcriptase NP RT-PCR-ELISA (Dybkaer et.al., 2004) have been developed for the identification of ... Comparative immunological studies on commercial oil based and liposomal vaccines of avian influenza H7 3 . Chapter 1 ... Comparative immunological studies on commercial oil based and liposomal vaccines of avian influenza H7 5 . Chapter 1 ... Various vaccine have been used for immunization against avian influenza, including conventional inactivated oil-adjuvanted ...
AlmondJW, FelsenreichV (1982) Phosphorylation of the nucleoprotein of an avian influenza virus. J Gen Virol 60: 295-305. ... the nucleoproteins of most of these viruses bind to cellular RNA and form nucleoprotein-RNA complexes that are ... The nucleoprotein of RVFV has been crystallised in two forms; as a monomer and as a hexameric ring [10], [11]. In the ring, two ... The nucleoproteins of influenza A H1N1 and H5N1 crystallised as trimers [16], [17] and NP of influenza B virus as a tetramer [ ...
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza ( ... The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza ( ... 2017). Differential nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the nucleoprotein of influenza a viruses and association with host tropism. ... Citation: Zhao N, Wang S, Li H, Liu S, Li M, Luo J, Su W and He H (2018) Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A ...
Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A viruses escape human MxA restriction by distinct mutations in their nucleoprotein.. J ... H5N1 influenza A virus PB1-F2 relieves HAX-1-mediated restriction of avian virus polymerase PA in human lung cells.. J Virol. ... The Potential for Low Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses to Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model.. J Virol. ... Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem.. J Virol. 2018 May 16. pii: JVI.00433-18. doi ...
The nucleotide sequences of the nucleoprotein (NP) genes of fowl plague virus (FPV) and of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant ... Mutants and revertants of an avian influenza A virus with temperature-sensitive defects in the nucleoprotein and PB2. Mandler J ... Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene of an avian and a human influenza virus strain identifies two classes of ... Localisation of the Temperature-Sensitive Defect in the Nucleoprotein of an Influenza A/FPV/Rostock/34 Virus J Mandler 1 , C ...
"Avian influenza virus in water: Infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature, Veterinary Microbiology" on DeepDyve ... Evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A virus. Gorman, O.T.; Bean, W.J.; Kawaoka, Y.; Webster, R.G. ... Avian influenza virus in water: Infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature. Avian influenza virus in water: ... Avian influenza virus in water: Infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature. Brown, Justin D.; Goekjian, Ginger; ...
H1 subtype is replaced by H2 gene related to those in avian virus strains. H2 subtype is replaced by avian-derived H3 subtype. ... Nucleoprotein. Interacts with RNA polymerases. NP gene from prior H1N1 strains is retained. NP gene from prior H1N1 strains is ... Replaced by avian-derived PB1 gene. Replaced by avian-derived PB1 gene. ... Could avian flu give rise to a pandemic that might rival the fearsome Spanish flu? Is the nation - let alone any individual MCO ...
... in avian and mammalian cells. Reversion to PB2-627K in mammalian cells required the presence of the R65 nucleoprotein (NP). ... Avian influenza A viruses, such as the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, sporadically enter the human population but often ... Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have recently emerged from avian zoonotic reservoirs to ... The viral nucleoprotein determines Mx sensitivity of influenza A viruses.. Petra Zimmermann, Benjamin Mänz, Otto Haller, Martin ...
2009) Mutational analysis of conserved amino acids in the influenza A virus nucleoprotein. Journal of Virology 83, 4153-4162. ... 2007) Performance evaluation of five detection tests for avian influenza antigen with various avian samples. Avian Diseases 51 ... 2009) An evaluation of avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens. Avian Diseases 53, 276-280. ... 2010) Evaluation of rapid antigen detection kits for the diagnosis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection. Avian ...
Avian Flavivirus Enters BHK-21 Cells by a Low pH-Dependent Endosomal Pathway ... Equine Mx1 Restricts Influenza A Virus Replication by Targeting at Distinct Site of its Nucleoprotein ...
An inhibitory activity in human cells restricts the function of an avian-like influenza virus polymerase. Cell Host Microbe. ... I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein melts secondary structure in panhandle RNA and exposes the bases to the solvent. Embo J. 1994; ... Arrese M, Portela A. Serine 3 is critical for phosphorylation at the N-terminal end of the nucleoprotein of influenza virus A/ ... Influenza A viral nucleoprotein interacts with cytoskeleton scaffolding protein α-actinin-4 for viral replication. FEBS J. 2014 ...
Avian virus; humans host, aquatic birds reservoir. What is the primary manifestation of influenza, since when have outbreaks ... Differences are based on how the antigens are associated with the nucleoprotein. ...
In the winter 2005/2006 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) reached Western Europe and caused numerous deaths ... Virus replicon particle vaccines expressing nucleoprotein of influenza A virus mediate enhanced inflammatory responses in pigs ... Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between ... Efficient Sensing of Avian Influenza Viruses by Porcine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Michael Bel, Manuela Ocaña-Macchi, +3 ...
  • Here, we describe a mutation in IAV nucleoprotein (NP) that enhances replication and transmission in guinea pigs while selectively reducing neuraminidase (NA) gene segment packaging into virions. (pnas.org)
  • In the Netherlands a part of the surveillance programme is based on subtyping monitoring, where each commercial poultry flock is tested with ELISA for the presence of antibodies against nucleoprotein.The subtypes of the AI virus are characterised by two envelope proteins, i.e., haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (wur.nl)
  • In the present study, we present an extension of this platform that also includes the avian haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes (H1-H16 and N1-N9). (wur.nl)
  • Because of apparent inconsistencies between these initial results and clinical signs observed on the farm, further analyses were conducted by using conventional RT-PCR assays with universal primers designed to amplify the complete HA gene and the 9 neuraminidase gene subtypes of avian influenza virus ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Results from these ancillary tests showed evidence for an avian influenza virus (H7N3), which was subsequently confirmed by virus isolation and subtyping by hemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase-inhibition assays ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Afin de remédier à ce problème et d'étudier les variations génétiques et antigéniques des virus A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2, nous avons procédé à des analyses génétiques et phylogénétiques des gènes de l'hémagglutinine (HA) et de la neuraminidase (NA) de ces virus, sur la période 2011-2013 en Jordanie. (who.int)
  • Haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix proteins one and two (M1 and M2) are primarily structural proteins with additional functional roles, whilst the polymerase subunits (PB1, PB2 and PA) and the non-structural proteins (NS1 and NS2) serve mainly function roles during virus replication. (springer.com)
  • The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause outbreaks in poultry and sporadic human infections, thus posing a persistent potential pandemic threat ( WHO, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the current high pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype H5N1 circulating in poultry in several countries regularly spills over into wild birds and there is concern that it may adapt and become endemic in these species, which would make eradication of this virus virtually impossible [ 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Also, the reactivity of the IHC test with NP from experimentally inoculated H6N1 and from all recent outbreak of H5 subtype avian Influenza A virus (AIV) field cases in Taiwan showed positive results. (flutrackers.com)
  • On October 5, 2005, Tumpey and other researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York announced that the (~13 kbp) genetic sequence of the 1918 flu strain, a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of every antigen a triplicate is printed, as well as a general Nucleoprotein (H1N1) and a positive control (chicken IgY). (wur.nl)
  • Peu de renseignements sont disponibles sur les mutations des virus saisonniers de la grippe A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2 en Jordanie. (who.int)
  • L'analyse a porté sur les séquences complètes des gènes de l'HA et de la NA de 16 échantillons positifs au virus H1N1 prélevés dans le cadre de cette étude, ainsi que sur 21 séquences publiées de l'HA et 20 séquences publiées de la NA, issues de virus jordaniens disponibles sur les bases de données de gènes en ligne. (who.int)
  • Taylor J, Weinberg R, Languet B, Desmettre P, Paoletti E (1988) Recombinant fowlpox virus inducing protective immunity in non-avian species. (springer.com)
  • The nucleotide sequences of the nucleoprotein (NP) genes of fowl plague virus (FPV) and of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant (ts81) derived therefrom have been determined. (nih.gov)
  • In particular the study has focused on the evolutionary dynamics and the adaptive strategies of avian influenza H7N1 and H7N3 subtypes that circulated in Northern Italy for similar periods of time under similar epidemiological conditions. (unipd.it)
  • Thus, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a commercial kit intended for avian samples, for samples obtained from backyard and commercial farm pigs. (bmj.com)
  • The phosphopeptide fingerprints of all swine isolates tested were alike and were different from those of human or avian origin. (nih.gov)
  • Differential processing of influenza nucleoprotein in human and mouse cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate how early events in antigen processing affect the repertoire of peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, we compared the presentation of the influenza A nucleoprotein epitope 265-273 by HLA-A3 class I molecules in human and mouse cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mouse cells that express HLA-A3 failed to present the NP265-273 peptide when contained within the full-length nucleoprotein, to HLA-A3-restricted human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In silico and biochemical evidence shows that avian-adapted M segments have evolved different conserved RNA structure features than human-adapted sequences. (nature.com)
  • Above the logo stacks are the avian and human consensus residues for each site. (nih.gov)
  • The two rows of boxes are color coded according to the percent of avian (top row) or human (bottom row) NP sequences that match the avian consensus at that site. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, functional studies revealed that the restriction of avian influenza polymerases in mammals is due to a general defect in RNA-replication and not transcription. (uni-marburg.de)