Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Deoxyribonucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) or specific DNA.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Marburgvirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Lyssavirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that includes RABIES VIRUS and other rabies-like viruses.Micrococcal Nuclease: An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Rhabdoviridae: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Morbillivirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where the virions of most members have hemagglutinin but not neuraminidase activity. All members produce both cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusion bodies. MEASLES VIRUS is the type species.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mononegavirales: An order comprising four families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, non-segmented, negative-strand RNA genomes. The families are BORNAVIRIDAE; FILOVIRIDAE; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.HLA-B37 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*37 allele family.Arenaviruses, New World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.DNA, Superhelical: Circular duplex DNA isolated from viruses, bacteria and mitochondria in supercoiled or supertwisted form. This superhelical DNA is endowed with free energy. During transcription, the magnitude of RNA initiation is proportional to the DNA superhelicity.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Arenavirus: The only genus in the family ARENAVIRIDAE. It contains two groups ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD and ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD, which are distinguished by antigenic relationships and geographic distribution.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Orthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Optical Tweezers: A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola: A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by EBOLAVIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Lassa Fever: An acute febrile human disease caused by the LASSA VIRUS.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Arenaviruses, Old World: One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the Old World complex. It includes LASSA VIRUS and LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS, although the latter has worldwide distribution now.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Junin virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein: A highly abundant DNA binding protein whose expression is strongly correlated with the growth phase of bacteria. The protein plays a role in regulating DNA topology and activation of RIBOSOMAL RNA transcription. It was originally identified as a factor required for inversion stimulation by the Hin recombinase of SALMONELLA and Gin site-specific recombinase of BACTERIOPHAGE MU.Sandfly fever Naples virus: A species in the genus PHLEBOVIRUS causing PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER, an influenza-like illness. Related serotypes include Toscana virus and Tehran virus.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Ephemerovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE which primarily infect cattle. EPHEMERAL FEVER VIRUS, BOVINE is the type species.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Phlebovirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE comprising many viruses, most of which are transmitted by Phlebotomus flies and cause PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER. The type species is RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Methyl Green: A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Phlebotomus Fever: Influenza-like febrile viral disease caused by several members of the BUNYAVIRIDAE family and transmitted mostly by the bloodsucking sandfly Phlebotomus papatasii.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Henipavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. It contains species that infect and cause potentially fatal disease in a number of host species, including humans.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Arenaviridae: A family of RNA viruses naturally infecting rodents and consisting of one genus (ARENAVIRUS) with two groups: Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD) and New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD). Infection in rodents is persistent and silent. Vertical transmission is through milk-, saliva-, or urine-borne routes. Horizontal transmission to humans, monkeys, and other animals is important.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Distemper: A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.PhosphoproteinsCross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Thogotovirus: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising tick-borne viruses occasionally infecting humans. Dhori and Thogoto viruses were formerly thought to be members of BUNYAVIRIDAE. Thogoto virus is the type species.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Bornaviridae: A family in the order MONONEGAVIRALES comprising one genus Bornavirus. This family has a unique form of mRNA processing: replication and transcription takes place in the nucleus.Borna Disease: An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by BORNA DISEASE VIRUS.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Unlike H5N1 avian flu and SARS which provoke a runaway body-wide immune response, H1N1/09 destroys the lungs' alveoli, often ... "Crystal structure of Influenza A Virus H5N1 nucleoprotein". Protein Data Bank. doi:10.2210/pdb2q06/pdb. Retrieved 2009-05-15. " ... But the North American pig strain was itself the product of previous reassortments, and has carried an avian PB2 gene for at ... Henry Niman at FluTrackers has described the homologies of the genes as PB2 Avian North America, PB1 Human circa 1993, PA Swine ...
Bano S, Naeem K, Malik S (2003). "Evaluation of pathogenic potential of avian influenza virus serotype H9N2 in chickens". Avian ... Gorman O, Bean W, Kawaoka Y, Webster R (1990). "Evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A virus". J Virol. 64 (4): ... Capua, I; Alexander D (2006). "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community" (PDF). Avian Pathol. 35 (3): 189- ... 2004). "Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress ...
In avian virus the HA protein preferentially binds to alpha 2,3 sialic acid, which is the major form in the avian enteric tract ... and a nucleoprotein derived from the H5N1 1918 flu samples was enough to trigger similar symptoms in animal testing. Recent ... in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." (from Chapter Two : Avian Influenza by Timm C. ... Kou Z, Lei FM, Yu J, Fan ZJ, Yin ZH, Jia CX, Xiong KJ, Sun YH, Zhang XW, Wu XM, Gao XB, Li TX (2005). "New genotype of avian ...
The P40 nucleoprotein from BoDV-1 is multi-helical in structure and can be divided into two subdomains, each of which has an ... A Bayesian analysis of Borna disease virus 1 suggests that the current strains diversified ~300 years ago and that avian-host ... The nucleoprotein assembles into a planar homotetramer, with the RNA genome either wrapping around the outside of the tetramer ... Endogenous viral elements homologous to the nucleoprotein gene of BoDV-1 have been shown to exist in the genomes of several ...
"Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus , Avian Influenza (Flu)". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 24 February 2017.. ... nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein ... An avian-adapted, highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 (called HPAI A(H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A ... Capua I, Alexander DJ (June 2006). "The challenge of avian influenza to the veterinary community". Avian Pathology. 35 (3): 189 ...
Avian influenza virus can survive for 100 days in distilled water at room temperature, and 200 days at 17 °C (63 °F). The avian ... The three genera of Influenza virus, which are identified by antigenic differences in their nucleoprotein and matrix protein, ... Avian influenza viruses can survive indefinitely when frozen. Influenza viruses are susceptible to bleach, 70% ethanol, ... The first three genera contain viruses that cause influenza in vertebrates, including birds (see also avian influenza), humans ...
One genetic factor in distinguishing between human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 ... NP codes for nucleoprotein. NS: NS codes for two nonstructural proteins (NS1 and NS2 - formerly called NEP). "[T]he ... One genetic factor in distinguishing between human flu viruses and avian flu viruses is that "avian influenza HA bind alpha 2-3 ... H5N1 (like the other avian flu viruses) has strains called "highly pathogenic" (HP) and "low-pathogenic" (LP). Avian influenza ...
Recombination has been extensively studied in avian influenza strains as to how the genetics of H5N1 have changed over time.[16 ... nucleoprotein (NP) and other antigens. These high affinity human monoclonal antibodies can be produced within a month after ... Another example comes from the 1968 Hong Kong flu which acquired 2 genes by reassortment from Eurasian avian viruses with the 6 ... Recombination between segments that encode for hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of avian and human influenza virus segments have ...
Suarez, D (2003). "The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR". Avian Dis. ... "Evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A virus". J Virol. 64 (4): 1487-97. PMC 249282 . PMID 2319644.. Pemeliharaan ... Bano S, Naeem K, Malik S (2003). "Evaluation of pathogenic potential of avian influenza virus serotype H9N2 in chickens". Avian ... "Avian influenza ("bird flu") fact sheet". WHO. 2006. Diakses tanggal 2006-10-20.. Parameter ,month=. yang tidak diketahui akan ...
The antigens, matrix protein (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP), are used to determine if an influenza virus is type A, B, or C. The ... "Review of latest available evidence on potential transmission of avian influenza (H5H1) through water and sewage and ways to ... Portela A, Digard P (2002). "The influenza virus nucleoprotein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein pivotal to virus ...
It is a component of the shelterin nucleoprotein complex and a second negative regulator of telomere length, playing a key role ... This region gets its name from a viral protein called Myb derived from the avian myeloblastosis virus. Specifically, the ... Conditional deletion of TERF2 in mice cells effectively removes the shelterin nucleoprotein complex. As a result of removing ...
Avian Bird Flu. 1918 Flu (Spanish flu epidemic). *^ Spanish flu strikes during World War I, Timelines of great Epidemics, ... and a nucleoprotein derived from 1918 flu samples to the ability of the flu virus to invade the lungs and cause pneumonia. The ... in 1918 appears to be entirely derived from an avian source (Belshe 2005)." (from Chapter Two: Avian Influenza by Timm C. ... Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic strains contained avian flu virus RNA segments. "While the pandemic human influenza viruses of ...
"Evolution of the avian sex chromosomes from an ancestral pair of autosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... and the behaviour of the nucleolar satellite during accelerated nucleoprotein synthesis". Nature. 163: 676-677. doi:10.1038/ ... are homologous to some regions on the avian Z chromosome. Specifically, platypus X1 shares homology with the chicken Z ...
The avian herpes viruses diverged from the branch leading to the mammalian species. The mammalian species divided into two ... They do not have nucleoproteins. The lipids in the viral membrane are unselectively acquired from host cell membranes. The ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... Production of Leukemia and Polycythemia Vera by Means of Cancerous Nucleoproteins from Tissue Cultures". Pharmacology. 2 (6): ... Rous, Peyton (1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 (5): ... could be caused by a virus began with the experiments of Oluf Bang and Vilhelm Ellerman in 1908 who first show that avian ...
The avian virus is inactivated more quickly in manure, but can survive for up to 2 weeks in feces on cages. Avian influenza ... The four genera of Influenza virus, which are identified by antigenic differences in their nucleoprotein and matrix protein, ... "The effect of various disinfectants on detection of avian influenza virus by real time RT-PCR". Avian Diseases. 47 (3 Suppl): ... "Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Implications for Human Disease. Physical characteristics of influenza A viruses". CIDRAP - Center ...
2015), "Cyclic avian mass mortality in the Northeastern United States is associated with a novel orthomyxovirus", Journal of ... which have recently been tentatively assigned to the viral nucleoprotein and matrix protein, respectively. Segment 7 of ...
2015), "Cyclic avian mass mortality in the Northeastern United States is associated with a novel orthomyxovirus", Journal of ... The two viruses have a low degree of sequence identity (37% for the nucleoprotein; 31% for the envelope glycoprotein), and ... In thogotoviruses, segment 4 encodes the glycoprotein and segment 5 the nucleoprotein. The messenger RNA (mRNA) from segment 6 ... and the structural proteins nucleoprotein (NP), which binds the viral genome; matrix protein (M1), which lines the envelope; ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... in the form of single-stranded nucleoprotein complexes, through pores called plasmodesmata. Bacteria, like plants, have strong ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... in the form of single-stranded nucleoprotein complexes, through pores called plasmodesmata. Bacteria, like plants, have ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... Production of Leukemia and Polycythemia Vera by Means of Cancerous Nucleoproteins from Tissue Cultures". Pharmacology. 2 (6): ... "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 (5): 696-705. doi:10.1084/ ... could be caused by a virus began with the experiments of Oluf Bang and Vilhelm Ellerman in 1908 who first show that avian ...
Browse our Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Avian Flu Nucleoprotein Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Avian Influenza A Nucleoprotein antibody validated for ELISA and tested in Chk. Immunogen corresponding to ... It is possible that the nucleoprotein binds directly exportin-1 (XPO1) and plays an active role in RNP nuclear export. M1 ... Dissociation of M1 from RNP unmask nucleoproteins nuclear localization signals, targeting the RNP to the nucleus. ... nucleus export of RNP are mediated through viral proteins NEP interacting with M1 which binds nucleoproteins. ...
... and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. ... Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. ... BCI, Bayesian credible interval; HA, hemagglutinin; M, membrane; NA, neuraminidase; NP, nucleoprotein; NS, nonstructural; PA, ... Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses and Generation of Novel Reassortants, United States, 2014-2015 Dong-Hun Lee, Justin ...
This virus was generated by reassortment between H5N8 subtype virus from sub-Saharan Africa and low pathogenicity avian ... We report detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) clade 22.214.171.124b virus in Europe. ... HA, hemagglutinin; M, matrix protein; NA, neuraminidase; NP, nucleoprotein; NS, nonstructural protein; PA, polymerase acidic ... Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia Ancestry of Reassortant Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N8) Virus, Europe, December 2019 ...
Anti Influenza A N1 Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone A1 , Mouse Anti-Viral Monoclonal Antibody validated in IHC-F, IF (ABD13022), ... Avian. Amphibian. All Species. S. Aureus. ZA. Yeast. Xenopus. Vaccinia Virus. SARS. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. EBV. C.Elegans. Dog ... Mouse anti Influenza A N1 nucleoprotein antibody, clone A1 recognises the Influenza type A nucleoprotein. It demeostrates ... Anti Influenza A N1 Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone A1 is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic ...
Anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone 1341 , Mouse Anti-Viral Monoclonal Antibody validated in IHC-F, IF, E (ABD12961 ... Avian. Amphibian. All Species. S. Aureus. ZA. Yeast. Xenopus. Vaccinia Virus. SARS. Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. EBV. C.Elegans. Dog ... Mouse anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein antibody, clone 1341 Influenza A nucleoprotein. Mouse anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein Antibody, clone 1341 Anti Influenza A Nucleoprotein ...
Influenza nucleoprotein-specific cytotoxic T-cell clones are protective in vivo. Immunology. 58:417-420. View this article via ... Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. N. Engl. J. Med. 358:261-273. View this article via: CrossRef ... Fatal avian influenza A (H5N1) in a child presenting with diarrhea followed by coma. N. Engl. J. Med. 352:686-691. View this ... Human CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocyte memory to influenza A viruses of swine and avian species. J. Immunol. 162:7578-7583. View this ...
2009) Adjustment of receptor-binding and neuraminidase substrate specificities in avian-human reassortant influenza viruses. ... Influenza A virus nucleoprotein selectively decreases neuraminidase gene-segment packaging while enhancing viral fitness and ... Influenza A virus nucleoprotein selectively decreases neuraminidase gene-segment packaging while enhancing viral fitness and ... We previously described a single amino acid substitution (F346S) in the nucleoprotein (NP) of mouse-adapted A/Puerto Rico/8/34 ...
Atypical characteristics of nucleoprotein of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 and their roles in reassortment restriction ... Reassortment between avian H5N1 and human H3N2 influenza viruses creates hybrid viruses with substantial virulence. Chengjun Li ... Reassortment between Avian H5N1 and Human Influenza Viruses Is Mainly Restricted to the Matrix and Neuraminidase Gene Segments ... Reassortant H5N1 Avian Influenza Virus Bearing PB2 Gene From a 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Exhibits Increased Pathogenicity in Mice ...
This family cluster is, therefore, compatible with non-sustained person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A/H7N9. ... A total of 453 laboratory-confirmed cases infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (including 175 deaths) have been ... Nucleoprotein. NS1: Nonstructural protein 1. NS2: Nonstructural protein 2. PA: Polymerase protein ... Human infection with avian influenza A/H7N9 virus was first identified in March 31 of 2013, in China, a total of 453 confirmed ...
In an attempt to assess the importance of the nucleoprotein (NP) in the determination of host specificity, a series of ... The ts mutants could be rescued by all avian H3N2 strains but not by any of the human H3N2 isolates. Only two of the swine H3N2 ... The nucleoprotein as a possible major factor in determining host specificity of influenza H3N2 viruses Virology. 1985 Dec;147(2 ... The NP gene of these two swine isolates resembled the NP gene of the avian strains genetically in the hybridization test. ...
Matrix protein 1 (M1) and nucleoprotein (NP) were the immunodominant targets of cross-recognition. In addition, cross-reactive ... The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ... Memory T cells established by seasonal human influenza A infection cross-react with avian influenza A (H5N1) in healthy ...
nucleoprotein reverse transcriptase NP RT-PCR-ELISA (Dybkaer et.al., 2004) have been developed for the identification of ... Comparative immunological studies on commercial oil based and liposomal vaccines of avian influenza H7 3 . Chapter 1 ... Comparative immunological studies on commercial oil based and liposomal vaccines of avian influenza H7 5 . Chapter 1 ... Various vaccine have been used for immunization against avian influenza, including conventional inactivated oil-adjuvanted ...
AlmondJW, FelsenreichV (1982) Phosphorylation of the nucleoprotein of an avian influenza virus. J Gen Virol 60: 295-305. ... the nucleoproteins of most of these viruses bind to cellular RNA and form nucleoprotein-RNA complexes that are ... The nucleoprotein of RVFV has been crystallised in two forms; as a monomer and as a hexameric ring , . In the ring, two ... The nucleoproteins of influenza A H1N1 and H5N1 crystallised as trimers ,  and NP of influenza B virus as a tetramer [ ...
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza ( ... The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza ( ... 2017). Differential nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the nucleoprotein of influenza a viruses and association with host tropism. ... Citation: Zhao N, Wang S, Li H, Liu S, Li M, Luo J, Su W and He H (2018) Influence of Novel Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A ...
Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A viruses escape human MxA restriction by distinct mutations in their nucleoprotein.. J ... H5N1 influenza A virus PB1-F2 relieves HAX-1-mediated restriction of avian virus polymerase PA in human lung cells.. J Virol. ... The Potential for Low Pathogenic Avian H7 Influenza A Viruses to Replicate and Cause Disease in a Mammalian Model.. J Virol. ... Avian influenza viruses in wild birds: virus evolution in a multi-host ecosystem.. J Virol. 2018 May 16. pii: JVI.00433-18. doi ...
The nucleotide sequences of the nucleoprotein (NP) genes of fowl plague virus (FPV) and of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant ... Mutants and revertants of an avian influenza A virus with temperature-sensitive defects in the nucleoprotein and PB2. Mandler J ... Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene of an avian and a human influenza virus strain identifies two classes of ... Localisation of the Temperature-Sensitive Defect in the Nucleoprotein of an Influenza A/FPV/Rostock/34 Virus J Mandler 1 , C ...
"Avian influenza virus in water: Infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature, Veterinary Microbiology" on DeepDyve ... Evolution of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A virus. Gorman, O.T.; Bean, W.J.; Kawaoka, Y.; Webster, R.G. ... Avian influenza virus in water: Infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature. Avian influenza virus in water: ... Avian influenza virus in water: Infectivity is dependent on pH, salinity and temperature. Brown, Justin D.; Goekjian, Ginger; ...
H1 subtype is replaced by H2 gene related to those in avian virus strains. H2 subtype is replaced by avian-derived H3 subtype. ... Nucleoprotein. Interacts with RNA polymerases. NP gene from prior H1N1 strains is retained. NP gene from prior H1N1 strains is ... Replaced by avian-derived PB1 gene. Replaced by avian-derived PB1 gene. ... Could avian flu give rise to a pandemic that might rival the fearsome Spanish flu? Is the nation - let alone any individual MCO ...
... in avian and mammalian cells. Reversion to PB2-627K in mammalian cells required the presence of the R65 nucleoprotein (NP). ... Avian influenza A viruses, such as the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, sporadically enter the human population but often ... Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have recently emerged from avian zoonotic reservoirs to ... The viral nucleoprotein determines Mx sensitivity of influenza A viruses.. Petra Zimmermann, Benjamin Mänz, Otto Haller, Martin ...
2009) Mutational analysis of conserved amino acids in the influenza A virus nucleoprotein. Journal of Virology 83, 4153-4162. ... 2007) Performance evaluation of five detection tests for avian influenza antigen with various avian samples. Avian Diseases 51 ... 2009) An evaluation of avian influenza diagnostic methods with domestic duck specimens. Avian Diseases 53, 276-280. ... 2010) Evaluation of rapid antigen detection kits for the diagnosis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 infection. Avian ...
Avian Flavivirus Enters BHK-21 Cells by a Low pH-Dependent Endosomal Pathway ... Equine Mx1 Restricts Influenza A Virus Replication by Targeting at Distinct Site of its Nucleoprotein ...
An inhibitory activity in human cells restricts the function of an avian-like influenza virus polymerase. Cell Host Microbe. ... I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein melts secondary structure in panhandle RNA and exposes the bases to the solvent. Embo J. 1994; ... Arrese M, Portela A. Serine 3 is critical for phosphorylation at the N-terminal end of the nucleoprotein of influenza virus A/ ... Influenza A viral nucleoprotein interacts with cytoskeleton scaffolding protein α-actinin-4 for viral replication. FEBS J. 2014 ...
Avian virus; humans host, aquatic birds reservoir. What is the primary manifestation of influenza, since when have outbreaks ... Differences are based on how the antigens are associated with the nucleoprotein. ...
In the winter 2005/2006 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) reached Western Europe and caused numerous deaths ... Virus replicon particle vaccines expressing nucleoprotein of influenza A virus mediate enhanced inflammatory responses in pigs ... Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between ... Efficient Sensing of Avian Influenza Viruses by Porcine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Michael Bel, Manuela Ocaña-Macchi, +3 ...
- In an attempt to assess the importance of the nucleoprotein (NP) in the determination of host specificity, a series of experiments was performed on influenza A viruses of the H3N2 subtype. (nih.gov)
- Thus, vaccine formulas inducing heterosubtypic T cell-mediated immunity may confer broad protection against avian and human influenza A viruses. (jci.org)
- All other viruses cause low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) consisting primarily of mild respiratory disease, depression and egg production problems in laying birds (Capua and Alexander, 2004). (scribd.com)
- When expressed in a transfected cell in the absence of other viral components, the nucleoproteins of most of these viruses bind to cellular RNA and form nucleoprotein-RNA complexes that are indistinguishable from the viral complexes . (prolekare.cz)
- Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A viruses escape human MxA restriction by distinct mutations in their nucleoprotein. (amedeo.com)
- Stallknecht, David E. 2009-04-14 00:00:00 Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. (deepdyve.com)
- Wild birds in the Orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. (deepdyve.com)
- Currently, there are numerous commercial kits based on rapid-immunomigration techniques available for a fast detection of avian influenza viruses (Chen and others 2010). (bmj.com)
- These rapid-immunomigration kits use specific antibodies against nucleoprotein (NP) of type A influenza viruses. (bmj.com)
- Because the NP proteins are highly conserved between influenza viruses (Shu and others 1993, Li and others 2009), it is of relevance to assess if rapid-immunomigration kits designed for avian influenza are effective to detect influenza viruses in swine populations. (bmj.com)
- Like all other negative-sense RNA viruses, the influenza virus genome associates with the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and multiple copies of the viral nucleoproteins (NP) to form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNP) [ 2 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses are endemic in poultry in Asia and pose a pandemic threat to humans. (asm.org)
- Among these subtypes, the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses have been intensively studied since the first report of lethal human infections in 1997 ( 36 ). (asm.org)
- The swine influenza A viruses currently circulating in North America are triple reassortants that have components of avian, human, and swine origin ( 19 ). (asm.org)
- This has been largely based on genomic analysis of influenza A viruses isolated from swine and the fact that α2,3-linked sialic acid (avian-like) and α2,6-linked sialic acid (human-like) receptors are both abundant in the swine respiratory tract ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- The origins of influenza A viruses that have been isolated from pigs include those that are wholly human or avian, as well as reassortants containing swine, human, and avian genes ( 2 , 20 , 29 ). (asm.org)
- BIRD FLU INFECTING A PERSON: graphic artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 shown in green) infecting a person (with lungs and other organs visible). (rkm.com.au)
- BIRD FLU & HUMAN FLU REPLICATION IN A SINGLE CELL: graphic artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 shown in green) emerging from birds and infecting a cell. (rkm.com.au)
- BIRDS & BIRD FLU GRAPHIC #1: artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1) emerging from birds and mixing with other strains of influenza virus. (rkm.com.au)
- BIRDS & BIRD FLU GRAPHIC #2: artwork (above) showing avian influenza viruses (H5N1 - shown in green) emerging from birds (swans) and mixing with other strains (blue) of influenza virus, creating the potential for a new strain (red & yellow) which can pass easily from person to person, thereby creating the potential for a pandemic. (rkm.com.au)
- Low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, can evolve to high pathogenicity (HPAI) viruses and therefore are notifiable. (wur.nl)
- Influenza A viruses circulating in birds-avian influenza viruses-may be divided into the categories 'low pathogenic' and 'high pathogenic', based on their virulence for chickens [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- When low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) were first isolated from wild waterbirds in the 1970s [ 9 ], the absence or rarity of clinical signs in both naturally and experimentally infected birds led to the conventional wisdom that LPAIV in wild waterbirds is avirulent, possibly owing to the adaptation of the virus to its host over many centuries [ 10 , 11 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Human seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses and avian H7N1 and H7N3 influenza virus isolates were able to infect a selection of human pancreatic cell lines. (asm.org)
- The constant threat of pandemic influenza is highlighted by the emergence of novel pandemic H1N1 viruses in 2009 ( 2 ) and the potential for highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses to gain human-to-human transmissibility ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
- In this study, the pathogenicity, virus shedding, and transmission characteristics of pH1N1, swine H1N1 (swH1N1), and avian H3N2 (dkH3N2) influenza viruses in quails was examined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Quails are broadly susceptible to infection with several subtypes of both mammalian and avian influenza viruses [ 11 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza viruses typically found in Asia and Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 1048: Phylogeny, Pathogenicity, Transmission, and Host Immune Responses of Four H5N6 Avian Influenza Viruses in Chickens and Mice Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11111048 Authors: Yafen Song Weiqiang Li Wenbo Wu Zhiting Liu Zhuoliang He Zuxian Chen Bingbing Zhao Siyu Wu Chenghuai Yang Xiaoyun Qu Ming Liao Peirong Jiao H5Nx viruses have continuously emerged in the world, causing poultry industry losses and posing a potential public health risk. (medworm.com)
- Here, we studied the phylogeny, pathogenicity, transmission, and immune response of four H5N6 avian influenza viruses in chickens and mice, which were isolated from waterfowl between 2013 and 2014. (medworm.com)
- To this end, full-length hemagglutinin gene sequences of human and avian H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from 2006 to 2016 in Egypt were obtained from the NCBI influenza virus res. (medworm.com)
- Choi, Young 2015-07-01 00:00:00 An increasing number of outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry have caused serious economic losses and raised concerns for human health due to the risk of zoonotic transmission. (deepdyve.com)
- Characterization of the attenuating M and NP gene segments of the avian influenza A/Mallard/78 virus during in vitro production of avian-human reassortant vaccine viruses and after replication in humans and primates. (nih.gov)
- Prevalence of the C-terminal truncations of NS1 in avian influenza A viruses and effect on virulence and replication of a highly pathogenic H7N1 vi. (nih.gov)
- Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) evolve from low pathogenic (LP) precursors after circulation in poultry by reassortment and/or single mutations in different gene segments including that encoding NS1. (nih.gov)
- Stop-codon variations in non-structural protein NS1 of avian influenza viruses. (nih.gov)
- Patterns of truncation of the C-terminal end of the NS1 protein in avian influenza viruses from 1902 to 2015. (nih.gov)
- However, since 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N1 have infected a wide range of carnivore species. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Test vaccination with DNA constructs that express conserved influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) or NP plus matrix (M) induced antibody and T-cell responses and protected against heterosubtypic viruses ( 1 , 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In a study of M2e-carrier conjugate vaccines, serum antibodies specific for M2e-con or M2e-A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) did not cross-react with M2e peptides from H5 and H7 subtype avian viruses that have 3 or 4 mismatches ( 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) causes infections in domestic poultry and humans. (hindawi.com)
- To generate mouse-adapted H7N9 influenza viruses, we passaged three avian-origin H7N9 viruses in mice by lung-to-lung passages independently. (biomedcentral.com)
- Such mutations in avian H5N1 viruses can change virus strains from being inefficient at infecting human cells to being as efficient in causing human infections as more common human influenza virus types. (wikipedia.org)
- The viruses from Japan and France were shown to be products of reassortment between classical (Japan) or avian-like (France) swine H1N1 viruses and human-lineage H3N2 viruses ( 4 , 6 , 9 , 10 , 12 , 13 , 16 ). (asm.org)
- Reassortment between human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses is hypothesized to have initially created an H1N2 subtype virus, which subsequently acquired all six of its internal viral protein genes through reassortment with a wholly avian virus ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) are among the most prominent viruses affecting animal and public health. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mouse is described in a study, "In vivo evasion of MxA by avian influenza viruses requires human signature in the viral nucleoprotein," that will be published April 10 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This protein can protect cultured human cells from avian influenza viruses but is ineffective against strains that have acquired the ability to infect humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Similar to the results obtained with cultured human cells, the transgenic mice were resistant to avian influenza viruses but susceptible to flu viruses of human origin. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The outbreak of human infections of H5N1 influenza in 1997 in Hong Kong and in 2003-2004 in most Asian countries demonstrated that purely avian viruses could be transmitted to humans and cause severe disease [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The reported transmission of avian H9N2 influenza viruses to humans and the isolation of these viruses from Hong Kong poultry markets lend urgency to studies of their ecology and pathogenicity. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes indicated that the Asian H9N2 influenza viruses could be divided into three sublineages. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Influenza A viruses are major human and avian pathogens. (uni-marburg.de)
- Since H5N1 viruses circulate in the avian reservoir and cause high lethality rates when transmitted to huma. (uni-marburg.de)
- Since H5N1 viruses circulate in the avian reservoir and cause high lethality rates when transmitted to humans, infections with the H5N1 subtype pose an ongoing threat. (uni-marburg.de)
- We identified the NEP protein as a new pathogenicity factor of H5N1 viruses in humans, which is able to overcome this incomplete adaptation of the KAN-1 and avian H5N1 polymerases in human cells. (uni-marburg.de)
- Polybasic cleavage sites of the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are considered to be the most important determinants indicating virulence of the avian influenza viruses (AIV). (biomedcentral.com)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) pose a threat for yet another epidemic or pandemic, which can potentially result in severe consequences for both animal and human life. (biomedcentral.com)
- The study revealed the interaction between the nucleoproteins from type B and type A influenza viruses and the resulting inhibitory effect on growth of type A influenza virus. (biotec.or.th)
- Examples of such tools include the development of novel anti-influenza virus agents based on protein/peptides of nucleoprotein from type B influenza virus and the inclusion of appropriate type A influenza viruses in live-attenuated nasal spray vaccines so that they can persist and produce antigens in the presence of type B virus in the vaccines and the regimen development for bird flu containment. (biotec.or.th)
- Some outbreaks involving highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of subtypes H5 and H7 were caused by avian-to-human transmissions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Besides their economic consequences, influenza A viruses (IAV) are currently considered as one of the most important threats to human health because of their pandemic potential, underlining the relevance of avian reservoirs for IAV. (biomedcentral.com)
- Aside from its importance in ordinary infections, the flu polymerase contains some of the key "species barriers" that keep, for example, avian flu viruses from infecting mammals. (bio-medicine.org)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses cause severe infection in chickens at near complete mortality, but corresponding infection in ducks is typically mild or asymptomatic. (biomedcentral.com)
- To understand the underlying molecular differences in host response, primary chicken and duck lung cells, infected with two HPAI H5N1 viruses and a low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H2N3 virus, were subjected to RNA expression profiling. (biomedcentral.com)
- Avian influenza A viruses continue to spread globally causing millions of poultry deaths and are significant zoonotic pathogens [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- This development has also resulted in viruses with a polybasic cleavage site in the hemagglutinin that are highly pathogenic in avian species and have caused human infections. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Despite these differences in receptor binding, many avian viruses are internalized by human cells and initiate expression of the viral genome. (nature.com)
- The seminal observation of their utility for delivery of vaccine antigens to non-avian species has driven much of the interest in this group of viruses. (springer.com)
- The most successful have been those expressing glycoprotein antigens of enveloped viruses, e.g. avian influenza, Newcastle diseases and West Nile viruses. (springer.com)
- Webster RG, Taylor J, Pearson J, Rivera E, Paoletti E (1996) Immunity to Mexican H5N2 avian influenza viruses induced by a fowl pox-H5 recombinant. (springer.com)
- Avian influenza viruses remain a significant concern due to their pandemic potential. (asm.org)
- These studies revealed that the diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells specific for HA do not segregate on the basis of whether the HA was derived from human seasonal or avian influenza viruses. (asm.org)
- Within and between host population dynamics of Avian HPAI H7N7 viruses, that affected Italy during 2013, were investigated using next generation technology. (unipd.it)
- Further, seasonal vaccines provide little protection from avian-origin viruses, such as H5N1 and H7N9 ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006 indicated the co-circulation of two sub-lineages of these viruses at that time. (pasteur.fr)
- The revealed amino acid differences between the two sub-groups of Swedish viruses affected the predicted antigenicity of the surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, rather than the nucleoprotein, polymerase basic protein 2, and polymerase acidic protein, the main targets of the cellular immune responses. (pasteur.fr)
- Hemisphere and lead to its establishment within free-living been introduced into domestic poultry has been supported avian populations, experimental studies have addressed by work demonstrating that HPAI viruses do not appear the susceptibility of several indigenous North American to form separate phylogenetic lineages in waterfowl ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Asian highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N8) viruses spread into North America in 2014 during autumn bird migration. (cdc.gov)
- Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 H5 viruses identified novel H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 viruses that emerged in late 2014 through reassortment with North American low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Novel Eurasian highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5 viruses in wild birds, Washington, USA, 2014. (cdc.gov)
- Comparison of the pathogenic potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6, and H5N8 viruses isolated in South Korea during the 2016-2017 winter season. (cdc.gov)
- Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) pose a threat to global health because of their sporadic zoonotic transmission and potential to cause pandemics. (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite this, investigation of avian influenza viruses (AIV) is crucial, not only because of the sporadic human infections they cause but also because they are a potential source of future influenza pandemics, against which human populations have less immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genomic epidemiology is playing an increasingly important role in the surveillance of avian influenza A viruses that cause sporadic zoonotic disease and which may represent a potential cause of future influenza pandemics. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mammalian paramyxovirus lineage may trace its evolutionary origins from reptiles, through avians, to mammals, and during the course of this adaptation the reptilian and avian viruses appear to have gained the ability to establish species-specific persistent infections. (asmscience.org)
- Influenza viruses can be divided into three classes, A, B, and C, largely based upon conserved antigenic differences in the internal nucleoprotein. (virusys.com)
- Both chicken and duck myotubes expressed avian and human sialic acid receptors and were readily susceptible to low-pathogenicity (H2N3 A/mallard duck/England/7277/06) and high-pathogenicity (H5N1 A/turkey/England/50-92/91 and H5N1 A/turkey/Turkey/1/05) avian and human H1N1 (A/USSR/77) influenza viruses. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees indicating relationships between Eurasian (black circles) and North American (white circles) lineages of avian influenza A viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Amino acid residue 217 in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein is a key mediator of avian influenza H7N9 virus antigenicity. (amedeo.com)
- and the genes encoding hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase, nucleoprotein, matrix protein (M), and nonstructural protein are of swine lineages of influenza A virus ( 16 ). (asm.org)
- one group was vaccinated with the recombinant adenovirus expressing the influenza virus H3 hemagglutinin (HA) protein, one group was vaccinated with the recombinant adenovirus expressing the nucleoprotein (NP), and one group was vaccinated with both recombinants in a mixture. (flu.org.cn)
- The most common genotype of H3N2 virus isolated to date is a triple reassortant containing hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and PB1 polymerase genes of human influenza virus origin, matrix (M), nonstructural (NS), and nucleoprotein (NP) genes of classical swine influenza virus origin, and PA and PB2 polymerase genes of avian influenza virus origin ( 8 , 15 , 17 ). (asm.org)
- The proteins, nucleoprotein (NP), neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza A virus (Bird flu virus) sub-type A/Hatay/2004/(H5N1) from chicken were selected for this study. (iospress.com)
- For example, the avian virus receptor hemagglutinin (HA) recognizes oligosaccharides containing terminal sialic acid (SA) that are linked to galactose by α2,3 2 . (nature.com)
- It is important to understand, first, if there is a general deficiency in the ability of avian hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to generate immune responses and, if so, what underlies this defect. (asm.org)
- During my PhD it was used an integrated approach, both genomic and structural, to study the evolution of avian influenza A virus in particular focusing on the hemagglutinin, the major surface glycoprotein, belonging to the H5, H7 and H9 (the major "avian" subtypes responsible for human infection). (unipd.it)
- Dual function of the hemagglutinin H5 fused to chicken CD154 in a potential strategy of DIVA against avian influenza disease: preliminary study. (nih.gov)
- In this study we demonstrated that the vaccine candidate against avian influenza virus H5N1 based on the hemagglutinin H5 (HA) fused to the chicken CD154 (HACD) can also be used for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). (nih.gov)
- Here, we describe a mutation in IAV nucleoprotein (NP) that enhances replication and transmission in guinea pigs while selectively reducing neuraminidase (NA) gene segment packaging into virions. (pnas.org)
- In the Netherlands a part of the surveillance programme is based on subtyping monitoring, where each commercial poultry flock is tested with ELISA for the presence of antibodies against nucleoprotein.The subtypes of the AI virus are characterised by two envelope proteins, i.e., haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (wur.nl)
- In the present study, we present an extension of this platform that also includes the avian haemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes (H1-H16 and N1-N9). (wur.nl)
- Because of apparent inconsistencies between these initial results and clinical signs observed on the farm, further analyses were conducted by using conventional RT-PCR assays with universal primers designed to amplify the complete HA gene and the 9 neuraminidase gene subtypes of avian influenza virus ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- Results from these ancillary tests showed evidence for an avian influenza virus (H7N3), which was subsequently confirmed by virus isolation and subtyping by hemagglutination-inhibition and neuraminidase-inhibition assays ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Afin de remédier à ce problème et d'étudier les variations génétiques et antigéniques des virus A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2, nous avons procédé à des analyses génétiques et phylogénétiques des gènes de l'hémagglutinine (HA) et de la neuraminidase (NA) de ces virus, sur la période 2011-2013 en Jordanie. (who.int)
- Haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix proteins one and two (M1 and M2) are primarily structural proteins with additional functional roles, whilst the polymerase subunits (PB1, PB2 and PA) and the non-structural proteins (NS1 and NS2) serve mainly function roles during virus replication. (springer.com)
- We also reveal roles for the viral nucleoprotein in modulating glycoprotein function and gene packaging during host adaptation. (pnas.org)
- In situ hybridization assays indicated that viral nucleoprotein could be detected in beta cells. (asm.org)
- RNPs are composed of the viral genome, viral polymerase, and many copies of the viral nucleoprotein. (sciencemag.org)
- The RNP comprises a single polymerase bound to the complementary RNA termini and multiple copies of the viral nucleoprotein (NP) that decorate the length of each of the eight single-stranded viral genome segments, so that the RNP resembles a large loop, twisted into a helical filament ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- We were able to determine the viral nucleoprotein (NP) as the determinant for MxA sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. (uni-marburg.de)
- The innate-immune restriction factor MxA inhibits influenza replication by targeting the viral nucleoprotein (NP). (nih.gov)
- Both avian host species produced comparable levels of progeny H5N1 A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 virus.Notably, the rapid accumulation of viral nucleoprotein and matrix (M) gene RNA in chicken and duck myotubes was accompanied by extensive cytopathic damage with marked myotube apoptosis (widespread microscopic blebs, caspase 3/7 activation, and annexin V binding at the plasma membrane). (nottingham.ac.uk)
- The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. (frontiersin.org)
- Serum NI activity was determined in chickens given different vaccines encoding different H5 and NA subtypes and challenged with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 virus. (usda.gov)
- Postmortem examination findings, which showed lesions compatible with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), resulted in a Canadian Food Inspection Agency team being dispatched to the premises. (cdc.gov)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) represents a significant threat to global health and security. (asm.org)
- Migratory birds have been implicated in the long-range no or very mild disease, referred to as low-pathogenic spread of highly pathogenic avian infl uenza (HPAI) A virus avian infl uenza (LPAI) ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- H5N1) into Europe, surveillance of dead and sick birds has pathogenic avian infl uenza (HPAI) ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Later in the infection, nucleus export of RNP are mediated through viral proteins NEP interacting with M1 which binds nucleoproteins. (abcam.com)
- We have examined rescue of mutants of A/FPV/Rostock/34 with temperature-sensitive (ts) lesions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene by double infection of chick embryo cells with H3N2 strains isolated from different species. (nih.gov)
- The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. (jci.org)
- Title: Subtyping of Avian Influenza infection using a protein microarray. (wur.nl)
- Although low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) is traditionally considered to have adapted to its wild waterbird host to become avirulent, recent studies have suggested that LPAIV infection might after all have clinical effects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Infection of an avian model with two low-pathogenicity avian influenza isolates caused pancreatic damage resulting in hyperlipasemia in over 50% of subjects, which evolved into hyperglycemia and subsequently diabetes. (asm.org)
- However, this antibody is produced to almost all the influenza proteins, including the nucleoprotein which is targeted with the common serologic tests used to detect infection in poultry flocks. (usda.gov)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in red foxes fed infected bird carcasses. (thefreelibrary.com)
- In this study we assessed the effects of CHS on host innate immunity and avian influenza virus H5N1 infection in mice. (hindawi.com)
- So far human cases of H5N1 infection in worldwide have increased to 522, including 309 deaths ( http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/cases_table_2011_02_25/en/index.html ). (hindawi.com)
- Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China. (biomedsearch.com)
- Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. (biomedsearch.com)
- MxA is therefore a barrier against cross-species influenza A infection, but one that the virus can evade through a few mutations in its nucleoprotein. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Little is known about the role of skeletal muscle during systemic influenza A virus infection in any host and particularly avian species. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Our findings highlight that avian skeletal muscle fibers are capable of productive influenza virus replication and are a potential tissue source of infection. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Cross-reactive memory T cell responses targeted to the internal proteins of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in healthy individuals. (jci.org)
- In this study, differentially expressed proteins in A549 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) were investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). (frontiersin.org)
- The influenza polymerase consists of three proteins dubbed PB1, PB2 and PA, that work with viral RNA and nucleoprotein to transcribe and replicate the influenza genome in a host cell. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Because of the generally high levels of cross-reactive CD4 T cells in humans, it is not possible to compare the inherent immunogenicities of avian and seasonal HA proteins in an unbiased manner. (asm.org)
- Here, we empirically examine the epitope diversity and abundance of CD4 T cells elicited by seasonal and avian HA proteins. (asm.org)
- Therefore, we conclude that failure in responses to avian vaccines in humans is likely due to a lack of cross-reactive CD4 T cell memory perhaps coupled with competition with or suppression of naive, HA-specific CD4 T cells by memory CD4 T cells specific for more highly conserved proteins. (asm.org)
- As the strategy of DIVA requires at least two proteins, we obtained a variant of the nucleoprotein (NP49-375) in E. coli. (nih.gov)
- After its purification by IMAC, the competence of the proteins NP49-375 and HACD as coating antigens in indirect ELISA assays were tested by using the sera of chickens immunized with the proteins HA and HACD and the reference sera from several avian influenza subtypes. (nih.gov)
- Together with these sera, the sera from different species of birds and the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases were analyzed by competition ELISA assays coated with the proteins NP49-375 and HACD. (nih.gov)
- This study supported the fact that the ELISA assays using the proteins NP49-375 and HACD could be valuable tools for avian influenza surveillance and as a strategy of DIVA for counteracting the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 outbreaks. (nih.gov)
- The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause outbreaks in poultry and sporadic human infections, thus posing a persistent potential pandemic threat ( WHO, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
- For example, the current high pathogenic avian influenza virus of the subtype H5N1 circulating in poultry in several countries regularly spills over into wild birds and there is concern that it may adapt and become endemic in these species, which would make eradication of this virus virtually impossible [ 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Also, the reactivity of the IHC test with NP from experimentally inoculated H6N1 and from all recent outbreak of H5 subtype avian Influenza A virus (AIV) field cases in Taiwan showed positive results. (flutrackers.com)
- On October 5, 2005, Tumpey and other researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, GA and the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York announced that the (~13 kbp) genetic sequence of the 1918 flu strain, a subtype of avian strain H1N1, had been reconstructed using historic tissue samples and a small part of the RNA from a modern strain. (wikipedia.org)
- The ts mutants could be rescued by all avian H3N2 strains but not by any of the human H3N2 isolates. (nih.gov)
- The NP gene of these two swine isolates resembled the NP gene of the avian strains genetically in the hybridization test. (nih.gov)
- However, their NPs reacted differently with a set of monoclonal antibodies when compared with NPs of avian H3N2 strains. (nih.gov)
- Pandemics occur when influenza strains of avian origin with novel antigenicity acquire the ability to transmit among humans 1 . (nature.com)
- Polymerases from avian strains are considerably less active in mammalian cells than their counterparts from mammalian-adapted strains 4 . (nature.com)
- Hertig C, Coupar BE, Gould AR, Boyle DB (1997) Field and vaccine strains of fowlpox virus carry integrated sequences from the avian retrovirus, reticuloendotheliosis virus. (springer.com)
- Human influenza virus is more resistant than avian influenza virus to inhibition by human MxA, and prior work has compared human and avian viral strains to identify amino-acid differences in NP that affect sensitivity to MxA. (nih.gov)
- Of every antigen a triplicate is printed, as well as a general Nucleoprotein (H1N1) and a positive control (chicken IgY). (wur.nl)
- Peu de renseignements sont disponibles sur les mutations des virus saisonniers de la grippe A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2 en Jordanie. (who.int)
- L'analyse a porté sur les séquences complètes des gènes de l'HA et de la NA de 16 échantillons positifs au virus H1N1 prélevés dans le cadre de cette étude, ainsi que sur 21 séquences publiées de l'HA et 20 séquences publiées de la NA, issues de virus jordaniens disponibles sur les bases de données de gènes en ligne. (who.int)
- Avian influenza (AI) is a serious disease of poultry, resulting in severe mortality in chickens and major disruption to production and trade (FAO, 2004). (scribd.com)
- We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. (biomedsearch.com)
- Efficacy of nucleoprotein and haemagglutinin antigens expressed in fowlpox virus as vaccine for influenza in chickens. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens and no evidence of clinical disease in ducks suggests that there are potential differences in the innate immune mechanisms between these two important avian hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Swayne DE, Beck JR, Mickle TR (1997) Efficacy of recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine in protecting chickens against a highly pathogenic Mexican-origin H5N2 avian influenza virus. (springer.com)
- No antibody detection was observed in the sera from different species of birds or the sera of chickens infected with other avian viral diseases. (nih.gov)
- Mouse monoclonal antibody to detect Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein. (linscottsdirectory.com)
- The antibody has minimum cross reactivity with nucleoproteins from SARS and MERS. (linscottsdirectory.com)
- Mice primed with M2-DNA and then boosted with recombinant adenovirus expressing M2 (M2-Ad) had enhanced antibody responses that cross-reacted with human and avian M2 sequences and induced T-cell responses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It is possible that preferential boosting of low-frequency, stalk-reactive memory B cells in response to avian influenza HAs ( 12 - 15 ) may be responsible for the low magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response. (asm.org)
- A total of 453 laboratory-confirmed cases infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (including 175 deaths) have been reported till October 2,2014, of which 30.68% (139/453) of the cases were identified from Zhejiang Province. (biomedcentral.com)
- This family cluster is, therefore, compatible with non-sustained person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A/H7N9. (biomedcentral.com)
- Compared to other subtypes of avian influenza virus, H7N9 virus show increased binding affinity to mammalian-type receptors, and their amount grow up rapidly at the temperatures that are close to the normal body temperature in mammals (although it is lower than that of birds). (biomedcentral.com)
- Avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused five outbreak waves of human infections in China since 2013 and posed a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. (biomedcentral.com)
- More recently, in 2013, an outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza in China exhibited a similarly high case fatality rate of around 35% and showed some evidence of nonsustained, human-to-human transmission ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- Cumulative numbers of H5N1 and H7N9 avian influenza virus genomes available in public databases since their first emergence dates in 1997 and 2013, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
- This new H7N9 virus is an avian (bird) influenza (flu) virus. (creativebiomart.net)
- It is known that influenza A virus (IAV) transmission between humans, pigs, and avian species is common [ 29 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus, these novel pH1N1 reassortants generated in pigs that already contained avian-like genes have a high potential for transmission back to humans and birds. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Coronaviruses infect humans as well as a number of mammalian and avian species. (linscottsdirectory.com)
- Earlier work by Doudna and Mehle with avian influenza had shown that a mutation in the viral protein PB2 - whereby glutamic acid is replaced at a certain position on the amino acid chain with lysine - enables the virus to jump from birds to humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- To confirm that the SR polymorphism was a new pathway for the virus to infect humans, they introduced the mutation into the PB2 protein of the avian influenza. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- As with swine influenza, the polymerase activity and viral replication of the avian virus became enhanced in humans. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- A deadly avian strain named H5N1 has posed the greatest risk for a new influenza pandemic since it first killed humans in Asia in the 1990s. (bionity.com)
- Despite a species barrier, subtypes of influenza A can transmit from the avian reservoir to humans and widely spread in the population. (uni-marburg.de)
- The species barriers that hinder most avian IAVs from successfully infecting humans are effective at several steps in the viral life cycle. (nature.com)
- Vaccine trials have suggested that humans respond poorly to avian influenza vaccines relative to seasonal vaccines. (asm.org)
- Although it appears that adjuvants, higher doses, and prime-boost strategies may be effective in overcoming the apparent low immunogenicity, it is still not clear why primary responses to avian influenza vaccines are so weak in humans. (asm.org)
- This outbreak was not only significant because it resulted in multiple human infections and deaths, but it also represented the first known demonstration of avian influenza virus transmission to humans. (virusys.com)
- Avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in poultry cause huge economic losses and are a major threat to public health worldwide. (wur.nl)
- Avian influenza virus can cause a serious disease in poultry and vaccination for control of avian influenza is being more commonly used. (usda.gov)
- Therefore a common tool for tracking avian influenza virus infections in poultry flocks is lost. (usda.gov)
- The option of vaccinating poultry against avian influenza (AI) as a control tool is gaining greater acceptance by governments and the poultry industry world wide. (usda.gov)
- Avian influenza virus (AIV) infections have caused heavy economic losses to the poultry industry in Pakistan as well as numerous other regions worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
- Spatial epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in poultry: What have we learned? (lpmhealthcare.com)
- We decided to investigate the impact that the NS-segment of H5 HPAIV would have on viral pathogenicity of a classical avian H7 HPAIV in poultry, a natural host. (biomedcentral.com)
- Colibacillosis accounts for annual multimillion dollar losses in the poultry industry, and control of this disease is hampered by limited understanding of the virulence mechanisms used by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). (usda.gov)
- Sequence of the nucleoprotein gene of influenza A/parrot/Ulster/73. (nih.gov)
- Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene of an avian and a human influenza virus strain identifies two classes of nucleoproteins. (nih.gov)
- Kyriakis K, De Vleeschauwer A, Barbé F, Bublot M, Van Reeth K. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of poxvirus-based vector vaccines expressing the haemagglutinin gene of a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in pigs. (ugent.be)
- Isolated influenza A virus nucleoprotein exists in an equilibrium between monomers and trimers. (prolekare.cz)
- In a search for how monomeric wt nucleoprotein may be stabilized in the infected cell we determined the phosphorylation sites on nucleoprotein isolated from virus particles. (prolekare.cz)
- Mutants and revertants of an avian influenza A virus with temperature-sensitive defects in the nucleoprotein and PB2. (nih.gov)
- Influenza virus nucleoprotein: structure, RNA binding, oligomerization and antiviral drug target. (nih.gov)
- This engineered virus replicates well in a broad range of mammalian cell cultures, human primary airway epithelial cells and mice, but poorly in avian cells and chicken embryos without further adaptation. (jove.com)
- For influenza virus, nucleoprotein (NP) non-specifically binds nucleic acids and spontaneously oligomerizes. (prolekare.cz)
- In the winter 2005/2006 H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) reached Western Europe and caused numerous deaths primarily in migratory water birds. (semanticscholar.org)
- Development of an Avian Influenza Virus microarray with recombinant H- and N-antigens. (wur.nl)
- Is low pathogenic avian influenza virus virulent for wild waterbirds? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- It may help us to understand how the virulence of a high pathogenic avian influenza virus would need to change so that it can be maintained in wild bird populations. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Influenza virus nucleoprotein was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the acinar tissue. (asm.org)
- In 2014 and 2015, the number of human cases of H5N1 avian influenza virus infections had increased dramatically in Egypt. (medworm.com)
- Here we report a MAb, 1 WF-4, against Influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP), its broad response with Influenza A virus , and its application in immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay. (flutrackers.com)
- When those flocks are exposed to H5N1 virus, the outbreaks of avian influenza may occur. (hindawi.com)
- We demonstrated that heat stress could increase the susceptibility of animals to the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1. (hindawi.com)
- MxA is thought to target influenza A by binding to the nucleoprotein that encapsulates the virus' genome, and mutations in this nucleoprotein have been linked to the virus' ability to infect human cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Staeheli and colleagues found that an avian influenza virus engineered to contain these mutations was able to infect and cause disease in the transgenic mice expressing human MxA. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In this study, an avian influenza virus strain A/Chicken/Henan/12/2004 (H5N1) was isolated from a farmed chicken in Henan province, China. (biomedcentral.com)
- Currently, the research team is in a process of applying the viral vector technology, whose strength is in dissemination, safety and cost-effectiveness, to the potent antiviral property of the nucleoprotein from type B influenza virus to create novel anti-avian influenza virus therapeutics. (biotec.or.th)
- Phosphorylation of the nucleoprotein of an avian influenza virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- This work suggests that integrating genomic, phylogenetic, and structural comparison can help in understanding the 'functional evolution' of avian influenza A virus. (unipd.it)
- Avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) are the most common viral diseases of psittacine birds. (usda.gov)
- Culture de myotubes murins infectés par le virus de la rage fixe, observée en immunoflorescence indirecte. (pasteur.fr)
- Group A specifi c nucleoprotein (NP) antibodies were virus (H5N2) has on clinical disease, pathology, and virus detected with a competitive ELISA as described previous- shedding. (cdc.gov)
- Schematic diagram of the H5 clade 126.96.36.199 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus genotypes identified in this study, United States, 2014-2015. (cdc.gov)
- Introduction of Avian Influenza A(H6N5) Virus into Asia from North America by Wild Birds. (cdc.gov)
- An avian influenza A(H6N5) virus with all 8 segments of North American origin was isolated from wild bird feces in South Korea. (cdc.gov)
- In another study, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies reacted with a subset of avian sequences ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Virusys has developed a highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of influenza B nucleoprotein-specific antibodies in serum which may be used for the detection of influenza B NP antibodies in human serum as well as experimental animals. (virusys.com)
- The phosphopeptide fingerprints of all swine isolates tested were alike and were different from those of human or avian origin. (nih.gov)
- Differential processing of influenza nucleoprotein in human and mouse cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- To investigate how early events in antigen processing affect the repertoire of peptides presented by MHC class I molecules, we compared the presentation of the influenza A nucleoprotein epitope 265-273 by HLA-A3 class I molecules in human and mouse cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mouse cells that express HLA-A3 failed to present the NP265-273 peptide when contained within the full-length nucleoprotein, to HLA-A3-restricted human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
- In silico and biochemical evidence shows that avian-adapted M segments have evolved different conserved RNA structure features than human-adapted sequences. (nature.com)
- Above the logo stacks are the avian and human consensus residues for each site. (nih.gov)
- The two rows of boxes are color coded according to the percent of avian (top row) or human (bottom row) NP sequences that match the avian consensus at that site. (nih.gov)
- Epidemiologic, serologic, and molecular phylogenetic methods were used to investigate an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza on a broiler breeding farm in Saskatchewan, Canada. (cdc.gov)
- It was also reported that the vast temperature changes frequently occurred one week before the avian influenza outbreak in China [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
- These complexes contain the viral polymerase, genomic RNA, and multiple copies of nucleoprotein that bind RNA and oligomerize to coat the genome. (prolekare.cz)
- The cryo-EM structure reveals the architecture and organization of the native RNP, defining the attributes of its largely helical structure and how polymerase interacts with nucleoprotein and the viral genome. (sciencemag.org)