A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.
Polynucleotides are long, multiple-unit chains of nucleotides, the monomers that make up DNA and RNA, which carry genetic information and play crucial roles in various biological processes.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
Cytosine nucleotides are organic compounds that consist of a nitrogenous base (cytosine), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA or deoxyribose in DNA), and at least one phosphate group, playing crucial roles in genetic information storage, transmission, and expression within nucleic acids.
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the myb gene (GENES, MYB). They are expressed in a wide variety of cells including thymocytes and lymphocytes, and regulate cell differentiation. Overexpression of myb is associated with autoimmune diseases and malignancies.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.

Transformation by v-Myb. (1/401)

The v-myb oncogene of the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is unique among known oncogenes in that it causes only acute leukemia in animals and transforms only hematopoietic cells in culture. AMV was discovered in the 1930s as a virus that caused a disease in chickens that is similar to acute myelogenous leukemia in humans (Hall et al., 1941). This avian retrovirus played an important role in the history of cancer research for two reasons. First, AMV was used to demonstrate that all oncogenic viruses did not contain a single cancer-causing principle. In particular, although both Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) and AMV could replicate in cultures of either embryonic fibroblasts or hematopoietic cells, RSV could transform only fibroblasts whereas AMV could transform only hematopoietic cells (Baluda, 1963; Durban and Boettiger, 1981a). Second, chickens infected with AMV develop remarkably high white counts and therefore their peripheral blood contains remarkably large quantities of viral particles (Beard, 1963). For this reason AMV was often used as a prototypic retrovirus in order to study viral assembly and later to produce large amounts of reverse transcriptase for both research and commercial purposes. Following the discovery of the v-src oncogene of RSV and the demonstration that it arose from the normal c-src proto-oncogene, a number of acute leukemia viruses were analysed by similar techniques and found to also contain viral oncogenes of cellular origin (Roussel et al., 1979). In the case of AMV, it was shown that almost the entire retroviral env gene had been replaced by a sequence of cellular origin (initially called mab or amv, but later renamed v-myb) (Duesberg et al., 1980; Souza et al., 1980). Remarkably, sequences contained in this myb oncogene were shared between AMV and the avian E26 leukemia virus, but were not contained in any other acutely transforming retroviruses. In addition, the E26 virus contained a second sequence of cellular origin (ets) that was unique. The E26 leukemia virus was first described in the 1960s and causes an acute erythroblastosis in chickens, more reminiscent of the disease caused by avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) than by AMV (Ivanov et al., 1962).  (+info)

Retrovirus DNA termini bound by integrase communicate in trans for full-site integration in vitro. (2/401)

Integration of linear retrovirus DNA involves the concerted insertion of the viral termini (full-site integration) into the host chromosome. We investigated the interactions that occur between long terminal repeat (LTR) termini bound by avian retrovirus integrase (IN) for full-site integration in vitro. Wild-type (wt) or mutant LTR donors that possess gain-of-function ("G") or loss-of-function ("L") for full-site integration activity were used. G LTR termini are characterized as having significantly higher strand transfer activity than the wt and the L LTR termini. L LTR mutations are classified as partially or extremely defective for strand transfer activity. The L mutations were further classified by their ability to either permit or block the assembly of G or wt LTR termini into nucleoprotein complexes capable of full-site strand transfer. We demonstrated that avian myeloblastosis virus IN bound to G LTR termini increased the incorporation of partially defective L LTR termini into nucleoprotein complexes that were capable of full-site integration. The observed full-site integration activity of these assembled nucleoprotein complexes appeared to be influenced by each individual IN-LTR complex in trans. In contrast, extremely defective L LTR termini exhibited the ability to effectively block the assembly of wt LTR termini into nucleoprotein complexes capable of full-site strand transfer. Data from nonspecific DNA competition experiments suggested that IN had an apparent higher affinity for G LTR donor termini than for partially defective L LTR donor termini as measured by full-site integration activity. However, assembled nucleoprotein complexes containing either two G or two L LTR donors were stable, having a similar half-life of approximately 2 h on ice. The results suggest that LTR termini bound by IN exhibit an allosteric effect to modulate full-site integration in vitro. Similar regulatory controls also appear to exist in vivo between the wt U3 and wt U5 LTR termini in retroviruses as well as purified retrovirus preintegration complexes that promoted full-site integration in vitro.  (+info)

Retinoid X receptor suppresses transformation by the v-myb oncogene. (3/401)

The v-myb oncogene of avian myeloblastosis virus causes acute monoblastic leukemia in vivo and transforms myelomonocytic cells in culture. Retinoids are potent regulators of proliferation and differentiation in various cell types, and they can initiate differentiation in certain types of leukemic cells. However, the BM2 v-myb-transformed chicken monoblastic cell line is resistant to retinoic acid treatment. We found that overexpression of the retinoid X receptor confers sensitivity of BM2 cells to retinoic acid, resulting in induction of growth arrest and terminal differentiation. In contrast, the frequency of apoptosis was not affected by the retinoid X receptor in this cell type. We also demonstrated that suppression of transformation by v-Myb results from the negative effect of retinoid X receptor on v-Myb transactivation function, similar to that previously described for the retinoic acid receptor. The retinoid X receptor-induced inhibition of transactivation by v-Myb seems to be enhanced by a cell type-specific factor(s), which is not required by retinoic acid receptor.  (+info)

Metal-induced infidelity during DNA synthesis. (4/401)

The effect of several divalent cations on the accuracy of DNA replication in vitro has been examined. Only Be2+ altered the accuracy of DNA synthesis using purified DNA polymerase (DNA nucleotidyltransferase; deoxynucleosidetriphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase; EC from avian myeloblastosis virus. The Be2+-induced base substitutions occurred with all templates and with all nucleotides tested. Analysis of the product by equilibrium density centrifugation and processive hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase suggested that the noncomplementary nucleotides were present in phosphodiester linkage. Nearest neighbor studies indicated that many of the Be2+-induced errors were present as single base substitutions. The enhancement of error frequency could be duplicated by the pretreatment of the enzyme, but not the template, with Be2+. Glycerol gradient centrifugation dissociated the Be2+-DNA polymerase complex and restored the initial error frequency of the polymerase. Thus, the weak binding of a metal cation to a DNA polymerase could alter the accuracy with which that polymerase copied DNA. Beryllium is a known carcinogen. The potential use of this system as a screening technique to detect chemical mutagens and carcinogens is considered.  (+info)

Chromatin as a template for RNA synthesis in vitro. (5/401)

RNA transcribed in vitro from myeloblast chromatin by exogenously added RNA polymerase B predominantly consists of short chains that remain in hybrid structure with the template; the remainder of the product is free RNA of heterogeneous size. Addition of polyanions during synthesis caused an increase in the size and amount of free RNA with a concomitant decrease in the proportion of small RNA. The large molecular weight RNA is derived from the short RNA chains, which are synthesized de novo during the reaction in vitro. The effect of polyanions on the size and nature of the product may be related to structural changes induced in the template rather than to an inhibition of nuclease activity.  (+info)

A new chemical procedure for 32P-labeling of ribonucleic acids at their 5'-ends after isolation. (6/401)

A new technique, which utilizes the chemical reaction between [32P]diimidazolidate of orthophosphate and the cetyltrimethylammonium salt of high-molecular-weight RNA in nonaqueous dimethyl formamide, has been developed for the 32P-labeling of RNAs after isolation. The radioactive label of high specific activity is introduced onto a phosphorylated 5'-end of the RNA and renders it suitable for 5'-terminal group analysis. When the labeling reaction was applied to the 70S RNA of avian myeloblastosis virus, a labeled 35S RNA was isolated on sucrose-dimethyl sulfoxide gradients without apparent degradation.  (+info)

Avian retrovirus DNA internal attachment site requirements for full-site integration in vitro. (7/401)

Concerted integration of retrovirus DNA termini into the host chromosome in vivo requires specific interactions between the cis-acting attachment (att) sites at the viral termini and the viral integrase (IN) in trans. In this study, reconstruction experiments with purified avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) IN and retrovirus-like donor substrates containing wild-type and mutant termini were performed to map the internal att DNA sequence requirements for concerted integration, here termed full-site integration. The avian retrovirus mutations were modeled after internal att site mutations studied at the in vivo level with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus (MLV). Systematic overlapping 4-bp deletions starting at nucleotide positions 7, 8, and 9 in the U3 terminus had a decreasing detrimental gradient effect on full-site integration, while more internal 4-bp deletions had little or no effect. This decreasing detrimental gradient effect was measured by the ability of mutant U3 ends to interact with wild-type U3 ends for full-site integration in trans. Modification of the highly conserved C at position 7 on the catalytic strand to either A or T resulted in the same severe decrease in full-site integration as the 4-bp deletion starting at this position. These studies suggest that nucleotide position 7 is crucial for interactions near the active site of IN for integration activity and for communication in trans between ends bound by IN for full-site integration. The ability of AMV IN to interact with internal att sequences to mediate full-site integration in vitro is similar to the internal att site requirements observed with MLV and HIV-1 in vivo and with their preintegration complexes in vitro.  (+info)

Modeling the late steps in HIV-1 retroviral integrase-catalyzed DNA integration. (8/401)

Model oligodeoxyribonucleotide substrates representing viral DNA integration intermediates with a gap and a two-nucleotide 5' overhang were used to examine late steps in human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) retroviral integrase (IN)-catalyzed DNA integration in vitro. HIV-1 or avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (RT) were capable of quantitatively filling in the gap to create a nicked substrate but did not remove the 5' overhang. HIV-1 IN also failed to remove the 5' overhang with the gapped substrate. However, with a nicked substrate formed by RT, HIV-1 IN removed the overhang and covalently closed the nick in a disintegration-like reaction. The efficiency of this closure reaction was very low. Such closure was not stimulated by the addition of HMG-(I/Y), suggesting that this protein only acts during the early processing and joining reactions. Addition of Flap endonuclease-1, a nuclease known to remove 5' overhangs, abolished the closure reaction catalyzed by IN. A series of base pair inversions, introduced into the HIV-1 U5 long terminal repeat sequence adjacent to and/or including the conserved CA dinucleotide, produced no or only a small decrease in the HIV-1 IN-dependent strand closure reaction. These same mutations caused a significant decrease in the efficiency of concerted DNA integration by a modified donor DNA in vitro, suggesting that recognition of the ends of the long terminal repeat sequence is required only in the early steps of DNA integration. Finally, a combination of HIV-1 RT, Flap endonuclease-1, and DNA ligase is capable of quantitatively forming covalently closed DNA with these model substrates. These results support the hypothesis that cellular enzyme(s) may catalyze the late steps of retroviral DNA integration.  (+info)

Avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily infects birds, particularly chickens. It is named after the disease it causes, avian myeloblastosis, which is a malignant condition affecting the bone marrow and blood cells of infected birds.

AMV is classified as an alpharetrovirus and has a single-stranded RNA genome. When the virus infects a host cell, its RNA genome is reverse transcribed into DNA, which then integrates into the host's chromosomal DNA. This integrated viral DNA, known as a provirus, can then direct the production of new virus particles.

AMV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviruses and has contributed significantly to our understanding of their replication and pathogenesis. The virus is also used in laboratory research as a tool for generating genetically modified animals and for studying the regulation of gene expression. However, it is not known to infect or cause disease in humans or other mammals.

Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily affects chickens and other birds. It is responsible for a group of diseases known as avian leukosis, which includes various types of tumors and immunosuppressive conditions. The virus is transmitted horizontally through the shedder's dander, feathers, and vertical transmission through infected eggs.

There are several subgroups of ALV (A, B, C, D, E, and J), each with different host ranges and pathogenicity. Some strains can cause rapid death in young chickens, while others may take years to develop clinical signs. The most common form of the disease is neoplastic, characterized by the development of various types of tumors such as lymphomas, myelomas, and sarcomas.

Avian leukosis virus infection can have significant economic impacts on the poultry industry due to decreased growth rates, increased mortality, and condemnation of infected birds at processing. Control measures include eradication programs, biosecurity practices, vaccination, and breeding for genetic resistance.

Avian leukosis is a group of viral diseases that primarily affect chickens and other birds. It is caused by retroviruses known as avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) and leads to a variety of clinical signs, including immunosuppression, growth retardation, and the development of tumors in various organs. The disease can be transmitted both horizontally (through direct contact with infected birds or their secretions) and vertically (from infected hens to their offspring through the egg).

There are several subgroups of ALVs, each associated with specific types of tumors and clinical manifestations. For example:

1. ALV-J (Japanese strain): This subgroup is responsible for myelocytomatosis, a condition characterized by the proliferation of immature blood cells in the bone marrow, leading to anemia, leukopenia, and enlarged spleens and livers.
2. ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-C (American strains): These subgroups are associated with various types of lymphoid tumors, such as B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, which can affect the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen, and other organs.
3. ALV-E (European strain): This subgroup is linked to erythroblastosis, a condition in which there is an excessive proliferation of red blood cell precursors, resulting in the formation of tumors in the bone marrow and other organs.

Avian leukosis poses significant economic challenges for the poultry industry due to its impact on growth, feed conversion efficiency, and mortality rates. Additionally, some countries have regulations in place to prevent the spread of avian leukosis viruses through the trade of infected birds or their products. Prevention measures include strict biosecurity protocols, vaccination programs, and rigorous screening and eradication strategies for infected flocks.

RNA-directed DNA polymerase is a type of enzyme that can synthesize DNA using an RNA molecule as a template. This process is called reverse transcription, and it is the mechanism by which retroviruses, such as HIV, replicate their genetic material. The enzyme responsible for this reaction in retroviruses is called reverse transcriptase.

Reverse transcriptase is an important target for antiretroviral therapy used to treat HIV infection and AIDS. In addition to its role in viral replication, RNA-directed DNA polymerase also has applications in molecular biology research, such as in the production of complementary DNA (cDNA) copies of RNA molecules for use in downstream applications like cloning and sequencing.

v-Myb, also known as v-mybl2, is a retroviral oncogene that was originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). The protein product of this oncogene shares significant sequence homology with the human c-Myb protein, which is a member of the Myb family of transcription factors.

The c-Myb protein is involved in the regulation of gene expression during normal cell growth, differentiation, and development. However, when its function is deregulated or its expression is altered, it can contribute to tumorigenesis by promoting cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

The v-Myb oncogene protein has a higher transforming potential than the c-Myb protein due to the presence of additional sequences that enhance its activity. These sequences allow v-Myb to bind to DNA more strongly, interact with other proteins more efficiently, and promote the expression of target genes involved in cell growth and survival.

Overexpression or mutation of c-Myb has been implicated in various human cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, and carcinomas of the breast, colon, and prostate. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of Myb proteins is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat cancer.

Polynucleotides are long, chain-like molecules composed of repeating units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine in DNA or adenine, guanine, uracil, cytosine in RNA). In DNA, the nucleotides are joined together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next, creating a double helix structure. In RNA, the nucleotides are also joined by phosphodiester bonds but form a single strand. Polynucleotides play crucial roles in storing and transmitting genetic information within cells.

A genetic template refers to the sequence of DNA or RNA that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism or any of its components. These templates provide the code for the synthesis of proteins and other functional molecules, and determine many of the inherited traits and characteristics of an individual. In this sense, genetic templates serve as the blueprint for life and are passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

In molecular biology, the term "template" is used to describe the strand of DNA or RNA that serves as a guide or pattern for the synthesis of a complementary strand during processes such as transcription and replication. During transcription, the template strand of DNA is transcribed into a complementary RNA molecule, while during replication, each parental DNA strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand.

In genetic engineering and synthetic biology, genetic templates can be manipulated and modified to introduce new functions or alter existing ones in organisms. This is achieved through techniques such as gene editing, where specific sequences in the genetic template are targeted and altered using tools like CRISPR-Cas9. Overall, genetic templates play a crucial role in shaping the structure, function, and evolution of all living organisms.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

DNA nucleotidyltransferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the addition of one or more nucleotides to the 3'-hydroxyl end of a DNA molecule. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including DNA repair, recombination, and replication.

The reaction catalyzed by DNA nucleotidyltransferases involves the transfer of a nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) to the 3'-hydroxyl end of a DNA molecule, resulting in the formation of a phosphodiester bond and the release of pyrophosphate. The enzymes can add a single nucleotide or multiple nucleotides, depending on the specific enzyme and its function.

DNA nucleotidyltransferases are classified into several subfamilies based on their sequence similarity and function, including polymerases, terminal transferases, and primases. These enzymes have been extensively studied for their potential applications in biotechnology and medicine, such as in DNA sequencing, diagnostics, and gene therapy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be no established medical definition or recognition of a "Rauscher Virus" in human or veterinary medicine. It is possible that you may have misspelled or misremembered the name of a specific virus or medical term. If you have more information or context about where this term was used, I'd be happy to help you further research the topic.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Streptonigrin is not a medical condition, it is actually a naturally occurring antibiotic and antineoplastic agent. It is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces flocculus and has been studied for its potential use in cancer chemotherapy due to its ability to inhibit DNA synthesis in cancer cells. However, its clinical use is limited due to its toxicity.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Thymine nucleotides are biochemical components that play a crucial role in the structure and function of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which is the genetic material present in living organisms. A thymine nucleotide consists of three parts: a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base called thymine.

Thymine is one of the four nucleobases in DNA, along with adenine, guanine, and cytosine. It specifically pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding, forming a base pair that is essential for maintaining the structure and stability of the double helix. Thymine nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar molecules of adjacent nucleotides, creating a long, linear polymer known as a DNA strand.

In summary, thymine nucleotides are building blocks of DNA that consist of deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and the nitrogenous base thymine, which pairs with adenine in the double helix structure.

Avian sarcoma viruses (ASVs) are a group of retroviruses that primarily infect birds and cause various types of tumors, particularly sarcomas. These viruses contain an oncogene, which is a gene that has the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. The oncogene in ASVs is often derived from cellular genes called proto-oncogenes, which are normally involved in regulating cell growth and division.

ASVs can be divided into two main types: non-defective and defective. Non-defective ASVs contain a complete set of viral genes that allow them to replicate independently, while defective ASVs lack some of the necessary viral genes and require assistance from other viruses to replicate.

One well-known example of an avian sarcoma virus is the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which was first discovered in chickens by Peyton Rous in 1910. RSV causes a highly malignant form of sarcoma in chickens and has been extensively studied as a model system for cancer research. The oncogene in RSV is called v-src, which is derived from the normal cellular gene c-src.

Avian sarcoma viruses have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and have provided valuable insights into the role of oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

An alpharetrovirus is a type of retrovirus, which is a group of viruses that integrate their genetic material into the DNA of the host cell. Alpharetroviruses are characterized by their ability to cause persistent infections and are associated with various diseases in animals. One well-known example of an alpharetrovirus is the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which was the first retrovirus to be discovered and is known to cause cancer in chickens.

Alpharetroviruses have a complex structure, consisting of an outer envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, and an inner core that contains the viral RNA genome and associated enzymes. The viral RNA genome contains three main genes: gag, pol, and env, which encode for the structural proteins, enzymes, and envelope proteins of the virus, respectively.

Alpharetroviruses are transmitted through various routes, including horizontal transmission (from host to host) and vertical transmission (from parent to offspring). They can cause a range of diseases, depending on the specific virus and the host species. In addition to RSV, other examples of alpharetroviruses include the avian leukosis virus, which causes tumors and immunosuppression in birds, and the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, which causes a wasting disease in sheep.

It's worth noting that while alpharetroviruses are associated with diseases in animals, there are no known alpharetroviruses that infect humans. However, understanding the biology and behavior of these viruses in animal hosts can provide valuable insights into retroviral replication and pathogenesis, which may have implications for human health.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

"Satellite viruses" are a type of viruses that require the presence of another virus, known as a "helper virus," to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication and therefore depend on the helper virus to provide these functions. Satellite viruses can either be satellite RNA or satellite DNA viruses, and they can affect plants, animals, and bacteria.

Satellite viruses can influence the severity of the disease caused by the helper virus, either increasing or decreasing it. They can also interfere with the replication of the helper virus and affect its transmission. The relationship between satellite viruses and their helper viruses is complex and can vary depending on the specific viruses involved.

It's important to note that the term "satellite virus" is not used consistently in the scientific literature, and some researchers may use it to refer to other types of dependent or defective viruses. Therefore, it's always a good idea to consult the original research when interpreting the use of this term.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

Ribonucleases (RNases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules by hydrolyzing the phosphodiester bonds. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as RNA processing, turnover, and quality control. They can be classified into several types based on their specificities, mechanisms, and cellular localizations.

Some common classes of ribonucleases include:

1. Endoribonucleases: These enzymes cleave RNA internally, at specific sequences or structural motifs. Examples include RNase A, which targets single-stranded RNA; RNase III, which cuts double-stranded RNA at specific stem-loop structures; and RNase T1, which recognizes and cuts unpaired guanosine residues in RNA molecules.
2. Exoribonucleases: These enzymes remove nucleotides from the ends of RNA molecules. They can be further divided into 5'-3' exoribonucleases, which degrade RNA starting from the 5' end, and 3'-5' exoribonucleases, which start at the 3' end. Examples include Xrn1, a 5'-3' exoribonuclease involved in mRNA decay; and Dis3/RRP6, a 3'-5' exoribonuclease that participates in ribosomal RNA processing and degradation.
3. Specific ribonucleases: These enzymes target specific RNA molecules or regions with high precision. For example, RNase P is responsible for cleaving the 5' leader sequence of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs) during their maturation; and RNase MRP is involved in the processing of ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial RNA molecules.

Dysregulation or mutations in ribonucleases have been implicated in various human diseases, such as neurological disorders, cancer, and viral infections. Therefore, understanding their functions and mechanisms is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Oncogenes are genes that have the potential to cause cancer. They can do this by promoting cell growth and division (cellular proliferation), preventing cell death (apoptosis), or enabling cells to invade surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). Oncogenes can be formed when normal genes, called proto-oncogenes, are mutated or altered in some way. This can happen as a result of exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or through inherited genetic mutations. When activated, oncogenes can contribute to the development of cancer by causing cells to divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner.

A cell-free system is a biochemical environment in which biological reactions can occur outside of an intact living cell. These systems are often used to study specific cellular processes or pathways, as they allow researchers to control and manipulate the conditions in which the reactions take place. In a cell-free system, the necessary enzymes, substrates, and cofactors for a particular reaction are provided in a test tube or other container, rather than within a whole cell.

Cell-free systems can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. They can be used to study a wide range of cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, protein folding, and metabolism. For example, a cell-free system might be used to express and purify a specific protein, or to investigate the regulation of a particular metabolic pathway.

One advantage of using cell-free systems is that they can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes without the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive cell culture or genetic manipulation. Additionally, because cell-free systems are not constrained by the limitations of a whole cell, they offer greater flexibility in terms of reaction conditions and the ability to study complex or transient interactions between biological molecules.

Overall, cell-free systems are an important tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, providing researchers with a versatile and powerful means of investigating the fundamental processes that underlie life at the cellular level.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

DNA-directed DNA polymerase is a type of enzyme that synthesizes new strands of DNA by adding nucleotides to an existing DNA template in a 5' to 3' direction. These enzymes are essential for DNA replication, repair, and recombination. They require a single-stranded DNA template, a primer with a free 3' hydroxyl group, and the four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) as substrates to carry out the polymerization reaction.

DNA polymerases also have proofreading activity, which allows them to correct errors that occur during DNA replication by removing mismatched nucleotides and replacing them with the correct ones. This helps ensure the fidelity of the genetic information passed from one generation to the next.

There are several different types of DNA polymerases, each with specific functions and characteristics. For example, DNA polymerase I is involved in both DNA replication and repair, while DNA polymerase III is the primary enzyme responsible for DNA replication in bacteria. In eukaryotic cells, DNA polymerase alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon have distinct roles in DNA replication, repair, and maintenance.

Phosphotungstic acid is not typically defined in a medical context as it is a chemical compound with the formula H3PW12O40. It is a complex polyoxometalate anion consisting of 12 tungsten atoms and one phosphorus atom, all in the +5 or +6 oxidation state, surrounded by 40 oxygen atoms.

In medicine, phosphotungstic acid is sometimes used as a negative stain for electron microscopy to enhance contrast and visualization of biological specimens. However, it is not a medication or a therapeutic agent, so it does not have a medical definition per se.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Cell transformation, viral refers to the process by which a virus causes normal cells to become cancerous or tumorigenic. This occurs when the genetic material of the virus integrates into the DNA of the host cell and alters its regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Some viruses known to cause cell transformation include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and certain types of herpesviruses.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Oncogenic viruses are a type of viruses that have the ability to cause cancer in host cells. They do this by integrating their genetic material into the DNA of the infected host cell, which can lead to the disruption of normal cellular functions and the activation of oncogenes (genes that have the potential to cause cancer). This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. Examples of oncogenic viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). It is important to note that only a small proportion of viral infections lead to cancer, and the majority of cancers are not caused by viruses.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other viruses that primarily use RNA as their genetic material. The name "retrovirus" comes from the fact that these viruses reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which then becomes integrated into the host cell's genome. This is a unique characteristic of retroviruses, as most other viruses use DNA as their genetic material.

Retroviruses can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including cancer, neurological disorders, and immunodeficiency syndromes like AIDS. They have a lipid membrane envelope that contains glycoprotein spikes, which allow them to attach to and enter host cells. Once inside the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is then integrated into the host genome by the enzyme integrase.

Retroviruses can remain dormant in the host genome for extended periods of time, and may be reactivated under certain conditions to produce new viral particles. This ability to integrate into the host genome has also made retroviruses useful tools in molecular biology, where they are used as vectors for gene therapy and other genetic manipulations.

The Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a gammaretrovirus, that is commonly found in mice. It was first discovered and isolated by John Moloney in 1960. Mo-MLV is known to cause various types of cancerous conditions, particularly leukemia, in susceptible mouse strains.

Mo-MLV has a single-stranded RNA genome that is reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA upon infection of the host cell. This viral DNA then integrates into the host's genome and utilizes the host's cellular machinery to produce new virus particles. The Mo-MLV genome encodes for several viral proteins, including gag (group-specific antigen), pol (polymerase), and env (envelope) proteins, which are essential for the replication cycle of the virus.

Mo-MLV is widely used in laboratory research as a model retrovirus to study various aspects of viral replication, gene therapy, and oncogenesis. It has also been engineered as a vector for gene delivery applications due to its ability to efficiently integrate into the host genome and deliver large DNA sequences. However, it is important to note that Mo-MLV and other retroviruses have the potential to cause insertional mutagenesis, which can lead to unintended genetic alterations and adverse effects in some cases.

Cytosine nucleotides are the chemical units or building blocks that make up DNA and RNA, one of the four nitrogenous bases that form the rung of the DNA ladder. A cytosine nucleotide is composed of a cytosine base attached to a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA) and at least one phosphate group. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information stored in an organism's genome. In particular, cytosine nucleotides pair with guanine nucleotides through hydrogen bonding to form base pairs that are held together by weak interactions. This pairing is specific and maintains the structure and integrity of the DNA molecule during replication and transcription.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poly C" is not a widely recognized medical term or abbreviation in the field of medicine or biology. It might be a typographical error or a shorthand notation used in a specific context. If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Poly C," I would be happy to help further.

Deoxyribonucleotides are the building blocks of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). They consist of a deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), or thymine (T). A deoxyribonucleotide is formed when a nucleotide loses a hydroxyl group from its sugar molecule. In DNA, deoxyribonucleotides link together to form a long, double-helix structure through phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one deoxyribonucleotide and the phosphate group of another. The sequence of these nucleotides carries genetic information that is essential for the development and function of all known living organisms and many viruses.

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs that are primarily used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. They work by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of HIV.

HIV is a retrovirus, meaning it has an RNA genome and uses a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. This process is necessary for the virus to integrate into the host cell's genome and replicate. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors interfere with this process by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, preventing it from converting the viral RNA into DNA.

RTIs can be further divided into two categories: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs are analogs of the building blocks of DNA, which get incorporated into the growing DNA chain during replication, causing termination of the chain. NNRTIs bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, causing a conformational change that prevents it from functioning.

By inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, RTIs can prevent the virus from replicating and reduce the viral load in an infected individual, thereby slowing down the progression of HIV infection and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis, the process by which cells create proteins. In protein synthesis, tRNAs serve as adaptors, translating the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids required to build a protein.

Each tRNA molecule has a distinct structure, consisting of approximately 70-90 nucleotides arranged in a cloverleaf shape with several loops and stems. The most important feature of a tRNA is its anticodon, a sequence of three nucleotides located in one of the loops. This anticodon base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA during translation, ensuring that the correct amino acid is added to the growing polypeptide chain.

Before tRNAs can participate in protein synthesis, they must be charged with their specific amino acids through an enzymatic process involving aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes recognize and bind to both the tRNA and its corresponding amino acid, forming a covalent bond between them. Once charged, the aminoacyl-tRNA complex is ready to engage in translation and contribute to protein formation.

In summary, transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small RNA molecule that facilitates protein synthesis by translating genetic information from messenger RNA into specific amino acids, ultimately leading to the creation of functional proteins within cells.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Retroviridae proteins, oncogenic, refer to the proteins expressed by retroviruses that have the ability to transform normal cells into cancerous ones. These oncogenic proteins are typically encoded by viral genes known as "oncogenes," which are acquired through the process of transduction from the host cell's DNA during retroviral replication.

The most well-known example of an oncogenic retrovirus is the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1), which encodes the Tax and HBZ oncoproteins. These proteins manipulate various cellular signaling pathways, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

It is important to note that not all retroviruses are oncogenic, and only a small subset of them have been associated with cancer development in humans or animals.

Manganese is not a medical condition, but it's an essential trace element that is vital for human health. Here is the medical definition of Manganese:

Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mainly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult men and 1.8 mg per day for adult women. Good food sources of manganese include nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and tea.

In some cases, exposure to high levels of manganese can cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease, a condition known as manganism. However, this is rare and usually occurs in people who are occupationally exposed to manganese dust or fumes, such as welders.

Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is an enzyme that specifically degrades the RNA portion of an RNA-DNA hybrid. It cleaves the phosphodiester bond between the ribose sugar and the phosphate group in the RNA strand, leaving the DNA strand intact. This enzyme plays a crucial role in several cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription.

There are two main types of RNase H: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 RNase H is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, while type 2 RNase H is primarily found in eukaryotes. The primary function of RNase H is to remove RNA primers that are synthesized during DNA replication. These RNA primers are replaced with DNA nucleotides by another enzyme called polymerase δ, leaving behind a gap in the DNA strand. RNase H then cleaves the RNA-DNA hybrid, allowing for the repair of the gap and the completion of DNA replication.

RNase H has also been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, as it can degrade RNA-DNA hybrids formed during transcription. This process, known as transcription-coupled RNA decay, helps to prevent the accumulation of aberrant RNA molecules and ensures proper gene expression.

In addition to its cellular functions, RNase H has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, inhibitors of RNase H have been shown to have antiviral activity against HIV-1, as they prevent the degradation of viral RNA during reverse transcription. On the other hand, activators of RNase H have been explored as a means to enhance the efficiency of RNA interference (RNAi) therapies by promoting the degradation of target RNA molecules.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-Myb, also known as MYB proteins, are transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression during normal cell growth, differentiation, and development. They are named after the avian myeloblastosis virus, which contains an oncogenic version of the c-myb gene.

The human c-Myb protein is encoded by the MYB gene located on chromosome 6 (6q22-q23). This protein contains a highly conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain, followed by a transcription activation domain and a C-terminal negative regulatory domain. The DNA-binding domain recognizes specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes, allowing c-Myb to regulate their expression.

Inappropriate activation or overexpression of c-Myb can contribute to oncogenesis, leading to the development of various types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. This occurs due to uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation, impaired differentiation, and increased resistance to apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Regulation of c-Myb activity is tightly controlled in normal cells through various mechanisms, including post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and degradation. Dysregulation of these control mechanisms can result in the aberrant activation of c-Myb, contributing to oncogenesis.

The yolk sac is a structure that forms in the early stages of an embryo's development. It is a extra-embryonic membrane, which means it exists outside of the developing embryo, and it plays a critical role in providing nutrients to the growing embryo during the initial stages of development.

In more detail, the yolk sac is responsible for producing blood cells, contributing to the formation of the early circulatory system, and storing nutrients that are absorbed from the yolk material inside the egg or uterus. The yolk sac also has a role in the development of the gut and the immune system.

As the embryo grows and the placenta develops, the yolk sac's function becomes less critical, and it eventually degenerates. However, remnants of the yolk sac can sometimes persist and may be found in the developing fetus or newborn baby. In some cases, abnormalities in the development or regression of the yolk sac can lead to developmental problems or congenital disorders.

Retroviridae is a family of viruses that includes HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Retroviridae proteins refer to the various structural and functional proteins that are encoded by the retroviral genome. These proteins can be categorized into three main groups:

1. Group-specific antigen (Gag) proteins: These proteins make up the viral matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid. They are involved in the assembly of new virus particles.

2. Polymerase (Pol) proteins: These proteins include the reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease enzymes. Reverse transcriptase is responsible for converting the viral RNA genome into DNA, which can then be integrated into the host cell's genome by the integrase enzyme. The protease enzyme is involved in processing the polyprotein precursors of Gag and Pol into their mature forms.

3. Envelope (Env) proteins: These proteins are responsible for the attachment and fusion of the virus to the host cell membrane. They are synthesized as a precursor protein, which is then cleaved by a host cell protease to form two distinct proteins - the surface unit (SU) and the transmembrane unit (TM). The SU protein contains the receptor-binding domain, while the TM protein forms the transmembrane anchor.

Retroviral proteins play crucial roles in various stages of the viral life cycle, including entry, reverse transcription, integration, transcription, translation, assembly, and release. Understanding the functions of these proteins is essential for developing effective antiretroviral therapies and vaccines against retroviral infections.

Endonucleases are enzymes that cleave, or cut, phosphodiester bonds within a polynucleotide chain, specifically within the same molecule of DNA or RNA. They can be found in all living organisms and play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination.

Endonucleases can recognize specific nucleotide sequences (sequence-specific endonucleases) or have no sequence preference (non-specific endonucleases). Some endonucleases generate sticky ends, overhangs of single-stranded DNA after cleavage, while others produce blunt ends without any overhang.

These enzymes are widely used in molecular biology techniques, such as restriction digestion, cloning, and genome editing (e.g., CRISPR-Cas9 system). Restriction endonucleases recognize specific DNA sequences called restriction sites and cleave the phosphodiester bonds at or near these sites, generating defined fragment sizes that can be separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. This property is essential for various applications in genetic engineering and biotechnology.

Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming long chains known as polynucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information carried in DNA and RNA, which is essential for the functioning, reproduction and survival of all living organisms.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) is a form of DNA that consists of a single polynucleotide chain. In contrast, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) consists of two complementary polynucleotide chains that are held together by hydrogen bonds.

In the double-helix structure of dsDNA, each nucleotide base on one strand pairs with a specific base on the other strand through hydrogen bonding: adenine (A) with thymine (T), and guanine (G) with cytosine (C). This base pairing provides stability to the double-stranded structure.

Single-stranded DNA, on the other hand, lacks this complementary base pairing and is therefore less stable than dsDNA. However, ssDNA can still form secondary structures through intrastrand base pairing, such as hairpin loops or cruciform structures.

Single-stranded DNA is found in various biological contexts, including viral genomes, transcription bubbles during gene expression, and in certain types of genetic recombination. It also plays a critical role in some laboratory techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.

"Poly A" is an abbreviation for "poly(A) tail" or "polyadenylation." It refers to the addition of multiple adenine (A) nucleotides to the 3' end of eukaryotic mRNA molecules during the process of transcription. This poly(A) tail plays a crucial role in various aspects of mRNA metabolism, including stability, transport, and translation. The length of the poly(A) tail can vary from around 50 to 250 nucleotides depending on the cell type and developmental stage.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is a single-stranded, linear polymer of ribonucleotides. It is a nucleic acid present in the cells of all living organisms and some viruses. RNAs play crucial roles in various biological processes such as protein synthesis, gene regulation, and cellular signaling. There are several types of RNA including messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). These RNAs differ in their structure, function, and location within the cell.

Integrases are enzymes that are responsible for the integration of genetic material into a host's DNA. In particular, integrases play a crucial role in the life cycle of retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). These viruses have an RNA genome, which must be reverse-transcribed into DNA before it can be integrated into the host's chromosomal DNA.

The integrase enzyme, encoded by the virus's pol gene, is responsible for this critical step in the retroviral replication cycle. It mediates the cutting and pasting of the viral cDNA into a specific site within the host cell's genome, leading to the formation of a provirus. This provirus can then be transcribed and translated by the host cell's machinery, resulting in the production of new virus particles.

Integrase inhibitors are an important class of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection. They work by blocking the activity of the integrase enzyme, thereby preventing the integration of viral DNA into the host genome and halting the replication of the virus.

Phosphorus isotopes are different forms of the element phosphorus that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei, while the number of protons remains the same. The most common and stable isotope of phosphorus is 31P, which contains 15 protons and 16 neutrons. However, there are also several other isotopes of phosphorus that exist, including 32P and 33P, which are radioactive and have 15 protons and 17 or 18 neutrons, respectively. These radioactive isotopes are often used in medical research and treatment, such as in the form of radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose and treat various diseases.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are a group of enzymes that cleave, or cut, the phosphodiester bonds in the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. DNases are classified based on their mechanism of action into two main categories: double-stranded DNases and single-stranded DNases.

Double-stranded DNases cleave both strands of the DNA duplex, while single-stranded DNases cleave only one strand. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, such as DNA replication, repair, recombination, and degradation. They are also used in research and clinical settings for applications such as DNA fragmentation analysis, DNA sequencing, and treatment of cystic fibrosis.

It's worth noting that there are many different types of DNases with varying specificities and activities, and the medical definition may vary depending on the context.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

"Specific Binding of Tryptophan Transfer RNA to Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Reverse Transcriptase". Proceedings of the National ... They proposed to use methods similar to those used to isolate the HTLV virus to find this new virus. These methods were ... IN: HIV and Other Highly Pathogenic Viruses. pp. 25-32. Haseltine, WA (1988). "Replication and Pathogenesis of the AIDS Virus ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Hall's Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ...
"Subcellular localization of proteins encoded by oncogenes of avian myeloblastosis virus and avian leukemia virus E26 and by ... The Myb gene family is named after the eponymous gene in Avian myeloblastosis virus. The viral Myb (v-Myb, P01104) recognizes ... "Entrez Gene: v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)". Klempnauer KH, Symonds G, Evan GI, Bishop JM (June 1984). " ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ...
Species include the Rous sarcoma virus, avian leukosis virus, and avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV). Not all animals that can ... Perbal, Bernard (2008). "Avian myeoloblastosis virus (AMV): only one side of the coin". Retrovirology. 5 (1): 49. doi:10.1186/ ... The tumor caused by the virus is usually in the form of lymphoma and leukemia. It occurs after a long and latent process. The ... Virus genera, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ...
"Mechanism of RNA primer removal by the RNase H activity of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase". Journal of ...
This region gets its name from a viral protein called Myb derived from the avian myeloblastosis virus. Specifically, the ...
Vasudevachari, M; Antony, A (1982). "Inhibition of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase and virus inactivation by ... The result is inactivation of bacteria or viruses. Copper complexes form radicals that inactivate viruses. Copper may disrupt ... Influenza A virus was found to survive in large numbers on stainless steel. Once surfaces are contaminated with virus particles ... "Viruses Influenza A". Archived from the original on 2009-10-18. Retrieved 2010-04-07. Barker, J; Vipond, IB; Bloomfield, SF ( ...
Grandgenett, D. P.; Gerard, G. F.; Green, M. (1973). "A Single Subunit from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus with Both RNA-Directed ... Later, Green's research extended to the RNA tumor viruses (tumor-inducing viruses with an RNA genome). Before reverse ... His studies included characterizing the viruses' DNA, investigating the tumor-inducing properties of the viruses, and ... "Maurice Green, pioneering virus researcher at SLU, dies at 91". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 8 December 2017. Archived from the ...
AMV reverse transcriptase from the avian myeloblastosis virus also has two subunits, a 63 kDa subunit and a 95 kDa subunit. ... Konishi A, Yasukawa K, Inouye K (July 2012). "Improving the thermal stability of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse ... Biology portal Viruses portal cDNA library DNA polymerase msDNA Reverse transcribing virus RNA polymerase Telomerase ... ISBN 978-0-87969-382-4. Bernstein A, Weiss R, Tooze J (1985). "RNA tumor viruses". Molecular Biology of Tumor Viruses (2nd ed ...
The AMV reverse transcriptase from the avian myeloblastosis virus may also be used for RNA templates with strong secondary ... Some viruses also use cDNA to turn their viral RNA into mRNA (viral RNA → cDNA → mRNA). The mRNA is used to make viral proteins ... Here, the host cell membrane becomes attached to the virus' lipid envelope which allows the viral capsid with two copies of ... This mechanism is shared with viruses with the exclusion of the generation of infectious particles. cDNA library - Type of DNA ...
... a part of the structure of the brain Avian myeloblastosis virus, a virus of the genus Alpharetrovirus AMV, the IATA airport ... a video consisting of anime clips arranged to a song Alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus of the family Bromoviridae Anterior ...
... virus 2 Avian coronavirus Avian coronavirus 9203 Avian leukosis virus Avian myeloblastosis virus Avian myelocytomatosis virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus V Potato virus X Potato virus Y ... Garlic mite-borne filamentous virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X ... A Grapevine virus B Grapevine virus D Grapevine virus E Grapevine virus F Grapevine virus G Grapevine virus H Grapevine virus I ...
In order for successful amplification to occur, an enzyme cocktail containing, Avian Myeloblastosis Reverse Transcriptase (AMV- ... zika virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus, human bocavirus ( ... Collins, RA; Ko, LS; So, KL; Ellis, T; Lau, LT; Yu, AC (2002). "Detection of highly pathogenic and low pathogenic avian ... The NASBA technique has been used to develop rapid diagnostic tests for several pathogenic viruses with single-stranded RNA ...
... leukosis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.550 - myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.775 - sarcoma viruses, avian ... avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.500 - leukosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.550 - myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH ... avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.500 - leukosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.550 - myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH ... encephalomyelitis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.565.400.410 - hepatitis a virus MeSH B04.820.565.400.410.500 - hepatitis a virus, ...
1 U of avian myeloblastosis virus RT; and 1 U of Thermus flavus DNA polymerase and Rnase-free distilled water to a final volume ... Virus taxonomy. Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy on Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. ... The HEV-B cluster includes coxsackie virus B (CBV), coxsackie virus A9, ENV69, and all echoviruses (EV). ... The viruses could also be identified directly from most of the CSF samples assayed (three of them included in this study; other ...
"Specific Binding of Tryptophan Transfer RNA to Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Reverse Transcriptase". Proceedings of the National ... They proposed to use methods similar to those used to isolate the HTLV virus to find this new virus. These methods were ... IN: HIV and Other Highly Pathogenic Viruses. pp. 25-32. Haseltine, WA (1988). "Replication and Pathogenesis of the AIDS Virus ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Halls Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ...
5. Mechanism of action of ribonuclease H isolated from avian myeloblastosis virus and Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. ... In the context of the virus, the p51 subunit is created by a post-translational mechanism, where the C-terminus of a p66/p66 ... Baltimore, D. Viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase: RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of RNA tumour viruses. Nature 226, ... Kim, B. & Loeb, L. A. Human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase substitutes for DNA polymerase I in Escherichia coli. ...
6] and was subjected to reverse transcription using reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (Promega Corporation ... human immunodeficiency virus, transfusion transmitted virus) [2]. HCV infection is the leading cause of post-transfusion ... Hepatitis C virus density heterogeneity and viral titre in acute and chronic infection: a comparison of immunodeficient and ... RÉSUMÉ On a étudié la séroprévalence des anticorps spécifiques du virus de lhépatite C (VHC) et la distribution des génotypes ...
Rous sarcoma virus retropepsin and avian myeloblastosis virus retropepsin. Ridky, T. W. & Leis, J., 2013, Handbook of ... Budding of enveloped viruses: Interferon-induced ISG15 - Antivirus mechanisms targeting the release process. Seo, E. J. & Leis ... A-015: Prazole Analogs to Block the Budding of Viruses. Luan, C. & Leis, J. P. ... Ilaprazole and other novel prazole-based compounds that bind Tsg101 inhibit viral budding of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 and ...
Embryos of birds not carrying an avian leukosis virus infection and of chickens from a leukosis-free flock could thus clearly ... antigen into the extracellular medium was independent of subgroup or strain of avian leukosis or Rous sarcoma virus. The ... tests in the detection of leukosis virus in infected material. ... of avian leukoviruses was detected by radioimmunoassay in ... radioimmunoassay of the group-specific antigen seems to be well suited to complement the COFAL (complement fixation avian ...
In contrast, pyrophosphate is not detectably mutagenic with avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase or DNA polymerases alpha ...
An equal amount of extension mix consisting of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (Promega), 5x AMV buffer and 40 ... The SARS-CoV-2 was a French Ile de France isolate (www.european-virus-archive.com/virus/sars-cov-2-isolate- ... The life cycle of many viruses has been linked to host tRNA biology (reviewed in (Dremel et al, 2023; Nunes et al, 2020)). In ... 1998Pseudouridine and ribothymidine formation in the tRNA-like domain of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNANucleic Acids Res. 26: ...
... such as avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase or Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase). ... HCC can be secondary to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), or secondary to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, alcoholic ... Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most important risk factor for developing liver cirrhosis and HCC (El-Serag, N ... Virus-mediated signaling induces an EGF signature in HCV Jcl- infected Huh7.5.1 dlf cells. The panels show the presence of ...
J. Závada: Pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus with the coat of murine leukemia and of avian myeloblastosis viruses. J. ... Member, European Tumour Virus Group. Notable awards:. *1981, National prize (for the construction of viral pseudotypes and ... A rapid neutralization test for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus, with the use of rhabdovirus pseudotypes. J. Natl. Cancer ...
Evidence for tandem integration of avian myeloblastosis virus DNA with endogenous provirus in leukemic chicken cells ... The cellular and molecular biology of RNA tumor viruses, especially avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses, and their relatives ... Sites of integration of infectious DNA of avian reticuloendotheliosis viruses in different avian cellular DNAs ... S-tropic murine type-C viruses: frequency of isolation from continuous cell lines, leukemia virus preparations and normal ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis Virus. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ... Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice. ... B04 - Viruses. African horse sickness virus. African Horse ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis Virus. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ... Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice. ... B04 - Viruses. African horse sickness virus. African Horse ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
Minute virus of mice. Myeloblastosis Virus, Avian. Avian myeloblastosis virus. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma virus ...
H5N2 SubtypeAKR murine leukemia virusEctromelia virusAvian myeloblastosis virusInfluenza A Virus, H1N2 SubtypeRoss River virus ... HumanMosaic VirusesHepatitis A virusSemliki forest virusHerpesvirus 1, HumanAvian Sarcoma VirusesJC VirusBK VirusViruses, ... RNA VirusesVaccinia virusSimian virus 40Plant VirusesDNA VirusesDefective VirusesSindbis VirusMeasles virusInfluenza A Virus, ... HumanNeutralization TestsAvian Sarcoma VirusesJC VirusVirus AttachmentBK VirusViruses, UnclassifiedVirus IntegrationAvian ...
Avian myeloblastosis virus. B. Bacillus anthracis str. A2012. Bacillus anthracis str. Ames. Bacillus anthracis str. Sterne. ... Moloney murine leukemia virus. Moorella thermoacetica. Murid herpesvirus 4. Mycobacterium bovis AF2122/97. Mycobacterium leprae ... Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus CVK2. Phytoplasma sp.. Porphyromonas gingivalis W83. Prevotella ruminicola. Prochlorococcus ...
... of an avian myeloblastosis-associated virus [MAV-2(O)] were compared with those of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) gp85. ... of an avian myeloblastosis-associated virus [MAV-2(O)] were compared with those of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) gp85. ... of an avian myeloblastosis-associated virus [MAV-2(O)] were compared with those of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) gp85. ... of an avian myeloblastosis-associated virus [MAV-2(O)] were compared with those of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) gp85. ...
This also applies to RTases derived from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus (AMV).. Running the reaction at a higher temperature ... 3 Moldovan, N. et al. Multi-Platform Sequencing Approach Reveals a Novel Transcriptome Profile in Pseudorabies Virus. Front ... are derived from wild-type Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) RTase and have an error rate of 1×10-4 errors/bp1. ...
... human papilloma virus) infection and HPV-related tumors. ... and 20 units of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse ... bovine papilloma virus (BVP) or cottontail rabbit papilloma virus (CRVP) or Shope papilloma virus. It should be appreciated ... The antiviral agent may be used to treat a viral infection by, for example, a human papilloma virus, a Herpes virus, or other ... Raja et al., Hybrid virus-polymer materials. 1. Synthesis and properties of PEG-decorated cowpea mosaic virus. ...
Avian Myeloblastosis Virus (AMV) RT, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MMLV) RT, SuperScript II (SS II) RT, and SuperScript IV (SS ... and Zika viruses (ZIKV) utilized the UBPs developed by Benners team. The Luminex xMAP DHA protocol with self-avoiding ... and Accurate Multiplex PCR-Microsphere Flow Cytometry System for Large-Scale Comprehensive Detection of Respiratory Viruses, ... to create the genomes with novel properties as well revolutionizing the diagnostics for future outbreaks especially for viruses ...
  • Embryos of birds not carrying an avian leukosis virus infection and of chickens from a leukosis-free flock could thus clearly be distinguished from infected ones. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The radioimmunoassay of the group-specific antigen seems to be well suited to complement the COFAL (complement fixation avian leukosis) and RIF (resistance inducing factor) tests in the detection of leukosis virus in infected material. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lack of relationship between infection with avian leukosis virus and the presence of COFAL antigen in chick embryos. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Application of immunohistochemistry to study of avian leukosis virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Release of group-specific antigen into the extracellular medium was independent of subgroup or strain of avian leukosis or Rous sarcoma virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of proteins from Rous sarcoma virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The effects of reciprocal changes in temperature on the transformed state of cells infected with a Rous sarcoma virus mutant. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A virus in chick embryos which induces resistance in vitro to infection with Rous sarcoma virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • RNA in mammalian sarcoma virus transformed nonproducer cells homologous to murine leukemia virus RNA. (wikidata.org)
  • report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the Rous sarcoma virus octameric intasome complex stabilized by a HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor. (nature.com)
  • Besides our biological approaches using Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), biochemistry played an important role in understanding IN functions. (nature.com)
  • This course initiated my career studying avian retroviruses at Saint Louis University, leading to the discovery of the avian myeloblastosis virus IN by my lab in 1978. (nature.com)
  • Structural studies of intasomes revealed different number of IN subunits ranging from 4 for the PFV and delta-retroviruses human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) (3) and simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (4), 8 for alpha-retrovirus RSV (5) and beta-retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (6). (nature.com)
  • Multiple group specific antigen components of avian tumor viruses detected with chicken and hamster sera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Polypeptides of avian RNA tumor viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses ( PROVIRUSES ) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • By 1983, the retrovirus research field was primed to unravel the mysterious and harmful human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that caused acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (nature.com)
  • Infectious C-type virus isolated from a baboon placenta. (wikidata.org)
  • Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL). (lookformedical.com)
  • eb virus antibody and infectious mononucleosis in a boarding school for boys. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • some of these boys had had no recorded illness during the period before the first positive sample and some developed classic infectious mononucleosis which was accompainied by a positive heterophil antibody test and detection of eb virus specific igm. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Complement-fixing antigens in tissue cultures of avian leukosis viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Radioimmunoassay for detecting group-specific avian RNA tumor virus antigens and antibodies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • sera from children were tested for antibodies to viral capsid antigens of epstein-barr virus. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Part of the neutralizing antigenic site III has been described in this genome region in poliovirus and swine vesicular disease virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Analysis of this fragment of the enteroviral genome has permitted the study of important pathogenic structures, such as part of the antigenic sites described for polioviruses ( 13 ), CBV, and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) ( 14 , 15 ), and part of the canyon structure, related to viral attachment, which has been described in several HEVs and rhinoviruses ( 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Chromatographic separation and antigenic analysis of proteins of the oncorna viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity. (lookformedical.com)
  • The physical and antigenic properties of the surface glycoprotein (gp85) of an avian myeloblastosis-associated virus [MAV-2(O)] were compared with those of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) gp85. (uky.edu)
  • ABSTRACT The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) specific antibodies and HCV genotypes distribution were studied among 559 Iraqi children with thalassaemia in receipt of repeated blood transfusions. (who.int)
  • So the aims of this study were to identify the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus specific antibodies among children with thalassaemia in receipt of blood transfusions in a teaching hospital in Baghdad and to investigate the HCV genotype distribution among these patients. (who.int)
  • J. Závada, L. Černý, Z. Závadová, J. Božoňová, A.D. Altstein: A rapid neutralization test for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus, with the use of rhabdovirus pseudotypes. (learned.cz)
  • The former was utilized for detection of anti-HCV antibodies while the Before the introduction of screening of latter was used for HCV-RNA detection and blood donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV), subsequent genotyping/subtyping. (who.int)
  • They were tested for HCV-RNA positivity lence of hepatitis C virus specific antibodies and subsequent HCV-genotyping using an among children with thalassaemia in receipt advanced molecular method. (who.int)
  • For lentiviral intasomes, variable number of IN subunits ranging from 4 to 12 for HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) (7-9) and up to 16 subunits for maedi visna virus (MVV) (10) were revealed. (nature.com)
  • We describe the molecular epidemiology of the EV13 isolates obtained in Spain from the 2000 outbreak by analyzing the VP1 partial sequences of 64 identified viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • attempts to demonstrate virus-specific sequences in human tumors. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Fluorescent antibody studies of viruses of the avian leukosis complex. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) epstein-barr virus (ebv) fluorescent antibody (fa) titer was 1:64. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • the b95-8 strain of epstein-barr virus (ebv) induced colony formation of human umbilical cord-blood leukocytes in soft agar medium. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The major group-specific antigen (gs-a) of avian leukoviruses was detected by radioimmunoassay in extracellular medium of all embryonic cultures prepared from infected chickens. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • the colonies were similarly induced, but with a lower efficiency, in adult peripheral blood leukocyte cultures infected with the virus. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Our work complements earlier pioneering x-ray crystallography studies of simiispumavirus prototype foamy virus (PFV) IN in complex with viral DNA, in the absence and presence of HIV-1 INSTIs (2). (nature.com)
  • The N-terminal amino acid of an avian leukosis group-specific antigen from avian myeloblastosis virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Identification and localization of avian leukosis group-specific antigen within 'leukosis-free' chick embryos. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Origin of group-specific antigen of chicken leukosis viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Demonstration of an avian leukosis group antigen by immunodiffusion. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Localization of avian tumor virus group-specific antigen in cell and virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Immunofluorescent studies of group-specific antigen of the avian sarcoma-leukosis viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • cells of two ebna (epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen)-negative human lymphoma cell lines, bjab and ramos, were infected with two strains of epstein-barr virus (ebv). (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • electron microscopic examination revealed 17 nanometer (nm) diameter paramyxovirus-like nucleocapsids in brain sections and 90 nm diameter herpes virus-like enveloped particles in negatively stained brain tissue extracts. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Before the introduction of screening of blood donors for hepatitis C virus (HCV), the risk of acquiring HCV infection as a result of transfusion was about 10% [1]. (who.int)
  • suggest that MAV-2(O) and AMV gp85 show similar host-dependent glycosylation patterns in vivo, which differ from the pattern observed when the viruses are grown in chicken embryo fibroblasts. (uky.edu)
  • Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE. (lookformedical.com)
  • A general term for diseases produced by viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • Modified HPV particles may be used for the treatment of diseases or conditions of mucosal tissue, including HPV (human papilloma virus) infection and HPV-related tumors. (justia.com)
  • A cross-sectional study was done on 559 jected to reverse transcription using reverse thalassaemic children ranging from 2-10 transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis years. (who.int)
  • Deoxyribonucleotide insertion efficiencies were measured opposite site-directed abasic template lesions using human immunodeficiency virus 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1RT), and the efficiencies to continue primer synthesis beyond the lesion, by addition of the 'next correct' deoxynucleotide, were measured as a function of sequence context. (neb.com)
  • The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). (lookformedical.com)
  • establishment of ebna-expressing cell lines by infection of epstein-barr virus (ebv)-genome-negative human lymphoma cells with different ebv strains. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Evolution of primate oncornaviruses: An endogenous virus from langurs (Presbytis spp. (wikidata.org)
  • Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response. (lookformedical.com)
  • Genetic control of radiation leukemia virus-induced tumorigenesis. (wikidata.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • Viruses whose genetic material is RNA. (lookformedical.com)
  • SIVcpz does not cause an Aids-like illness among chimpanzees, despite its similarity to the human virus and the very close genetic relationship between chimps and humans. (balloon-juice.com)
  • In Spain, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis attributable to EV13 occurred from February to October 2000 ( 25 ), the first identification of this virus in Spain since record keeping began in 1988 ( 28 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The simple reason for this is that the virus has burned its way through chimpanzee populations for thousands of years, a long enough time for the virions which do not kill their host, at least not quickly, to outcompete the most lethal strains. (balloon-juice.com)
  • When a virus meets a new species for the first time it will burn through the immunologically- naive animals mercilessly, until a period of coevolution takes place in which resistance alleles spread in the host populations and the fiercest strains of virus lose out to strains which keep the host alive long enough to spread more widely. (balloon-juice.com)
  • Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • Now that science can study how exactly the current state of chimp-virus detente was reached at the very least we may have more opportunities to nudge chance along. (balloon-juice.com)
  • Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • however, there was a presumed cell-killing effect with low dilutions of virus. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • As well as solving the mystery of the origin of the virus, the findings prepare the way for future work exploring the history and behaviour of the simian form of HIV in its natural host. (balloon-juice.com)
  • RESEARCHERS have traced the origin of HIV - the virus that causes Aids - to chimpanzees in southern Cameroon. (balloon-juice.com)
  • one-hit response relationship between the number of colonies and the virus dose was observed with high dilutions of the virus preparation. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • These viruses are commonly reported in association with aseptic meningitis outbreaks in pediatric patients ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)