Avian leukosis virus
Avian Sarcoma Viruses
Bursa of Fabricius
Herpesvirus 2, Gallid
Molecular Sequence Data
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
Enzootic Bovine Leukosis
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Cell Transformation, Viral
Viral Envelope Proteins
Amino Acid Sequence
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Genome structure and expression of the ev/J family of avian endogenous viruses. (1/808)We recently reported the identification of sequences in the chicken genome that show over 95% identity to the novel envelope gene of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (S. J. Benson, B. L. Ruis, A. M. Fadly, and K. F. Conklin, J. Virol. 72:10157-10164, 1998). Based on the fact that the endogenous subgroup J-related env genes were associated with long terminal repeats (LTRs), we concluded that these LTR-env sequences defined a new family of avian endogenous viruses that we designated the ev/J family. In this report, we have further characterized the content and expression of the ev/J proviruses. The data obtained indicate that there are between 6 and 11 copies of ev/J proviruses in all chicken cells examined and that these proviruses fall into six classes. Of the 18 proviruses examined, all share a high degree of sequence identity and all contain an internal deletion that removes all of the pol gene and various amounts of gag and env gene sequences. Sequencing of the gag genes, LTRs, and untranslated regions of several ev/J proviruses revealed a high level of identity between isolates, indicating that they have not undergone significant sequence variation since their introduction into the avian germ line. Although the ev/J gag gene showed a relatively weak relationship (46% identity and 61% similarity at the amino acid level) to that of the avian leukosis-sarcoma virus family, it retains several sequences of demonstrated importance for virus assembly, budding, and/or infectivity. Finally, evidence was obtained that at least some members of the ev/J family are expressed and, if translated, could encode Gag- and Env-related polypeptides. (+info)
Evidence of avian leukosis virus subgroup E and endogenous avian virus in measles and mumps vaccines derived from chicken cells: investigation of transmission to vaccine recipients. (2/808)Reverse transcriptase (RT) activity has been detected recently in all chicken cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines. A study of a vaccine manufactured in Europe indicated that the RT is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV-0) RNA and originates from the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) used as a substrate for propagation of the vaccine. We investigated the origin of RT in measles and mumps vaccines from a U.S. manufacturer and confirm the presence of RT and EAV RNA. Additionally, we provide new evidence for the presence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) in both CEF supernatants and vaccines. ALV pol sequences were first identified in particle-associated RNA by amplification with degenerate retroviral pol primers. ALV RNA sequences from both the gag and env regions were also detected. Analysis of hypervariable region 2 of env revealed a subgroup E sequence, an endogenous-type ALV. Both CEF- and vaccine-derived RT activity could be blocked by antibodies to ALV RT. Release of ALV-like virus particles from uninoculated CEF was also documented by electron microscopy. Nonetheless, infectivity studies on susceptible 15B1 chicken cells gave no evidence of infectious ALV, which is consistent with the phenotypes of the ev loci identified in the CEF. PCR analysis of ALV and EAV proviral sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children after measles and mumps vaccination yielded negative results. Our data indicate that the sources of RT activity in all RT-positive measles and mumps vaccines may not be similar and depend on the particular endogenous retroviral loci present in the chicken cell substrate used. The present data do not support transmission of either ALV or EAV to recipients of the U.S.-made vaccine and provide reassurance for current immunization policies. (+info)
An avian sarcoma/leukosis virus-based gene trap vector for mammalian cells. (3/808)RCASBP-M2C is a retroviral vector derived from an avian sarcoma/leukosis virus which has been modified so that it uses the envelope gene from an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (E. V. Barsov and S. H. Hughes, J. Virol. 70:3922-3929, 1996). The vector replicates efficiently in avian cells and infects, but does not replicate in, mammalian cells. This makes the vector useful for gene delivery, mutagenesis, and other applications in mammalian systems. Here we describe the development of a derivative of RCASBP-M2C, pGT-GFP, that can be used in gene trap experiments in mammalian cells. The gene trap vector pGT-GFP contains a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. Appropriate insertion of the vector into genes causes GFP expression; this facilitates the rapid enrichment and cloning of the trapped cells and provides an opportunity to select subpopulations of trapped cells based on the subcellular localization of GFP. With this vector, we have generated about 90 gene-trapped lines using D17 and NIH 3T3 cells. Five trapped NIH 3T3 lines were selected based on the distribution of GFP in cells. The cellular genes disrupted by viral integration have been identified in four of these lines by using a 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol. (+info)
Studies of the genomic RNA of leukosis viruses: implications for RNA dimerization. (4/808)Retroviral particles contain two positive-strand genomic RNAs linked together by noncovalent bonds that can be dissociated under mild conditions. We studied genomic RNAs of wild-type and mutant avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) in an attempt to (i) better understand the site(s) of RNA dimerization, (ii) examine whether the primer binding site (PBS) and tRNA primer are involved in dimerization, and (iii) determine the structure of genomic RNA in protease-deficient (PR(-)) mutants. We showed that extensively nicked wild-type ALV genomic RNAs melt cooperatively. This implies a complex secondary and/or tertiary structure for these RNAs that extends well beyond the 5' dimerization site. To investigate the role of the PBS-tRNA complex in dimerization, we analyzed genomic RNAs from mutant viruses in which the tRNA(Trp) PBS had been replaced with sequences homologous to the 3' end of six other chicken tRNAs. We found the genomic RNAs of these viruses are dimers that dissociate at the same temperature as wild-type viral RNA, which suggests that the identity of the PBS and the tRNA primer do not affect dimer stability. We studied two ALV PR(-) mutants: one containing a large (>1.9-kb) inversion spanning the 3' end of gag and much of pol, rendering it deficient in PR, reverse transcriptase, and integrase, and another with a point mutation in PR. In both of these mutant viruses, the genomic RNA appears to be either primarily or exclusively monomeric. These data suggest that ALV can package its RNA as monomers that subsequently dimerize. (+info)
Point mutations in the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus 3' untranslated region result in a packaging defect. (5/808)The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) between the 3' end of env and the long terminal repeat is well conserved among avian retroviruses and is essential for efficient replication. Deletion of the dr1 element within the 3' UTR has been reported to have various effects, including reduced levels of unspliced RNA in the cytoplasm, decreased stability of unspliced RNA, decreased particle production, and decreased genomic RNA packaging. To probe the role of specific sequences within dr1 in virus replication, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to perturb parts of the predicted secondary structure of dr1. Seven of thirteen mutations had no significant effect; the others resulted in an approximately 10- to 20-fold reduction in replication. These mutants were further characterized and found to impair cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced RNA only slightly. Furthermore, no decreases were observed in the stability of the unspliced RNA or in the production of virus particles. Genomic RNA packaging, however, was reduced by about 10-fold. Similar amounts of particles were produced by cells containing the mutant and wild-type DNA, and all particles contained similar levels of reverse transcriptase activity. The results suggest that the region of the dr1 disrupted by the mutations plays a role in genomic RNA packaging, although that packaging may not be the only role for dr1. (+info)
Retroviral vectors preloaded with a viral receptor-ligand bridge protein are targeted to specific cell types. (6/808)Successful targeting methods represent a major hurdle to the use of retroviral vectors in cell-specific gene-delivery applications. We recently described an approach for retroviral targeting with a retroviral receptor-ligand bridge protein that was bound to the cognate cell-surface ligand receptors before viral challenge. We now report a significant improvement made to this viral targeting method by using a related bridge protein, designated TVB-EGF, comprised of the extracellular domain of the TVB receptor for subgroup B avian leukosis virus fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The most important activity of TVB-EGF was that it allowed specific viral entry when preloaded onto virions. Furthermore, virions preloaded with TVB-EGF were thermostable and could be produced directly from virus- packaging cells. These data suggest an approach for targeting retroviral vectors to specific cell types by using virions preloaded with a retroviral receptor-ligand bridge protein and indicate that these types of bridge proteins may be useful reagents for studying the normal mechanism of retroviral entry. (+info)
Production and design of more effective avian replication-incompetent retroviral vectors. (7/808)Retroviral vectors have been invaluable tools for studies of development in vertebrates. Their use has been somewhat constrained, however, by the low viral titers typically obtained with replication-incompetent vectors, particularly of the avian type. We have addressed this problem in several ways. We optimized the transient production of avian replication-incompetent viruses in a series of cell lines. One of the optimal cell lines was the mammalian line 293T, which was surprising in light of previous reports that avian viral replication was not supported by mammalian cells. We also greatly increased the efficiency of viral infection. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitus virus G (VSV-G) protein led to an over 350-fold increase in the efficiency of infection in ovo relative to infection with virus particles bearing an avian retroviral envelope protein. To further increase the utility of the system, we developed new Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-based replication-incompetent vectors, designed to express a histochemical marker gene, human placental alkaline phosphatase, as well as an additional gene. These modified retroviral vectors and the VSV-G pseudotyping technique constitute significant improvements that allow for expanded use of avian replication-incompetent viral vectors in ovo. (+info)
A genetically engineered cell line resistant to subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection (C/J). (8/808)A cell line (DF-1 inverted question markJ) expressing the envelope protein isolated from the ADOL-Hc1 strain of the avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was used to analyze receptor interference to six different isolates of ALV-J as well as ALV subgroups A-D. The traditional gag-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as flow cytometry was used to evaluate viral infection. The parental cell line (DF-1) was susceptible to all ALV subgroups tested while the DF-1 inverted question markJ cell line was selectively resistant to the subgroup J isolates. The DF-1 inverted question markJ cell line was resistant to infection by all six ALV-J isolates as determined using the gag-specific ELISA. There was no interference with the other ALV subgroups (A-D) induced by the expression of the ADOL-Hcl envelope. The ALV-J isolates used in this analysis are serologically distinct when analyzed by flow cytometry. Convalescent sera to ADOL-Hcl cross-reacts with all of the ALV-J isolates tested; however, sera to HPRS-103 did not bind to four of the six isolates. Based on the intensity and differential binding of these antisera using flow cytometry, the six ALV-J isolates used can be grouped into four categories. Thus the DF-1 inverted question markJ cell line is resistant to infection by a serologically and genetically diverse group of ALV-J isolates and should be useful as a diagnostic tool. (+info)
There are several types of avian leukosis, including:
* B-cell leukemia/lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the B cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infection.
* T-cell leukemia/lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the T cells, a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the immune response.
* Myeloid leukemia/lymphoma: This type of cancer affects the myeloid cells, a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to fight infection.
* Hair follicle leukosis: This type of cancer affects the hair follicles and can cause excessive feather growth or loss.
The symptoms of avian leukosis can vary depending on the type of cancer and the severity of the disease. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Loss of appetite
* Swelling of the abdomen or limbs
* Excessive feather growth or loss
* Pale or enlarged liver and spleen
Avian leukosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, and the disease is often fatal. However, some birds may be able to manage the symptoms with supportive care, such as antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and nutritional support.
Prevention is key in managing avian leukosis. Vaccination against ALV is available for certain types of birds, and good husbandry practices, such as providing clean water, a balanced diet, and proper housing, can help reduce the risk of transmission. Additionally, separating infected birds from healthy ones can help prevent the spread of the disease.
It's important to note that avian leukosis is not transmissible to humans or other animals, and it is not a reportable disease in most jurisdictions. However, if you suspect that your bird has avian leukosis, it is important to seek veterinary care as soon as possible to determine the best course of treatment and provide appropriate supportive care.
Some common poultry diseases include:
1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.
Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.
Incidence- Avian sarcoma is a relatively rare disease, although it is one of the most common types of cancer to affect psittacines (parrots and other similar birds). It primarily affects macaws, cockatoos, African greys, and amazons.
Causes - Avian sarcoma is caused by a virus called polyomavirus, which is thought to be transmitted through the droppings of infected birds. This virus was first identified in the 1970s and has since been found to cause this disease in many species of parrots.
Symptoms - The symptoms of avian sarcoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but they may include swelling or lumps near the site of the tumor, difficulty eating, weight loss, and lethargy. As the disease progresses, it can spread to other parts of the body and cause further symptoms such as difficulty walking or standing, and difficulty breathing.
Diagnosis - The diagnosis of avian sarcoma is typically made through a combination of physical examination, radiographs (x-rays), and biopsy.
Treatment - There are several treatment options for avian sarcoma including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The most effective treatment will depend on the size, location, and stage of the tumor. Surgery may be possible to remove the tumor, but in some cases, the tumor may have spread too far for this to be an option. Chemotherapy can be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to treat the disease if surgery is not possible. Radiation therapy may also be used to treat the disease.
Prognosis - The prognosis for avian sarcoma is generally poor, as the disease tends to progress quickly and spread to other parts of the body. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, some birds can survive for several years or even be cured. It's important to note that the prognosis will depend on the size, location, and stage of the tumor at the time of diagnosis.
Prevention - There is no known prevention for avian sarcoma, but regular veterinary check-ups can help with early detection and treatment. It's also important to keep your bird in a safe environment, free from hazards such as toxins and infectious diseases, which can increase the risk of developing cancer.
It is important to note that avian sarcoma is a rare disease and not all birds will develop it. If you suspect your bird has avian sarcoma, it's important to seek veterinary care as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
The virus that causes Marek disease is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected birds, as well as through contact with contaminated feathers, bedding, or other objects. Infected birds may not show any symptoms until they are stressed, exposed to cold weather, or experience a weakened immune system.
The symptoms of Marek disease can vary depending on the strain of the virus and the age and health of the bird. Some common symptoms include:
* Paralysis of the legs, wings, or beak
* Loss of coordination and balance
* Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
* Swelling of the eyes or neck
* Weight loss
* Decreased egg production in laying hens
There is no cure for Marek disease, and it is usually fatal. However, vaccines are available to help prevent the disease in healthy birds. If you suspect that your bird has Marek disease, it is important to isolate it immediately and seek veterinary care as soon as possible.
There are several types of lymphoma, including:
1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.
The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.
Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.
The symptoms of tenosynovitis can vary depending on the location of the affected tendon, but common symptoms include:
* Pain and tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling and redness in the affected area
* Stiffness and limited range of motion in the affected joint
* Difficulty moving the affected limb or joint
* Clicking or snapping sensation in the affected joint
Tenosynovitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Overuse or repetitive strain on the tendon
* Injury or trauma to the affected area
* Age-related wear and tear on the tendons
* Certain medical conditions, such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis
Treatment for tenosynovitis usually involves rest, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged tendon. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated tenosynovitis can lead to chronic pain and limited mobility.
Symptoms of EBL can vary widely and may include:
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Chronic diarrhea
* Weight loss
* Enlarged spleen and liver
* Neoplastic diseases such as lymphosarcoma, leukemia, or other types of cancer.
EBL is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and biopsies. There is no cure for EBL, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and preventing the spread of the disease.
Prevention of EBL includes:
* Testing herds for BLV regularly
* Avoiding close contact between animals
* Practicing good hygiene and sanitation
* Implementing strict biosecurity measures
* Eliminating infected animals from the herd
It is important to note that EBL is not a reportable disease in all countries, and testing for BLV may not be mandatory in all regions. However, it is still important for farmers and veterinarians to be aware of the risk of EBL and take appropriate measures to prevent its spread.
1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.
Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.
Symptoms of histiocytic sarcoma may include swelling or lumps in the neck, underarm, or groin area, as well as fatigue, fever, and weight loss. The diagnosis is usually made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, and may vary depending on the location and extent of the cancer.
Histiocytic sarcoma is rare, accounting for only about 1-2% of all childhood cancers. While it is generally considered to be a more aggressive form of cancer, the prognosis has improved significantly in recent years with advances in treatment and surgical techniques. With appropriate treatment, many children with histiocytic sarcoma can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.
Avian sarcoma leukosis virus
Peter K. Vogt
Harry Rubin (virologist)
Retrovirus direct repeat 1 (dr1)
Anna Marie Skalka
Avian immune system
Endogenous viral element
List of MeSH codes (C04)
Transporter Classification Database
List of MeSH codes (B04)
List of MeSH codes (C22)
List of MeSH codes (C02)
William A. Haseltine
Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J in Layer Chickens, China - Volume 16, Number 10-October 2010 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
Pathogenicity of Two Recombinant Avian Leukosis Viruses
ArboCat Virus: Yellow fever (YFV)
Browsing University of Nottingham Research Data Management Service by Author "Adebabay Kebede"
Pathology in Practice in: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Volume 244 Issue 12 ()
Subject: Enterococcus / Subject term: Enterococcus / Text Availability: Citation in PubAg - PubAg Search Results
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Tumor virus infections. Medical search. Definitions
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SciELO RevOdonto - revodonto.bvsalud.org
Different pH requirements are associated with divergent inhibitory effects of chloroquine on human and avian influenza A...
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What Is Coming Through That Needle? - The Current Health Scenario
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine - Keyword Index
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februar | 2021 | IMMABLOG
Chicken eyeglasses - Wikipedia
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Chickens | Scholars@Duke
State of Oregon: Veterinarian Resources - Oregon Veterinarian Information System (OVIS)
retroviruses | The Inquisitive Biologist
Varicella Zoster Virus Average Antibody Count - Essential Biosafety - Scientific Information
- In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection and tumors in commercial layer chickens and breeders of egg-type chickens have been emerging in the People's Republic of China. (cdc.gov)
- We have recently described the isolation and molecular characteristics of two recombinant avian leukosis subgroup J viruses (ALV J) with an avian leukosis virus subgroup A envelope (r5701A and r6803A). (bioone.org)
- In the present study, we examined the role of the subgroup A envelope in the pathogenesis of these recombinant viruses. (bioone.org)
Cases of avian1
- The broad-spectrum antiviral effects of chloroquine deserve particular attention in a time in which there are several cases of avian influenza A virus transmission to humans from poultry, and the availability of antiviral drugs is fundamental during preparation and evaluation of effective vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
- ALV-J was first isolated from meat-type chickens with myeloid leukosis in 1988. (cdc.gov)
- This study examined the cecal microbiome of chickens infected with avian leukosis virus (ALV) using 16S rRNA genes Illumina sequencing. (usda.gov)
- Fowl Pox (pigeon pox), and Avian Encephalomyelitis, Fowl Cholera chickens. (chickenheavenonearth.com)
- About Corona Virus Covid 19 and Chickens. (chickenheavenonearth.com)
- bic, a novel gene activated by proviral insertions in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas, is likely to function through its noncoding RNA. (bvsalud.org)
- Backed by numerous infographics, the book alternates between chapters on basic principles of virology and brief portraits of noteworthy viruses. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
- Fortunately, the third edition of Carl Zimmer's famous virology primer A Planet of Viruses is here to prove those suspicions wrong. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
- Enveloped viruses infect host cells by fusing their membranes with those of the host cell, an activity mediated by viral glycoproteins upon binding to cognate host receptors or getting into acidic intracellular compartments. (bioerc-iend.org)
- Roxadustat The avian sarcoma and leukosis pathogen (ASLV) is a superb model for research of viral entrance, as its envelope glycoprotein (Env) needs two consecutive sets off, binding to cognate receptors and acidic pH, to mediate membrane fusion (27,C29). (bioerc-iend.org)
- There is now heightened concern that this virus and others can cross species lines, creating new strains as they adapt to their new hosts, and this would include passage of the virus to and from humans. (currenthealthscenario.com)
TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS1
- Tumor virus infections. (lookformedical.com)
- Avian leukosis virus contaminated early 17-D vaccines, but leukosis-free vaccine is now prepared. (cdc.gov)
- The report covered the significant aspects that are contributing the growth of Avian Influenza Vaccines Market. (bellatv.it)
- In the production of viral vaccines on a commercial scale, the virus of concern must be reproduced in large quantities. (currenthealthscenario.com)
- Inactivated vaccines such as Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bronchitis Virus, Reovirus and Infectious Bursal Disease Virus. (chickenheavenonearth.com)
- Living cell types commonly used to reproduce viruses in the lab include monkey kidney cells, chicken embryos, as well as other animal and human cells. (currenthealthscenario.com)
- Infections produced by oncogenic viruses . (lookformedical.com)
- The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses . (lookformedical.com)
- Some of us previously analysed the reported effects of chloroquine on replication of several viruses and concluded that the drug should be studied as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against emerging viral infections, being relatively well tolerated, cheap, and immediately available worldwide [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- 12] not only confirmed the contention of Carlos Finlay that yellow fever was transmitted by Aedes aegypti but also demonstrated that the causative agent was filterable and thus were the first to show that a disease in man was due to a virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- showed that influenza virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) triggers intracellular [Ca 2+ ] oscillations that are required for viral infection [ 16 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
- Can this virus cause infection or disease in humans? (currenthealthscenario.com)
- The data suggest that differences in pathogenicity between the two recombinant viruses might be due to differences in the sequence of the 3′ untranslated region (presence or absence of the E element), and, therefore, not only the envelope but also other elements of the viral genome play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALV. (bioone.org)
- Viruses cannot survive or reproduce without being introduced into cells that nourish them, which enables the viral reproductive activity. (currenthealthscenario.com)
- One of the most prominent is a pestivirus called bovine viral diarrhea virus (2). (currenthealthscenario.com)
- agents most frequently detected in CCL's [continuous cell lines] have been bovine viral diarrhea virus and mycoplasma. (currenthealthscenario.com)
- To day, however, just a few research have directly analyzed the link between your pH in virus-carrying endosomes as well as the performance/kinetics of following viral fusion (12,C15). (bioerc-iend.org)
- A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. (bvsalud.org)
- Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL). (lookformedical.com)
- A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. (lookformedical.com)
- Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE . (lookformedical.com)
- A general term for diseases produced by viruses. (lookformedical.com)
- Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE . (lookformedical.com)
- Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are one of the leading platforms for gene delivery for the treatment of human genetic diseases, but the antiviral cellular mechanisms that interfere with optimal transgene expression are incompletely understood. (bvsalud.org)
- It ran me about $250 to have a budgie tested for PBFD, Chlyamidia, and a few others.Furthermore, novel avian models of human diseases or embryonic development could also be established for research purposes. (bellatv.it)
- Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the varicella zoster virus average antibody count reagents distributed by Genprice. (essentialbiosafety.info)
- In this review, we discuss diverse genome modification technologies used in avian species, and future applications of avian biotechnology.Real Name. (bellatv.it)
- Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response. (lookformedical.com)
- Yellow fever virus is the type species of the Group B arboviruses, or flavi- viruses. (cdc.gov)
- The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS , but whose true origin is unknown. (lookformedical.com)
- Proteins found in any species of virus. (lookformedical.com)
- The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl. (lookformedical.com)
- The full potential of avian species as research models will be realized through studies in the agricultural, biomedical, and industrial fields. (bellatv.it)
- The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES. (lookformedical.com)
- This summary, while making no claim of being a complete review of the subject, will point out sufficient examples and illustrations of contamination with bacteria, viruses, and their components, so as to enable the reader to make a more informed decision regarding accepting a vaccination (or forcing others to receive one). (currenthealthscenario.com)
- Viruses are possibly even more maligned than bacteria, spoken of exclusively in terms of disease. (inquisitivebiologist.com)
- As a weak base capable of accumulating within cellular organelles, chloroquine appears to be capable of interfering with pH-dependent steps in the replication of several viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Accordingly, the antiviral effects are exerted at an early step of virus replication. (biomedcentral.com)
- A unique biological property of avian PGCs is that they circulate temporarily in the vasculature during early development, and this allows us to access and manipulate avian germ lines. (bellatv.it)
- All except one chicken inoculated with the recombinant viruses (98%) developed neutralizing antibodies by 10 wk PI compared with only 16% and 46% of the ADOL-Hcl and RAV-1-inoculated birds, respectively. (bioone.org)
- As such, it was reasoned that these drugs exert their inhibitory effects on EBOV through the blockade of TPCs (Figure 1E), subsequently confirmed through EBOV virus-like particle (VLP) assays [ 18 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
- This product can carry many types of bovine blood-borne viruses, and is one of the primary sources of vaccine contaminants. (currenthealthscenario.com)
- and finally, �In conclusion, most commercially available bovine sera are contaminated with BVDV and, although there is no evidence that the virus is infectious, bovine sera should be screened for this virus�for the development or production of vaccine. (currenthealthscenario.com)
- To explore whether the low pH-dependency of influenza A viruses might affect the antiviral effects of chloroquine at clinically achievable concentrations, we tested the antiviral effects of this drug on selected human and avian viruses belonging to different subtypes and displaying different pH requirements. (biomedcentral.com)
- We here report the results of an initial evaluation of susceptibility to chloroquine of human and avian influenza A viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- While the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus grabbed center stage this year, Israeli biotech startup eggXYt turned its attention to avian influenza- the deadly "bird flu" that's led to the slaughter of millions of infected poultry and threatens human health as well. (bellatv.it)
- Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. (lookformedical.com)
- More recent evidence highlights how viruses can regulate and/or depend on the ion channels expressed by host cells, highlighting them as new host targets for therapeutic intervention (reviewed by Hover et al. (encyclopedia.pub)
- Third, ectopic manifestation of IFITMs, recognized to potently stop influenza computer virus fusion with past due compartments, was discovered to only partly inhibit ASLV fusion with early endosomes. (bioerc-iend.org)
- 17-D virus passaged in mice has also been used as a vaccine. (cdc.gov)
- Jan 29, 2015 · Search titles only By: Search Advanced search… Avian Borna Virus, the causative agent for Proventricular Dilatation Disease ("PDD") and several other neurological problems, has with good reason been an important issue in the avian community for some time. (bellatv.it)
- This timing approximately corresponds to that of virus/cell fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, there was a clear correlation between the EC 50 of chloroquine in vitro and the electrostatic potential of the HA subunit (HA2) mediating the virus/cell fusion process. (biomedcentral.com)
- Susceptibility to chloroquine appears to be dependent on the pH requirements of the viruses and the electrostatic potential of haemagglutinin subunit 2 (HA2), which is involved in virus/cell fusion. (biomedcentral.com)
- Collectively, these outcomes highlight the part of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic elements in regulating Roxadustat the effectiveness and kinetics of computer virus access and fusion with focus on cells. (bioerc-iend.org)
- It really is therefore most likely that cell type-dependent rules of endosomal pH modulates the effectiveness and kinetics of computer virus fusion. (bioerc-iend.org)
- Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells. (lookformedical.com)
- This business is working in the following industry: Research, development and testing services.Avian Biotech International. (bellatv.it)