The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.

Genome structure and expression of the ev/J family of avian endogenous viruses. (1/808)

We recently reported the identification of sequences in the chicken genome that show over 95% identity to the novel envelope gene of the subgroup J avian leukosis virus (S. J. Benson, B. L. Ruis, A. M. Fadly, and K. F. Conklin, J. Virol. 72:10157-10164, 1998). Based on the fact that the endogenous subgroup J-related env genes were associated with long terminal repeats (LTRs), we concluded that these LTR-env sequences defined a new family of avian endogenous viruses that we designated the ev/J family. In this report, we have further characterized the content and expression of the ev/J proviruses. The data obtained indicate that there are between 6 and 11 copies of ev/J proviruses in all chicken cells examined and that these proviruses fall into six classes. Of the 18 proviruses examined, all share a high degree of sequence identity and all contain an internal deletion that removes all of the pol gene and various amounts of gag and env gene sequences. Sequencing of the gag genes, LTRs, and untranslated regions of several ev/J proviruses revealed a high level of identity between isolates, indicating that they have not undergone significant sequence variation since their introduction into the avian germ line. Although the ev/J gag gene showed a relatively weak relationship (46% identity and 61% similarity at the amino acid level) to that of the avian leukosis-sarcoma virus family, it retains several sequences of demonstrated importance for virus assembly, budding, and/or infectivity. Finally, evidence was obtained that at least some members of the ev/J family are expressed and, if translated, could encode Gag- and Env-related polypeptides.  (+info)

Evidence of avian leukosis virus subgroup E and endogenous avian virus in measles and mumps vaccines derived from chicken cells: investigation of transmission to vaccine recipients. (2/808)

Reverse transcriptase (RT) activity has been detected recently in all chicken cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines. A study of a vaccine manufactured in Europe indicated that the RT is associated with particles containing endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV-0) RNA and originates from the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) used as a substrate for propagation of the vaccine. We investigated the origin of RT in measles and mumps vaccines from a U.S. manufacturer and confirm the presence of RT and EAV RNA. Additionally, we provide new evidence for the presence of avian leukosis virus (ALV) in both CEF supernatants and vaccines. ALV pol sequences were first identified in particle-associated RNA by amplification with degenerate retroviral pol primers. ALV RNA sequences from both the gag and env regions were also detected. Analysis of hypervariable region 2 of env revealed a subgroup E sequence, an endogenous-type ALV. Both CEF- and vaccine-derived RT activity could be blocked by antibodies to ALV RT. Release of ALV-like virus particles from uninoculated CEF was also documented by electron microscopy. Nonetheless, infectivity studies on susceptible 15B1 chicken cells gave no evidence of infectious ALV, which is consistent with the phenotypes of the ev loci identified in the CEF. PCR analysis of ALV and EAV proviral sequences in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 33 children after measles and mumps vaccination yielded negative results. Our data indicate that the sources of RT activity in all RT-positive measles and mumps vaccines may not be similar and depend on the particular endogenous retroviral loci present in the chicken cell substrate used. The present data do not support transmission of either ALV or EAV to recipients of the U.S.-made vaccine and provide reassurance for current immunization policies.  (+info)

An avian sarcoma/leukosis virus-based gene trap vector for mammalian cells. (3/808)

RCASBP-M2C is a retroviral vector derived from an avian sarcoma/leukosis virus which has been modified so that it uses the envelope gene from an amphotropic murine leukemia virus (E. V. Barsov and S. H. Hughes, J. Virol. 70:3922-3929, 1996). The vector replicates efficiently in avian cells and infects, but does not replicate in, mammalian cells. This makes the vector useful for gene delivery, mutagenesis, and other applications in mammalian systems. Here we describe the development of a derivative of RCASBP-M2C, pGT-GFP, that can be used in gene trap experiments in mammalian cells. The gene trap vector pGT-GFP contains a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene. Appropriate insertion of the vector into genes causes GFP expression; this facilitates the rapid enrichment and cloning of the trapped cells and provides an opportunity to select subpopulations of trapped cells based on the subcellular localization of GFP. With this vector, we have generated about 90 gene-trapped lines using D17 and NIH 3T3 cells. Five trapped NIH 3T3 lines were selected based on the distribution of GFP in cells. The cellular genes disrupted by viral integration have been identified in four of these lines by using a 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends protocol.  (+info)

Studies of the genomic RNA of leukosis viruses: implications for RNA dimerization. (4/808)

Retroviral particles contain two positive-strand genomic RNAs linked together by noncovalent bonds that can be dissociated under mild conditions. We studied genomic RNAs of wild-type and mutant avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) in an attempt to (i) better understand the site(s) of RNA dimerization, (ii) examine whether the primer binding site (PBS) and tRNA primer are involved in dimerization, and (iii) determine the structure of genomic RNA in protease-deficient (PR(-)) mutants. We showed that extensively nicked wild-type ALV genomic RNAs melt cooperatively. This implies a complex secondary and/or tertiary structure for these RNAs that extends well beyond the 5' dimerization site. To investigate the role of the PBS-tRNA complex in dimerization, we analyzed genomic RNAs from mutant viruses in which the tRNA(Trp) PBS had been replaced with sequences homologous to the 3' end of six other chicken tRNAs. We found the genomic RNAs of these viruses are dimers that dissociate at the same temperature as wild-type viral RNA, which suggests that the identity of the PBS and the tRNA primer do not affect dimer stability. We studied two ALV PR(-) mutants: one containing a large (>1.9-kb) inversion spanning the 3' end of gag and much of pol, rendering it deficient in PR, reverse transcriptase, and integrase, and another with a point mutation in PR. In both of these mutant viruses, the genomic RNA appears to be either primarily or exclusively monomeric. These data suggest that ALV can package its RNA as monomers that subsequently dimerize.  (+info)

Point mutations in the avian sarcoma/leukosis virus 3' untranslated region result in a packaging defect. (5/808)

The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) between the 3' end of env and the long terminal repeat is well conserved among avian retroviruses and is essential for efficient replication. Deletion of the dr1 element within the 3' UTR has been reported to have various effects, including reduced levels of unspliced RNA in the cytoplasm, decreased stability of unspliced RNA, decreased particle production, and decreased genomic RNA packaging. To probe the role of specific sequences within dr1 in virus replication, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to perturb parts of the predicted secondary structure of dr1. Seven of thirteen mutations had no significant effect; the others resulted in an approximately 10- to 20-fold reduction in replication. These mutants were further characterized and found to impair cytoplasmic accumulation of unspliced RNA only slightly. Furthermore, no decreases were observed in the stability of the unspliced RNA or in the production of virus particles. Genomic RNA packaging, however, was reduced by about 10-fold. Similar amounts of particles were produced by cells containing the mutant and wild-type DNA, and all particles contained similar levels of reverse transcriptase activity. The results suggest that the region of the dr1 disrupted by the mutations plays a role in genomic RNA packaging, although that packaging may not be the only role for dr1.  (+info)

Retroviral vectors preloaded with a viral receptor-ligand bridge protein are targeted to specific cell types. (6/808)

Successful targeting methods represent a major hurdle to the use of retroviral vectors in cell-specific gene-delivery applications. We recently described an approach for retroviral targeting with a retroviral receptor-ligand bridge protein that was bound to the cognate cell-surface ligand receptors before viral challenge. We now report a significant improvement made to this viral targeting method by using a related bridge protein, designated TVB-EGF, comprised of the extracellular domain of the TVB receptor for subgroup B avian leukosis virus fused to epidermal growth factor (EGF). The most important activity of TVB-EGF was that it allowed specific viral entry when preloaded onto virions. Furthermore, virions preloaded with TVB-EGF were thermostable and could be produced directly from virus- packaging cells. These data suggest an approach for targeting retroviral vectors to specific cell types by using virions preloaded with a retroviral receptor-ligand bridge protein and indicate that these types of bridge proteins may be useful reagents for studying the normal mechanism of retroviral entry.  (+info)

Production and design of more effective avian replication-incompetent retroviral vectors. (7/808)

Retroviral vectors have been invaluable tools for studies of development in vertebrates. Their use has been somewhat constrained, however, by the low viral titers typically obtained with replication-incompetent vectors, particularly of the avian type. We have addressed this problem in several ways. We optimized the transient production of avian replication-incompetent viruses in a series of cell lines. One of the optimal cell lines was the mammalian line 293T, which was surprising in light of previous reports that avian viral replication was not supported by mammalian cells. We also greatly increased the efficiency of viral infection. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitus virus G (VSV-G) protein led to an over 350-fold increase in the efficiency of infection in ovo relative to infection with virus particles bearing an avian retroviral envelope protein. To further increase the utility of the system, we developed new Rous sarcoma virus (RSV)-based replication-incompetent vectors, designed to express a histochemical marker gene, human placental alkaline phosphatase, as well as an additional gene. These modified retroviral vectors and the VSV-G pseudotyping technique constitute significant improvements that allow for expanded use of avian replication-incompetent viral vectors in ovo.  (+info)

A genetically engineered cell line resistant to subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection (C/J). (8/808)

A cell line (DF-1 inverted question markJ) expressing the envelope protein isolated from the ADOL-Hc1 strain of the avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) was used to analyze receptor interference to six different isolates of ALV-J as well as ALV subgroups A-D. The traditional gag-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as well as flow cytometry was used to evaluate viral infection. The parental cell line (DF-1) was susceptible to all ALV subgroups tested while the DF-1 inverted question markJ cell line was selectively resistant to the subgroup J isolates. The DF-1 inverted question markJ cell line was resistant to infection by all six ALV-J isolates as determined using the gag-specific ELISA. There was no interference with the other ALV subgroups (A-D) induced by the expression of the ADOL-Hcl envelope. The ALV-J isolates used in this analysis are serologically distinct when analyzed by flow cytometry. Convalescent sera to ADOL-Hcl cross-reacts with all of the ALV-J isolates tested; however, sera to HPRS-103 did not bind to four of the six isolates. Based on the intensity and differential binding of these antisera using flow cytometry, the six ALV-J isolates used can be grouped into four categories. Thus the DF-1 inverted question markJ cell line is resistant to infection by a serologically and genetically diverse group of ALV-J isolates and should be useful as a diagnostic tool.  (+info)

HPRS-103, the prototype of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J, was isolated in 1989 from meat-type chickens from commercial flocks where it induces myelocytic myeloid leukosis (ML). The HPRS-103 env gene differs considerably from other ALV subgroups but shows high identity (75-97%) to env-like sequences of the different members of the EAV family of endogenous avian retroviruses. Recently, we have isolated several viruses related to HPRS-103 from cases of ML. Although these isolates showed properties of ALV subgroup J, the majority of them resisted neutralization by HPRS-103-specific serum, suggesting antigenic variation. The nucleotide sequence of the env gene of the variant viruses showed several substitutions resulting in amino acid changes especially clustered in the variable regions hr1, hr2 and vr3. Analysis of the data suggests that selection pressure, probably from the immune response, is driving the antigenic variation among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed the
The host ranges of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) pseudotype RSV(HPRS-103) of a novel avian leukosis virus (ALV), strain HPRS-103, and representative RSV pseudotypes of subgroups A to F, have been determined in embryo fibroblasts from 12 avian species. Domestic fowl, red jungle fowl, Sonnerat's jungle fowl and turkey were susceptible to infection by RSV(HPRS-103); ring-necked pheasant, Japanese green pheasant, golden pheasant, Japanese quail, guinea-fowl, Peking duck, Muscovy duck and goose were resistant. The host range pattern of RSV(HPRS-103) differs from those of viruses of subgroups A to G and I, and provides support for placing the HPRS-103 strain of ALV in a new envelope subgroup, designated J.
We have previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that express gag, pol, and env proteins from two transcomplementing genomes and produce helper-free stocks of retroviral vectors with different host ranges. In this report, we demonstrated that (i) despite the deletion of the psi packaging sequence, the packaging-defective transcomplementing retroviral transcripts were packaged into virions at a level that could reach 2.3% of a wild-type virus packaging level and (ii) despite deletion of the 3 LTR, these genomes were transferred along with the vector to target cells. As these genomes were also bearing a selectable gene, titers of the resulting contaminant particles could be estimated, depending on the cell line to be between 0 and 6 infectious particles/ml of supernatant.
Traditionally, virus isolates have been named most commonly for the disease from which they were isolated - e.g. influenza, poliomyelitis, visna, foot-and-mouth disease, and the like. A smaller number are named for the place of isolation - Coxsackie, Sindbis, and Sendai viruses are a few examples, and a mercifully small number are named for their discoverers - alone or in combination with other features - such as Epstein-Barr virus, Rous sarcoma virus, etc. With retroviruses, it is also usual to append the species of origin to the name - avian leukosis virus, human T-cell lymphoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, etc. Unlike most other organisms, the naming of new virus isolates has usually been a trivial prerogative of the isolator, and not subject to review by other workers in the field . This has, in general, caused little difficulty so long as the names chosen were novel and did not presuppose unproven relationships. Significant confusion has been created in the past, however, by injudicious ...
Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally...
Compare E26 avian leukemia oncogene 2, 3 domain Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
A team led by Xin Li, Ph.D., assistant professor in the departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Urology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, analyzed rooster testes to find out.. Chickens acquire and harbor a wide variety of viruses. When a virus infects a host, like a chicken, it does everything it can to survive. One method of survival is inserting its genetic material into the chickens genome. Over generations, the inserted virus accumulates mutations and eventually becomes harmless to the animal, but its still a part of the chickens genetic material.. Lis team focused on avian leukosis virus, which commonly infects and can lead to cancer in domestic chickens. Through molecular and genetic analysis, they discovered that chickens turn these old, existing viruses into piRNA-producing machines. When faced with a new avian leucosis virus (there are many different viruses in the family), the old viruses pump out piRNAs that defend the germ cells, ensuring the ...
The avian acute leukemia virus (E26) induces a mixed erythroidmyeloid leukemia in chickens and carries two distinct oncogenes, v-myb and v-ets. The viral protein responsible for transformation is a gag-myb-ets fusion protein that is located in the nucleus of the transformed cells. The cellular homologue of v-ets (c-ets-1) is highly expressed in lymphoid cells and differs from the v-ets gene at its carboxy terminal region. Here, we show that both the c-ets-1 and v-ets gene products are DNA-binding proteins and their DNA-binding activity is located in the carboxy terminal (46 amino acid residues) region. It appears that this DNA-binding activity is modulated by the extreme carboxy terminal region. The amino acid sequences of the putative ets DNA-binding domain at its carboxy terminal region showed a helix-turn-helix secondary structure. Exchanging the nonhomologous extreme carboxy terminal regions of c-ets-1 with v-ets gene sequences showed differences in DNA-binding affinity, indicating that ...
Edited by John M. Coffin, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (received for review February 24, 2004) ArticleFigures SIInfo gt;5 kDa in size are required. Furthermore, later steps of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus reverse tran
ETS1 (phospho Thr38) antibody (E26 avian leukemia oncogene 1, 5 domain) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-ETS1 (phospho Thr38) pAb (GTX55307) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Exogenote exogenote the new chromosomal fragment do- nated to a merozygote (q.v.). exogenous DNA DNA that originates outside an organism (e.g., from another cell or virus). exogenous virus a virus ...
used to derive intake values did not include consideration for other applications. However, with the increasing globalization of information and the identification of a variety of factors specific to different population subgroups (e.g ...
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Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks and its effect on early growth.: Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosi
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proper processing of avian sarcoma/leukosis virus capsid proteins is required for infectivity. AU - Xiang, Y.. AU - Thorick, R.. AU - Vana, M. L.. AU - Craven, R.. AU - Leis, J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The formation of the mature carboxyl terminus of CA in avian sarcoma/leukemia virus is the result of a sequence of cleavage events at three PR sites that lie between CA and NC in the Gag polyprotein. The initial cleavage forms the amino terminus of the NC protein and releases an immature CA, named CA1, with a spacer peptide at its carboxyl terminus. Cleavage of either 9 or 12 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus creates two mature CA species, named CA2 and CA3, that can be detected in avian sarcoma/leukemia virus (R. B. Pepinsky, I. A. Papayannopoulos, E. P. Chow, N. K. Krishna, R. C. Craven, and V. M. Vogt, J. Virol. 69:6430-6438, 1995). To study the importance of each of the three CA proteins, we introduced ...
Subgroups A, B, E and J are the major subgroups of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infecting chickens. ALV infection has become endemic in China and has a significant negative effect on the poultry industry. Consequently, there is an urgent need for a specific, sensitive and rapid method for diagnosis and eradication of ALV. Therefore, we developed a simple and rapid real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction for the timely detection of the common ALV subgroups, whereby the amplification can be obtained in 35 min under isothermal conditions at 63 °C, ability to specific, sensitive and rapid detect all the common ALV subgroups. A set of four specific primers was designed to target the sequences of the pol gene of ALV, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed and compared with PCR and virus isolation methods. The results from specificity of the LAMP assay showed that only target ALVs DNA was amplified. The LAMP assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 20
Chicken endogenous viruses, ALVE (Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E), are inherited as LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which are negatively correlated with disease resistance, and any changes in DNA methylation may contribute to the susceptibility to neoplastic disease. The relationship between ALVE methylation status and neoplastic disease in the chicken is undefined. White Leghorn inbred lines 72 and 63 at the ADOL have been respectively selected for resistance and susceptibility to tumors that are induced by avian viruses. In this study, the DNA methylation patterns of 3∼6 CpG sites of four conserved regions in ALVE, including one unique region in ALVE1, the promoter region in the TVB (tumor virus receptor of ALV subgroup B, D and E) locus, were analyzed in the two lines using pyrosequencing methods in four tissues, i.e., liver, spleen, blood and hypothalamus. A significant CpG hypermethylation level was seen in line 72 in all four tissues, e.g., 91.86±1.63% for ALVE region2 in blood,
Morbidity is low but mortality high. Mortality tends to be chronically higher than normal for a prolonged period. Egg production is somewhat reduced. There may be increased susceptibility to other infectious diseases due to damage to the immune system. Vertical transmission is most important by infection of the egg white in infected breeders (who are long-term carriers), lateral transmission is poor but infection may occur by the faecal-oral route, especially in young birds. In lymphoid leukosis the incubation period is about 4-6 months; it may be as short as 6 weeks for some of the other manifestations. The causative viruses are rapidly inactivated at ambient temperature and on exposure to most disinfectants ...
Avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced osteopetrosis is a proliferative disorder of the bone affecting the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. Osteopetrosis is a polyclonal disease in which cells of the bone contain, on average, multiple viral DNA copies. Osteopetrotic bone is also characterized by the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA, suggesting an atypical life cycle of the virus in the infected osteoblasts. To better understand virus-host interactions in the induction of osteopetrosis by ALVs, infected chick osteoblast cultures and osteopetrotic bone were examined for aspects of the virus life cycle and effects of infection on osteoblast function. Levels of infection and virus expression were compared in cultured osteoblasts and osteopetrotic bone. Osteopetrotic bone contained higher levels of viral DNA and correspondingly higher levels of viral proteins than infected osteoblast cultures, suggesting a higher viral load in the diseased bone. A significant level of mature Gag protein was
In addition to neoplasias caused in chickens by helper viruses of the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) complex, acute myeloblastic leukemia is induced by a defective leukemogenic component. To...
Avian myeloblastosis ATCC ® VR-1542AS-Gt™ Designation: antiserum against AMV RT [NCI HE 599] Application: goat antiserum against the Avian Myeloblastosis Virus (AMV) Reverse Transcriptase (RT)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disease tropism of c-erbB. T2 - Effects of carboxyl-terminal tyrosine and internal mutations on tissue-specific transformation. AU - Pelley, R. J.. AU - Maihle, Nita Jane. AU - Boerkoel, C.. AU - Shu, H. K.. AU - Carter, T. H.. AU - Moscovici, C.. AU - Kung, H. J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Avian leukosis virus induces erythroleukemia in chickens by proviral insertional mutation of the proto-oncogene c-erbB. The product of the insertionally activated c-erbB locus lacks the extracellular ligand-binding domain and is strictly leukemogenic. It has previously been demonstrated that the disease spectrum associated with aberrant c-erbB expression can be expanded by structural perturbation of the cytoplasmic domain of this protein. In this report, we use mutagenesis and retroviral vectors to identify specific mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the insertionally activated c-erbB product that are sufficient to activate the sarcomagenic potential of this protein. ...
Its another beautiful day on the Old McDonald|farm, and having fed and watered the horses, cows, sheep, and other assorted barnyard animals, you decide...
anti-V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (Avian) (MYC) (pThr358), (AA 340-385) antibody (Cy5.5) ABIN752598 from antibodies-online
Primers 1 and 2 were designed from the mRNA of a guinea pig BK B2 receptor (GenBank accession no. AJ003243) to amplify a 500-base pair fragment. Primers 3 and 4 were a pair of degenerate primers used to amplify a 401-base pair fragment for the guinea pig BK B1 receptor. Primers 3 and 4 were made from the conserved region between mouse BK B1 receptor (GenBank accession no. NM_007539) and rat BK B1 receptor (GenBank accession no. U66107). Amplification was done with an iCycler (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). PCR cycles consisted of denaturation for 1 min at 94°C, annealing at 56°C for 90 s, and extension at 72°C for 90 s. A total of 30 cycles was followed by completion of extension for 7 min at 72°C. PCR product (12 μl) was analyzed by electrophoresis on 2% agarose gel. Sequencing was done with an ABI 373XL DNA sequencer after the PCR product was purified with Qiaquick PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). RT-PCR without avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase was used as a negative ...
RT Components: 1U/mL RNase inhibitor, 0.625U/mL reverse transcriptase (avian myeloblastosis virus, Boehringer), 1microM G1 primer, 1.75mM dNTPs ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
In reply to your comment, or should I say link since you did not add any thoughts on the matter I would like to say that HIV was observed in laboratory test under artificial stress and its appearance was endogenous. There is to date no picture of this virus observed by electron microscopy in the blood of a patient whose said they have a high viral load . More HIV is not an exogenous virus as people who make these claims seem to suggest , but a retrovirus, it is an important difference because our DNA contains 1% of endogenous retroviruses that may under certain conditions trigger diseases ... especially as those found in AIDS. But the question is , what makes the sick cell , why are these scientists able to identify this retro virus in a test tube , but never in humans ...
Hello,. Sometime because of large data or output users set the program to execute in background process.. Once the background job is get completed, they execute the SM37 T-code to view the information, but that information is in list view,. their they does not an option like, sorting, filtering and all.. Its a program, where user are getting the same functionality, but the output will display in ALV format, there they will get the all necessary option to format the data.. Basically the program is created based on the Z* programs, so it will be execute in only for the ALV grid output data.. ...
Indicator values are prone to statistical error (the difference between an estimated value and the true value). The statistical error associated with an indicator depends on the population subgroup (e.g. the population of a county or LGD) that it refers to. Such differences in levels of statistical error can distort what we see in maps and charts. They can make some relationships involving indicators and attributes appear real (practically meaningful or statistically significant) when they are in fact spurious; other relationships that are real can be masked. These differences in statistical error can even distort the shape of plots or the colour patterns we see in maps. For example, ...
Indicator values are prone to statistical error (the difference between an estimated value and the true value). The statistical error associated with an indicator depends on the population subgroup (e.g. the population of a county or LGD) that it refers to. Such differences in levels of statistical error can distort what we see in maps and charts. They can make some relationships involving indicators and attributes appear real (practically meaningful or statistically significant) when they are in fact spurious; other relationships that are real can be masked. These differences in statistical error can even distort the shape of plots or the colour patterns we see in maps. For example, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequence-specific DNA binding by the v-erbA oncogene protein of avian erythroblastosis virus. AU - Bonde, Beverly Geary. AU - Privalsky, Martin L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The v-erbA oncogene, a transduced copy of a thyroid hormone receptor, plays an important role in establishment of the transformed cell phenotype induced by avian erythroblastosis virus. The ability of thyroid hormone receptors to bind to specific sites on chromatin and to thereby modify the expression of adjacent target genes is a crucial element in their mechanism of action in the normal cell. The v-erbA protein also bound at high affinity to a set of DNA fragments recognized by the rat thyroid hormone receptor, but the relative affinity of the v-erbA protein for the different binding sites was distinct from that previously reported for the thyroid hormone receptors.. AB - The v-erbA oncogene, a transduced copy of a thyroid hormone receptor, plays an important role in establishment of the transformed cell ...
Bovine Leukosis is a disease caused by the Bovine Leukosis virus (BLV). This is a blood borne disease that dwells in the lymphocytes (white blood cells) in cattle. Only 5% of infected animals will exhibit the clinical symptoms of developing tumors in lymphatic tissue. The prevalence ofleukosis is wide spread. It is fairly common to find herds with a prevalence of 80-90%, however not very common to find herds that are completely free of leukosis. According to the NAHMS 96 study, 88.5% of dairy herds and 38.7% of beef herds are infected. Transmission occurs by the transfer of bodily fluids that contain infected white cells (blood, colostrum, milk). Anything from reusing without sanitizing contaminated needles, syringes, breeding sleeves, dehorners, or balling guns can transmit leukosis. Transmission can also occur through colostrum or to a fetus in utero. ...
Rosok, Mae Joanne, Dissociation and isolation of the subunits of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-directed DNA polymerase (1977). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 6828 ...
hypothetical protein, transcription factor protein, A306_09622, anon-WO03040301.171, avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, avian myelocytomatosis viral (v-myc) oncogene homolog, bHLHe39, bHLHe57, cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene, CG10798 gene product from transcript CG10798-RB, CG10798-PA, CG10798-PB, class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 39, cmyc, c-MYC, c-myc20, c-Myc-a, c-Myc-b, c-myc-like protein, c-myc proto-oncogene, diminuitive, diminutive, DM, dm/dMyc, Dmel_CG10798, dm/myc, d-myc, dMYC, dmyc1, EG:BACN5I9.1, EGK_19271, lethal (1) G0354, lethal (1) G0359, MDA_GLEAN10014535, mMyc, MRTL, Myc2, myc-a, myc-b, MYCC, Myc-PA, Myc-PB, myc proto-oncogene protein, myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor, myelocytomatosis oncogene, myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, N303_07797, N307_12984, N309_06569, Niard, Nird, oncoprotein myc, PAL_GLEAN10003365, Proto-oncogene c-Myc, RNCMYC, transcription factor Myc, transcription factor p64, TREES_T100017263, uncharacterized ...
The avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is an alpha retrovirus responsible for acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) when injected in ovo, or in newly hatched chickens [10]. Early in vitro dose response experiments indicated that the production of virion with leukemogenic potential required a double infection with AMV and a helper virus [11]. The AMV strains that are used and commercially available, are derived from the orignal BAI strain A purified from chicken leukemic plasma [12]. Leukemic plasma containing the BAI strain has been widely distributed for many years by Life Sciences Inc., in Florida which has been the official provider of national agencies in the USA. The Standard AMV-S BAI strain is a complex mixture of viruses that also includes two helper viruses in addition to AMV. The helper viruses Myeoloblastosis Associated Virus (MAV) contained in AMV-S belong to two different serological subgoups (type1 and type2, also called A and B). Both of them are oncogenic [13].. Both MAV-1 and MAV-2 ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Rat V-Myc Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Homolog (MYC) in samples from Serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids. with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
ERG antibody, Internal (v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog) for WB. Anti-ERG pAb (GTX77743) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
A testi és szellemi egészség szempontjából fontos a megfelelő éjszakai alvás. Az óra segítségével nyomon követheti az alvását, és figyelheti, hogy átlagosan hány órát alszik.. Ha az órát alvás közben is viseli, a Suunto Spartan Trainer Wrist HR a gyorsulásmérő adatai alapján nyomon követi az alvását. Amikor lefekszik, az órát leteheti az ágy mellé, de javasoljuk, hogy hagyja a karján, mivel így pontosabb adatokat kap az alvásáról.. Az alvás nyomon követéséhez: ...
Glynn, J P.; Halpern, B L.; and Fefer, A, An immunochemotherapeutic system for the treatment of a transplanted moloney virus-induced lymphoma in mice. (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 913 ...
Terms Related to the Moving Wall Fixed walls: Journals with no new volumes being added to the archive. During an 8-year period, we retrospectively collected data on all travelers hospitalized in our department for a CMI occurring during travel or in the month after their return. During an 8‐year period, we retrospectively collected data on all travelers hospitalized in our department for a CMI occurring during travel or in the month after their return. The sensitivity and versatility of this technique (immunofixation can be applied to the detection of any antigen) should permit its extension to other biological fluids with a low protein content. Exogenous viruses including bacteriophage and human herpes viruses-4, -5 and -6 were detected variably in autopsied brains from both clinical groups. This case highlights the challenges of early recognition, accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment and follow-up of such patients. A small number of children have CP as the result of brain damage in the ...
n miben szokott aludni? T len pizsam ban, ny ron h l ingben vagy als nadr gban? B rmelyik legyen is a v lasz, tudnia kell, hogy rosszul teszi. me hat meglep ok, ami rt rdemes lenne meztelen l aludnia.
Здравсвуйте пользователи форума amv.at.ua, вчера пользователь под ником Olechkalype просила меня выложить супермодные новинки Компьютерные аксессуары/Графические планшеты в 2014, а так же сотовые бренда Intuos Pro Special Ed., так вот наконецто нашла время для этого, админы прошу не удалять, а перенести в соответствующий раздел, если я ошиблась например Компьютерные аксессуары/Графические планшеты ))) всех обнимаю ...
Пожалуй, самым разочаровывающим итогом 2013 года стало сползание в экономический застой. На протяжении года снижались как темпы роста промышленности, так и ВВП. Если в начале года еще казалось, что экономика вот-вот разгонится и из состояния «технической рецессии» войдет в фазу роста, то уже весной тональность заявлений финансовых властей смен ...
Vendredi 22 mars 2013 à 11h30 , Amélie Peres, ENS Paris. Titre : Etude de lévolution fonctionnelle des génomes ancestraux de vertébrés par duplication de gènes. Résumé Létude scientifique des processus biologiques sappuie généralement sur lobservation de résultats expérimentaux réalisés sur des modèles vivants. Cette évidence masque le fait que lensemble des organismes vivants est le fruit de centaines de millions dannées dévolution qui elles sont inaccessibles aux expériences, car situées dans le passé. Pour contribuer à rendre à la biologie cette dimension historique, notre laboratoire a entrepris de reconstruire une succession de génomes ancestraux, chez les vertébrés. Ici, nous exploitons à grande échelle les reconstitutions de génomes de vertébrés, afin de mettre en évidence, quantifier et dater les duplications de gènes au sein de différentes lignées de vertébrés. Ces duplications, en autorisant un relachement de la pression de sélection, ...
Looking for online definition of leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases in the Medical Dictionary? leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases explanation free. What is leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases? Meaning of leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases medical term. What does leukosis-sarcoma neoplastic diseases mean?
2Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4472 USA. Wnt1 signaling has been implicated as one factor involved in neural crest-derived melanocyte (NC-M) development. Mice deficient for both Wnt1 and Wnt3a have a marked deficiency in trunk neural crest derivatives including NC-Ms (1). We have used cell lineage-directed gene targeting of Wnt signaling genes to examine the effects of Wnt signaling in mouse neural crest development. Gene expression was directed to cell-lineages by infection with subgroup A avian leukosis virus vectors (RCAS) (2) in lines of transgenic mice that express the retrovirus receptor tv-a (2). Transgenic mice with tva in either nestin expressing neural precuror cells (line Ntva) or dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) expressing melanoblasts (line DCTtva) were analyzed. We over-stimulated Wnt signaling in two ways: directed gene transfer of Wnt1 to Ntva+ cells and transfer of b-catenin to DCTtva+ NC-M precursor ...
Cobalt increases the red cell mass in both man and animals by increasing the production of erythropoietin. Since meat-type chickens can develop pulmonary hypertension from increased erythropoiesis and polycythaemia, two trials were conducted to inves
Looking for Erythroblastosis faetalis? Find out information about Erythroblastosis faetalis. a disease manifested at birth or shortly thereafter and generally caused by incompatibility of the mothers blood with that of the fetus with respect to the... Explanation of Erythroblastosis faetalis
The diversity and polymorphisms in the ToMV population present in one ToMV-positive plant per genotype was further assessed. Total RNAs were isolated from the upper leaf of plants at 21 and 48 d.p.i. The complete ToMV ORF4 sequence was amplified using a two-step reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. The first-strand cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription of total RNAs using random hexamer primers and the Avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (Promega Corp., Madison, WI, USA). A 480-bp fragment (corresponding to positions 5703-6182 of the complete ToMV reference sequence, NC_002692) was amplified using primer pair ToMV-F (5′-ATGTCTTACTCAATCACTTC-3′, sense) and ToMV-R (5′-TTAAGATGCAGGTGCAGAGG-3′, antisense) and the TaKaRa LA Taq polymerase (TaKaRa, Bio Inc., Shiga, Japan). PCR amplification was performed under the following cycling conditions: initial denaturation at 94°C for 5 min; 25 cycles of 94°C for 45 s, 54°C for 30 s, and 72°C for ...
Apffel, C A. and Peters, J H., Successful heterotransplantation of l1210 mouse leukosis into un- treated adult hamsters. Abstr. (1968). Subject Strain Bibliography 1968. 45 ...
MYBL1 (v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)-like 1), Authors: Olesya Chayka, Arturo Sala. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Looking for erythroblastoses? Find out information about erythroblastoses. The abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the blood. A virus disease of birds; considered to be part of the avian leukosis complex in which there is an... Explanation of erythroblastoses
During the late 1960s and early 1970s, cell tumor biology researchers determined that synthetic RNA and feline leukaemia virus (FELV) template added to human type C viruses--those associated with cancers of the lymph nodes increased the rate of DNA production (and subsequent provirus and virus reproduction) as much as thirty times.(1) Such hybrid viruses, these researchers reported, may cause many cancers besides leukaemias and lymphomas, including sarcomas. Other NCI and Litton Bionetics teams reported modifying the fortieth discovered simian virus (SV40) by infusing it with nucleic acids from other species including FELV RNA, avian (i.e., chicken) myeloblastosis virus (AMV) RNA, associated with leukemia and sarcoma development, and mouse sarcoma RNA to: 1) make them carcinogenic, 2) prompt extreme immunosuppression in primates,(2,4,11) and 3) study RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (i.e., reverse transcriptase) and its relationship to human carcinogenesis,(6,11-14) For example, early work in ...
An oncogenic virus (or oncovirus) is a virus that causes cancer. These include HIV, HPV (Human Papilloma Viruses), herpes viruses, hepatitis B and C viruses, Epstein Barr Virus and retroviruses. In the case of HPV and hepatitis, there are vaccines available to prevent infection with these viruses.
... caused by the retrovirus Avian leukosis virus. It is a neoplastic disease caused by a virus, which may take the form of a tumor ... "The Poultry Guide - Avian Lymphoid Leukosis". Archived from the original on 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2007-12-12. v t e. ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ... Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ...
... for instance between Avian sarcoma leukosis virus and Marek's disease virus (MDV) in domestic fowl.[citation needed] Both ... In coinfected cells, the retroviral DNA of the avian leukosis virus can integrate into the MDV genome, producing altered ... The drop in HIV virus levels may be due to a lack of target CD4+ T cells in which they replicate, or measles virus may ... Bini Edmund; Perumalswami Ponni (2010). "Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among American Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Ancient DNA Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous retrovirus ERV3 HERV-FRD Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) Koala ... Murine leukemia virus (MLV), and xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Paleovirology Polydnavirus Viral ... An endogenous viral element (EVE) is a DNA sequence derived from a virus, and present within the germline of a non-viral ... For most non-retroviral viruses, germline integration appears to be a rare, anomalous event, and the resulting EVEs are often ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... RNA viruses[edit]. Not all oncoviruses are DNA viruses. Some RNA viruses have also been associated such as the hepatitis C ... DNA viruses[edit]. *Human papilloma virus (HPV), a DNA virus, causes transformation in cells through interfering with tumor ...
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis. *Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease) ...
Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease). *Botulism. *Campylobacteriosis. * ...
Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease). *Botulism. *Campylobacteriosis. * ... Avian Biology Research, 1: 73-87 *^ Dixon, L.M., Duncan, I.J.H. and Mason, G.J., 2010. The effects of four types of enrichment ... G., (2010). Avian magnetoreception: Elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature ...
ssRNA-RT virus. Retroviridae. Alpharetrovirus. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Rous sarcoma virus ... dsDNA-RT viruses are the seventh group in the Baltimore virus classification. They are not considered DNA viruses (class I of ... Khan, Jawaid A.; Dijkstra, Jeanne (2002). Plant viruses as molecular pathogens. Psychology Press. pp. 317-. ISBN 978-1-56022- ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=DsDNA-RT_virus&oldid=748922731" ...
ssRNA-RT virus. Retroviridae. Alpharetrovirus. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Rous sarcoma virus ... Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus: Classification[citation needed] Xenotropic viruses (xenos Gr. foreign; tropos ... Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel ... "XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-17.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
ssRNA-RT virus. Retroviridae. Alpharetrovirus. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Rous sarcoma virus ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Visna/maedi virus. Primate lentivirus group. Human immunodeficiency virus 1. Human ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus. Jembrana disease virus. Equine lentivirus group. Equine infectious anemia virus. Feline ... Simian immunodeficiency virus. Gray mouse lemur prosimian immunodeficiency virus (pSIVgml). Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow ...
Talk:Avian reovirus. *Talk:Avian reovirus (version 2). *Talk:Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Low-importance_virus_articles&oldid=388350164" ...
Recently, we have isolated several viruses related to HPRS-103 from cases of ML. Although these isolates showed properties of ... The nucleotide sequence of the env gene of the variant viruses showed several substitutions resulting in amino acid changes ... The epidemiological significance of the antigenic variation and the emergence of variant viruses are discussed. ... was isolated in 1989 from meat-type chickens from commercial flocks where it induces myelocytic myeloid leukosis (ML). The HPRS ...
Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally... ... Maas HJL, Debber GF, Groenend JE (1982) Age-related resistance to avian-leukosis virus. 3. Infectious virus neutralizing ... Neiman P, Payne LN, Weiss RA (1980b) Viral DNA in bursal lymphomas induced by avian leukosis viruses. J Virol 34:178-186.PubMed ... Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally occurring disease and an experimental model system ...
... avian leukosis virus, human T-cell lymphoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, etc. Unlike most other organisms, the naming of new ... On the nomenclature of viruses associated with AIDS Traditionally, virus isolates have been named most commonly for the disease ... On the Nomenclature of Viruses Associated with AIDS Number of Image Pages: 3 (228,706 Bytes) Date Supplied: 1985 Creator: ... viruses which are closely related to AIDS viruses. e. It will complicate attempts to develop a consistent and workable taxonomy ...
Furthermore, later steps of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus reverse tran ... Furthermore, later steps of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus reverse transcription were stimulated by nuclear factors. The cell ... Abbreviations: RTC, reverse transcription complex; ASLV, avian sarcoma and leukosis virus; EGFP, enhanced GFP; HB, ... which derives from the reImpressable stability of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) particles when viral penetration into ...
Problem Substances : Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALV-E), Endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV-0) ... 1 Abstracts with Avian Leukosis Viruses (ALV-E) Research. Filter by Study Type. Viral. ... Characterization of endogenous avian leukosis viruses in chicken embryonic fibroblast substrates used in production of measles ... Additional Keywords : Adventitious Viruses, Live Attenuated Vaccines, Vaccine Contamination. ...
The mechanism of interference between an avian leukosis virus and Rous sarcoma virus. II. Early steps of infection by RSV of ...
Identification and characterisation of endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) insertions in chicken whole genome ... Molecular identification of avian leukosis virus subgroup E loci and tumor virus B locus in Chinese indigenous chickens. ... In chickens, endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) expression has been associated with reductions in muscle growth ... In chickens, endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) expression has been associated with reductions in muscle growth ...
Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. ... Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. ... Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. ...
Virus-Cell Interactions. Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ...
Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events.. B E Clurman ... Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. ... Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. ... Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. ...
"Isolation and characterization of subgroup J Avian Leukosis virus associated with hemangioma in commercial Hy-Line chickens, ... Occurrence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in commercial layer flocks in China . Avian Pathol. 33 : 13 - 17 . Google Scholar ... Occurrence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in commercial layer flocks in China . Avian Pathol. 33 : 13 - 17 . Google Scholar ... Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-receptor interactions: from classical genetics to novel insights into virus-cell membrane ...
"Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of ... Recovery of acutely transforming viruses from myeloid leukosis induced by the HPRS-103 strain of avian leukosis virus ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is ... Isolation and some characteristics of a subgroup J-like avian leukosis virus associated with myeloid leukosis in meat-type ...
The results verify that the LAMP method was more sensitive than the conventional PCR and virus isolation method. In conclusion ... assay were developed and compared with PCR and virus isolation methods. The results from specificity of the LAMP assay showed ... E and J are the major subgroups of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infecting chickens. ALV infection has become endemic in China and ... Avian Pathol. 2009;38(6):443-8.Google Scholar. *. Zavala G, Cheng S. Detection and characterization of avian leukosis virus in ...
Structural dynamics and local changes in the dimerization site of avian retroviral RNA were studied. Our task was to identify ... To this end we replaced the unpaired adenine in the hairpin loop of avian leukosis virus RNA with a fluorescent probe 2- ... Conformation Change of the Loop Adenine of Avian Leukosis Virus RNA Upon Antibiotic Binding Revealed by 2-Aminopurine ... Structural dynamics and local changes in the dimerization site of avian retroviral RNA were studied. Our task was to identify ...
Receptor specificity in avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV) maps to the central region of the envelope surface protein, ... of the ASLV envelope sequences revealed a cluster of basic residues within hr2 that is unique to the subgroup A viruses, ... Receptor-induced conformational changes in the subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein.. *J M Gilbert ... Receptor specificity in avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV) maps to the central region of the envelope surface protein, ...
The result showed that the mRNA level of chNHE1 was up-regulated after virus shedding, especially in continuous viremic ... Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus which causes immunosuppression and neoplasia in meat-type ... From: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J induces its receptor--chNHE1 up-regulation ...
Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ... Reply to commentary by D. Elleder and J. Hejnar on the article "Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag gene in the Anser anser ... Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ... Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ...
... following eradication of the virus,commercial broilers have remained free of infection since the early 2000s. A pet chicken was ... The avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are a major group of retroviruses associated with neoplastic diseases in poultry. The ALV-J ... Avian leukosis virus subgroup J-associated myelocytoma in a hobby chicken. The avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are a major group ... Home » Publications » Avian leukosis virus subgroup J-associated myelocytoma in a hobby chicken ...
This research includes tissue tropism of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in congenitally infected broiler chickens ... and the antiserum produced had in vitro neutralizing activity against the cloned virus. The cloned virus was then serially ... In a second experiment, chickens were exposed to ALV-J by injection of virus at hatch. Injection of ALV-J antiserum protected ... In one experiment, chickens exposed to ALV-J by cohatching with virus-shedders did not suffer from body weight suppression or ...
Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosi ... Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks ... Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks and its effect on early growth.. Authors * Crittenden, L B ... Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosis virus (ALV) group-specific (gs) antigen shedding into the ... Progeny of positive dams or chicks having virus in their meconia weighed 1 to 3% less at 4 and 7 weeks than progeny of negative ...
Avian Leukosis Virus. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the genus Alpharetrovirus of the Retroviridae family. This virus is ... influenza A virus (IAV); infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); Mareks disease virus (MDV); avian leukosis virus (ALV); ... Role of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 during tumour formation in chickens infected by subgroup J avian leukosis virus. Viruses ( ... Aberrant expression of liver microRNA in chickens infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus. Virus Res (2012) 169(1):268-71 ...
PMCID: PMC112645 Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Measles and Mumps Vaccines Derived ... Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Measles and Mumps Vaccines Derived from Chicken Cells ... Vaccine Contamination with other viruses - Avian Leukosis Virus. May 5, 2015. Vaccine 0 Comments ... Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella ...
The Avian Leukosis Virus p27 Antigen test kit will determine the presence of the p27 antigen of the Avian Leukosis Virus in ... To detect antigen (P27) of Avian Leukosis Virus. Kit format:. Plates per kit: 5. Maximum sample size: 460. Run at room ... A highly specific ELISA for detection of Avian Leukosis Virus antigen, used in eradication programs. ... The Avian Leukosis Virus Antigen test kit is used for:. *Screening flocks for presence or absence of Avian Leukosis Virus ...
An NF-κB-dependent survival pathway protects against cell death induced by TVB receptors for avian leukosis viruses. ... An NF-κB-dependent survival pathway protects against cell death induced by TVB receptors for avian leukosis viruses. Together ...
Cross-species Transmission of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J Cross-species Transmission of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup J / 病 ... Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Avian Leukosis , Virology , Avian Leukosis Virus , Classification , Genetics , Physiology , ... Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. A high-frequency mutation in gene ... Avian Leukosis / Molecular Sequence Data / Chemistry / Chickens / Viral Envelope Proteins Language: Chinese Journal: Chinese ...
... negative chickens exposed to virus at hatching. , Avian diseases , 7/27/1988 ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection, shedding, and tumors in maternal ALV antibody-positive and - ... Avian Dis. 1988;32(1):89-95. Chickens highly susceptible to avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection and tumors, with and without ... Avian diseases PubMedID: 2838017. Fadly AM. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection, shedding, and tumors in maternal ALV antibody ...
Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ~~~ Title: What is Avian sarcoma leukosis virus?, Explain Avian sarcoma leukosis virus Created on ... What is Avian sarcoma leukosis virus?, Explain Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. by admin · April 14, 2019. ...
The cellular receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus (ALSV-A) is Tva, which contains a motif related to ... the cellular receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus.. Tonelli M1, Peters RJ, James TL, Agard DA. ...
Rubin, H; Vogt PK (1962). "An avian leukosis virus associated with stocks of Rous sarcoma virus". Virology. 17: 184-94. doi: ... Vogt, PK; Ishizaki R (1966). Burdette, WJ (ed.). "Criteria for the classification of avian tumor viruses". Viruses Inducing ... Maki, Y; Bos TJ; Davis C; Starbuck M; Vogt PK (1987). "Avian sarcoma virus 17 carries the jun oncogene". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... "Nobel Prize 1989". Duesberg, PH; Bister K; Vogt PK (1977). "The RNA of avian acute leukemia virus MC29". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ... Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ...
... suggesting an atypical life cycle of the virus in the infected osteoblasts. To better understand virus-host interactions in the ... The effect of virus infection on osteoblast function was examined in the diseased bone and in osteoblast cultures. In infected ... In culture, virus infection had no apparent effect on either the proliferation or differentiation of osteoblasts. This ... It is possible that the accumulation of virus could facilitate the high levels of infection observed in the diseased bone. The ...
Enhanced inhibition of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication by multi-target miRNAs. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y ... Enhanced inhibition of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication by multi-target miRNAs - Descarga este documento en PDF. ... ResultsIn this study, the avian leukosis virus subgroup J ALV-J proviral genome, including the gag genes, were treated as ... Enhanced inhibition of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication by multi-target miRNAs. ...
  • To better understand these processes, we have developed a cell-free system that recapitulates these early steps of retroviral replication by using avian sarcoma and leukosis virus as a model retrovirus. (lw90.com)
  • Furthermore, later steps of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus reverse transcription were stimulated by nuclear factors. (lw90.com)
  • We report here the development of such a system, which derives from the reImpressable stability of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV) particles when viral penetration into the cytosol is blocked by treatment with lysosomotropic agents that elevate enExecutesomal pH (18-21). (lw90.com)
  • HPRS-103, the prototype of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J, was isolated in 1989 from meat-type chickens from commercial flocks where it induces myelocytic myeloid leukosis (ML). The HPRS-103 env gene differs considerably from other ALV subgroups but shows high identity (75-97%) to env-like sequences of the different members of the EAV family of endogenous avian retroviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed the evolutionary relationships of the isolates with HPRS-103 and the EAV family of endogenous avian retroviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally occurring disease and an experimental model system which has provided seminal insights into the role of the myc oncogene in B-cell neoplasia. (springer.com)
  • With retroviruses, it is also usual to append the species of origin to the name - avian leukosis virus, human T-cell lymphoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, etc. (nih.gov)
  • This feature of ASLV-A sets this virus apart from all other low pH-dependent viruses, which are rapidly degraded and inactivated under similar conditions (22). (lw90.com)
  • Burmester BR, Fontes AK, Walter WG (1960) Pathogenicity of a viral strain (RPL 12) causing avian visceral lymphomatosis and related neoplasms. (springer.com)
  • Neiman P, Payne LN, Weiss RA (1980b) Viral DNA in bursal lymphomas induced by avian leukosis viruses. (springer.com)
  • The first steps of retroviral infection involve virus interaction with specific cell surface receptors followed by the fusion of viral and cell membranes, delivering the viral ribonucleoprotein core particle into the cytoplasm (1-3). (lw90.com)
  • Baba TW, Humphries EH (1985) Formation of a transformed follicle is necessary but not sufficient for development of an avian leukosis virus-induced lymphoma. (springer.com)
  • Enrietto PJ, Payne LN, Hayman MJ (1983) A recovered avian myelocytomatosis virus that induces lymphomas in chickens: Pathogenic properties and their molecular basis. (springer.com)
  • 3. Infectious virus neutralizing antibody and tumors in chickens innoculated at various ages. (springer.com)
  • Antigenic variants of J subgroup avian leukosis virus: sequence analysis reveals multiple changes in the env gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Recently, we have isolated several viruses related to HPRS-103 from cases of ML. Although these isolates showed properties of ALV subgroup J, the majority of them resisted neutralization by HPRS-103-specific serum, suggesting antigenic variation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hayward WS, Neel B, Astrin SM (1981) Activation of a cellular onc gene by promoter insertion in ALV-induced lymphoid leukosis. (springer.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the env gene of the variant viruses showed several substitutions resulting in amino acid changes especially clustered in the variable regions hr1, hr2 and vr3. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A smaller number are named for the place of isolation - Coxsackie, Sindbis, and Sendai viruses are a few examples, and a mercifully small number are named for their discoverers - alone or in combination with other features - such as Epstein-Barr virus, Rous sarcoma virus, etc. (nih.gov)
  • In support of this hypothesis, a mutant cell line has been isolated that supports virus-cell membrane fusion but not reverse transcription (13). (lw90.com)
  • While there would be no compelling scientific objection to the use of LAV, (particularly if interpreted as 'lymphoadenopathy-AIDS virus'), it seems highly improbable that this name would be acceptable to the majority of workers. (nih.gov)
  • HTLV-1, 2, and BLV form a clear and obvious group, based on sequences and structural relationships, as do all AIDS virus isolates studied to date. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the haphazard but workable prior 'convention' it would seem most appropriate to label viruses etiologically associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a designation like 'human immunodeficiency virus (HIDV)', or something similar. (nih.gov)
  • By the same token, the proclivity of HTLV and AIDS viruses to infect the same cell type is also impressive, but unlikely to reflect a fundamental similarity useful for grouping. (nih.gov)
  • Traditionally, virus isolates have been named most commonly for the disease from which they were isolated - e.g. influenza, poliomyelitis, visna, foot-and-mouth disease, and the like. (nih.gov)
  • INTRODUCTION Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus causing neoplastic diseases, such as lymphocytoma, myeloid leukosis, and hemangioma, as well as immunosuppression (Fadly and Smith, 1999). (deepdyve.com)
  • Myeloid leukosis diagnosed in a backyard flock, with ALV 'J strain' isolated. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Since the initial isolation of subgroup J avian leukosis virus in England, the virus has been isolated from broiler-breeder stocks that experience myeloid neoplasms (myelocytoma) in many other countries. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Analysis of the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor: the 40-residue, cysteine-rich, low-density lipoprotein receptor repeat motif of Tva is sufficient to mediate viral entry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification and characterization of the viral interaction determinant of the subgroup A avian leukosis virus receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cloned virus was then serially passed three times in the presence of subneutralizing levels of this antiserum, and the resultant viral isolates were more resistant to antiserum neutralization in vitro than was the parent cloned virus. (uga.edu)
  • Two of the chicks that were not viremic at hatch developed viremia at one week of age and had viral tissue distribution suggesting oral exposure to the virus from their hatchmate. (uga.edu)
  • The solution structure of the viral binding domain of Tva, the cellular receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus. (nih.gov)
  • The cellular receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus (ALSV-A) is Tva, which contains a motif related to repeats in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) ligand binding repeat (LBr) and which is necessary for viral entry. (nih.gov)
  • The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome , transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the cell's own genes, producing the proteins required to assemble new copies of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osteopetrotic bone is also characterized by the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA, suggesting an atypical life cycle of the virus in the infected osteoblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • The frequency of occurrence of 15B-E viruses was affected by the level of expression of V-15B and the presence of endogenous viral alleles which constitutively express subgroup E envelope antigens. (fhcrc.org)
  • Since the level of expression of V-15B and the presence of endogenous viral alleles which constitutively express subgroup E envelope antigens affected the frequency of occurrence of 15B-E viruses, we further suggest that 15B-ILV and RNAs which contain information for subgroup E envelope antigens are the parents of 158E viruses. (fhcrc.org)
  • Susceptibility and resistance to the virus depend largely on specific host receptors that interact with viral envelope proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) has been used as a model system to understand the mechanism of pH-independent viral entry involving receptor-induced conformational changes in the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein that lead to membrane fusion. (nih.gov)
  • The virus encodes a 135 kDa fusion protein which contains amino acid sequences derived from the viral Gag protein and the two cellular transcription factors c-Myb and c-Ets-1p68. (nih.gov)
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus contamination of nutrient serum, cell cultures and viral vaccines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Enveloped virus entry is initiated by binding to surface receptors/coreceptors followed by trafficking to specific entry sites where viruses encounter a milieu that provides for activation of their fusion machine, the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). (rupress.org)
  • Burmester BR, Fontes AK, Walter WG (1960) Pathogenicity of a viral strain (RPL 12) causing avian visceral lymphomatosis and related neoplasms. (springer.com)
  • Neiman P, Payne LN, Weiss RA (1980b) Viral DNA in bursal lymphomas induced by avian leukosis viruses. (springer.com)
  • Although the mechanism of virus-cell separation is unknown, it is well established that the Gag protein is the only viral product required for budding ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • A sixth subgroup (E) designates nononcogenic endogenous viruses produced by viral genes integrated into the host cell DNA. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • We use a combination of molecular, cell biological, and genetic tools to understand how viruses invade host cells and evade host defenses with recent emphasis on emerging viral pathogens. (upenn.edu)
  • Although we work with a number of different viral systems, current projects concentrate on several pathogenic viruses including filoviruses (ebolavirus and Marburgvirus) and bunyaviruses (Hantaan, Andes, Sin Nombre, La Crosse). (upenn.edu)
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosis virus (ALV) group-specific (gs) antigen shedding into the albumen. (mysciencework.com)
  • Approximately 25 per cent of Q3 avian diagnostic submissions were from game bird flocks and two-thirds from chicken flocks. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a retrovirus that causes tumors in avian species, and its vertical and horizontal transmission in poultry flocks results in enormous economic losses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, vaccine manufacturers were soon required to use eggs or CEF from leukosis-free flocks. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no treatment or vaccine available, so eradication of the virus from breeding flocks is the most effective control method. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • As much as 1.5% excess mortality per week has been reported in commercial broiler-breeder flocks naturally infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Whilst we are all very familiar with Marek's disease causing tumours in chicken flocks, Avian Leukosis is another tumour causing virus that can have equally devastating effects. (poultrykeeper.com)
  • Low freqeuncy production of recombinant subgroup E avian leukosis viruses by uninfected V-15B chicken cells. (fhcrc.org)
  • We have developed a gene-trap lentiviral vector that act as an insertional mutagen and produced a library of >200 million haploid human cells bearing insertions and are interrogating this library by employing novel replication-competent, recombinant viruses. (upenn.edu)
  • By inoculation of blood samples in DF-1 (C/E) cell culture, an exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain SDAU09C2 was isolated from a breeder farm of Chinese native breed 'Luhua' in Shandong province. (bvsalud.org)
  • Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). (frontiersin.org)
  • among our strains, five mutations were identical to those in the viruses causing hemangioma. (deepdyve.com)
  • All field strains of avian leukosis virus are oncogenic, although some differences in oncogenicity and replicative ability have been recognized. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Historically, close contact of fowl with humans has been shown epidemiologically to foster cross-species jump (avian to human) of new influenza strains (e.g. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A disease of birds due to strains of influenza A virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avian Influenza is caused by an Influenza virus of which there are several strains. (poultrykeeper.com)
  • abstract = "The formation of the mature carboxyl terminus of CA in avian sarcoma/leukemia virus is the result of a sequence of cleavage events at three PR sites that lie between CA and NC in the Gag polyprotein. (uthscsa.edu)
  • abstract = "Three new erbB transducing viruses generated during avian leukosis virus-induced erythroblastosis have been cloned and sequenced, and their transforming abilities have been analyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • ez MF Abstract Since the emergence of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses in Morocco in 2016, severe respiratory problems have been encountered in the field. (medworm.com)
  • Abstract Newcastle disease (ND), caused by virulent Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV 1), affects a wide range of avian species worldwide. (medworm.com)
  • Reply to commentary by D. Elleder and J. Hejnar on the article "Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag gene in the Anser anser domesticus genome" published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 14379-14386 to the letter published in Genet. (geneticsmr.com)
  • A retrovirus is a type of RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, thus changing the genome of that cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the host cell's cytoplasm , the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA from its RNA genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). (wikipedia.org)
  • ResultsIn this study, the avian leukosis virus subgroup J ALV-J proviral genome, including the gag genes, were treated as targets for RNAi. (duhnnae.com)
  • Despite the discovery of specific host receptors that are critical for ALV entry, there has been only one report on the acquisition of resistance to ALV subgroup C in avian species via genome editing of host receptor genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • Virions (virus particles) contain two 5 ′ ("five prime"), end-linked, identical copies of the genome RNA, and are therefore said to be diploid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition to piRNAs that protect the germ-line genome from transposon activation, mammals and avian produce a distinct and abundant set of non-repetitive piRNA sequences whose function is unknown. (rochester.edu)
  • A second class of endogenous avian retroviral genome (EAV), discovered in 1985 ( 10 ), is present in all breeds of chicken and cannot be eliminated. (cdc.gov)
  • Maas HJL, Debber GF, Groenend JE (1982) Age-related resistance to avian-leukosis virus. (springer.com)
  • A highly specific ELISA for detection of Avian Leukosis Virus antigen, used in eradication programs. (biochek.com)
  • The gag (group antigen) gene encodes proteins that make up the nucleocapsid of the virus as well as a matrix layer, the two of which surround the RNA. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The specific detection of foot and mouth disease virus whole particle antigen (140 S) by enzyme labelled immunosorbent assay. (springer.com)
  • Members of this RNA group of viruses have similar physical and molecular characteristics and share a common group-specific antigen. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Detection of the major antigen (p27) present in the core of leukosis/sarcoma viruses forms the basis of several diagnostic tests. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • That finding suggested that mutation of isolates in pheasants and quails was induced by selective pressure from the resistant host, and that the hr2 region is a critical domain in cross-species transmission of ALV-J. Sequencing showed that ALV-J isolates from turkeys, pheasants and quails had moved away from the original virus, and were closer to the ALV-J prototype strain HPRS-103. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cleavage of either 9 or 12 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus creates two mature CA species, named CA2 and CA3, that can be detected in avian sarcoma/leukemia virus (R. B. Pepinsky, I. A. Papayannopoulos, E. P. Chow, N. K. Krishna, R. C. Craven, and V. M. Vogt, J. Virol. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Yellow fever virus is the type species of the Group B arboviruses, or flavi- viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has designated avian leukosis virus as the type species within the Alpharetrovirus genus of the family Retroviridae . (merckvetmanual.com)
  • these viruses have not been isolated from other avian species except pheasants, partridges, and quail. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Recently, several AAvVs of diverse genotypes have emerged with varying genomic and residue substitutions, and subsequent clinical impact on susceptible avian species. (medworm.com)
  • BackgroundAvian leukosis virus ALV is a major infectious disease that impacts the poultry industry worldwide. (duhnnae.com)
  • Rapid detection of antibodies of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus by micro-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Micro-ELISA). (springer.com)
  • later it was demonstrated that live virus vaccines made in CEF were contaminated with infectious ALV ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, it may be useful to probe the possibility of interaction between endogenous avian viruses and the infectious components of MMR. (cdc.gov)
  • Selection of reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time qPCR in avian cells infected with infectious bronchitis virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we show that the budding of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) from infected equine cells is largely unaffected by these drugs, although use of one inhibitor (MG-132) resulted in a dramatic block to proteolytic processing of Gag. (asm.org)
  • To further explore the requirements of Ub in retrovirus budding, we decided to test the sensitivity of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) to proteasome inhibitors. (asm.org)
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is often detected together with H9N2, suggesting disease exacerbation in cases of co-infections. (medworm.com)
  • When we think of respiratory disease in poultry we often think of infectious bronchitis virus or Mycoplasma, however there is another rather harmful virus that belongs to the herpes virus family that causes ILT. (poultrykeeper.com)
  • However, T cells do not support lytic replication, while B cells spontaneously produce substantial amounts of infectious virus. (jci.org)
  • Six isolates of ALV-J, named SDAU1701-SDAU1706, were characterized by virus isolation and sequence analysis of the complete proviral genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • A set of four specific primers was designed to target the sequences of the pol gene of ALV, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed and compared with PCR and virus isolation methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results verify that the LAMP method was more sensitive than the conventional PCR and virus isolation method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, no viremia was detected at 6 weeks after insemination even when virus isolation had been conducted six times at weekly intervals for each of the 12 females. (beds.ac.uk)
  • All virus isolation was performed in DF-1 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • It would, therefore, seem appropriate to assign the first ""isolation"" of the virus to its continuous passage in monkeys by Stokes, et al. (cdc.gov)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of this new diagnostic method was compared to that of conventional diagnostic methods, namely virus isolation, immunofluorescence and histopathology. (springer.com)
  • Chicken endogenous viruses, ALVE (Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E), are inherited as LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which are negatively correlated with disease resistance, and any changes in DNA methylation may contribute to the susceptibility to neoplastic disease. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosis of bovine leukosis: ELISA, a new technique. (springer.com)
  • Evaluation of the human host range of bovine and porcine viruses that may contaminate bovine serum and porcine trypsin used in the manufacture of biological products. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Fetal bovine serum (FBS) was found to be contaminated with adventitious viruses. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The use of the direct immunoperoxidase test to detect the multiplication of rinderpest virus in bovine kidney cell culture. (springer.com)
  • ERVs are found at many loci in host DNA and also in the genomes of large DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses and poxviruses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have a greater pathogenicity and transmission ability than the other subgroups. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Recombination between two different subgroups of avian leukosis virus can occur in field conditions and cause economic losses. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the main causes of tumour development within the poultry industry in China. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is one of the major causes of disease in poultry, and commonly produces tumours in those infected. (beds.ac.uk)
  • ALV-infected poultry display several symptoms, including lymphoblastic, erythroblastic and osteopetrotic tumors, and the virus can be transmitted both vertically and horizontally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Avian Health Program offers diagnostic testing, consultation and extension services for commercial and backyard poultry producers. (cornell.edu)
  • Dr. Jarra Jagne , head of the Avian Health program and veterinarian specializing in poultry, a diplomate of the American College of Poultry Veterinarians, is available for disease, nutrition, health, and management consultation. (cornell.edu)
  • The Avian Health Program also provides support for meeting the requirements of the National Poultry Improvement Program (NPIP) and for exports. (cornell.edu)
  • Lymphoid leukosis is a neoplastic disease of poultry caused by avian leukosis virus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Although wild birds, the natural hosts, seldom become sick when infected, avian influenza viruses can cause disease in domestic poultry and, rarely, in human beings. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • bird 'flu' caused by the H5N1 virus that caused epidemics in poultry in Japan, Korea, Thailand, China and Vietnam early in 2004. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The very mention of the words Avian Influenza (AI) or Bird Flu strikes fear into the hearts of poultry keepers and the general public alike. (poultrykeeper.com)
  • Characterization of endogenous avian leukosis viruses in chicken embryonic fibroblast substrates used in production of measles and mumps vaccines. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. (asm.org)
  • There is a high prevalance rate for simian virus 40 in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in Tunisia. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 5 , 7 miR155 is derived from an exon of the B-cell integration cluster ( BIC ) gene, which was identified as a common integration site of avian leucosis virus in chicken B-cell lymphomas. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Wang, Xiaomei 2016-07-20 00:00:00 Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. (deepdyve.com)
  • Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus that can induce myelocytomas. (bvsalud.org)
  • This virus efficiently induces erythroblastosis, but does not transform fibroblasts in vitro or induce sarcomas in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, this virus is no longer capable of inducing erythroblastosis, but can induce both fibrosarcomas and hemangiomas in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • The subgroup J avian leukosis viruses (ALV-J), which induce erythroblastosis and myelocytomatosis, have the greatest pathogenicity and transmission ability within this class of viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • For pH-independent viruses, a critical concentration of receptors/coreceptors may suffice to induce fusion at the plasma membrane, while pH-dependent viruses must reach an endosomal environment for fusion to be triggered by low pH. (rupress.org)
  • 2016). Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) was first isolated and identified in 1988 in the United Kingdom (Payne et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2016. "The European Classical Swine Fever Virus Database: Blueprint for a Pathogen-Specific Sequence Database with Integrated Sequence Analysis Tools. (mdpi.com)
  • Structural dynamics and local changes in the dimerization site of avian retroviral RNA were studied. (jbsdonline.com)
  • The steps that differ from other viruses involve the retroviral reverse transcriptase, an enzyme discovered simultaneously by Howard Temin and David Baltimore in 1970. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here we show that virus binding to filopodia induces a rapid and highly ordered lateral movement, "surfing" toward the cell body before cell entry. (rupress.org)
  • A simple and rapid immunoperoxidase test for the detection of virus antigens in tissue culture. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemical demonstration of avian leukosis virus antigens in paraffin embedded tissue. (springer.com)
  • A virus similar to simian retrovirus was identified in Rotateq (276 nucleotides from 1 sequence read). (clinicalnews.org)
  • Examples of such contamination include simian virus in early polio vaccines grown on monkey kidney cells and avian leukosis virus (ALV) in yellow fever vaccines propagated in chick embryos ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Serum antibodies to JC virus, BK virus, simian virus 40, and the risk of incident adult astrocytic brain tumors. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Simian virus 40 has a high prevalence in hematological malignancies and probably plays a role in tumor pathogenesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Simian virus 40 in humans. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Simian virus 40 is found at far higher rates in breast tumors and probably contributes to pathogenesis in those tumors. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Traceable levels of DNA from the avian leukosis virus and the simian retrovirus were also found in GSK's measles vaccine and RotaTeq vaccine. (infowars.com)
  • Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients. (clinicalnews.org)
  • The retrovirus avian leukosis virus was found in the measles vaccine, but at a very low level (700 nucleotides from 4 sequence reads). (clinicalnews.org)
  • The avian leukosis virus sequences found in the measles vaccine are in intact virions, as DNA treatment of the vaccines did not prevent their detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (clinicalnews.org)
  • RT activity in a vaccine manufactured in Europe was associated with particles containing endogenous avian virus (EAV) RNA ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, we observed ALV-like particles by electron microscopy in culture supernatants from chick embryo fibroblasts that had not been inoculated with vaccine viruses ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Avian leukosis virus contaminated early 17-D vaccines, but leukosis-free vaccine is now prepared. (cdc.gov)
  • 17-D virus passaged in mice has also been used as a vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2010, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials revealed that GSK's Rotarix vaccine secretly contained swine virus DNA . (infowars.com)
  • I haven't read anything stating that any of these diseases are zoonotic , but you never want to pop a new RNA virus into anyone, just in case. (everything2.com)
  • Avian Diseases 63-3 Table of Contents. (medworm.com)
  • 2011). From 2007 to 2010, hemangioma was the most hazardous neoplastic disease associated with ALV-J, which caused a massive pandemic and became a major avian health concern. (deepdyve.com)
  • The study of this virus family has led to the discovery of oncogenes , resulting in a quantum advance in the field of cancer genetics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Recently, we have isolated several viruses related to HPRS-103 from cases of ML. Although these isolates showed properties of ALV subgroup J, the majority of them resisted neutralization by HPRS-103-specific serum, suggesting antigenic variation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The proteins of nine independent isolates of 15B-E viruses were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (fhcrc.org)
  • All isolates had p27 proteins with the distinctive electrophoretic mobility of the p27 of RAV-0, an endogenous virus. (fhcrc.org)
  • To study the importance of each of the three CA proteins, we introduced amino acid substitutions into each CA cleavage junction and studied their effects on CA processing as well as virus assembly and infectivity. (uthscsa.edu)
  • These results support the idea that infectivity of the virus is closely linked to proper processing of the carboxyl terminus to form two mature CA proteins. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Roughly 1,500 Gag molecules come together to make a virus particle ( 29 ), and the primary interactions among these proteins are provided by the I domain. (asm.org)
  • Inhibition of avian leukosis virus replication by vector-based RNA interference. (harvard.edu)
  • Avian Leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused by the (aptly named) Avian Leukosis virus (ALV). (everything2.com)
  • Passerine birds have played an important role in the establishment, maintenance, and spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America, and some are susceptible to WNV-associated mortality. (ajtmh.org)
  • 2000. Cospeciation and horizontal transmission of avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag genes in galliform birds. (tolweb.org)
  • Thus, the avian nephroblastoma is a valid source of cancer-associated genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we report the unexpected finding that ALV entry depends on a critical low pH step that was overlooked when this virus was directly compared to the classical pH-dependent influenza A virus. (nih.gov)
  • The virus replicates within the host cell after shedding its envelope, utilizing reverse transcriptase to change its RNA information into usable DNA . (everything2.com)
  • This virus is recognized by host cell specificity and is susceptible to the virus neutralization reaction, which is mainly associated with the envelope protein, gp85 . (beds.ac.uk)