Avian Leukosis: A group of transmissible viral diseases of chickens and turkeys. Liver tumors are found in most forms, but tumors can be found elsewhere.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Bursa of Fabricius: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.Avian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Enzootic Bovine Leukosis: A lymphoid neoplastic disease in cattle caused by the bovine leukemia virus. Enzootic bovine leukosis may take the form of lymphosarcoma, malignant lymphoma, or leukemia but the presence of malignant cells in the blood is not a consistent finding.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Sarcoma, Avian: Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Genes, pol: DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Marek Disease: A transmissible viral disease of birds caused by avian herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, GALLID) and other MARDIVIRUS. There is lymphoid cell infiltration or lymphomatous tumor formation in the peripheral nerves and gonads, but may also involve visceral organs, skin, muscle, and the eye.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Herpesvirus 2, Gallid: The type species of the genus MARDIVIRUS in the family HERPESVIRIDAE. It is the etiologic agent of MAREK DISEASE, infecting domestic fowl and wild birds.Histiocytic Sarcoma: Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.Genes, gag: DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.

Identification of key residues in subgroup A avian leukosis virus envelope determining receptor binding affinity and infectivity of cells expressing chicken or quail Tva receptor. (1/162)

To better understand retroviral entry, we have characterized the interactions between subgroup A avian leukosis virus [ALV(A)] envelope glycoproteins and Tva, the receptor for ALV(A), that result in receptor interference. We have recently shown that soluble forms of the chicken and quail Tva receptor (sTva), expressed from genes delivered by retroviral vectors, block ALV(A) infection of cultured chicken cells ( approximately 200-fold antiviral effect) and chickens (>98% of the birds were not infected). We hypothesized that inhibition of viral replication by sTva would select virus variants with mutations in the surface glycoprotein (SU) that altered the binding affinity of the subgroup A SU for the sTva protein and/or altered the normal receptor usage of the virus. Virus propagation in the presence of quail sTva-mIgG, the quail Tva extracellular region fused to the constant region of the mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) protein, identified viruses with three mutations in the subgroup A hr1 region of SU, E149K, Y142N, and Y142N/E149K. These mutations reduced the binding affinity of the subgroup A envelope glycoproteins for quail sTva-mIgG (32-, 324-, and 4,739-fold, respectively) but did not alter their binding affinity for chicken sTva-mIgG. The ALV(A) mutants efficiently infected cells expressing the chicken Tva receptor but were 2-fold (E149K), 10-fold (Y142N), and 600-fold (Y142N/E149K) less efficient at infecting cells expressing the quail Tva receptor. These mutations identify key determinants of the interaction between the ALV(A) glycoproteins and the Tva receptor. We also conclude from these results that, at least for the wild-type and variant ALV(A)s tested, the receptor binding affinity was directly related to infection efficiency.  (+info)

Role of calcium in protein folding and function of Tva, the receptor of subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus. (2/162)

Tva is the cellular receptor for subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV-A). The viral receptor function of Tva is determined by a 40-residue cysteine-rich motif called the LDL-A module. In this study, we expressed and purified the wild-type (wt) Tva LDL-A module as well as several mutants and examined their in vitro folding properties. We found that, as for other LDL-A modules, correct folding and structure of the Tva LDL-A module is Ca2+ dependent. When calcium was present during in vitro protein folding, the wt module was eluted as a single peak by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Furthermore, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy gave well-dispersed spectra in the presence of calcium. In contrast, the same protein folded in vitro in the absence of calcium was eluted as multiple broad peaks and gave a poorly dispersed NMR spectrum in the presence of calcium. The calcium affinity (Kd) of the Tva LDL-A module, determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, is approximately 40 microM. Characterization of several Tva mutants provided further evidence that calcium is important in protein folding and function of Tva. Mutations of the Ca2+-binding residues (D46A and E47A) completely abrogated the Ca2+-binding ability of Tva, and the proteins were not correctly folded. Interestingly, mutations of two non-calcium-binding residues (W48A and L34A) also exerted adverse effect on Ca2+-dependent folding, albeit to a much less extent. Our results provide new insights regarding the structure and function of Tva in ASLV-A entry.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of nuclear RNA polymerase II from chicken myeloblastosis cells. (3/162)

Nuclear RNA polymerases of chicken myeloblastosis cells were solubilized and fractionated by diethylaminoethyl-Sephades A25 column chromatography. Both alpha-amanitin-insenstitive (polymerase I) and- sensitive (polymerase II) species were isolated. Polymerase activity, contained two peaks of enzyme (IIa and IIb), which were further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. The partially purified enzymes were characterized by their requirement of four nucleoside triphosphates and metal ions and by their sensitivity to several inhibitors. The enzymes were compared with RNA polymearases derived from normal chickent bone marrow cells,and the total extractable myeloblastosis than in bone marrow cells. Polymearse II from both cell types was shown to be sensitive to cytosine arabinoside triphosphate inhibiton.  (+info)

Avian erythroleukemia: a model for corepressor function in cancer. (4/162)

Transcriptional regulation at the level of chromatin plays crucial roles during eukaryotic development and differentiation. A plethora of studies revealed that the acetylation status of histones is controlled by multi-protein complexes containing (de)acetylase activities. In the current model, histone deacetylases and acetyltransferases are recruited to chromatin by DNA-bound repressors and activators, respectively. Shifting the balance between deacetylation, i.e. repressive chromatin and acetylation, i.e. active chromatin can lead to aberrant gene transcription and cancer. In human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and avian erythroleukemia (AEL), chromosomal translocations and/or mutations in nuclear hormone receptors, RARalpha [NR1B1] and TRalpha [NR1A1], yielded oncoproteins that deregulate transcription and alter chromatin structure. The oncogenic receptors are locked in their 'off' mode thereby constitutively repressing transcription of genes that are critical for differentiation of hematopoietic cells. AEL involves an oncogenic version of the chicken TRalpha, v-ErbA. Apart from repression by v-ErbA via recruitment of corepressor complexes, other repressors and corepressors appear to be involved in repression of v-ErbA target genes, such as carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). Reactivation of repressed genes in APL and AEL by chromatin modifying agents such as inhibitors of histone deacetylase or of methylation provides new therapeutic strategies in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.  (+info)

Heterophil function and resistance to staphylococcal challenge in broiler chickens naturally infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J. (5/162)

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J has a high tropism for myeloid lineage cells and frequently induces neoplastic transformation of myelocytes. The impact of congenital avian leukosis virus subgroup J infection on the function of circulating heterophils and susceptibility to staphylococcal infection was investigated. Six-week-old broiler chickens negative for exogenous avian leukosis viruses or congenitally infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J were inoculated intravenously with 10(6) colony-forming units of Staphylococcus aureus, and pre- and postinoculation heterophil function was assessed. All chickens developed a leukocytosis with heterophilia after inoculation, but total leukocyte and heterophil counts were significantly higher in leukosis-negative chickens than in virus-infected chickens. Tenosynovitis was more severe in leukosis-negative chickens, and 2/10 (20%) of the virus-infected chickens had no histologic evidence of tenosynovitis. Osteomyelitis in the tibiotarsus or tarsometatarsus developed in 5/10 (50%) of the chickens in each group. S. aureus was recovered from the hock joint of 6/10 (60%) of the chickens in each group. Heterophils from all chickens exhibited similar phagocytic ability pre- and postinoculation. Heterophils from virus-infected chickens exhibited less bactericidal ability preinoculation than did heterophils from leukosis-negative chickens. However, postinoculation bactericidal ability was similar in both groups. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J provirus was present in heterophils isolated from congenitally infected chickens. Heterophils isolated from broiler chickens congenitally infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J exhibit no significant functional deficits, and infected and uninfected chickens exhibit similar susceptibility to staphylococcal infection.  (+info)

Localization of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in naturally infected chickens by RNA in situ hybridization. (6/162)

The novel subgroup J of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) has emerged as a significant cause of myeloid neoplasia and weight suppression in broiler chickens. We investigated viral tropism using RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) in naturally infected chickens. Formalin-fixed tissues were collected from 12-day-old embryos (seven infected, two control) and from 0-week-old (four infected, one control), 3-week-old (five infected, one control), 6-week-old (five infected, one control), and 9-week-old (10 infected, two control) chickens naturally infected with ALV-J in ovo. A 636-base antisense riboprobe complementary to the 3' and 5' ends of the pol and env viral genes, respectively, was constructed. Strong positive staining was present in cardiac myocytes, Purkinje fibers, vascular and pulmonary smooth muscle, renal glomeruli, distal tubules, and pituitary glands. Light staining was present in gastrointestinal smooth muscle, thyroid and adrenal glands, and follicular medullae in the cloacal bursa. Staining was not present in any hematopoietic precursors. Tissues from newly hatched chicks exhibited the strongest and most consistent staining, whereas staining in embryos was minimal. RNA ISH confirmed the presence of ALV-J-specific nucleic acid within cytoplasmic inclusions in cardiac myocytes, Purkinje fibers, pituitary glands, and renal glomeruli. Viral tropism for cardiac myocytes and Purkinje fibers may relate pathogenetically to the cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure described in index chicken flocks infected with ALV-J. Viral tropism for endocrine organs may relate pathogenetically to the weight suppression associated with infection.  (+info)

Avian bic, a gene isolated from a common retroviral site in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas that encodes a noncoding RNA, cooperates with c-myc in lymphomagenesis and erythroleukemogenesis. (7/162)

bic is a novel gene identified at a common retroviral integration site in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas and has been implicated as a collaborator with c-myc in B lymphomagenesis. It lacks an extensive open reading frame and is believed to function as an untranslated RNA (W. Tam, Gene 274:157-167, 2001; W. Tam, D. Ben-Yehuda, and W. S. Hayward, Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:1490-1502, 1997). The oncogenic potential of bic, particularly its ability to cooperate with c-myc in oncogenesis, was tested directly by expressing c-myc and bic, either singly or in pairwise combination, in cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and in chickens using replication-competent retrovirus vectors. Coexpression of c-myc and bic in CEFs caused growth enhancement of cells. Most importantly, chick oncogenicity assays demonstrated that bic can cooperate with c-myc in lymphomagenesis and erythroleukemogenesis. The present study provides direct evidence for the involvement of untranslated RNAs in oncogenesis and provides further support for the role of noncoding RNAs as riboregulators.  (+info)

Cardiomyopathy in broiler chickens congenitally infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J. (8/162)

Dilated cardiomyopathy and ascites in broiler chickens are frequently associated with rapid growth and pulmonary hypertension, but can be associated with some avian leukosis virus (ALV) infections. The novel subgroup J of ALV has a high cardiac tropism, but dilated cardiomyopathy has not been reported previously. We report a dilated cardiomyopathy incidence of 11.1% in broiler chickens congenitally infected with ALV subgroup J (ALV-J). Gross lesions included severe body weight suppression, cardiomegaly with biventricular dilation, right ventricular hypertrophy, visceral congestion, and ascites. Cardiac myocytes and Purkinje fibers contained 2- to 10-microm intracytoplasmic magenta inclusions that contained ALV-J-specific nucleic acid. Ultrastructurally, inclusions contained ribosomes and immature virions and were associated with myofibril disruption and disarray. Peracute centrilobular hepatic necrosis was present in most cases. ALV-J-associated cardiomyopathy may involve a direct viral effect on cardiac myocytes and Purkinje fibers.  (+info)

Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks and its effect on early growth.: Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosi
Subgroups A, B, E and J are the major subgroups of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infecting chickens. ALV infection has become endemic in China and has a significant negative effect on the poultry industry. Consequently, there is an urgent need for a specific, sensitive and rapid method for diagnosis and eradication of ALV. Therefore, we developed a simple and rapid real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction for the timely detection of the common ALV subgroups, whereby the amplification can be obtained in 35 min under isothermal conditions at 63 °C, ability to specific, sensitive and rapid detect all the common ALV subgroups. A set of four specific primers was designed to target the sequences of the pol gene of ALV, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed and compared with PCR and virus isolation methods. The results from specificity of the LAMP assay showed that only target ALVs DNA was amplified. The LAMP assay demonstrated a sensitivity of 20
Morbidity is low but mortality high. Mortality tends to be chronically higher than normal for a prolonged period. Egg production is somewhat reduced. There may be increased susceptibility to other infectious diseases due to damage to the immune system. Vertical transmission is most important by infection of the egg white in infected breeders (who are long-term carriers), lateral transmission is poor but infection may occur by the faecal-oral route, especially in young birds. In lymphoid leukosis the incubation period is about 4-6 months; it may be as short as 6 weeks for some of the other manifestations. The causative viruses are rapidly inactivated at ambient temperature and on exposure to most disinfectants ...
Chicken endogenous viruses, ALVE (Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E), are inherited as LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which are negatively correlated with disease resistance, and any changes in DNA methylation may contribute to the susceptibility to neoplastic disease. The relationship between ALVE methylation status and neoplastic disease in the chicken is undefined. White Leghorn inbred lines 72 and 63 at the ADOL have been respectively selected for resistance and susceptibility to tumors that are induced by avian viruses. In this study, the DNA methylation patterns of 3∼6 CpG sites of four conserved regions in ALVE, including one unique region in ALVE1, the promoter region in the TVB (tumor virus receptor of ALV subgroup B, D and E) locus, were analyzed in the two lines using pyrosequencing methods in four tissues, i.e., liver, spleen, blood and hypothalamus. A significant CpG hypermethylation level was seen in line 72 in all four tissues, e.g., 91.86±1.63% for ALVE region2 in blood,
Its another beautiful day on the Old McDonald|farm, and having fed and watered the horses, cows, sheep, and other assorted barnyard animals, you decide...
group-specific-antigen definition: Noun (plural group specific antigens) 1. The genetic material that codes for the structural protein of a retrovirus...
Ꭺt the time of the MMA match, it is very important tһat you know everything about the activity. Make certain that you are educated on all the kinds of combating concerned in MMA. You ought to be aware tһat each fighter has its own specialty аnd advаntagе in the game while placing your bets. Think about examining the past fights to determine out which fighter won with what bеnefit. How it is carried out? Nicely, initial you will juѕt need to get all the info on all elements such as specific benefits, peгform ѕtyles ᧐r aⅼl theѕe elements that have offered an upper hand to the fighter throughout the match.. Beyond records, changes, and scratches, how can you choose the correct picks in horseraсing? Cеrtainly not by choosing the horse because yߋu like his name-thatѕ never great, unless the horsеs title is Wingnut-for ѕоme reason we liкe that name!. The ⲟnline Dress up gameѕ haѕ stuffеd new craze in the younger girls and they all want to play them. They are ...
Glynn, J P.; Halpern, B L.; and Fefer, A, "An immunochemotherapeutic system for the treatment of a transplanted moloney virus-induced lymphoma in mice." (1969). Subject Strain Bibliography 1969. 913 ...
HPRS-103, the prototype of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J, was isolated in 1989 from meat-type chickens from commercial flocks where it induces myelocytic myeloid leukosis (ML). The HPRS-103 env gene differs considerably from other ALV subgroups but shows high identity (75-97%) to env-like sequences of the different members of the EAV family of endogenous avian retroviruses. Recently, we have isolated several viruses related to HPRS-103 from cases of ML. Although these isolates showed properties of ALV subgroup J, the majority of them resisted neutralization by HPRS-103-specific serum, suggesting antigenic variation. The nucleotide sequence of the env gene of the variant viruses showed several substitutions resulting in amino acid changes especially clustered in the variable regions hr1, hr2 and vr3. Analysis of the data suggests that selection pressure, probably from the immune response, is driving the antigenic variation among the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed the
Bovine Leukosis is a disease caused by the Bovine Leukosis virus (BLV). This is a blood borne disease that dwells in the lymphocytes (white blood cells) in cattle. Only 5% of infected animals will exhibit the clinical symptoms of developing tumors in lymphatic tissue. The prevalence ofleukosis is wide spread. It is fairly common to find herds with a prevalence of 80-90%, however not very common to find herds that are completely free of leukosis. According to the NAHMS 96 study, 88.5% of dairy herds and 38.7% of beef herds are infected. Transmission occurs by the transfer of bodily fluids that contain infected white cells (blood, colostrum, milk). Anything from reusing without sanitizing contaminated needles, syringes, breeding sleeves, dehorners, or balling guns can transmit leukosis. Transmission can also occur through colostrum or to a fetus in utero. ...
Induction of lymphomas in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by replication competent, non-transforming avian retroviruses (Avian Leukosis Virus, ALV) is both an economically significant, naturally...
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I was out at the Topeka Zoological Garden trying out a new combination: K 3 + Pentax 16 - 85 mm zoom + focal 2x mc converter. (I just bought the used
Avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced osteopetrosis is a proliferative disorder of the bone affecting the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts. Osteopetrosis is a polyclonal disease in which cells of the bone contain, on average, multiple viral DNA copies. Osteopetrotic bone is also characterized by the accumulation of unintegrated viral DNA, suggesting an atypical life cycle of the virus in the infected osteoblasts. To better understand virus-host interactions in the induction of osteopetrosis by ALVs, infected chick osteoblast cultures and osteopetrotic bone were examined for aspects of the virus life cycle and effects of infection on osteoblast function. Levels of infection and virus expression were compared in cultured osteoblasts and osteopetrotic bone. Osteopetrotic bone contained higher levels of viral DNA and correspondingly higher levels of viral proteins than infected osteoblast cultures, suggesting a higher viral load in the diseased bone. A significant level of mature Gag protein was
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disease tropism of c-erbB. T2 - Effects of carboxyl-terminal tyrosine and internal mutations on tissue-specific transformation. AU - Pelley, R. J.. AU - Maihle, Nita Jane. AU - Boerkoel, C.. AU - Shu, H. K.. AU - Carter, T. H.. AU - Moscovici, C.. AU - Kung, H. J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Avian leukosis virus induces erythroleukemia in chickens by proviral insertional mutation of the proto-oncogene c-erbB. The product of the insertionally activated c-erbB locus lacks the extracellular ligand-binding domain and is strictly leukemogenic. It has previously been demonstrated that the disease spectrum associated with aberrant c-erbB expression can be expanded by structural perturbation of the cytoplasmic domain of this protein. In this report, we use mutagenesis and retroviral vectors to identify specific mutations in the carboxyl-terminal domain of the insertionally activated c-erbB product that are sufficient to activate the sarcomagenic potential of this protein. ...
In addition to neoplasias caused in chickens by helper viruses of the avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) complex, acute myeloblastic leukemia is induced by a defective leukemogenic component. To...
Traditionally, virus isolates have been named most commonly for the disease from which they were isolated - e.g. influenza, poliomyelitis, visna, foot-and-mouth disease, and the like. A smaller number are named for the place of isolation - Coxsackie, Sindbis, and Sendai viruses are a few examples, and a mercifully small number are named for their discoverers - alone or in combination with other features - such as Epstein-Barr virus, Rous sarcoma virus, etc. With retroviruses, it is also usual to append the species of origin to the name - avian leukosis virus, human T-cell lymphoma virus, baboon endogenous virus, etc. Unlike most other organisms, the naming of new virus isolates has usually been a trivial prerogative of the isolator, and not subject to review by other workers in the field . This has, in general, caused little difficulty so long as the names chosen were novel and did not presuppose unproven relationships. Significant confusion has been created in the past, however, by injudicious ...
A team led by Xin Li, Ph.D., assistant professor in the departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Urology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, analyzed rooster testes to find out.. Chickens acquire and harbor a wide variety of viruses. When a virus infects a host, like a chicken, it does everything it can to survive. One method of survival is inserting its genetic material into the chickens genome. Over generations, the inserted virus accumulates mutations and eventually becomes harmless to the animal, but its still a part of the chickens genetic material.. Lis team focused on avian leukosis virus, which commonly infects and can lead to cancer in domestic chickens. Through molecular and genetic analysis, they discovered that chickens turn these old, existing viruses into piRNA-producing machines. When faced with a new avian leucosis virus (there are many different viruses in the family), the old viruses pump out piRNAs that defend the germ cells, ensuring the ...
Looking for Erythroblastosis faetalis? Find out information about Erythroblastosis faetalis. a disease manifested at birth or shortly thereafter and generally caused by incompatibility of the mothers blood with that of the fetus with respect to the... Explanation of Erythroblastosis faetalis
Avian myeloblastosis ATCC ® VR-1542AS-Gt™ Designation: antiserum against AMV RT [NCI HE 599] Application: goat antiserum against the Avian Myeloblastosis Virus (AMV) Reverse Transcriptase (RT)
Apffel, C A. and Peters, J H., "Successful heterotransplantation of l1210 mouse leukosis into un- treated adult hamsters. Abstr." (1968). Subject Strain Bibliography 1968. 45 ...
Looking for erythroblastoses? Find out information about erythroblastoses. The abnormal presence of erythroblasts in the blood. A virus disease of birds; considered to be part of the avian leukosis complex in which there is an... Explanation of erythroblastoses
used to derive intake values did not include consideration for other applications. However, with the increasing globalization of information and the identification of a variety of factors specific to different population subgroups (e.g ...
This material is from the book A Syllabus of Human Hemoglobin Variants (1996) by Titus H.J. Huisman, Marianne F.H. Carver, and Georgi D. Efremov, published by The Sickle Cell Anemia Foundation in Augusta, GA, USA. Copyright © 1996 by Titus H.J. Huisman. All rights reserved. Neither this work nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, microfilming and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission. ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Description of disease Erythroblastosis fetalis. Treatment Erythroblastosis fetalis. Symptoms and causes Erythroblastosis fetalis Prophylaxis Erythroblastosis fetalis
At the first baby, there are no antibodies against Rh+, while birth, blood of the baby and the mother mixes and there are some antibodies produced, And those antibodies make the second baby die or born with some abnormalities. IgG can pass through placenta. Actually erythroblastosis fetalis can also be defined as the lysis of fetal RBCs by maternal IgGs ...
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs due to Rh incompatibility between the mother and the fetus, resulting in severe anemia and sometimes death of the fetus.
The Northern and Southern White Rhinos (Ceratotherium cottoni and C. simum) have the most developed social system among all the rhinoceros species. Until recently, little has been known about their communication and social behaviour. This paper presents the results of four recent studies involving research into the social behaviour and vocal and olfactory communication of these species both in the wildlife reserves in South Africa and in zoological gardens. ...
A TOTAL of 64 pupils and four teachers from Khwezi Primary in Sobantu were treated to an outing to the Natal Zoological Gardens last week, courtesy of Bluff Meat Supply.
In July 2009, a 14-yr-old male caracal (Caracal caracal) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa was found, on abdominal ultrasound, to have a single large cystolith. The cystolith was removed, and the composition was determined to be 100% cystine. Blood and urine samples were also collected from three other apparently healthy caracals at the zoo and were submitted, together with the sa ...
Evaluation of genetic variation within and between different chicken lines by DNA fingerprinting. Genetic similarity using DNA fingerprinting in cattle to determine relationship coefficient
Здравсвуйте пользователи форума amv.at.ua, вчера пользователь под ником Olechkalype просила меня выложить супермодные новинки Компьютерные аксессуары/Графические планшеты в 2014, а так же сотовые бренда Intuos Pro Special Ed., так вот наконецто нашла время для этого, админы прошу не удалять, а перенести в соответствующий раздел, если я ошиблась например Компьютерные аксессуары/Графические планшеты ))) всех обнимаю ...
Пожалуй, самым разочаровывающим итогом 2013 года стало сползание в экономический застой. На протяжении года снижались как темпы роста промышленности, так и ВВП. Если в начале года еще казалось, что экономика вот-вот разгонится и из состояния «технической рецессии» войдет в фазу роста, то уже весной тональность заявлений финансовых властей смен ...
The host ranges of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) pseudotype RSV(HPRS-103) of a novel avian leukosis virus (ALV), strain HPRS-103, and representative RSV pseudotypes of subgroups A to F, have been determined in embryo fibroblasts from 12 avian species. Domestic fowl, red jungle fowl, Sonnerat's jungle fowl and turkey were susceptible to infection by RSV(HPRS-103); ring-necked pheasant, Japanese green pheasant, golden pheasant, Japanese quail, guinea-fowl, Peking duck, Muscovy duck and goose were resistant. The host range pattern of RSV(HPRS-103) differs from those of viruses of subgroups A to G and I, and provides support for placing the HPRS-103 strain of ALV in a new envelope subgroup, designated J.
2Division of Basic Sciences, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-4472 USA. Wnt1 signaling has been implicated as one factor involved in neural crest-derived melanocyte (NC-M) development. Mice deficient for both Wnt1 and Wnt3a have a marked deficiency in trunk neural crest derivatives including NC-Ms (1). We have used cell lineage-directed gene targeting of Wnt signaling genes to examine the effects of Wnt signaling in mouse neural crest development. Gene expression was directed to cell-lineages by infection with subgroup A avian leukosis virus vectors (RCAS) (2) in lines of transgenic mice that express the retrovirus receptor tv-a (2). Transgenic mice with tva in either nestin expressing neural precuror cells (line Ntva) or dopachrome tautomerase (DCT) expressing melanoblasts (line DCTtva) were analyzed. We over-stimulated Wnt signaling in two ways: directed gene transfer of Wnt1 to Ntva+ cells and transfer of b-catenin to DCTtva+ NC-M precursor ...
Abstract: Contents of scvalene, sterols and their derivatives were studied in lymphoid tissues as well as in liver and kidney tissues of normal rats and the animals with Shvetz experimental leukosis. Amount of cholesterol and of its precursor scvalene was distinctly decreased simultaneously with an increase in total content of nonsaponified substances in thymus, spleen, bone marrow and liver tissue of rats with experimental leukosis. Scvalene was increased in kidney tissue. Simultaneous accumulation of hydroxycholesterol derivatives, among which 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol was identified, was observed in these tissues under conditions of leukosis. Role of cholesterol hydroxyderivatives in biosynthesis of sterols is discussed ...
Rosok, Mae Joanne, "Dissociation and isolation of the subunits of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA-directed DNA polymerase" (1977). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 6828 ...
By Manfred Brack. The contacts among guy and nonhuman primates permit the transmission of mic- roorganisms from one species to the opposite. Such touch may perhaps take place at particularly range- ent degrees: guy and nonhuman primates may possibly percentage an identical surroundings together with the presence of vectors within the international locations of origins of monkeys and apes; the animals are captured to be bought or used for nutrients; box researchers need to remain close to the ani- mals within the wild; an out of control human inhabitants will get shut adequate to nearly contact the animals in zoological gardens world wide; puppy proprietors identify physically touch and eventually researchers doing surgical procedure or necropsies are uncovered to an elevated variety of pathogens liberated from the organs and physique fluids. frequently monkeys and apes are extra threatened with catching the microorgan- isms indigenous to guy than vice versa, yet however outbreaks of precise ...
Obesity has been identified as a life-threatening condition among human beings. But as officials in the Delhi zoo have realised over the last year, it can stall life in the animal kingdom too. Thats why they are returning Salman, a 12-year-old jaguar, to Kerala with this stinging verdict: "hes too fat to breed". Salman was borrowed on a "breeding loan" from the Thiruvananthapuram Zoological Garden last October, but has since shown "complete disinterest" in pairing up with the lone female jaguar in the National Zoological Park here, say Delhi zoo officials. They say Salman has "reached out for its meals more keenly than for Kalpana", the female jaguar. "He was brought on a breeding loan but it has been over a year and Salman has shown no interest in mating. In fact, the female is seen trying to entice him but he lies in a corner and refuses to respond. He is too fat to breed," Delhi zoo curator Riaz Khan told The Indian Express. "Now we know for sure nothing is going to happen. So it is best ...
D-Krefeld, Rhein, Niederrhein, Rheinland, Nordrhein-Westfalen, NRW, D-Krefeld-Bockum, Krefelder Zoo, Spitzmaulnashorn, Schwarzes Nashorn, Diceros bicornis, D-Krefeld, Rhine, Lower Rhine, Rhineland, North Rhine-Westphalia, NRW, D-Krefeld-Bockum, zoological garden Krefeld, black rhinoceros, hook-lipped rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis *** Local Caption *** D-Krefeld, Rhine, Lower...
In July 2009, a 14-yr-old male caracal (Caracal caracal) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa was found, on abdominal ultrasound, to have a single large cystolith. The cystolith was removed, and the composition was determined to be 100% cystine. Blood and urine samples were also collected from three other apparently healthy caracals at the zoo and were submitted, together with the sa ...
Define erythroblastosis fetalis. erythroblastosis fetalis synonyms, erythroblastosis fetalis pronunciation, erythroblastosis fetalis translation, English dictionary definition of erythroblastosis fetalis. n. A severe hemolytic disease of a fetus or newborn infant caused by the production of maternal antibodies against the fetal red blood cells, usually...
M. Pągowski opened a small zoo on Koszykowa Street in 1926, and moved this zoo to a new 10,000-square-metre (110,000 sq ft) area on 3 Maja Avenue in 1927. The construction of the 32-hectare (79-acre) City Zoological Garden was started in 1927 as well. In November 1927 the zoo gained a director when Wenanty Burdziński, former director and founder of the zoological garden in Kiev, was appointed to the post. Construction of the zoo was fast, and the zoo was opened in March 1928, with some animals purchased from M. Pągowski and some donated by the Pedagogical Museum, which had a small zoo on its premises.[11] Animals resident at the zoo when it opened included lions, tigers, and a female Indian elephant named Kasia.[12] Wenanty Burdziński died of acute pneumonia before the end of 1928, and Jan Żabiński was appointed director. Before World War II, Jan oversaw the creation of several exhibits including the monkey house, elephant house, enclosures for antelopes, a seal pond, and the giraffe ...
Abstract: Amount of cholesterol was distinctly decreased but content of scvalene, lanosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol and 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol--increased in erythrocyte membranes of rats with Shvetz experimental leukosis. At the same time, osmotic stability of erythrocytes and a pattern of acidic erythrogramms were altered. After UV irradiation of rats amount of cholesterol was increased as well as other unidentified substances appeared in erythrocyte membranes. These alterations appear to be one of factors responsible for development of body resistance to leukosis ...
Austin, John Holcombe, "Erythroblastosis fetalis: Pathogenesis and prognosis. A study of clinical obstetrical data" (1965). Yale Medicine Thesis Digital Library. 2367 ...
There are zoological gardens and there is Rio Safari in Elche. Its not a giant zoo, but very welcoming and especially for kids. Here visitors have the possibility to both pat many of the animals and even take a ride on different species. Why not give your kids a ride on a dromedary or on a pony if they are afraid of heights?. They also have a safari, several really good shows with sea lions, elephants, parrots etc. The visitors are also in most cases allowed to feed the animals while walking through the park, as long as its peanuts bought in the zoo. Good to know is that they are also very affordable to buy, like most of the things they have for sale. ...
by Bernard K. Means, Director One hundred years ago on September 1, 1914, in the Cincinnati Zoological Garden, the last known passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) died. Her name was Martha. The skies of North America once teemed with these creatures, but by the end of the 19th century, their numbers were decimated by the twin…
D-Krefeld, Rhein, Niederrhein, Rheinland, Nordrhein-Westfalen, D-Krefeld-Bockum, Krefelder Zoo, Damara-Zebra, Equus quagga antiquorum, D-Krefeld, Rhine, Lower Rhine, Rhineland, North Rhine-Westphalia, D-Krefeld-Bockum, zoological garden Krefeld, Damara zebra, Equus quagga antiquorum *** Local Caption *** D-Krefeld, Rhine, Lower Rhine, Rhineland, North Rhine-Westphalia,...
CHAP. I. SERVICEABLE ASSOCIATED HABITS. other hard surface, generally turn round and round and scratch the ground with their fore-paws in a senseless manner, as if they intended to trample down the grass and scoop out a hollow, as no doubt their wild parents did, when they lived on open grassy plains or in the woods. Jackals, fennecs, and other allied animals in the Zoological Gardens, treat their straw in this man- ner; but it is a rather odd circumstance that the keepers, after observing for some months, have never seen the wolves thus behave. A semi-idiotic dog and an ani- mal in this condition would be particularly liable to follow a senseless habit was observed by a friend to turn completely round on a carpet thirteen times before going to sleep. Many carnivorous animals, as they crawl towards their prey and prepare to rush or spring on it, lower their heads and crouch, partly, as it would appear, to hide themselves, and partly to get ready for their rush; and this* habit in an exaggerated ...
ERG antibody [N3C3] (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian)) for WB. Anti-ERG pAb (GTX113079) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
In this study microsatellite markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the six local chicken lines kept in the "Fowls for Africa" program, for better clarification of parameters for breed differentiation and genetic conservation of this valuable resource. The lines included the Black Australorp, Potchefstroom Koekoek, New Hampshire, Ovambo, Lebova- Venda and a Naked Neck line. Unbiased estimates for heterozygosity ranged from 50% in the Potchefstroom Koekoek to as high as 65% in the Naked Neck chickens. FIS values varied from as low as 0.16 for the Black Australorp line to as high as 0.35 for the Ovambo chickens. The FST values indicated moderate to high genetic differentiation between the Naked Neck and New Hampshire (0.11); Ovambo and Naked Neck lines (0.12), and Naked Neck and Lebowa- Venda (0.14). A total of 13% of the total genetic variation observed was between the chicken lines and 87% within the lines, supporting moderate genetic ...
The avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) is an alpha retrovirus responsible for acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) when injected in ovo, or in newly hatched chickens [10]. Early in vitro dose response experiments indicated that the production of virion with leukemogenic potential required a double infection with AMV and a helper virus [11]. The AMV strains that are used and commercially available, are derived from the orignal BAI strain A purified from chicken leukemic plasma [12]. Leukemic plasma containing the BAI strain has been widely distributed for many years by Life Sciences Inc., in Florida which has been the official provider of national agencies in the USA. The Standard AMV-S BAI strain is a complex mixture of viruses that also includes two helper viruses in addition to AMV. The helper viruses Myeoloblastosis Associated Virus (MAV) contained in AMV-S belong to two different serological subgoups (type1 and type2, also called A and B). Both of them are oncogenic [13].. Both MAV-1 and MAV-2 ...
ERG antibody, Internal (v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog) for WB. Anti-ERG pAb (GTX77743) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Nature-based and ecological tourism are becoming popular for both international and domestic tourist in India and Asia.Indias horticultural gardens,village farms,traditional plantations,national parks and state parks, wildlife parks and zoological gardens, botanic gardens, municipal gardens and green spaces offer variety of. ...
A dialogue between two artists about... the Voynich Manuscript, how ideas come in artistic practice, propitious situations, memory of the conscious and unconscious, transcribing poetry, ornithology, zoological gardens, the films of Fellini, screenplays, why the master of Czech literature, Jan Neruda, slept in the same bed as his father..... The conversation between Zbyněk Baladrán (1973, Prague) and Jiří Kovanda (1953, Prague) is conducted in the form of spontaneous reflections on the images with which they confront each other. It is, however, a debate that constantly branches out, creating a topical mental map of the aesthetics, referential environments and approaches of two generations. ...
Höfer began taking color photographs of interiors of public buildings, such as offices, banks, and waiting rooms, in 1979 while studying in Düsseldorf.[4] Her breakthrough to fame came with a series of photographs showing guest workers in Germany, after which she concentrated on the subjects "Interiors", "Rooms" and "Zoological Gardens". Höfer specialises in large-format photographs of empty interiors and social spaces that capture the "psychology of social architecture". Her photographs are taken from a classic straight-on frontal angle or seek a diagonal in the composition.[5] She tends to shoot each actionless room from an elevated vantage point near one wall so that the far wall is centered within the resulting image. From her earliest creations, she has been interested in representing public spaces such as museums, libraries, national archives, or opera houses devoid of all human presence. Höfers imagery has consistently focused on these depopulated interiors since the 1980s.[6] Höfer ...
RT Components: 1U/mL RNase inhibitor, 0.625U/mL reverse transcriptase (avian myeloblastosis virus, Boehringer), 1microM G1 primer, 1.75mM dNTPs ...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
Hess, Silvia; Alve, Elisabeth; Trannum, Hilde Cecilie & Norling, Karl (2013). Benthic foraminiferal responses to water-based drill cuttings and natural sediment burial: Results from a mesocosm experiment. Marine Micropaleontology. ISSN 0377-8398. 101, s 1- 9 . doi: 10.1016/j.marmicro.2013.03.004 Show summary Effects of burial by water-based drill cuttings and natural test sediment on living (stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated in a mesocosm experiment. After 193 days, the foraminiferal response in sediment covered with drill cuttings was compared to the response in sediment covered with defaunated natural test sediment. Increasing thickness of added material, independent of type of material, significantly reduced the benthic foraminiferal abundance and species richness. While most species managed to migrate through added sediments of up to 12 mm thickness, results indicate that a burial depth of 24 mm severely limits the migration capability of the foraminifera. Textularia earlandi ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alloreactivity and tumor antigens. T2 - Generation of syngeneic antilymphoma killer lymphocytes by alloimmunization of mice with normal cells. AU - Sensi, M. L.. AU - Parenza, M.. AU - Parmiani, G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The possibility of obtaining a syngeneic antitumor effect by immunization with normal allogeneic cells was investigated by tests of the lytic activity of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) of BALB/c mice immunized with lymphoid cells of either a single strain or a pool of six different allogeneic strains on the syngeneic Moloney virus-induced lymphoma YC8 target and on one of its clones designated YC8-D1. Significant cytotoxicity on both targets but not on two other BALB/c lymphomas was obtained with PEC of BALB/c mice singly immunized to the non-H-2-incompatible but H-2-compatible DBA/2 or B10.D2 lymphoid cells. The lack of lysis of YC8 cells by PEC of BALB/c mice immune to B10.A (H-2(k.d)) suggests that the in vitro killing was restricted by K(d)-IE(d) region ...
The Animals of Farthing Wood (Farthing Wood, Book 1). Animals Behaving Badly: Boozing Bees, Cheating Chimps, Dogs with Guns, and Other Beastly True Tales. The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism Among the Primates. How It Works: Can A Cow Jump? & Other Crazy Questions. Zoo and Aquarium History: Ancient Animal Collections To Zoological Gardens. A Foray into the Worlds of Animals and Humans: with A Theory of Meaning (Posthumanities). "Anybody who has never used a redwood incubator doesnt appreciate it," Sherrick says. He can supply manuals for most old incubators. If he doesnt have a manual, he can tell you about how to work it. George Koke of Franksville, Wisconsin, found a 1940s Jamesway 2940K incubator with a hand-crank turner and needed some help getting it going. Now, its hatching around 90 percent of the pheasant eggs he incubates. "Now I have to figure out how to feed all these birds Im hatching because of this.. Must have proper ventilation to provide fresh air to the ...
What is Mareks Mareks disease is a highly contagious viral Neoplastic disease in chickens. The disease is characterized by the presence of T -...
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
The distribution on serovars of 60 Salmonella isolates from reptiles kept in captivity in Denmark during the period 1995-2006 was investigated. The isolates were all recovered from clinical specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Institute. A majority of the samples were from reptiles in zoological gardens or similar, while a minor number was from reptiles kept in private homes. A total of 43 serovars were detected, most of them being what is usually called exotic serotypes, and many not having a trivial name, while a few isolates belonged to well-known human pathogenic serovars, such as S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Bovismorbificans. One isolate was rough and two were non-typeable. Isolates from turtles belonged to the subspecies enterica, while many isolates from both sauria and snakes belonged to other subspecies. The findings underline the potential zoonotic risk by handling reptiles in zoological garden or other public settings, or keeping pet reptiles in private homes ...
VAN MARLE-KOSTER, E.; HEFER, C.A.; NEL, L.H. y GROENEN, M.A.M.. Genetic diversity and population structure of locally adapted South African chicken lines: implications for conservation. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2008, vol.38, n.4, pp.271-281. ISSN 2221-4062.. In this study microsatellite markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the six local chicken lines kept in the "Fowls for Africa" program, for better clarification of parameters for breed differentiation and genetic conservation of this valuable resource. The lines included the Black Australorp, Potchefstroom Koekoek, New Hampshire, Ovambo, Lebova- Venda and a Naked Neck line. Unbiased estimates for heterozygosity ranged from 50% in the Potchefstroom Koekoek to as high as 65% in the Naked Neck chickens. FIS values varied from as low as 0.16 for the Black Australorp line to as high as 0.35 for the Ovambo chickens. The FST values indicated moderate to high genetic differentiation between the ...
Okay. So two days ago a 7 month old ameraucana/silkie cross rooster that I hatched and raised, started to look very droopy and was just sitting hunched...
The line was derived from normal lung tissue from a child who died of erythroblastosis (Rh incompatibility). A normal skin line derived from the same patient is available as ATCC CRL-1497.
We have previously described avian leukosis virus-based packaging cell lines that express gag, pol, and env proteins from two transcomplementing genomes and produce helper-free stocks of retroviral vectors with different host ranges. In this report, we demonstrated that (i) despite the deletion of the psi packaging sequence, the packaging-defective transcomplementing retroviral transcripts were packaged into virions at a level that could reach 2.3% of a wild-type virus packaging level and (ii) despite deletion of the 3 LTR, these genomes were transferred along with the vector to target cells. As these genomes were also bearing a selectable gene, titers of the resulting contaminant particles could be estimated, depending on the cell line to be between 0 and 6 infectious particles/ml of supernatant.
The proto- oncogene c- erbB- 1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v- erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus ( AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c- ErbB- 1 gene lacking the amino- terminal ligand- binding domain. Overexpression of erbB- 1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c- erbB- 1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12 ...
Intensification of the broiler chicken industry started in the late 1950s, when the use of dual purpose chickens for egg and meat production ceased and new poultry strains were produced specifically for meat production. For example, in 1950/51, only 3 million broilers were raised commercially, and now over 400 million are raised and killed in Australia each year. In addition to the breeding program to grow chickens faster (and so cheaper), demand was also growing, and for example Kentucky Fried Chicken opened its first Australian store in 1968, and increased chicken consumption radically. In the early 1970s in just 12 months as 75 Kentucky Fried Chicken stores opened, Australian production of chicken increased 38%. The result of the narrowly focused breeding programs has been a bird which grows twice or three times as fast as a normal chicken and converts its food into meat in a much more efficient way. Most are raised under intensive systems and reach slaughter weight at 5-7 weeks of age. ...
Compare v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian)-like 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
I am friendly and easy to talk to. I respect other peoples belongings, space and privacy. I am clean and tidy in my appearance and the way I live. I am female, from Japan and work full time as a hairdresser. I enjoy time at the beach and surfing. I also enjoy cooking. ...
The following genera are included here: Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma ...
... is a disease that affects chickens, caused by the retrovirus Avian leukosis virus. It is a neoplastic disease ...
Genus Alpharetrovirus; type species: Avian leukosis virus; others include Rous sarcoma virus ...
Rubin, H; Vogt PK (1962). "An avian leukosis virus associated with stocks of Rous sarcoma virus". Virology. 17: 184-94. doi: ... Vogt, PK; Ishizaki R (1966). "Patterns of viral interference in the avian leukosis and sarcoma complex". Virology. 30 (3): 368- ... Maki, Y; Bos TJ; Davis C; Starbuck M; Vogt PK (1987). "Avian sarcoma virus 17 carries the jun oncogene". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ... "Nobel Prize 1989". Duesberg, PH; Bister K; Vogt PK (1977). "The RNA of avian acute leukemia virus MC29". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S ...
... after Marek's disease and avian leukosis virus. The various syndromes caused by REV resemble both Marek's and avian leukosis. ... The Avian Diagnostic and Oncology Laboratory, in East Lansing, MI is the primary laboratory for research in REV and other tumor ... "Avian Diagnostic and Oncology Laboratory". "Frequently Asked Questions on Viral Tumor Diseases - Compiled by the AAAP Tumor ... The American Association of Avian Pathologists maintains a fact sheet on viral tumor diseases. Swayne, David E.; Glisson, John ...
Lymphoid Leukosis A, B; Avian Lymphoid Leukosis Virus; Lymphoid Leukosis Viruses A,B,C,D,E,J; Marek's Disease (Serotypes 1,2, 3 ... Avian Nephritis Virus, Avian Paramyxovirus Type 2, Avian Reovirus S 1133, Avian Rhinotracheitis Virus; Avian Rotavirus; Avian ... Avian Adenovirus Group II (HEV), Avian Adenovirus Group III (EDS), Avian Encephalomyelitis, Avian Influenza (Type A), ... For SPF eggs the specific pathogens are: Avian Adenovirus Group I, ...
Species include the Rous sarcoma virus, avian leukosis virus, and avian myeloblastosis virus. Alpharetrovirus at the US ...
Curristin SM, Bird KJ, Tubbs RJ, Ruddell A (1997). "VBP and RelA regulate avian leukosis virus long terminal repeat-enhanced ...
Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Viruses (ASLV) have ten subgroups (A through J). The envelope glycoprotein of subgroup A is called ... The Env proteins of the Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis virus (ASLV) and the Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) are both trimers of SU-TM ... Barnard RJ, Narayan S, Dornadula G, Miller MD, Young JA (October 2004). "Low pH is required for avian sarcoma and leukosis ... Balliet JW, Gendron K, Bates P (April 2000). "Mutational analysis of the subgroup A avian sarcoma and leukosis virus putative ...
Rous sarcoma and Avian leukosis viruses (Alpharetroviruses and Avian type C retroviruses). dr1 is required for efficient viral ... Aschoff, JM; Foster D; Coffin JM (1999). "Point Mutations in the Avian Sarcoma/Leukosis Virus 3′ Untranslated Region Result in ... The direct repeat 1 (dr1) element is an RNA element commonly found in the 3' UTR of Avian sarcoma, ...
Newly hatched chicks infected with Avian leukosis virus will begin to form tumours that will begin to appear in their bursa of ... These tumours are normally derived from one mutated/transformed cell (clonal in origin). Avian leukosis virus is an example of ...
She was later employed as an agent of the USDA to investigate the diseases of poultry and avian leukosis. The abbreviation ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... Rous, Peyton (1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 (5): ... could be caused by a virus began with the experiments of Oluf Bang and Vilhelm Ellerman in 1908 who first show that avian ...
... in horses Leucosis in sheep Feline leucosis Feline leukemia virus Avian leucosis and related diseases Avian sarcoma leukosis ... ISBN 0-7020-0718-8. H. Graham Purchase and L.N. Payne, Leukosis/sarcoma Group, in Diseases of poultry, ed. by M.S. Hofstad, ...
Avian leukosis virus Autoliv (ticker symbol). ...
... avian MeSH C04.619.857.822 --- sarcoma, yoshida MeSH C04.619.935.120 --- avian leukosis MeSH C04.619.935.313 --- epstein-barr ... enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C04.557.337.372 --- leukemia, experimental MeSH C04.557.337.372.216 --- avian leukosis MeSH ... avian leukosis MeSH C04.619.531.594 --- leukemia l1210 MeSH C04.619.531.602 --- leukemia l5178 MeSH C04.619.531.782 --- ... avian MeSH C04.651.600.500 --- multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 MeSH C04.651.600.505 --- multiple endocrine neoplasia type ...
Family 1.G.12 The Avian Leukosis Virus gp95 Fusion Protein (ALV-gp95) Family 1.G.13 The Orthoreovirus Fusion-associated Small ... 1.A.39 Type C influenza virus CM2 channel family 1.A.40 Human immunodeficiency virus type I Vpu channel family 1.A.41 Avian ...
... avian leukosis MeSH C22.131.321 --- fowlpox MeSH C22.131.450 --- influenza in birds MeSH C22.131.498 --- malaria, avian MeSH ... avian MeSH C22.131.921 --- tuberculosis, avian MeSH C22.180.350 --- feline acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.180.440 ... enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C22.196.274 --- ephemeral fever MeSH C22.196.339 --- freemartinism MeSH C22.196.400 --- ...
Viruses portal Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous viral element ERV3 HERV-FRD Horizontal gene transfer Jaagsiekte ...
Ancient DNA Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) Endogenous retrovirus ERV3 HERV-FRD Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) Koala ...
... avian leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200 --- deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 --- enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH ... avian MeSH C02.782.930.100 --- alphavirus infections MeSH C02.782.930.100.370 --- encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH C02.782. ...
Chicken anaemia virus Lymphoid leucosis caused by avian sarcoma leukosis virus Marek's disease Newcastle disease Viral ...
Avian carcinoma Mill Hill virus 2 Avian coronavirus Avian dependoparvovirus 1 Avian leukosis virus Avian metapneumovirus Avian ... virus 29 Avian orthoreovirus Avian paramyxovirus 2 Avian paramyxovirus 3 Avian paramyxovirus 4 Avian paramyxovirus 5 Avian ... 8 Avian paramyxovirus 9 Avian paramyxovirus 10 Avian paramyxovirus 11 Avian paramyxovirus 12 Avian sapelovirus Avian sarcoma ...
In coinfected cells, the retroviral DNA of the avian leukosis virus can integrate into the MDV genome, producing altered ... for instance between Avian sarcoma leukosis virus and Marek's disease virus (MDV) in domestic fowl.[citation needed] Both ...
... avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.500 --- leukosis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.550 --- myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.820. ... avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.500 --- leukosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.550 --- myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH ... avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.500 --- leukosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.550 --- myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH ... avian MeSH B04.820.565.400.410 --- hepatitis a virus MeSH B04.820.565.400.410.500 --- hepatitis a virus, human MeSH B04.820. ...
Talk:Avian reovirus. *Talk:Avian reovirus (version 2). *Talk:Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ...
E and J are the major subgroups of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infecting chickens. ALV infection has become endemic in China and ... Avian Pathol. 2009;38(6):443-8.Google Scholar. *. Zavala G, Cheng S. Detection and characterization of avian leukosis virus in ... Occurrence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in commercial layer flocks in China. Avian Pathol. 2004;33:13-7.View Article ... Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of the avian leukosis virus causing so-called fowl glima. Avian Pathol. 2005;34: ...
... to env-like sequences of the different members of the EAV family of endogenous avian retroviruses. Recently, we have isolated ... was isolated in 1989 from meat-type chickens from commercial flocks where it induces myelocytic myeloid leukosis (ML). The HPRS ... of the sequences showed the evolutionary relationships of the isolates with HPRS-103 and the EAV family of endogenous avian ... the prototype of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup J, ... HPRS-103, the prototype of avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroup ...
Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosi ... Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks ... Incidence of avian leukosis virus infection in broiler stocks and its effect on early growth.. Authors * Crittenden, L B ... Twenty-eight broiler breeder flocks were tested for avian leukosis virus (ALV) group-specific (gs) antigen shedding into the ...
Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a member of the avian sarcoma and leukosis family of retroviruses, has long been known to be capable ... N2 - Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a member of the avian sarcoma and leukosis family of retroviruses, has long been known to be ... AB - Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a member of the avian sarcoma and leukosis family of retroviruses, has long been known to be ... abstract = "Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), a member of the avian sarcoma and leukosis family of retroviruses, has long been known to ...
The effects of cyclophosphamide treatment on the pathogenesis of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) infection in broiler ... Hrdlicková, R., Nehyba, J., and Humphries, E. H. (1994). V-rel induce expression of three avian immuno-regulatory surface ... toll-like receptors and molecular characterization of avian specific TLR15. Mol. Biol. Rep. 39, 8539-8549. doi: 10.1007/s11033- ... Distinct expression pattern and post-transcriptional regulation of cell cycle genes in the glandular epithelia of avian ovarian ...
Reticuloendotheliosis virus and avian leukosis virus subgroup J synergistically increase the accumulation of exosomal miRNAs. ... Histologic findings and viral antigen distribution in natural coinfection of layer hens with subgroup J avian leukosis virus, ... Isolation and characterization of subgroup J Avian Leukosis virus associated with hemangioma in commercial Hy-Line chickens. 61 ... The Roles of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in Avian Response to Viral Infection and Pathogenesis of Avian Immunosuppressive Diseases. 61 ...
Avian Leukosis is a neoplastic disease caused by the (aptly named) Avian Leukosis virus (ALV). This is a retrovirus of the ... www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/11/avian-leukosis-lymphoid-leukosis-leukosis-sarkoma-group. ... its safe to say were looking at an Avian Leukosis. Further differentiation can be based on the specific symptoms noted above ... it looks like youre going to need to know everything you can about Avian Leukosis. ...
Avian sarcoma leukosis virus is characterized by a wide range of tumors, the most common of which are lymphomas. Lymphoid ... Avian sarcoma leukosis virus (ASLV) is an endogenous retrovirus that infects and can lead to cancer in chickens; experimentally ... The American Association of Avian Pathologists maintains a fact sheet on viral tumor diseases. "Leukosis/Sarcoma Group". The ... ISBN 978-1-118-71973-2. Riddell, C. (May-June 1999). "The current problem with Avian Leukosis J Virus". California Poultry ...
The mechanism of interference between an avian leukosis virus and Rous sarcoma virus. II. Early steps of infection by RSV of ...
The cellular receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus (ALSV-A) is Tva, which contains a motif related to ... The solution structure of the viral binding domain of Tva, the cellular receptor for subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma ...
Identification and characterisation of endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) insertions in chicken whole genome ... In chickens, endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) expression has been associated with reductions in muscle growth ... In chickens, endogenous Avian Leukosis Virus subgroup E (ALVE) expression has been associated with reductions in muscle growth ... Molecular identification of avian leukosis virus subgroup E loci and tumor virus B locus in Chinese indigenous chickens. ...
Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. ... Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. ... Occupational exposure to poultry and prevalence of antibodies against Mareks disease virus and avian leukosis retroviruses. ...
Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome. Stephen D. Barr, ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ... Integration Targeting by Avian Sarcoma-Leukosis Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Chicken Genome ...
Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events.. B E Clurman ... Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. ... Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. ... Multiple proto-oncogene activations in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas: evidence for stage-specific events. ...
"Isolation and characterization of subgroup J Avian Leukosis virus associated with hemangioma in commercial Hy-Line chickens, ... 40 years of Avian leukosis research . Avian Pathol. 41 : 11 - 19 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed Qin A , Lee L. F ... 40 years of Avian leukosis research . Avian Pathol. 41 : 11 - 19 . Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed Qin A , Lee L. F ... Occurrence of avian leukosis virus subgroup J in commercial layer flocks in China . Avian Pathol. 33 : 13 - 17 . Google Scholar ...
"Identification of a linear B-cell epitope on the avian leukosis virus P27 protein using monoclonal antibodies, Archives of ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is an avian oncogenic retrovirus that can induce various clinical tumors. The capsid protein P27 is ... Isolation and some characteristics of a subgroup J-like avian leukosis virus associated with myeloid leukosis in meat-type ... Recovery of acutely transforming viruses from myeloid leukosis induced by the HPRS-103 strain of avian leukosis virus ...
Structural dynamics and local changes in the dimerization site of avian retroviral RNA were studied. Our task was to identify ... To this end we replaced the unpaired adenine in the hairpin loop of avian leukosis virus RNA with a fluorescent probe 2- ... Conformation Change of the Loop Adenine of Avian Leukosis Virus RNA Upon Antibiotic Binding Revealed by 2-Aminopurine ... Structural dynamics and local changes in the dimerization site of avian retroviral RNA were studied. Our task was to identify ...
Receptor specificity in avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV) maps to the central region of the envelope surface protein, ... Receptor-induced conformational changes in the subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein.. *J M Gilbert ... Receptor specificity in avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses (ASLV) maps to the central region of the envelope surface protein, ... Antigenic variants of J subgroup avian leukosis virus: sequence analysis reveals multiple changes in the env gene.. *K ...
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic retrovirus which causes immunosuppression and neoplasia in meat-type ... From: Avian leukosis virus subgroup J induces its receptor--chNHE1 up-regulation ...
Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ... Reply to commentary by D. Elleder and J. Hejnar on the article "Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag gene in the Anser anser ... Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ... Actually, endogenous avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (enASLV) sequences are variable in the Galliformes birds, and geese have ...
The avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are a major group of retroviruses associated with neoplastic diseases in poultry. The ALV-J ... Avian leukosis virus subgroup J-associated myelocytoma in a hobby chicken. The avian leukosis viruses (ALVs) are a major group ... Home » Publications » Avian leukosis virus subgroup J-associated myelocytoma in a hobby chicken ...
... Whilst we are all very familiar with Mareks disease causing tumours in chicken flocks, Avian Leukosis is ... Avian leukosis virus belongs to a family of viruses called retroviruses. In this family of viruses are bovine leukosis ( ... Like Mareks disease Avian Leukosis infects the white blood cells, these are the cells that the body uses to fight infections, ... In some cases Avian Leukosis causes bone tumours to form in the legs leading to thickened bowed legs. ...
Lymphoid Leukosis. These are the oncogenic virus (otherwise known as oncoviruses or tumor viruses).. Affected Systems/Organs. ... In Lymphoid Leukosis, especially, there may be abdominal enlargement. The combs may be pale, shriveled, or occasionally ...
Avian Leukosis Virus. Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the genus Alpharetrovirus of the Retroviridae family. This virus is ... Payne LN, Nair V. The long view: 40 years of avian leukosis research. Avian Pathol (2012) 41(1):11-9. doi:10.1080/03079457.2011 ... MicroRNA-23b promotes avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) replication by targeting IRF1. Sci Rep (2015) 5:10294. doi: ... gga-miR-375 plays a key role in tumorigenesis post subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection. PLoS One (2014) 9(4):e90878. doi: ...
PMCID: PMC112645 Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Measles and Mumps Vaccines Derived ... Evidence of Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup E and Endogenous Avian Virus in Measles and Mumps Vaccines Derived from Chicken Cells ... Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella ... Vaccine Contamination with other viruses - Avian Leukosis Virus. May 5, 2015. Vaccine 0 Comments ...
  • By inoculation of blood samples in DF-1 (C/E) cell culture, an exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain SDAU09C2 was isolated from a breeder farm of Chinese native breed 'Luhua' in Shandong province. (bvsalud.org)
  • Historically, close contact of fowl with humans has been shown epidemiologically to foster cross-species jump (avian to human) of new influenza strains (e.g. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Reply to commentary by D. Elleder and J. Hejnar on the article "Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus gag gene in the Anser anser domesticus genome" published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 14379-14386 to the letter published in Genet. (geneticsmr.com)
  • ResultsIn this study, the avian leukosis virus subgroup J ALV-J proviral genome, including the gag genes, were treated as targets for RNAi. (duhnnae.com)
  • Despite the discovery of specific host receptors that are critical for ALV entry, there has been only one report on the acquisition of resistance to ALV subgroup C in avian species via genome editing of host receptor genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to piRNAs that protect the germ-line genome from transposon activation, mammals and avian produce a distinct and abundant set of non-repetitive piRNA sequences whose function is unknown. (rochester.edu)
  • Like Mareks disease Avian Leukosis infects the white blood cells, these are the cells that the body uses to fight infections, which leads to two main affects. (chickenvet.co.uk)
  • Often it is difficult to distinguish between Mareks and Avian Leukosis on post mortem without histopathology (the tissue is cut into thin slices and examined through a microscope to look for the cancerous cells). (chickenvet.co.uk)
  • Examples of such contamination include simian virus in early polio vaccines grown on monkey kidney cells and avian leukosis virus (ALV) in yellow fever vaccines propagated in chick embryos ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This lack of sensitivity was also observed in transiently transfected avian cells under conditions that greatly reduce RSV budding. (asm.org)
  • Various bird organs function to differentiate avian immune cells: the thymus, Bursa of Fabricius and bone marrow are primary avian lymphoid organs whereas the spleen, mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT), germinal centers, and diffuse lymphoid tissues are secondary lymphoid organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pattern of accessory molecules expressed by avian T cells resembles mammalian α/β T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • High CD8 expression precedes the dual expression of CD4 and CD8 but following clonal selection and expansion, avian T cells cease to express either CD4 or CD8. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A transgenic avian comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a heterologous protein operably linked to an ovomucoid promoter that is at least 95% identical to the nucleotide sequence of about 34,473 to about 36,248 of SEQ ID NO: 36, wherein the heterologous protein is produced in an oviduct cell of the avian. (google.com)
  • 2. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence comprises a signal sequence coding region. (google.com)
  • 3. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence comprises an IRES. (google.com)
  • 4. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence further comprises a vector. (google.com)
  • 6. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the nucleic acid sequence further comprises a retrovirus vector. (google.com)
  • 7. The transgenic avian of claim 1 , wherein the ovomucoid promoter comprises a nucleotide sequence that is at least 99% identical to the nucleotide sequence of about 34,473 to about 36,248 of SEQ ID NO: 36. (google.com)