Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.DucksOrthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Influenza A Virus, H7N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 1. This subtype has demonstrated the ability to mutate from a low pathogenic form to a highly pathogenic form in birds. It was responsible for a 1999 outbreak in turkeys in Italy.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.GeeseDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Influenza A Virus, H7N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 2. It has been involved in a number of outbreaks in the 21st century on poultry farms and has been isolated a few times in humans.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Influenza A Virus, H7N3 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 3. It was first detected in turkeys in Britain in 1963 and there have been several outbreaks on poultry farms since that time. A couple cases of human infections have been reported.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Influenza A Virus, H2N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Sarcoma, Ewing: A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Influenzavirus A: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE causing influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. It contains many strains as well as antigenic subtypes of the integral membrane proteins hemagglutinin (HEMAGGLUTININS) and NEURAMINIDASE. The type species is INFLUENZA A VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells: An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.DelawareGenes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Viral Matrix Proteins: Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CSarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sarcoma 180Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.VietnamSwine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.PyransVirus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Newcastle disease virus: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)North AmericaEgypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Newcastle Disease: An acute febrile, contagious, viral disease of birds caused by an AVULAVIRUS called NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by respiratory and nervous symptoms in fowl and is transmissible to man causing a severe, but transient conjunctivitis.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Fomites: Inanimate objects that carry pathogenic microorganisms and thus can serve as the source of infection. Microorganisms typically survive on fomites for minutes or hours. Common fomites include CLOTHING, tissue paper, hairbrushes, and COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS.TracheitisSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sarcoma, Avian: Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Eagles: Large members of the FALCONIFORMES order of birds, family Accipitridae, most especially the genera Aquila, Haliaeetus, Harpia, and Circaetus. They are characterized by their powerful talons, which carry long, curved, pointed claws and by their opposable hindtoe.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Histiocytic Sarcoma: Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Influenzavirus C: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising viruses similar to types A and B but less common, more stable, more homogeneous, and lacking the neuraminidase protein. They have not been associated with epidemics but may cause mild influenza. Influenza C virus is the type species.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Proprotein Convertase 5: A serine endopeptidase found primarily in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. It has specificity for cleavage of a variety of substrates including PRORENIN, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, and NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULE L1.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
... influenza in birds MeSH C22.131.728.650 --- poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 --- sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131 ... marburg virus disease MeSH C22.735.500.850 --- simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 --- monkeypox MeSH ... influenza in birds MeSH C22.131.498 --- malaria, avian MeSH C22.131.546 --- marek disease MeSH C22.131.630 --- newcastle ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C22.021.322 --- brucellosis, bovine MeSH C22.131.094 --- avian leukosis MeSH C22.131.321 --- ...
This is because antibiotics are not effective against viruses. Aspergilloisis Avian influenza in cats Bone cancer in cats and ... lower urinary tract disease Feline lymphoma Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion Feline panleukopenia Feline sarcoma virus ... Feline cognitive dysfunction Feline coronavirus Feline cystitis Feline cutaneous asthenia Feline distemper Feline foamy virus ... infectious peritonitis Feline leprosy syndrome caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium Feline leptosprosis Feline leukemia virus ...
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis. *Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease) ...
Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease). *Botulism. *Campylobacteriosis. * ...
Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease). *Botulism. *Campylobacteriosis. * ... Avian Biology Research, 1: 73-87 *^ Dixon, L.M., Duncan, I.J.H. and Mason, G.J., 2010. The effects of four types of enrichment ... G., (2010). Avian magnetoreception: Elaborate iron mineral containing dendrites in the upper beak seem to be a common feature ...
Oseltamivir is considered to be the primary antiviral drug used to combat avian influenza, commonly known as the bird flu. ... against virus diseases and for treatment of metabolic diseases. The company is the world's largest spender in pharmaceutical R& ... including Kaposi's sarcoma), genital warts and chronic hepatitis C Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) for severe insomnia Tamiflu ( ... oseltamivir) for influenza A and B (both treatment and prevention) Tarceva (erlotinib) for various cancers Toradol (ketorolac) ...
... sarcoma, avian MeSH C02.782.930.100 --- alphavirus infections MeSH C02.782.930.100.370 --- encephalomyelitis, equine MeSH ... influenza, human MeSH C02.782.620.375 --- influenza in birds MeSH C02.782.687.150 --- cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782. ... marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.417.762 --- rift valley fever MeSH C02.782.450.100 --- hepatitis d, chronic MeSH C02.782. ... sarcoma, kaposi MeSH C02.256.650.810 --- warts MeSH C02.256.650.810.217 --- condylomata acuminata MeSH C02.256.650.810.345 --- ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... When this happens with influenza viruses, pandemics might result. RNA viruses often exist as quasispecies or swarms of viruses ...
... for instance between Avian sarcoma leukosis virus and Marek's disease virus (MDV) in domestic fowl.[citation needed] Both ... The 1957 pandemic was caused by the Asian influenza virus (known as the H2N2 strain), a novel influenza variety to which humans ... "Interactions Between Bacteria and Influenza A Virus in the Development of Influenza Pneumonia". Journal of Infectious Diseases ... causes excess mortality from secondary bacterial pneumonia during influenza epidemics. Influenza virus alters the lungs in ways ...
... avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.550 --- myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.820.650.070.775 --- sarcoma viruses, avian MeSH B04.820 ... influenza a virus MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.214 --- influenza a virus, h1n1 subtype MeSH B04.820.545.405.400.250 --- influenza a ... avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.550 --- myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.574.807.070.775 --- sarcoma viruses, avian MeSH ... avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.550 --- myeloblastosis virus, avian MeSH B04.909.777.731.070.775 --- sarcoma viruses, avian MeSH ...
1908: Vilhelm Ellerman and Olaf Bang, University of Copenhagen, first demonstrated that avian sarcoma leukosis virus could be ... RNA virus. *IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/ ... hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ( ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
RNA virus, IV: Acute viral nasopharyngitis - Severe acute respiratory syndrome RNA virus, V: Influenza/Avian influenza - Human ... DNA virus: Hepatitis B - HPV - Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. RNA virus: Hepatitis C - HTLV ... DNA virus: HPV (Genital wart, Kanker sérviks). Virus RNA, retrovirus: HIV (AIDS, AIDS dementia complex) - Adult T-cell leukemia ... DNA virus, Herpesviridae: Herpes simplex - Chickenpox - Herpes zoster - KSHV DNA virus, liana: Poxviridae (Smallpox, Monkeypox ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... RNA virus. *IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/ ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... It is not related to influenza though it has been called the "stomach flu".[9] ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenza virus A/B/C/D *Influenza/Avian influenza. *V, Paramyxoviridae: Human parainfluenza viruses * ... Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. Human polyomavirus 2 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... "Carboxypeptidase D is an avian hepatitis B virus receptor" (PDF). Journal of Virology. 73 (10): 8696-8702. PMC 112890 . PMID ... RNA virus. *IV: SARS coronavirus *Severe acute respiratory syndrome. *V: Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C *Influenza/ ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ...
Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type. MCPyV Merkel-cell carcinoma. RNA virus. HCV ... Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis (Mono) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Influenza (flu) Orthomyxoviridae family ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ...
Rous Sarcoma virus/ RSV, Mouse Mammary tumour virus/MMTV, Avian Myeloblastosis Virus/AMV আৰু Murine Leukaemia Virus/MuLV) পৰা ... আৰু ইয়াক Haemophilus influenza Rd পৰা সংগ্ৰহ কৰা হৈছিল। ই DNA ক দুটা খণ্ডত খণ্ডিতকৰণ কৰোঁতে দুটা ভোটা মূৰৰ (Blunt end) সৃষ্টি ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
... virus Avian myelocytomatosis virus 29 Avian sarcoma virus CT10 Fujinami sarcoma virus Rous sarcoma virus UR2 sarcoma virus Y73 ... Influenza A virus Genus: Influenzavirus B Influenza B virus Genus: Influenzavirus C Influenza C virus Genus: Isavirus ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... sarcoma virus Harvey murine sarcoma virus Kirsten murine sarcoma virus Moloney murine sarcoma virus Murine leukemia virus ...
... paramyxovirus 9 Avian paramyxovirus 10 Avian paramyxovirus 11 Avian paramyxovirus 12 Avian sapelovirus Avian sarcoma virus CT10 ... virus Influenza A virus Influenza B virus Influenza C virus Invertebrate iridescent virus 1 Invertebrate iridescent virus 3 ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus 2 Avian coronavirus Avian dependoparvovirus 1 Avian leukosis virus Avian metapneumovirus Avian myeloblastosis virus Avian ...
Many serious diseases such as Ebola virus disease, AIDS, avian influenza, and SARS are caused by viruses. The relative ability ... hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and human T-lymphotropic ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
V, Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C (Influenza/Avian influenza). V, Paramyxovirus: Human parainfluenza viruses ( ... Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (Kaposi's sarcoma) · Epstein-Barr virus (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, ... DNA virus: HBV (B). RNA virus: CBV · HAV (A) · HCV (C) · HDV (D) · HEV (E) · HGV (G) ... DNA virus: JCV (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy). RNA virus:MeV (Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) · LCV( ...
V, Orthomyxoviridae: Influenzavirus A/B/C (ইনফ্লুয়েঞ্জা ভাইরাস/Avian influenza). V, Paramyxovirus: Human parainfluenza viruses ... Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (Kaposi's sarcoma) · Epstein-Barr virus (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, ... DNA virus: HBV (হেপাটাইটিস বি). RNA virus: CBV · HAV (A) · HCV (C) · HDV (D) · HEV (E) · HGV (G) ... DNA virus: JCV (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy). RNA virus:হাম (Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis) · LCV( ...
Talk:Avian reovirus. *Talk:Avian reovirus (version 2). *Talk:Avian sarcoma leukosis virus ... Talk:2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak. *Talk:2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1 outbreak ... Pages in category "Low-importance virus articles". The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 1,493 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Low-importance_virus_articles&oldid=388350164" ...
... -known informally as avian flu or bird flu is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds. The type with the greatest risk is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. Avian influenza, for most purposes, refers to the influenza A virus. Though influenza A is adapted to birds, it can also stably adapt and sustain person-to person transmission. Recent influenza research into the genes of ...
In 2015, an outbreak of avian influenza subtype H5N2 was identified in a series of chicken and turkey farming operations in the Midwestern region of the United States. As of May 30, more than 43 million birds in 15 states had been destroyed as a result of the outbreak, including nearly 30 million in Iowa alone, the nation's largest egg producer. In the Midwestern U.S., the average price of eggs had increased 120% between April 22 and May 30. The effects however were seen nationwide, with prices in California up 71% in the same timeframe.[1] The virus was first identified in Minnesota in early March. Prior to April 20, it affected commercial turkey farms almost exclusively, in the states of Arkansas, Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, and at 28 farms in Minnesota, where the virus was initially identified. Migratory waterfowl are assumed to have brought the disease to the Midwest, but how it made its way into poultry barns is ...
The global spread of (highly pathogenic) H5N1 in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. While prior H5N1 strains have been known, they were significantly different from the current H5N1 strain on a genetic level, making the global spread of this new strain unprecedented. The current H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. It is both epizootic (an epidemic in non-humans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species especially over a wide area). Unless otherwise indicated, "H5N1" in this article refers to the recent highly pathogenic strain of H5N1. In the first two months of 2006 H5N1 spread to Africa and Europe in wild bird populations possibly signaling the beginning of H5N1 being endemic in wild migratory bird populations on multiple continents for decades, permanently changing the way poultry are farmed. In addition, the spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 to ...
... causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of influenza virus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses. Strains of all subtypes of influenza A virus have been isolated from wild birds, although disease is uncommon. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from wild aquatic birds to domestic poultry, and this may cause an outbreak or give rise to human influenza pandemics. Influenza A viruses are negative-sense, single-stranded, segmented RNA viruses. The several subtypes are labeled according to an H number (for the type of hemagglutinin) and an N number (for the type of neuraminidase). There are 18 different known H antigens (H1 to H18) and 11 different known N antigens (N1 to N11). H17 was isolated ...
The Hong Kong Flu was a category 2 flu pandemic caused by a strain of H3N2 descended from H2N2 by antigenic shift, in which genes from multiple subtypes reassorted to form a new virus. This pandemic of 1968 and 1969 killed an estimated one million people worldwide.[6][7][8] The pandemic infected an estimated 500,000 Hong Kong residents, 15% of the population, with a low death rate.[9] In the United States, about 33,800 people died.[10]. Both the H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic flu strains contained genes from avian influenza viruses. The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Swine were considered the original "intermediate host" for influenza, because they supported reassortment of divergent subtypes. However, other hosts appear capable of similar coinfection (e.g., many poultry species), and direct transmission of ...
Another technique is use of cell cultures to grow vaccine strains; such as genetically engineering baculovirus to express a gene that encodes an influenza coat protein such as hemagglutinin or neuraminidase. "A recent NIAID-supported Phase II clinical trial of a vaccine produced by Protein Sciences Corporation using this strategy showed that it is well tolerated and immunogenic; the company is[when?] conducting further clinical evaluation of this product. Other new pathways for producing influenza vaccines include DNA-based approaches and the development of broadly protective vaccines based on influenza virus proteins that are shared by multiple strains."[5]. AVI Bio Pharma Inc. has evidence of inhibition of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus in cell culture with Morpholino oligomers from the results of their labs and four independent research laboratories[when?]. "The key finding here is that our NEUGENE(R) therapeutics continue to show ...
Le subtypos del virus Influenza A plus communmente trovate como le causa de infectiones de SIV es H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 e H3N2, [2] [3] ben que le H2N3 ha essite recentemente trovate, que etiam produce iste typo de pathologia.[4] In le mundo, il ha 3 subtypos de virus de influenza A (H1N1, H3N2, y H1N2), cognoscite per infectar porcos. In le Statos Unite, le subtypo classic H1N1 esseva quasi exclusivemente prevalente inter le populationes porcin ante 1998. Comocunque, ab augusto 1998 le subtypos H3N2 esseva etiam isolate. Il es trovate que le major parte del virus H3N2 ha material recombinate, con lineages de genes de virus que attacca esseres human (HA, NA, and PB1), porcos (NS, NP, and M) e aves (PB2 and PA). ...
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic. For other names see the Nomenclature section below. The virus is a novel strain of influenza. Existing vaccines against seasonal flu provided no protection. A study at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published in May 2009 found that children had no preexisting immunity to the new strain but that adults, particularly those over 60, had some degree of immunity. Children showed no cross-reactive antibody reaction to the new strain, adults aged 18 to 64 had 6-9%, and older adults 33%. Much reporting of early analysis repeated that the strain contained genes from five different flu viruses: North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and two swine influenza ...
The Influenza pandemic of 1918 was a heavy pandemic of influenza. It lasted from January 1918 to December 1920.[1] About 500 million[1] people were infected across the world. The pandemic spread to remote Pacific Islands and the Arctic. It killed 50 million[2] to 100 million people[3]-3 to 5 percent of the world's population at the time.[3] This means it was one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.[1][4][5][6]. To maintain morale, wartime censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States;[7][8] but papers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain (such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII). This situation created the false impression of Spain being especially hard-hit.[9] It also resulted in the nickname Spanish flu.[10]. In most cases, influenza outbreaks kill young people, or the elderly, or those patients that are already weakened. This was not the case for ...
The mallard is a medium-sized waterfowl species that is often slightly heavier than most other dabbling ducks. It is 50-65 cm (20-26 in) long - of which the body makes up around two-thirds - has a wingspan of 81-98 cm (32-39 in),[22]:505 and weighs 0.72-1.58 kg (1.6-3.5 lb).[23] Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 25.7 to 30.6 cm (10.1 to 12.0 in), the bill is 4.4 to 6.1 cm (1.7 to 2.4 in), and the tarsus is 4.1 to 4.8 cm (1.6 to 1.9 in).[24]. The breeding male mallard is unmistakable, with a glossy bottle-green head and a white collar that demarcates the head from the purple-tinged brown breast, grey-brown wings, and a pale grey belly.[25] The rear of the male is black, with white-bordered dark tail feathers.[22]:506 The bill of the male is a yellowish-orange tipped with black, with that of the female generally darker and ranging from black to mottled orange and brown.[26] The female mallard is predominantly mottled, with each individual feather showing sharp contrast from buff to ...
... (Neu5Ac ili NANA) je predominantna sijalinska kiselina u ćelijama sisara. Ovaj negativno naelektrisani ostatak je prisutan u kompleksnim glikanima na mucinima i glikoproteinima prisutnim na ćelijskim membranama. Neu5Ac ostaci su takođe prisutni u glikolipidima, poput gangliozida, ključnoj komponenti neuronskih membrana prisutnih u mozgu. Pored učešća u sprečavanju infekcija (sluz vezana za sluzokožne membrane - usta, nosa, GI, respiratornog trakta), Neu5Ac deluje kao receptor za influenza virus. On omobućava vezivanje za sluzne ćelije putem hemaglutinina (rani stupanj zadobijanja infekcije influenza virusom). ...
Klubas buvo įkurtas 1993 m. Volto Disnėjaus kompanijos iniacityva, pagal filmą „The Mighty Ducks". Disnėjus 2005 m. pardavė komandą Henriui ir Siuzanai Samueliams, kurie pakeitė pavadinimą į Anaheimo „Ducks".. ...
Kaman kuol, aalso nuo as fresh kuol ar simpli az kuol, a vairal infekshos diziiz a di opa resprichri chrak we praimerili afek di nuoz.[1] Di chruot, sainos, ah vais bax kiah aalso afek.[2] Sain ah simtom kiah bigin les dah tuu die afta expuoja.[2] Deh ingkluud kaafin, suo chuot, ronin nuoz, sniizin, ediek, ah fiiva.[3][4] Piipl yuujali rikova ina sebm tu ten die.[3] Som simtam kiah laas op tu chrii wiik.[5] Demde wid adaels elt prablem maita hokiejanali divelop nyuumuonia.[3] Wel uoba 200 vairos schrien implikiet ina di kaaz a di kaman kuol; di rainovairosdem a di muos kaman.[6] Deh pred chuu di ier juurin kluos kantak wid infektid piipl ah indirekli chuu kantak wid abjek ina di invairament fala bai chansfor tu di mout ar nuoz.[3] Rix fakta ingkluud wen pitni gaa diekier, smadi naa sliip gud, ah saikalajikal schres.[2] Simtam muosli juu tu di badi uona imyuun rispans tu di infekshan reda dah tu tishu dischrokshan bai di vairos dehself.[7] Piipl wid influenza noftaim shuo simila simtom az ...
Avian bird flu explanation free. What is Avian bird flu? Meaning of Avian bird flu medical term. What does Avian bird flu mean? ... Looking for online definition of Avian bird flu in the Medical Dictionary? ... avian influenza virus. *avian leukemia-sarcoma complex. *avian leukosis. *avian leukosis-sarcoma complex ... avian type C retroviruses. includes avian leukosis viruses and avian sarcoma viruses. ...
Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection. Last reviewed: 19 Sep 2020Last updated: 20 Sep 2018SummaryNotifiable condition. ... Soft-tissue sarcoma. Last reviewed: 19 Sep 2020Last updated: 06 Feb 2019SummarySarcoma is a group of rare solid tumours of ...
When the rabies virus enters a human cell through the membrane the RN... Nucleoprotein is vital for the rabies virus says Rob ... Ruigrok Head ...To investigate how exactly this protection shield works Aurlie Albert...,Cracking,a,virus,protection,shield, ... Discovery in plant virus may help prevent HIV and similar viruses. 9. Detecting transmissibility of avian influenza virus in ... CTRC enrolls first patients in novel phase II study for sarcoma -- living virus destroys cancer cell. 11. Expert to provide ...
... avian influenza and genital herpes are sorely needed. New antivirals for Dengue, hepatitis C and HIV viruses are also ... The role of such viruses as Merkel cell polyoma, papilloma, Kaposis sarcoma and Epstein-Barr virus in human cancer highlight ... It is an exciting time to study virology! In the last decade, weve seen new viruses-SARS, H1N1 influenza, and Nipah viruses ... The characterization of virus-receptor interactions and the mechanisms of cell entry, structural studies of viruses and viral ...
... avian influenza and genital herpes are sorely needed. New antivirals for Dengue, hepatitis C and HIV viruses are also ... The role of such viruses as Merkel cell polyoma, papilloma, Kaposis sarcoma and Epstein-Barr virus in human cancer highlight ... It is an exciting time to study virology! In the last decade, weve seen new viruses-SARS, H1N1 influenza, and Nipah viruses ... They conduct basic research defining new molecular structures of viruses and virus-encoded enzymes, new mechanisms within cells ...
Chickens Expressing IFIT5 Ameliorate Clinical Outcome and Pathology of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Velogenic ... Here, we generated transgenic chickens using avian sarcoma-leukosis virus (RCAS)-based gene transfer system that constitutively ... of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV; H5N1) or velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (vNDV; Genotype VII) ... IFIT5 Ameliorate Clinical Outcome and Pathology of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Velogenic Newcastle Disease Viruses. ...
Avian sarcoma and leukosis virus-receptor interactions: from classical genetics to novel insights into virus-cell membrane ... Two major influenza A virus pandemics, in 1957 and 1968, arose from reassortment of human and avian viruses. Infection of a ... Influenza A viruses.Influenza A viruses A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) and Alice strain (H3N2) were purchased from the ATCC. Alice strain is ... Influenza A virus NA expression inhibits HA-mediated entry. (A) MLV-GFP pseudotyped with the indicated influenza A virus HA ...
Human diseases caused by viruses include the common cold, chickenpox, shingles, influenza, avian influenza, hepatitis, acquired ... Cancer-causing viruses are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposis sarcoma- ... Many viruses, however, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can evade the immune system by constantly changing the amino ... Pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, protozoa and prions (infectious protein molecules such as the ones ...
... avian)), Authors: Shinya Tanaka. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. ... Avian and 1918 Spanish influenza a virus NS1 proteins bind to Crk/CrkL Src homology 3 domains to activate host cell signaling. ... CRK (v-crk sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog (avian)). Written. 2012-03. Shinya Tanaka. ...
... influenza in birds MeSH C22.131.728.650 --- poult enteritis mortality syndrome MeSH C22.131.800 --- sarcoma, avian MeSH C22.131 ... marburg virus disease MeSH C22.735.500.850 --- simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 --- monkeypox MeSH ... influenza in birds MeSH C22.131.498 --- malaria, avian MeSH C22.131.546 --- marek disease MeSH C22.131.630 --- newcastle ... File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH C22.021.322 --- brucellosis, bovine MeSH C22.131.094 --- avian leukosis MeSH C22.131.321 --- ...
Suppression of glycoprotein formation of Semliki Forest, influenza, and avian sarcoma virus by tunicamycin. (1976) R T Schwarz ... Growth of pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus with N-tropic murine leukemia virus coats in cells resistant to N-tropic ... Transcription of simian virus 40. II. Hybridization of RNA extracted from different lines of transformed cells to the separated ... Conditional lethal mutants of adenovirus 2-simian virus 40 hybrids. I. Host range mutants of Ad2+ND1. (1974) T Grodzicker et al ...
Avian flu virus explanation free. What is Avian flu virus? Meaning of Avian flu virus medical term. What does Avian flu virus ... Looking for online definition of Avian flu virus in the Medical Dictionary? ... Avian flu virus. *avian influenza. *avian influenza virus. *avian leukemia-sarcoma complex ... avian influenza. (redirected from Avian flu virus). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. avian influenza. a serious viral ...
This is because antibiotics are not effective against viruses. Aspergilloisis Avian influenza in cats Bone cancer in cats and ... lower urinary tract disease Feline lymphoma Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion Feline panleukopenia Feline sarcoma virus ... Feline cognitive dysfunction Feline coronavirus Feline cystitis Feline cutaneous asthenia Feline distemper Feline foamy virus ... infectious peritonitis Feline leprosy syndrome caused by Mycobacterium lepraemurium Feline leptosprosis Feline leukemia virus ...
Further provided is a hepatitis C virus assay method comprising treating a hepatitis C virus antigen--containing sample with a ... Also provided is a method for treating a hepatitis C virus-containing sample, characterized by treatment of the virus- ... and measuring binding of the antigen with a hepatitis C virus antibody. Finally, there is also provided a monoclonal antibody ... containing sample with a treatment solution containing (1) a chaotropic ion and (2) an acidifying agent, and a virus assay ...
Human microRNA-24 modulates highly pathogenic avian-origin H5N1 influenza A virus infection in A549 cells by targeting ... Kaposis Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Downregulates Transforming Growth Factor β2 To Promote Enhanced Stability of Capillary- ...
Asp-Ser-Gly is found in avian sarcoma leukaemia viruses (ASLV) and Asp-Thr-Gly in mammalian oncoretroviruses. We have mutated ... However, this mutation reduced the production of reverse transcriptase-containing particles and infectious virus following ... as well as synthetic peptides homologous to ASLV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cleavage sites. Bacterially produced ... The multifunctional NS1 protein of influenza A viruses Benjamin G. Hale, Richard E. Randall, Juan Ortín and David Jackson ...
... and Transmissibility in Mammals of Naturally Isolated H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Článek A mosquito juvenile hormone binding ... Článek Signatures of oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals with oral Kaposis sarcoma and cell-associated KSHV DNA ... and Transmissibility in Mammals of Naturally Isolated H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses * A mosquito juvenile hormone binding ... Článek Agricultural and geographic factors shaped the North American 2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 outbreak ...
... multidisciplinary Journal that is mainly focused upon the study of viruses that includes but not limited to submicroscopic ... virus-like agents that are capable of infecting and exploiting host cells for reproduction. ... Abstract: The highly virulent avian influenza subtypes H5, H7 and H9 have caused outbreaks and epidemics in poultry and fatal ... Abstract: Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) lytic DNA replication is fairly dependent on viral gene products, in ...
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis. *Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease) ...
Avian influenza. *Avian sarcoma leukosis virus. *Histomoniasis (blackhead disease). *Botulism. *Campylobacteriosis. * ...
1994) The receptor for the subgroup A avian leukosis-sarcoma viruses binds to subgroup A but not to subgroup C envelope ... 1994) Proprotein-processing endoproteases PC6 and furin both activate hemagglutinin of virulent avian influenza viruses. J. ... 1995) Receptor-induced conformational changes in the subgroup A avian leukosis and sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein. J. ... 1995) GP mRNA of Ebola virus is edited by the Ebola virus polymerase and by T7 and vaccinia virus polymerases. Virology 214:421 ...
... and Transmissibility in Mammals of Naturally Isolated H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses Článek A mosquito juvenile hormone binding ... Článek Signatures of oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals with oral Kaposis sarcoma and cell-associated KSHV DNA ... and Transmissibility in Mammals of Naturally Isolated H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses * A mosquito juvenile hormone binding ... Článek Agricultural and geographic factors shaped the North American 2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 outbreak ...
The molecular pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) or the low pathogenic avian influenza virus ( ... viruses was studied using microarray to identify crucial host genetic components responsive to these infection. HPAI H5N1 virus ... In contrast, the expression levels of most of these genes was not induced in the lungs of LPAI H9N2 virus infected chickens. ... This dysregulation of host innate immune genes may be the critical determinant of the severity and the outcome of the influenza ...
you have the possibility of quickly and easily comparing Avian products with those of our other suppliers. ... Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative. €386.00 ... ELISA kit Activator protein 1,AP1,JUN,Pig,Proto-oncogene c-Jun,Sus scrofa,Transcription factor AP-1,V-jun avian sarcoma virus ... LSY-30011] Bird Flu_Avian Influenza Virus(H5N1) antibody ELISA test kit Sensitivity(ppb)- qualitative Learn More ...
... feline immunodeficiency virus, walleye dermal sarcoma virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, rabies virus, avian influenza virus, ... An interactive group of researchers study viruses that infect domestic and wild animals (feline leukemia virus, ... and viruses vectored by mosquitoes (see the vector-borne infectious disease page​). Areas of research interest include: virus ... discovery, virus-cell interactions, viral pathogenesis, oncogenesis, transcription and post-transcriptional regulation immune ...
  • Identification of EFIV, a stable factor present in many avian cell types that transactivates sequences in the 5' portion of the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat enhancer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As a graduate student at the time, I observed that CEF of COFAL-positive embryos complemented envelope-defective Rous sarcoma virus, yielding pseudotype viruses with xenotropic properties. (cdc.gov)
  • A smaller number are named for the place of isolation - Coxsackie, Sindbis, and Sendai viruses are a few examples, and a mercifully small number are named for their discoverers - alone or in combination with other features - such as Epstein-Barr virus, Rous sarcoma virus, etc. (nih.gov)
  • The highly virulent avian influenza subtypes H5, H7 and H9 have caused outbreaks and epidemics in poultry and fatal infections in human beings. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Nonetheless, there is little information on virulent duck enteritis virus (DEV)-encoded miRNAs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Laidlaw SM, Skinner MA (2004) Comparison of the genome sequence of FP9, an attenuated, tissue culture-adapted European strain of Fowlpox virus, with those of virulent American and European viruses. (springer.com)
  • According to Dr. Boyd Graves, who has been marginalized over the years by "official" government medical communities for speaking up about the possibility that AIDS was purposefully designed to be a ethnic specific virulent, genocidal agent, Avian flu pandemic could be science run amuck. (vaclib.org)
  • Suppression of glycoprotein formation of Semliki Forest, influenza, and avian sarcoma virus by tunicamycin. (naver.com)
  • Here we show that the envelope glycoprotein from the Zaire strain of Ebola virus (Ebo-GP) is proteolytically processed into two subunits, GP 1 and GP 2 , that are likely covalently associated through a disulfide linkage. (asm.org)
  • Endoproteolytic cleavage of the envelope glycoprotein is thus a critical step in the maturation of a virus, and the availability of cellular enzymes capable of processing the precursor polyprotein can be a major determinant of viral tropism and pathogenicity. (asm.org)
  • This structural similarity suggests that the glycoproteins of Ebola virus and ASLV may utilize similar mechanisms to mediate membrane fusion and viral entry even though the triggers for these processes are clearly different: the ASLV envelope requires receptor-mediated activation, and the Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein (Ebo-GP) is pH dependent ( 6 , 41 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Surprisingly, our results show that an uncleaved mutant of Ebo-GP is efficiently incorporated into murine leukemia virus (MLV) particles and is able to efficiently mediate viral entry, indicating that, in contrast to nearly all other viral systems where glycoprotein processing is observed, proteolytic cleavage is not essential for the membrane fusion activity of Ebo-GP. (asm.org)
  • The ectodomain of the Ebola virus Gp2 glycoprotein was solubilized with a trimeric, isoleucine zipper derived from GCN4 (pIIGCN4) in place of the hydrophobic fusion peptide at the N terminus. (pnas.org)
  • The virus genome is negative-stranded and encodes for seven structural and regulatory proteins ( 3 , 4 ), including a surface glycoprotein (Gp) that is synthesized as a precursor molecule and then cleaved into two subunits ( 5 , 6 ), Gp1 and Gp2, the latter of which is anchored in the membrane. (pnas.org)
  • The life cycle begins with the binding of the envelope glycoprotein on the surface of the virus to a cognate receptor on the surface of the target cell. (ncifcrf.gov)
  • Here it redirects the cellular machinery of the host to produce many new copies of the virus that go on to infect more cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This virus has not been observed to infect human cells. (cdc.gov)
  • By the same token, the proclivity of HTLV and AIDS viruses to infect the same cell type is also impressive, but unlikely to reflect a fundamental similarity useful for grouping. (nih.gov)
  • A heterogeneous family of morphologically similar viruses, all of which contain double-stranded DNA and which infect man and a wide variety of other vertebrates. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The family includes herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, EB virus (all of which infect humans) and many others. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Based on the haphazard but workable prior 'convention' it would seem most appropriate to label viruses etiologically associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with a designation like 'human immunodeficiency virus (HIDV)', or something similar. (nih.gov)
  • Transmission electron microscope image of negative-stained, Fortaleza-strain Zika virus (red), isolated from a microcephaly case in Brazil. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory tests have revealed that the outbreak was the H7 form of avian flu, described as less severe form of the H5N8 strain found at the duck farm. (medindia.net)
  • Mammalian fibroblast cultures transformed by DNA and RNA tumor viruses. (naver.com)
  • A map of the world showing the numer of avian, mammalian, environmental, and human samples collected through the CEIRS program. (nih.gov)
  • One could speculate that this could have been the cause of the two waves of influenza in 1918 - people came out of quarantine too early. (vassar.edu)
  • Now researchers from the Institut de Virologie Molculaire et Structurale (IVMS) and the Outstation of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Grenoble have obtained a detailed structural picture of a protein that allows the rabies virus to withstand the human immune response and survive and replicate in our cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • When the rabies virus enters a human cell through the membrane, the RNA molecule that carries its genes is transported into the centre of the cell. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Nucleoprotein is vital for the rabies virus," says Rob Ruigrok, Head of the IVMS. (bio-medicine.org)
  • An example of the propensity for pathogens to escape from their usual niche is the alarming 1999 outbreak in New York of encephalitis due to West Nile virus, which had never previously been isolated in the Americas. (gkhub.info)
  • Additionally, poultry can carry a number of potentially zoonotic pathogens such as avian influenza viruses and food-borne bacteria like Campylobacter and Salmonella, which may inflict human illness or even death. (nimss.org)
  • This ancient system, established about 1000 million years ago ( Nonaka and Kimura, 2006 ), has the ability to recognize and eliminate varied invading pathogens including viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The membrane fusion activity of murine leukaemia virus Env is carried by the transmembrane (TM) and controlled by the peripheral (SU) subunit. (embopress.org)
  • In murine leukaemia viruses (MLV), a variable fraction of the Env subunits have been found to be disulphide‐linked ( Pinter et al , 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • A disease of birds due to strains of influenza A virus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, the HA glycoproteins of certain avirulent strains of influenza A viruses can be efficiently processed only by the endoproteases present within the cells of the respiratory tract ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Also conserved in all strains of Ebola virus is a stretch of basic residues that in ASLV constitute an endoproteolytic cleavage site ( 21 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Since this dibasic motif is conserved in all strains of Ebola virus and is in a position analogous to the cleavage site of ASLV envelope, we hypothesized that Ebo-GP is endoproteolytically processed. (asm.org)
  • Strains of bacteria that occur naturally in the human mouth can snare the HIV virus and even cells it has infected, according to researchers at the UIC College of Dentistry. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Congenital transmission of avian leukosis viruses (ALV) occurs readily through the egg, but transmission of ALV through male seminal fluid is considered to be nonexistent or rare. (the-coop.org)
  • A second class of endogenous avian retroviral genome (EAV), discovered in 1985 ( 10 ), is present in all breeds of chicken and cannot be eliminated. (cdc.gov)
  • After viral and cellular membranes fuse, the viral core is in the host cytoplasm, where the single-stranded RNA genome of the virus is converted into double-stranded linear DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. (ncifcrf.gov)
  • Slowly transforming viruses induce late onset leukoses of the B cell lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cell lineages, and other tumors, by viral promoter insertion into the genome of a host cell and activation of a cellular protooncogene. (the-coop.org)
  • Subgroup E viruses are usually spread genetically as DNA proviruses (often defective) in host germ cell genome, and are termed endogenous viruses. (the-coop.org)
  • New antivirals for Dengue, hepatitis C and HIV viruses are also desperately needed. (harvard.edu)
  • Hepatitis A is an acute, non-progressive liver inflammation caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which is most commonly transmitted by contaminated food or drinking water. (sabiosciences.com)
  • The claims of the present application are directed to a hepatitis C virus assay method employing treating a hepatitis C virus antigen containing sample with a nonionic surfactant having a hydrophilic/ lipophilic balance of 12-14, and measuring binding of said antigen with a hepatitis C virus antibody. (wipo.int)
  • They conduct basic research defining new molecular structures of viruses and virus-encoded enzymes, new mechanisms within cells for molecular and organelle trafficking and function, and new mechanisms that control cell growth. (harvard.edu)
  • These inhibitors also prevented the removal of α-2,3- and α-2,6-linked sialic acid observed in cells expressing NA or infected with influenza A viruses. (asm.org)
  • Both wild-type and mutated PRs correctly cleaved viral precursors expressed in bacterial cells, as well as synthetic peptides homologous to ASLV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cleavage sites. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Annals of Virology and Research is an open access, peer reviewed, international, multidisciplinary Journal that is mainly focused upon the study of viruses that includes but not limited to submicroscopic virus-like agents that are capable of infecting and exploiting host cells for reproduction. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Cutting Edge: Influenza A virus activates TLR3-dependent inflammatory and RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses in human lung epithelial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Attachment and entry of influenza virus into host cells. (sinobiological.com)
  • However, the interplay between MSCs and virus is like a double-edge sword, and it also provides beneficial effects such as allowing the proliferation and function of antiviral specific effector cells instead of suppressing them, serving as an ideal tool for study of viral pathogenesis, and protecting hosts against viral challenge by using the antimicrobial activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have found a way to make significant improvements to the power-conversion efficiency of solar cells by utilizing viruses to perform assembly work on the solar cell at the microscopic level. (scienceagogo.com)
  • A type of virus known to cause leukemia and sarcomas in animals has been found for the first time in malignant human prostate cancer cells. (scienceagogo.com)
  • New research suggests that viruses may contribute to cancer by causing excessive death to normal cells while promoting the growth of surviving cells with cancerous traits. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The researchers harnessed the viral trait for attacking and commandeering cells, and then redirected the virus to attack diseased, rather than healthy cells. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Its ability to recognize large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Crk knockdown study demonstrates the essential roles for Crk in malignant potentials of various human cancers including ovarian cancer, sarcoma, and brain tumor. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Production of immortalized distal respiratory epithelial cell lines from surfactant protein C/simian virus 40 large tumor antigen transgenic mice. (naver.com)
  • Influenza, yellow fever, and MMR vaccines are usually prepared in embryonated eggs or in cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF). (cdc.gov)
  • Chimeric avian embryos, in which quail donor tissue is transplanted into a chick embryo in ovo , combine the power of indelible genetic labeling of cell populations with the ease of manipulation presented by the avian embryo. (jove.com)
  • Effect of interferon on multiplication of avian sarcoma virus B77 in duck embryo fibroblasts. (storysteel.gq)
  • Traditionally, virus isolates have been named most commonly for the disease from which they were isolated - e.g. influenza, poliomyelitis, visna, foot-and-mouth disease, and the like. (nih.gov)
  • Epstein-Barr virus is a cause of certain lymphomas and may play a role in the genesis of Hodgkin's disease. (gkhub.info)
  • Examples of the former include Sin Nombre virus, which first came to light in 1993 as the cause of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Four Corners area of the United States of America, and Nipah virus, which was first isolated in 1999 as a cause of acute neurological disease in peninsular Malaysia. (who.int)
  • Britain's Chief Veterinary Officer Nigel Gibbens said, "This is a low severity form of the virus and we are taking action to ensure that the disease does not spread or develop into a more severe form. (medindia.net)
  • Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, scientists explain how a previously unknown and dangerous virus carried by tics has been responsible for seasonal outbreaks of the disease in six of China's most populated provinces. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The envelope glycoproteins of the Ebola and Marburg viruses display significant homology to the oncoretroviral transmembrane (TM) glycoproteins ( 5 , 45 ), especially those of ASLV ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the spacing between this basic residue-rich region and the adjacent presumptive fusion peptide is nearly identical between the Ebola virus and ASLV glycoproteins ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Within the past decade, four successful DNA plasmid products have been licensed for animal use: one for the treatment of West Nile virus in horses ( 7 ), one against hematopoietic necrosis virus in salmon ( 8 ), one for the treatment of melanoma in dogs ( 9 ), and a growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene therapy for swine ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Amino acid sequences with the potential to form coiled coils have been recognized adjacent to N-terminal fusion peptides in many viral Gps ( 12 - 14 ) and similar α-helical models have been proposed for the HIV-gp41, Avian sarcoma virus, and Ebola virus transmembrane (TM) Gp subunits ( 12 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • HTLV-1, 2, and BLV form a clear and obvious group, based on sequences and structural relationships, as do all AIDS virus isolates studied to date. (nih.gov)