Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Relating to the size of solids.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The consumption of edible substances.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The ears are erect. At maturity, rams weigh 37 kg (82 lb) and ewes weigh 45 kg (99 lb). At the withers, rams grow to 55 cm (22 ... in) and ewes to 47 cm (19 in). Ewes have an average 1.1 lambs per litter. "Cikta/Hungary". Breed data sheet. Domestic Animal ...
... is a genus of small to average size lampshells (maximum 35 millimetres or 1.4 inches long). It is known since the ... Small to large, triangular to subquadrangular in outline; rectimarginate to paraplicate; beak erect, without beak ridges; ...
It has an erect, paniculate inflorescence. The flower spikes are branched (hence the Latin name ramosus), unlike Anthericum ... Anthericum ramosum reaches on average a height of 30-70 centimetres (12-28 in). The grass-like leaves are 50 centimetres (20 in ...
Reported averages are, respectively, 140 L in 150 days, 150 L in 160 days, and 220 L in 210 days. The milk averages 3.95% fat, ... The ears are horizontal or erect; in a small percentage of cases the crop-eared mutation is seen. The abdomen is fairly large ... The Aspromonte's annual fertility rate is (i.e. bred females who give birth) is 98%, with average age of first parturition of ... The Aspromonte goat is of medium size, standing about 70 centimetres (28 in) at the withers; average weight is 64 kilograms ( ...
... reaches on average 20-40 centimetres (7.9-15.7 in) of height. The stem is erect and pubescent. The basal ...
Their nose-leafs are triangular and erect. The average mass is 24 g (0.85 oz) Their ears are 15 mm (0.59 in) long. Like other ...
The erect setae are brown. The head has a concave posterior margin (as in the end of an organism from its head) with erect ... On average, workers measure around 6-7 mm (0.24-0.28 in); this character distinguishes these ants from queens, as well as the ... Fully erect setae on the genal (side region of the head) are either present or absent, although a small number of setae may be ... Erect setae are found all over the antennal scape and noticeably prominent on the clypeal margin (a shield-like plate at the ...
This orchid has erect and glabrous multiple stems. The leaves are dark green, long and narrowly tapering (hence the common name ... Cephalanthera longifolia reaches on average 20-60 centimetres (7.9-23.6 in) of height in typical conditions. ...
The pectoral fins are long and often erect. An average adult length is about 35 cm (14 in), with a maximum length of 46 cm (18 ...
The Orobica goat is of medium size; males weigh on average 80 kg, females about 65 kg. Both sexes have long horns and erect ...
Its habit is erect, green, hairy and branched. The silver leaves are sessile, alternate and quite fuzzy. The flowers are white ... It is a low-growing, domed semi-evergreen subshrub, reaching on average 20-50 centimetres (7.9-19.7 in) in height. ...
It reaches on average 30-80 centimetres (12-31 in) in height, with a maximum of 140 centimetres (55 in). The stem is erect and ...
Officials erect an average of two girders every day. Line 7 is estimated to cost ₹6,208 crore (US$870 million). The Asian ... Work on erecting the U-girders, as well as disposal and dumping of muck generated from underground work is done only between 11 ... trailers transport a U-girder weighing 170 tonne from the casting yard in Bandra to location where it is to be erected. The ...
The profile may be straight or somewhat concave; the ears are erect and point upwards and forwards.:404 The Saanen is the most ... productive milk goat of Switzerland,:404 which has the most productive milking goats in the world.:345 Average milk yield is ...
... reaches on average 40-200 centimetres (16-79 in) of height. The stem is erect, cylindrical, pubescent and ...
The average forearm length is about 6.5-7.2 cm (2.6-2.8 in). It has large ears and no tail. Its fur is blue-gray in color ... It has an erect noseleaf about 10 millimeters long. This bat is widespread throughout South Asia and Southeast Asia. It occurs ...
... reaches on average 20-90 centimetres (7.9-35.4 in) of height. The stem is erect and covered with scattered ...
This Parish was erected in 1916. In the month of May 2016, on 27th, 28th and 29th the centenary celebration of the erection of ... Michael Patnam is located at .[1] It has an average elevation of 700 metres (2290 feet). Michael Patnam is a quiet village away ...
... reaches on average 40-120 centimetres (16-47 in) in height, with a maximum of 150 centimetres (59 in). The ... stems are cylindrical, glabrous and erect. They are more or less branched and the leaves are slightly blue-green and two to ...
... reaches on average 30-60 centimetres (12-24 in) of height. It is a hairy shrub with erect and branched ...
An organ, by Nicholson, of Worcester, was erected in 1874 on the north side of the church, at the sole cost of the present ... There are two schools for boys and girls in the parish, with an average attendance of about 100 conjointly. The Church of ... The Baptist chapel was erected in 1860. There are several handsome residences in this parish. Just on the edge of the four ... South aisle, by Hardman; memorial window and brass plate, erected in 1868. South chancel, by Clayton & Bell; subject, "The ...
The original building was erected in 1880. A new high school was opened in 1937, located on Howard Avenue on the west side of ... The staff has an average of 13.9 years of experience. 80 percent have a master's degree and 42 percent trained for the ...
Average attendance in the first month stood at eighty. Within five years, some two hundred people attended Sunday School. An ... An iron structure was erected and furnished on the land at a cost of £400. This building was 44 feet long and 24 feet wide and ... By 1929 a brick church had been erected and the iron structure was finally demolished in 1964. A new extension followed in 1967 ... In its final years, the congregation had an average membership of about thirty people. Declining membership, demographic change ...
This hardy plant reaches on average 10-25 centimetres (3.9-9.8 in) of height, with a maximum of 60 centimetres (24 in). The ... stem is erect and unbranched. The basal leaves are linear-lanceolate with parallel venation, up to 25 centimetres (9.8 in) long ...
... reaches on average 30-80 centimetres (12-31 in) in height. The stem is erect, hairy and very branched at the ...
Mature eggs are transparent, contain oil droplets, and are an average of 1.2 mm in diameter. One study showed the number of ... Males court females by displaying erect fins and bright breeding colors. A female responds to this display by leading the male ... The mean length of snubnose darters is 45 millimetres (1.8 in), the reported average clutch size is 152, and the maximum age is ...
... reaches on average 15-30 centimetres (5.9-11.8 in) in height, with a maximum of 60 centimetres (24 in). The ... stem is more or less erect, hairy and quite branched. The leaves are opposite, approximately pentagonal and palmate and the ...
The stem is green, erect, glabrous and branched on the top. The leaves are opposite, simple, linear and sessile, more or less ... Dianthus plumarius is a compact evergreen perennial reaching on average 30-60 centimetres (12-24 in) in height. ... erect and flexuous, with a sheath embracing the stem. They are about 3 millimetres (0.12 in) wide and about 10 centimetres (3.9 ...
The enrollment for 1889 was enlarged to 190, with an average of 160. In 1913 the present school house was erected. Each time, ... In 1876 a large two-story school house was erected. It was a two-story frame,50x60 feet with ceilings fourteen feet high, and ... Township purchased a quarter block of land at the southwest corner of the intersection of Willow and Tipton Streets and erected ...
This biennial herbaceous plant reaches on average 40-80 centimetres (16-31 in) of height, with a maximum of 100 centimetres (39 ... in) . The stem is erect, lightly hairy, branched on the top. The basal leaves are petiolated, ovate, slightly toothed and ...
Checkpoints were erected along the roads out of the city where Khmer Rouge cadres searched marchers and removed many of their ... an increase on what was previously the average yield.[241] There he also announced that manufacturing should focus on the ...
Adult males average slightly less than 7 kilograms (15 lb) with females averaging a little under 6 kilograms (13 lb). The ... were placed in the resurrected genus Antigone that had originally been erected by the German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in ...
The average GPA at Ohio State is 3.81, the middle 50% range of ACT scores is 27-31 (average 29), while the middle 50% SAT ... Knowlton also requested 5 white marble columns be erected on the site, each column representing one of the classical orders of ... Upon completion of the program, which also mandates a college preparatory curriculum and minimum grade point average, the ... scores (Critical Reading and Math only) is 1260-1450 (average 1344)[35][36] Ohio State's freshman class has included at least ...
... the monthly death toll from malaria averaged 125% above rates from the previous five years, reaching 203% over average in ... Provincial governments began erecting trade barriers that prevented the flow of foodgrains (especially rice) and other goods ... Approximately two acres of farmland would provide subsistence-level food for an average family (Mahalanobis, Mukherjea & Ghosh ... lower than the average of the preceding five years. It was, in fact, 13% higher than in 1941, and there was, of course, no ...
The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. ... "The Queens County Court-House Question A New Building to be Erected at Mineola". The New York Times. February 25, 1872. ... The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.20. ... Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.62. (92) 3.17. (81) 4.35. (110) 4.15. (105) 3.90. (99) 3.85. (98) 4.40. (112) 3.72. (94) ...
Several memorials have been erected in memory of the victims of the Hillsborough disaster. ... its average circulation in Liverpool was 12,000 copies a day.[254][255] ...
Average low °C (°F) 15.3. (59.5) 14.7. (58.5) 12.4. (54.3) 7.7. (45.9) 2.5. (36.5) −1.5. (29.3) −1.9. (28.6) 0.5. (32.9) 5.2. ( ... The Centre was erected to facilitate all Masonic activities in Bloemfontein and surrounding areas. All four Constitutions that ... Average precipitation mm (inches) 83. (3.3) 111. (4.4) 72. (2.8) 56. (2.2) 17. (0.7) 12. (0.5) 8. (0.3) 15. (0.6) 24. (0.9) 43 ... Average high °C (°F) 30.8. (87.4) 28.8. (83.8) 26.9. (80.4) 23.1. (73.6) 20.1. (68.2) 16.8. (62.2) 17.4. (63.3) 20.0. (68.0) ...
Average high °C (°F) 28.2. (82.8) 29.1. (84.4) 29.9. (85.8) 30.3. (86.5) 28.8. (83.8) 28.2. (82.8) 28.2. (82.8) 28.3. (82.9) ... The chapel, which was very modest, was erected with help from the church of Cartago. ... Average low °C (°F) 18.5. (65.3) 18.7. (65.7) 18.8. (65.8) 19.1. (66.4) 19.2. (66.6) 19.0. (66.2) 19.0. (66.2) 18.8. (65.8) ... while average temperatures vary little.[16] The hottest month is April with an average temperature of 23.7 °C (74.7 °F), while ...
The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.71. ... So many people fell ill that tents were erected to quarantine the stricken. ... The average household size was 1.88 and the average family size was 2.60. ... Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 8.7 7.4 8.9 10.2 12.0 12.3 9.7 7.5 6.8 6.7 7.0 8.7 105.9 ...
An average year will have 17 days with a high temperature of 90 °F (32 °C) or warmer.[78] In an average year, there are 14 days ... "The Queens County Court-House Question A New Building to be Erected at Mineola". The New York Times. February 25, 1872. ... Queens receives precipitation throughout the year, with an average of 44.8 inches (114 cm) per year. In an average year, there ... Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.4. (19) 9.1. (23) 4.4. (11) 0.5. (1.3) 0. (0) 0. (0) 0. (0) 0. (0) 0. (0) 0. (0) 0.3. (0.76) 5.2 ...
However, average crops of rapeseed produce oil at an average rate of 1,029 L/ha (110 US gal/acre), and high-yield rapeseed ... the company erected the first biodiesel pilot plant in November 1987, and the first industrial-scale plant in April 1989 (with ... In 2007, in the United States, average retail (at the pump) prices, including federal and state fuel taxes, of B2/B5 were lower ... Van Dyne and Raymer for the Tennessee Valley Authority, the average US farm consumes fuel at the rate of 82 litres per hectare ...
Average high °C (°F) 30.8. (87.4) 31.2. (88.2) 31.5. (88.7) 32.1. (89.8) 32.4. (90.3) 31.9. (89.4) 31.8. (89.2) 32.1. (89.8) ... The architectural model of the Palembang house which is most typical is the rumah limas which is mostly erected on stilts on ... Average low °C (°F) 22.9. (73.2) 23.0. (73.4) 23.0. (73.4) 23.4. (74.1) 23.6. (74.5) 22.9. (73.2) 22.3. (72.1) 22.4. (72.3) ... Average precipitation mm (inches) 277. (10.9) 262. (10.3) 329. (13.0) 263. (10.4) 213. (8.4) 122. (4.8) 104. (4.1) 107. (4.2) ...
The average horse can carry up to approximately 30% of its body weight.[6] While all horses can pull more than they can carry, ... While many statues and memorials have been erected to human heroes of war, often shown with horses, a few have also been ... averaging between 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) and 15 hands (60 inches, 152 cm).[26] On the European continent, the need to ... averaging 15 hands.[126] Cavalry tactics altered with fewer mounted charges, more reliance on drilled manoeuvres at the trot, ...
"Thousands of barriers erected for papal sit". The Manila Times. Retrieved 17 January 2015 ... for average trading days.) ...
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.90. ... In 1878, a courthouse was erected in Junction City. The structure was destroyed, along with all of the county records, in an ... The population density was 4 people per square mile (1/km2). The 2,996 housing units averaged 2 per square mile (1/km2). The ...
Research has found that egg sizes of the squid average 2.1 mm inside mature females, while juveniles average 4.6 mm or larger. ... Left: A dissected male specimen of Onykia ingens, showing a non-erect penis (the white tubular structure located below most of ... Penis elongation has been observed in this species; when erect, the penis may be as long as the mantle, head and arms combined. ...
Females on average have longer bodies than males but shorter legs. B. kahlenbergi is one of the smaller species, with body ... The genus Brachypelmides, erected by Schmidt and Krause in 1994, is considered a synonym of Brachypelma by some sources, ... A full-grown Brachypelma may molt as infrequently as once a year.[citation needed] The genus Brachypelma was erected by Eugène ...
I know that human beings on the average are not worth much anywhere, but here they are much more good-for-nothing and ... He soon designed a small wooden house which was erected on a remote rock overlooking the Eidsvatnet Lake just outside the ... A local foundation collected donations and bought it in 2014; it was dismantled again and re-erected at its original location; ... I am not interested in erecting a building, but in [...] presenting to myself the foundations of all possible buildings. ...
They were not part of the average person's diet, and though by 1820 they were described as "to be seen in great abundance in ... although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally 100 cm (3 ft) tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" ... Tomato farms in the Netherlands were the most productive in 2012, with a nationwide average of 476 tonnes per hectare, followed ... The average world farm yield for tomato was 33.6 tonnes per hectare, in 2012.[71] ...
The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.91. ... of the early 20th century is commemorated by stone arches erected by the workers in 1920 across Route 17C (Main Street) at the ... The population density was 4,198.1 people per square mile (1,619.3/km²). There were 6,719 housing units at an average density ...
On average, these stout-bodied rodents will grow to be between 30 and 40 cm (12 and 16 in) long, including the short tail, and ... usually sitting erect. Yet at the report of a gun or the too near approach of the visitor, they dart down and are seen no more ... The average prairie dog territory takes up 0.05-1.01 hectares. Territories have well-established borders that coincide with ... sitting erect, and somewhat so in its barking. The prairie dog has been reckoned by some naturalists a species of the marmot ( ...
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.3 9.4 10.9 9.6 10.5 9.5 8.1 8.4 8.2 9.0 9.7 10.6 114.2 ... The Hôtel de Ville, erected in the 17th century and enlarged in the 19th, features a pediment with an equestrian statue of ... Average low °C (°F) 0.1. (32.2) 0.1. (32.2) 2.6. (36.7) 4.2. (39.6) 8.1. (46.6) 10.8. (51.4) 12.9. (55.2) 12.6. (54.7) 9.8. ( ... Average high °C (°F) 5.8. (42.4) 7.1. (44.8) 11.3. (52.3) 14.7. (58.5) 18.8. (65.8) 21.9. (71.4) 24.7. (76.5) 24.3. (75.7) 20.3 ...
The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.90. ... for the purpose of erecting and constructing dams, locks, canals, mills, works, machines, and buildings on their own lands and ... The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.81. ... Average precipitation inches (mm). 3.5. (89). 3.4. (86). 4.0. (102). 4.1. (104). 3.7. (94). 3.7. (94). 3.4. (86). 3.2. (81). ...
... in 2009 A-level students achieved an average of 999.2 QCDA points, against a national average of 739.1 and 100 percent of ... The main entrance to The Judd School, with gates that were erected in memory of former pupils and teachers who died in the ... By 1952, the number of volunteer cadets had fallen to 90.[39] During the 1970s, numbers averaged about 150 cadets.[91] The ... a government inspection noted that the average pupil remained at the school for three and a half years and left the school ...
"Averages". Retrieved 25 September 2015.. [dead link] *^ "32 stopnie we Wrocławiu. Padł rekord z 1968 Roku". Tvnmeteo.tvn24.pl. ... These orders erected buildings which shaped the city's appearance until 1945. At the end of the Thirty Years' War, however, it ... Average low °C (°F) −4.2. (24.4) −3.5. (25.7) −0.4. (31.3) 3.2. (37.8) 7.9. (46.2) 11.2. (52.2) 13.1. (55.6) 12.5. (54.5) 8.9. ... Average high °C (°F) 2.4. (36.3) 3.9. (39) 8.4. (47.1) 14.4. (57.9) 19.6. (67.3) 22.2. (72) 24.6. (76.3) 24.3. (75.7) 19.3. ( ...
Average low °C (°F) 1.6. (34.9) 1.4. (34.5) 2.8. (37.0) 4.2. (39.6) 6.4. (43.5) 9.3. (48.7) 11.5. (52.7) 11.. (52) 9.0. (48.2) ... In October 1900, mainly through the efforts of Rawnsley, a simple memorial of Borrowdale slate was erected to Ruskin at Friars ... Average high °C (°F) 7.2. (45.0) 7.4. (45.3) 9.4. (48.9) 11.9. (53.4) 15.6. (60.1) 17.9. (64.2) 19.7. (67.5) 19.1. (66.4) 16.7 ... Average precipitation mm (inches) 169.1. (6.66) 119.9. (4.72) 127.8. (5.03) 81.7. (3.22) 79.4. (3.13) 84.3. (3.32) 88.1. (3.47 ...
... and has an average power output of 1.5 kW, which provides a maximum detection range of 25 km/16 mi. For reference, a McDonnell ... as it does not erect the missile to a launch position). The 9A330 is based on the GM-355 chassis manufactured by MMZ, the Tor- ... The radar has an average power output of 0.6 kW providing a maximum detection range of 20 km/12 mi. An F-15 type aircraft had a ...
Average low °C (°F). 19.2. (66.6). 19.4. (66.9). 18.3. (64.9). 15.3. (59.5). 12.0. (53.6). 9.7. (49.5). 8.5. (47.3). 9.3. (48.7 ... erected the old gaol on the seashore, and began work on the breakwater which now joins Nobbys Head to the mainland. The quality ... Average high °C (°F). 25.6. (78.1). 25.4. (77.7). 24.7. (76.5). 22.8. (73). 20.0. (68). 17.5. (63.5). 16.7. (62.1). 18.1. (64.6 ... Average precipitation days. 11.1. 11.2. 12.4. 12.3. 12.6. 12.3. 11.2. 10.5. 10.0. 10.9. 10.8. 10.6. 135.9. ...
The memorial was erected originally because during the Cold War those graves were inaccessible. ... "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 2 February 2020.. ... The right to erect a permanent memorial cost an additional 10 shillings (about £47 in 2020 terms); if a permanent memorial was ... Memorial was erected in 1983 and dismantled in 2015. It commemorated forces of the British Commonwealth who died in Russia in ...
They landed at Pevensey in Sussex on 28 September and erected a wooden castle at Hastings, from which they raided the ... averaging about 27 miles (43 kilometres) per day,[43] for the nearly 200 miles (320 kilometres) to London.[44] Although Harold ... averaging almost 25 miles (40 kilometres) per day. At dawn on 25 September Harold's forces reached York, where he learned the ...
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Term: 1 Definition: cervical enlargement Term: 2 Definition: lumbar enlargement Term: 3 Definition: conus medullaris Term: 4 Definition: conus medullaris Term: 5 Definition: filum terminale This preview has intentionally blurred sections.The cervical enlargement is the source of the spinal nerves that contribute to the brachial plexus and supply the upper limbs.Of or relating to the neck, a necklike part, or the cervix of an organ Explanation of cervical fibers Of or relating to the neck, a necklike part, or the cervix of an organ Explanation of cervical fibers ...
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The ears are erect. At maturity, rams weigh 37 kg (82 lb) and ewes weigh 45 kg (99 lb). At the withers, rams grow to 55 cm (22 ... in) and ewes to 47 cm (19 in). Ewes have an average 1.1 lambs per litter. "Cikta/Hungary". Breed data sheet. Domestic Animal ...
This review provides a comprehensive overview of studies on the average length of the penis, conditions that result in penile ... Average gain in flaccid circumference (cm). Average gain in erect circumference (cm). ...
This review provides a comprehensive overview of studies on the average length of the penis, conditions that result in penile ... Erect diameter (location on shaft not specified) preoperatively was 2.85 cm, whereas the average erect diameter postoperatively ... Average gain in flaccid circumference (cm). Average gain in erect circumference (cm). ... Then, a V-Y plasty was used to elongate the penile skin at the base.[29] The average penile length preoperatively was 8.75 cm ...
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It has an erect, paniculate inflorescence. The flower spikes are branched (hence the Latin name ramosus), unlike Anthericum ... Anthericum ramosum reaches on average a height of 30-70 centimetres (12-28 in). The grass-like leaves are 50 centimetres (20 in ...
Flaccid, the penis of the gorilla and the orangutan, both with much bigger bodies, is virtually invisible; erect, it reaches ... Lifestyle reported the average erection to be 5.8 inches-about one-half an inch less than the above averaged averages. Its ... Averaging the averages of Kinsey from over half a century ago, his institutes from 25 years ago, and the Durex and Definitive ... What now seems to be the focus of attention is the likelihood that men who know or think they are below average are unlikely to ...
Caucasian men average length 3.5 inches flaccid & 5.4 inches erect Circumference flaccid 3.6 inches & 4.5 inches erect. My ... My penis bends forwards when erect my frenulum and skin on bottom of penis feel very tight when erect. ... Most penises not all: Normal for most to have a slight upward curve when erect. Men with ventral chordee or hypospadias have a ... Average penis size: Size varies considerably, especially flaccid length which varies with temperature. ...
For the subantarctic fur seal, Dur and Interval Dur of the barking call unit were found on average to be longer than that of ... The vibrissae were always erect. Males produced barking series while lying down and sitting up, while stationary, while moving ... Peak 2 had the highest frequency on average (Peak 1=934±480 Hz and Peak 2=1362±598 Hz; Table 1). The amplitude ratio between ... Temporal features were measured on the oscillogram (cursor precisioN=1ms). Spectral features were measured using the averaged ...
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The plant which has a normal average height of about 12" at maturity can be easily maintained at 10" or less by occasional ... Bud: Peduncle-Short, about 3/4" to 1"; slender but sturdy; erect; medium green-often bronze outdoors; numerous tiny soft hairs ... Bloom: Size when fully open-Small, averaging 1 1/4" or slightly smaller. Petalage-Double-about 23-30 petals; usually with no or ... Quantity of bloom: Abundance; average or above both outside and inside greenhouse. ...
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The stem is erect, the leaves are lanceolate, up to 10 centimeters long. The inflorescence has one to five short-haired flowers ... Lilium bulbiferum reaches on average 20-90 centimetres (7.9-35.4 in) of height, with a maximum of 120 centimetres (47 in). The ... The stamens are erect, about half as long as the tepals, with red anthers. The style is orange, 35 millimetres (1.4 in) of ...
Scape posture.--Erect, strong. Scape size.--Average of 8.5 cm in length and 4 mm in width. Scape color.--Blend of 143D and 145D ... Flower number.--Average of 10 per scape. Flower internode length.--Average of 1.2 cm. Flower fragrance.--None detected. Flower ... Leaf size.--Average of 5 cm in length and width when mature. Leaf quantity.--About 7 to 8 pershoot (eye). Petioles.--Sulcate in ... 5. `Cat and Mouse` blooms in early summer with white flowers that are striped with lavender and held on erect flower scapes.. ...
Her nipples were large, erect.. Under one was a long, nicely healed scar.. "Do you like these?". "Yes.". "Suck them." She ... Average-sized, but from the POV of a starving man, beautiful. They were also dusted with some makeup that glittered vaguely. ...
The average annual income for a structural ironworker in the early 2000s was 15.85 dollars per hour; however, a full-time ... The bolt bag is a heavy canvas bag used for storing bolts and nuts that erect a structure. A sleever bar is a steel alloy bar ... The average pay for a reinforcing bar ironworker in residential construction was an hourly wage of $23.59 in early 2009 and ... Ironworkers finish buildings by erecting curtain wall and window wall systems, pre-cast concrete and stone, stairs and ...
Pulmonary bag research is the best shape to choose for as it works directly only not compared to the average signs. ... A consumption is canada viagra prescription non nevertheless required; the erect slide has been made in an erection to reduce ... Safe legislation elicit online axle smiles meagre geenric long-term ancestry contains knockout egg and remodeling of average ...
... the average erect length was about 5.57 inches (consistent with other studies). The average erect circumference was about 4.8 ... Though some men are 2 inches erect and some men are 9 inches erect, most are somewhere around 5 or 6 inches erect. This works ... Averages are only slightly helpful, though; more important is that the majority of men are within an inch or so of these ... In a study my research team at Indiana University conducted, we found the - of 1,661 men who measured their erect penises - ...
The average length is 5.03 inches.. Measure the Girth of an Erect Penis. This should be done when the penis is erect. A tape ... The average girth of an erect penis is 5.14 inches.. The Erection Angle. It is advisable to lean against the wall and put a ... The average length when the penis is flaccid is 3.43 inches.. Measure the Penis When Erect. It is encouraged to measure the ... The average angle when penis is observed from the horizontal position and when it is slightly up is 105.7 degrees. ...
Quantity: The average number of seeds produced per seed head is 60. Style Appearance: Plumose, semi-erect. ... Quantity: On average, 60. Filaments: Color: Green-Yellow Group 1D. Length: About 7 mm. Pistils: Quantity: On average, 60. ... Average spread is 250 cm.. *Stems.-Color: Juvenile stems are Greyed-Orange Group 177A. Mature stems are Brown Group 200B. ... Flower bloom.-Size: On average, flowers are 100 mm in diameter and mm in depth. Profile: Open flowers are flat. Fragrance: None ...
Floral rachis bronze with matted hairs, average length 7cm. Flowers burnt red. Perianth 12mm long (average) x 8mm wide, yellow- ... It quickly forms a mid-dense rounded large shrub with erect branches. It appears to be moderately drought and frost hardy, ... Branchlets bronze with dense matted hairs, becoming grey with a shiny waxy layer with age, striate, erect to slightly spreading ... Inner surface with scattered erect white hairs particularly in lower third. Limb bronze, obtuse, revolute. Pistil to 46mm, ...
the average erect penis length was only 5.88 inches (14.9cms). *the average erect girth (circumference at mid-shaft) was 4.97 ... The result was that Kinsey mistakenly thought that the average man measured 6.2inches (15.75cms) in erect length. This figure ... Penis size: find out what is the normal size for an erect and non-erect penis. ... the majority of men (59 per cent) had an erect length which fell in the range of 5.25 inches (13.3cms) to 6 inches (15.2cms) ...
Brassica carinata is a herbaceous annual with a determinate growth habit (Zanetti et al. 2013). Plants have an erect bearing, ... averaging 1.4 m in height. Plants are highly branched, with a well-developed tap root and extensive rooting system (Barro and ... 600-1000 mm average annual rainfall), a long growing season (180 days), and at elevation (2200-2800 m above sea level (Asamenew ...
3. Leaf blade: average width of maximum dimensions of ten blades - 4. Leaf blade: erect; ascending; drooping. 5. Leaf blade: ... 3. Diameter below spike: average of ten cuims 4. Depth of furrows below spike: furrowed; medium; smooth. 5. Upper part of culm ... 1. Height: average of ten culms to tip of apical gloom, not counting awn ... 2. Leaf blade: average length of ten blades ...
When the penis is erect, it gets temporarily longer; the average length is 6 ¼ inches. The smaller a penis is when it is soft ... An erect penis is caused when the blood passageways in the spongy tissue inside the penis fill with blood. It can happen ... The first hairs dont usually show until the sex organs have almost fully developed; the average age is between 14 and 16 years ... During this time the penis is firm and erect. After the ejaculation, the penis relaxes and becomes soft and flaccid. ...
  • [ 27 ] At 9 months postoperatively, there was no statistically significant increase in flaccid penile circumference, but there was a statistically significant increase in erect circumference. (medscape.com)
  • The average erect circumference was about 4.8 inches. (nuvo.net)
  • The circumference is measured on erect penis: just below the glans penis, in the middle of the shaft, and at the base. (wikipedia.org)
  • On average, an erect penis (2) can increase in length to 5 to 6 inches and circumference to 4 to 5 inches. (everydayhealth.com)
  • When erect, it measures on average between five and six inches in length and about five inches in circumference. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The minimum circumference of the erect penis was 10.2cm while the maximum was 14.7cm. (medindia.net)
  • The circumference of the erect penis is more important to the condom manufacturers than the length, Krishnamurthi said. (medindia.net)
  • Another development of recent years has been the gradual realisation that widely-published and accepted figures for average penile length were actually wrong. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • But he obtained his figures for penile length by sending each subject a postcard, and asking for it to be returned with the erect length marked on it. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • In 2015, a psychiatrist at King's College Hospital, London, published a paper which was interpreted by the national and international press as meaning that the average man's penile length (when erect) is only 5.2 inches (13.2 cms). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Usually the erect penile length varies from 4.5 to 6 inches in most healthy men. (hpathy.com)
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  • Many American men, according to the Kinsey Institute, believe the average erection is 10 inches-this despite (or because of) frequently accessing Internet pornography in which participants have shaved off their pubic hair to increase visibility and many have used a vascular device to pump up temporarily. (slate.com)
  • all the data in the Durex and the Definitive Penis survey undertakings were collected in this way-the DPS giving the average erection as 6.3 inches, with Durex giving it as 6.4. (slate.com)
  • Average erection time for a four or five men crew is ten to fourteen days. (cdc.gov)
  • While the corpus cavernosum's physiologic role is to become engorged with blood to make the penis erect, the corpus spongiosum itself remains spongy and limber to protect the urethra from closing during an erection. (healthline.com)
  • This fast-growing, heat-loving plant bears large, elliptic or oval leaves on erect stems. (learn2grow.com)
  • It has erect stems, the leaves are large, ovate-lanceolate, semiamplexicaul, about 3-8 centimetres (1.2-3.1 in) long. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average length when the penis is flaccid is 3.43 inches . (performanceinsiders.com)
  • The figure that is located at the tip of the shaft is the length of the penis when erect. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • The average length is 5.03 inches . (performanceinsiders.com)
  • Well any size is normal but the average erect size is 5-6 inches for a adult.When flaccid (limp) the penis, depending on the ambient temperature and a lot of other factors can be anywhere from a couple of centimeters (one inch) long to the length that the erect penis attains. (answers.com)
  • In a study my research team at Indiana University conducted, we found the - of 1,661 men who measured their erect penises - the average erect length was about 5.57 inches (consistent with other studies). (nuvo.net)
  • Floral rachis bronze with matted hairs, average length 7cm. (anbg.gov.au)
  • The result was that Kinsey mistakenly thought that the average man measured 6.2inches (15.75cms) in erect length. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Self-measurements report a higher average length than those which used medical or scientific methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flaccid length is not a reliable indication of erect length. (wikipedia.org)
  • An adult penis with an erect length of less than 7 cm but otherwise formed normally is referred to as having the micropenis condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The average erect penis ranges in length from 5.5 to 6.2 inches. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • The average length of an erect penis is about 14cm. (health24.com)
  • The 'traditional' average length for adults is 6 inches. (healthboards.com)
  • A review has determined the average penis length in men, while those with erectile dysfunction may benefit from a treatment using a by-product of liposuction. (australasianscience.com.au)
  • there was a small correlation between erect length and height. (australasianscience.com.au)
  • Your hair has a fine texture with average length and generally dark in color. (ganeshaspeaks.com)
  • The maximum length is 6 ft (2 m), the average from 3 to 4 ft (90-120 cm). (infoplease.com)
  • The average minimum length of the erect penis was 9.6 cm whereas the maximum was 16.6 cm. (medindia.net)
  • 8. On the average, about how many times per week do you masturbate to orgasm? (jackinworld.com)
  • How long can the average man stay erect? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • One can stay erect for rampant information with drug of a due frim. (fsblog.de)
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  • national average is five inches, which I find somewhat disappointing. (answers.com)
  • Though some men are 2 inches erect and some men are 9 inches erect, most are somewhere around 5 or 6 inches erect. (nuvo.net)
  • This works out nicely for vaginal intercourse between women and men because the average vagina (at about 3 or 4 inches unaroused) stretches fairly comfortably and easily to 5-6 inches when aroused. (nuvo.net)
  • The smaller a penis is when it is soft or flaccid, the more inches it tends to gain when erect. (infobarrel.com)
  • my penis is 5 and a half inches erected, hope i helped. (answers.com)
  • Average size when fully expanded -- about 11/2 to 13/4 inches. (patentgenius.com)
  • If you have anywhere from 4 to 7 inches erect, you are normal. (healthboards.com)
  • I would say 4 to 6 inches is average, and below 4' is small. (healthboards.com)
  • Once upon a time the average penis size was commonly said to be 5 inches, so everyone wanted 6 inches, and then wouldn't you know, people were saying it's 6 inches. (healthboards.com)
  • And now, with all that penis enlargement spam flooding the internet, you'd think the average was 7 inches (so you will feel small by comparison and buy their product). (healthboards.com)
  • According to the more trustworthy sources, the average penis is still supposed to be closer to five inches long than six. (healthboards.com)
  • On average, the vaginal canal is three to six inches long. (healthline.com)
  • That's about five inches when erect. (healthline.com)
  • In America, the average penis stands erect at 5.6 inches (14.2 centimeters) long, according to a 2013 survey detailed in the Journal of Sexual Medicine. (livescience.com)
  • Though 5.6 inches may be average, researchers reported a huge variation in penis size from their survey respondents. (livescience.com)
  • The smallest erect penis reported was 1.6 inches (4 cm) long, while the largest penis was 10.2 inches (26 cm) long. (livescience.com)
  • The ears are erect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, pumas can be identified by a tan or slightly yellow coat, round face, long tail and erect ears. (livescience.com)
  • Bostons are small and compact with a short tail and erect ears. (skullsunlimited.com)
  • Erect, semi-erect, tipped, or button ears are allowed as long as the shape and carriage match-the ears must not be cropped. (orvis.com)
  • Average penis size: Human penises are huge compared to other primates. (slate.com)
  • Studies found that many men who believed that their penis was of inadequate size had average-sized penises. (wikipedia.org)
  • When not erect, most men's penises are in the region of 7cm long, and when erect, vary in size between about 10 - 17 cm. (health24.com)
  • Erect diameter (location on shaft not specified) preoperatively was 2.85 cm, whereas the average erect diameter postoperatively was 4.21 cm. (medscape.com)
  • The stem is erect, the leaves are lanceolate, up to 10 centimeters long. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new cultivar of hybrid Hosta named `Cat and Mouse`, characterized by its miniature plant size, its mounded plant habit, its round, glaucous leaves that are variegated with yellow-green center with blue-green margins in spring with the centers turning brighter and the margins turning greener in summer and its white flowers striped with lavender emerging in early summer on erect flower scapes. (patentgenius.com)
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  • Adult males grow to 6 to 8 feet (1.8 to 2.4 meters) long and females average 5 to 7 feet (1.5 to 2.1 meters). (livescience.com)
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  • In a research that was done in a University in Pittsburgh showed that, most men were apprehensive about the size of their penis and most gauged it as below average. (performanceinsiders.com)
  • Bloom: Size when fully open-Small, averaging 1 1/4" or slightly smaller. (colitz.com)
  • The size when flaccid varies a lot and has not connection to the size when erect. (answers.com)
  • Your real penis size is when your penis is erect. (answers.com)
  • You can not.It's normal and average size right now. (answers.com)
  • An Internet survey found only 55% of participating men were satisfied with their penis size, whereas 85% of participating women said they were "very satisfied" with the size of their partner's penis , and only 6% of women rated their partner as smaller than average. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gentiana cruciata is a hemicryptophyte scapose plant of small size, reaching on average 20-40 centimetres (7.9-15.7 in) in height. (wikipedia.org)
  • Don't know if size matters or not but I am above average in that dept. (medhelp.org)
  • A 36C is the average breast size in America today. (fooyoh.com)
  • The average erect nipple is around the same size as five stacked quarters. (fooyoh.com)
  • average penis size? (healthboards.com)
  • hi guys, i know this is gonna sound stupid and insecure but i was just wondering what is average penis size for my age its been on mind for a month now and i just wanna get it out of my way and get on with life. (healthboards.com)
  • Re: average penis size? (healthboards.com)
  • I think it's very difficult to get a true gauge on what the real average size is because the sample size from your 'trustworthy' sources are quite small and there are so many confounding factors in those studies despite their best efforts to keep it objective. (healthboards.com)
  • I am 23 yrs old man, my penis size is 3.5 inch (when erected), how to increase my penis size & I can be any woman pregnant in this penis size yes or no? (healthtap.com)
  • Despite this there have been no formal systematic reviews of penis size measurements, and no attempts to graph the distribution of the size of a flaccid or erect penis. (australasianscience.com.au)
  • Of course, that's not the only reason - your cervix could be touched when thrusting is too deep, or if a penis or toy is larger than the average penis size. (healthline.com)
  • We're going to focus on average size ranges here, so do understand that average means just that -- the middle point of a group of values (in this case, sizes), obtained by taking the sum of a group of values and dividing by the number of values -- not "normal. (scarleteen.com)
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  • Lilium bulbiferum reaches on average 20-90 centimetres (7.9-35.4 in) of height, with a maximum of 120 centimetres (47 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • During arousal, the vagina lengthens rapidly to an average of about 10 centimetres, but can continue to lengthen in response to pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stamens are erect, about half as long as the tepals , with red anthers . (wikipedia.org)
  • Perianth 12mm long (average) x 8mm wide, yellow-green at the base, becoming orange then pinky-red to deep burnt red at the top of the curve, lightly covered on the outer surface with a mixture of bronze and white appressed hairs which become dense and bronze on the limb. (anbg.gov.au)
  • A long, docked, or naturally bobbed tail are all allowed, carried nearly erect but never over the back or in a ring. (orvis.com)
  • As a man ages, the penis may take longer to become erect, and erections may not be as firm. (drugs.com)
  • Flowers in a simple to branched erect cylindrical conflorescence on a short peduncle. (anbg.gov.au)
  • 2013). Plants have an erect bearing, averaging 1.4 m in height. (gc.ca)
  • The plant which has a normal average height of about 12" at maturity can be easily maintained at 10" or less by occasional trimming. (colitz.com)
  • On the average, a male's first ejaculation occurs within a year after puberty begins. (jackinworld.com)
  • For the past ten years, the company has erected approximately twenty to thirty tanks per year. (cdc.gov)
  • Do you mean 4-6' is average for a 16 year old, or all men in general? (healthboards.com)
  • I led Double Crack, Ants' Line, and P1 of Erect Direction last year, all of them onsight, when I was in the best shape of my life and thought I could do anything. (rockclimbing.com)
  • Testosterone levels gradually decline throughout adulthood - about 1 percent each year after age 30 on average. (drugs.com)
  • However, the medical staff did finally manage to record the erect measurements of 300 men. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Average measurements are applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • These figures nearly coincide with three earlier studies conducted in the West which portrayed averages of 15.5cm, 14.5cm and 12.9cm. (medindia.net)
  • But there should be solace for the average man in knowing that he is statistically within touching distance, as it were, of some 90 percent of all his fellows. (slate.com)
  • When the erect penis is stimulated, ejaculation can occur. (everydayhealth.com)
  • In an average ejaculation there may be up to a teaspoon of fluid containing up to 500 million sperm. (everydayhealth.com)
  • A downloadable chart of four outline drawings ("low average" to "extraordinarily large") can be found on the net, which a man can print out and use as a template against which to judge himself. (slate.com)
  • Her nipples were large, erect. (lacan.com)
  • This traps blood within the penis, the pressure becomes very high and the penis becomes erect. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • An erect penis is caused when the blood passageways in the spongy tissue inside the penis fill with blood. (infobarrel.com)
  • Everything from mood, setting and company to the health of the heart, blood vessels and nerves are involved in becoming erect. (mercola.com)
  • In addition, men with high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, diabetes and smoking are substantially more likely not to be able to get erect. (mercola.com)
  • instead it relies entirely on engorgement with blood to reach its erect state. (wikidoc.org)
  • The average angle when penis is observed from the horizontal position and when it is slightly up is 105.7 degrees . (performanceinsiders.com)
  • Branchlets bronze with dense matted hairs, becoming grey with a shiny waxy layer with age, striate, erect to slightly spreading. (anbg.gov.au)
  • Average masturbation frequency decreases only slightly as a male passes through his teen years. (jackinworld.com)
  • Of those age 14 or older who masturbate at least 7-9 times per week, the average nocturnal-emission frequency is less than once per month. (jackinworld.com)
  • Of those age 14 or older who masturbate once or less per week, the average nocturnal-emission frequency is about once every three weeks. (jackinworld.com)
  • At approximately 11:25 A.M. on October 15, 1982, the accident occurred at the construction site of a 200,000 gallon water tank being erected on the Donley farm in Greene County, Pennsylvania. (cdc.gov)
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