The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
A plant family of the order Hydrocharitales, subclass ALISMATIDAE, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, ellipsoidal or rod-shaped bacteria whose major source of energy and reducing power is from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Its species occur in soils, oceans, lakes, rivers, and sewage disposal systems.
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
A species of green microalgae in the family Chlorellaceae. It is used as a model organism for PHOTOSYNTHESIS, and as a food supplement (DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS).
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Physiological processes and properties of microorganisms, including ARCHAEA; BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; and others.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain fredelin type TRITERPENES, mallorepine (a cyano-pyridone), and hydrolyzable TANNINS.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

The PsbQ protein is required in Arabidopsis for photosystem II assembly/stability and photoautotrophy under low light conditions. (1/128)

RNA interference was used to simultaneously suppress the expression of the two genes that encode the PsbQ proteins of Photosystem II (PS II) in Arabidopsis thaliana, psbQ-1 (At4g21280) and psbQ-2 (At4g05180). Two independent PsbQ-deficient plant lines were examined. These plant lines produced little detectable PsbQ protein. Under normal growth light conditions, the wild type and mutant plants were visually indistinguishable. Additionally, analysis of steady state oxygen evolution rates and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics indicated little alteration of photosynthetic capacity in the mutant plants. No loss of other PS II proteins was evident. Interestingly, flash oxygen yield analysis performed on thylakoid membranes isolated from the mutant and wild type plants indicated that the oxygen-evolving complex was quite unstable in the mutants. Furthermore, the lifetime of the S2 state of the oxygen-evolving complex appeared to be increased in these plants. Incubation of the wild type and mutant plants under low light growth conditions led to a significantly stronger observed phenotype in the mutants. The mutant plants progressively yellowed (after 2 weeks) and eventually died (after 3-4 weeks). The wild type plants exhibited only slight yellowing after 4 weeks under low light conditions. The mutant plants exhibited a large loss of a number of PS II components, including CP47 and the D2 protein, under low light conditions. Additionally, significant alterations of their fluorescence characteristics were observed, including an increased FO and decreased FV, yielding a large loss in PS II quantum efficiency (FV/FM). Analysis of QA- decay kinetics in the absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea indicated a defect in electron transfer from QA- to QB, whereas experiments performed in the presence of this herbicide indicated that the recombination rate between QA- and the S2 state was strongly retarded. These results indicate that the loss of the PsbQ protein induces significant changes in Photosystem II function, particularly in low light-grown plants, and that the PsbQ protein is required for photoautotrophic growth under low light conditions.  (+info)

Coupling of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus methane formation and growth in fed-batch and continuous cultures under different H2 gassing regimens. (2/128)

In nature, H2- and CO2-utilizing methanogenic archaea have to couple the processes of methanogenesis and autotrophic growth under highly variable conditions with respect to the supply and concentration of their energy source, hydrogen. To study the hydrogen-dependent coupling between methanogenesis and growth, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was cultured in a fed-batch fermentor and in a chemostat under different 80% H(2)-20% CO2 gassing regimens while we continuously monitored the dissolved hydrogen partial pressures (pH2). In the fed-batch system, in which the conditions continuously changed the uptake rates by the growing biomass, the organism displayed a complex and yet defined growth behavior, comprising the consecutive lag, exponential, and linear growth phases. It was found that the in situ hydrogen concentration affected the coupling between methanogenesis and growth in at least two respects. (i) The microorganism could adopt two distinct theoretical maximal growth yields (YCH4 max), notably approximately 3 and 7 g (dry weight) of methane formed mol-1, for growth under low (pH2 < 12 kPa)- and high-hydrogen conditions, respectively. The distinct values can be understood from a theoretical analysis of the process of methanogenesis presented in the supplemental material associated with this study. (ii) The in situ hydrogen concentration affected the "specific maintenance" requirements or, more likely, the degree of proton leakage and proton slippage processes. At low pH2 values, the "specific maintenance" diminished and the specific growth yields approached YCH4 max, indicating that growth and methanogenesis became fully coupled.  (+info)

CO2 uptake and fixation by endosymbiotic chemoautotrophs from the bivalve Solemya velum. (3/128)

Chemoautotrophic symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria are the major source of organic carbon for the host, are found in marine habitats where sulfide and oxygen coexist. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pH, alternate sulfur sources, and electron acceptors on carbon fixation and to investigate which form(s) of inorganic carbon is taken up and fixed by the gamma-proteobacterial endosymbionts of the protobranch bivalve Solemya velum. Symbiont-enriched suspensions were generated by homogenization of S. velum gills, followed by velocity centrifugation to pellet the symbiont cells. Carbon fixation was measured by incubating the cells with (14)C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon. When oxygen was present, both sulfide and thiosulfate stimulated carbon fixation; however, elevated levels of either sulfide (>0.5 mM) or oxygen (1 mM) were inhibitory. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate did not enhance carbon fixation rates when sulfide was present. Symbionts fixed carbon most rapidly between pH 7.5 and 8.5. Under optimal pH, sulfide, and oxygen conditions, symbiont carbon fixation rates correlated with the concentrations of extracellular CO(2) and not with HCO(3)(-) concentrations. The half-saturation constant for carbon fixation with respect to extracellular dissolved CO(2) was 28 +/- 3 microM, and the average maximal velocity was 50.8 +/- 7.1 micromol min(-1) g of protein(-1). The reliance of S. velum symbionts on extracellular CO(2) is consistent with their intracellular lifestyle, since HCO(3)(-) utilization would require protein-mediated transport across the bacteriocyte membrane, perisymbiont vacuole membrane, and symbiont outer and inner membranes. The use of CO(2) may be a general trait shared with many symbioses with an intracellular chemoautotrophic partner.  (+info)

Isolation and functional characterization of PgTIP1, a hormone-autotrophic cells-specific tonoplast aquaporin in ginseng. (4/128)

The suppression subtractive hybridization technique was used to identify differentially expressed genes between hormone-autotrophic and hormone-dependent Panax ginseng callus lines. A tonoplast intrinsic protein cDNA (PgTIP1) was found to be highly and specifically expressed in hormone-autotrophic ginseng cells, which was slightly up-regulated by cytokinin while significantly down-regulated when treated with auxin. PgTIP1 encodes a polypeptide of 250 amino acids which shows sequence and structure similarity with tonoplast aquaporins in plants. The water channel activity of PgTIP1 was demonstrated by its expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, PgTIP1 substantially altered the plant's vegetative and reproductive growth and development. Arabidopsis plants over-expressing PgTIP1 showed significantly enhanced seed size and seed mass plus greatly increased growth rate compared with those of the wild type. Moreover, the seeds from PgTIP1 over-expressing Arabidopsis had 1.85-fold higher fatty acid content than the wild-type control. These results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in the growth and development of plant cells.  (+info)

Characterization of a marine gammaproteobacterium capable of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. (5/128)

Members of the gammaproteobacterial clade NOR5/OM60 regularly form an abundant part, up to 11%, of the bacterioplankton community in coastal systems during the summer months. Here, we report the nearly complete genome sequence of one cultured representative, Congregibacter litoralis strain KT71, isolated from North Sea surface water. Unexpectedly, a complete photosynthesis superoperon, including genes for accessory pigments, was discovered. It has a high sequence similarity to BAC clones from Monterey Bay [Beja O, Suzuki MT, Heidelberg JF, Nelson WC, Preston CM, et al. (2002) Nature 415:630-633], which also share a nearly identical gene arrangement. Although cultures of KT71 show no obvious pigmentation, bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin-like carotenoids could be detected by HPLC analysis in cell extracts. The presence of two potential BLUF (blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide sensors), one of which was found adjacent to the photosynthesis operon in the genome, indicates a light- and redox-dependent regulation of gene expression. Like other aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAnPs), KT71 is able to grow neither anaerobically nor photoautotrophically. Cultivation experiments and genomic evidence show that KT71 needs organic substrates like carboxylic acids, oligopeptides, or fatty acids for growth. The strain grows optimally under microaerobic conditions and actively places itself in a zone of approximately 10% oxygen saturation. The genome analysis of C. litoralis strain KT71 identifies the gammaproteobacterial marine AAnPs, postulated based on BAC sequences, as members of the NOR5/OM60 clade. KT71 enables future experiments investigating the importance of this group of gammaproteobacterial AAnPs in coastal environments.  (+info)

Initial characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus of "Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila," a filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph. (6/128)

"Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila" is a recently described halophilic, filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph (J. A. Klappenbach and B. K. Pierson, Arch. Microbiol. 181:17-25, 2004) that was enriched from the hypersaline microbial mats at Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus by negative staining, spectroscopy, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus in this organism has similarities to the photosynthetic apparatus in both the Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla of green photosynthetic bacteria. The chlorosomes were found to be ellipsoidal and of various sizes, characteristics that are comparable to characteristics of chlorosomes in other species of green photosynthetic bacteria. The absorption spectrum of whole cells was dominated by the chlorosome bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) peak at 759 nm, with fluorescence emission at 760 nm. A second fluorescence emission band was observed at 870 nm and was tentatively attributed to a membrane-bound antenna complex. Fluorescence emission spectra obtained at 77 K revealed another complex that fluoresced at 820 nm, which probably resulted from the chlorosome baseplate complex. All of these results suggest that BChl c is present in the chlorosomes of "Ca. Chlorothrix halophila," that BChl a is present in the baseplate, and that there is a membrane-bound antenna complex. Analysis of the proteins in the chlorosomes revealed an approximately 6-kDa band, which was found to be related to the BChl c binding protein CsmA found in other green bacteria. Overall, the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of "Ca. Chlorothrix halophila" revealed an interesting mixture of photosynthetic characteristics that seemed to have properties similar to properties of both phyla of green bacteria when they were compared to the photosynthetic characteristics of Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus.  (+info)

Insights into the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway of the archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis: comprehensive analysis of the central carbon metabolism. (7/128)

Ignicoccus hospitalis is an autotrophic hyperthermophilic archaeon that serves as a host for another parasitic/symbiotic archaeon, Nanoarchaeum equitans. In this study, the biosynthetic pathways of I. hospitalis were investigated by in vitro enzymatic analyses, in vivo (13)C-labeling experiments, and genomic analyses. Our results suggest the operation of a so far unknown pathway of autotrophic CO(2) fixation that starts from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The cyclic regeneration of acetyl-CoA, the primary CO(2) acceptor molecule, has not been clarified yet. In essence, acetyl-CoA is converted into pyruvate via reductive carboxylation by pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Pyruvate-water dikinase converts pyruvate into phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which is carboxylated to oxaloacetate by PEP carboxylase. An incomplete citric acid cycle is operating: citrate is synthesized from oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA by a (re)-specific citrate synthase, whereas a 2-oxoglutarate-oxidizing enzyme is lacking. Further investigations revealed that several special biosynthetic pathways that have recently been described for various archaea are operating. Isoleucine is synthesized via the uncommon citramalate pathway and lysine via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway. Gluconeogenesis is achieved via a reverse Embden-Meyerhof pathway using a novel type of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Pentosephosphates are formed from hexosephosphates via the suggested ribulose-monophosphate pathway, whereby formaldehyde is released from C-1 of hexose. The organism may not contain any sugar-metabolizing pathway. This comprehensive analysis of the central carbon metabolism of I. hospitalis revealed further evidence for the unexpected and unexplored diversity of metabolic pathways within the (hyperthermophilic) archaea.  (+info)

Construction costs and physico-chemical properties of the assimilatory organs of Nepenthes species in Northern Borneo. (8/128)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Species of the Nepenthaceae family are under-represented in studies of leaf traits and the consequent view of mineral nutrition and limitation in carnivorous plants. This study is aimed to complement existing data on leaf traits of carnivorous plants. METHODS: Physico-chemical properties, including construction costs (CC), of the assimilatory organs (leaf and pitcher) of a guild of lowland Nepenthes species inhabiting heath and/or peat swamp forests of Brunei, Northern Borneo were determined. KEY RESULTS: Stoichiometry analyses indicate that Nepenthes species are nitrogen limited. Most traits vary appreciably across species, but greater variations exist between the assimilatory organs. Organ mass per unit area, dry matter tissue concentration (density), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon, heat of combustion (H(c)) and CC values were higher in the leaf relative to the pitcher, while organ thickness, potassium (K) and ash showed the opposite trend. Cross-species correlations indicate that joint rather than individual consideration of the leaf and the pitcher give better predictive relationships between variables, signalling tight coupling and functional interdependence of the two assimilatory organs. Across species, mass-based CC did not vary with N or P, but increases significantly with tissue density, carbon and H(c), and decreases with K and ash contents. Area-based CC gave the same trends (though weaker in strength) in addition to a significant positive correlation with tissue mass per unit area. CONCLUSIONS: The lower CC value for the pitcher is in agreement with the concept of low marginal cost for carnivory relative to conventional autotrophy. The poor explanatory power of N, P or N : P ratio with CC suggests that factors other than production of expensive photosynthetic machinery (which calls for a high N input), including concentrations of lignin, wax/lipids or osmoregulatory ions like K(+), may give a better explanation of the CC variation across Nepenthes species.  (+info)

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PubMed journal article Paired RNA Radiocarbon and Sequencing Analyses Indicate the Importance of Autotrophy in a Shallow Alluvial Aquife were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Author: Beese-Vasbender, Pascal Fabien et al.; Genre: Talk; Title: Direct biocatalysis of methane from carbon dioxide by a lithotrophic archaeon
Elevated [CO2] directly reduces stomatal conductance in C3 and C4 species, and also directly stimulates photosynthesis in C3 species (Drake et al., 1997; Long et al., 2004; Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007). All other effects of elevated [CO2] on crops, including the stimulation in yield, are derived from these primary responses (Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007). How can we engineer crops to maximize the advantages of rising [CO2]? As Rubisco is the key carboxylating enzyme and frequently the rate-limiting factor for photosynthesis (Rogers and Humphries, 2000), it is worth asking: Can crop responsiveness to elevated [CO2] be improved by altering the properties of Rubisco, and are current efforts to improve Rubisco relevant to the production environment of 2050? In C3 crops, increasing the affinity of Rubisco for CO2, and thereby avoiding photorespiratory carbon (C) losses, is a target for increasing yield potential (Reynolds and Borlaug, 2006; Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007), but the conserved inverse ...
There is provided an image decoding apparatus for decoding a coded image signal having an image identifier based on a data structure of the image signal. This apparatus comprises a data analyzer for analyzing the coded image signal with reference to the image identifier to decide whether the coded image signal is a coded arbitrary shape signal including both of coded shape bit streams obtained by coding a shape signal which represents the shape of each object as one of the components of a display image and coded pixel value bit streams obtained by coding a pixel value signal representing the gradation of the object, or a coded binary signal including only coded shape bit streams obtained by coding a shape signal representing a display image of binary information; a first decoder for decoding the coded shape bit streams by a first decoding process; and a second decoder for decoding the coded pixel value bit streams by a second decoding process. The first decoding process and the second decoding process
Looking for heterotrophy? Find out information about heterotrophy. living organism that obtains its energy from carbohydrates and other organic material. All animals and most bacteria and fungi are heterotrophic. Explanation of heterotrophy
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
This section summarizes some of the current research on nitrobacter hamburgensis. While this organism has long-been described, this species in particular has not sparked current research interest. After exhausting my resources I was only able to find two articles about nitrobacter hamburgensis that were recently published. The other two articles are about nitrobacter species in general. Recent research has investigated the benefits of using nitrifying bacteria in neutralizing wastewater. Researchers have constructed biofilms with different nitrifying bacteria including N. hamburgensis. They were successful in removing high levels of nitrogen in a short amount of time from municipal effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The biofilms are sufficient alternatives for the treatment of industrial wastewaters that otherwise requires very large and expensive reactors for efficient bioremediation of effluents. (4) Other current research has identified evidence that the previously published sequence ...
Autotrophic life is defined as deriving carbon atoms for biomass exclusively from CO2. Carbon dioxide is indeed practically ubiquitous in all habitats on our planet and certainly was even more so on the early Earth given that the atmospheric pressures may have been as high as 10 bar [66,67]. Owing to the very low redox potentials of the reduction steps converting carbon in CO2 (with a formal oxidation number of +4) to biomass-available carbon (where carbon mainly is 0 to −3), autotrophic CO2-fixation is a bioenergetically challenging reaction; hence, lifes avidity to use carbon pre-reduced by different (heteros in ancient Greek) organisms to the so-called organic molecules, a lifestyle consequently termed heterotrophy. Organic soup scenarios stipulate that sufficient quantities of organic molecules may have been produced in Miller-Urey-type reactions to allow heterotrophy as the ancestral system of biomass production. Apart from all the controversy concerning the soundness of the starting ...
1. The type of metabolism adopted by Pseudomonas oxalaticus during growth on a variety of carbon sources was studied. 2. The only substrate upon which autotrophic growth was observed is formate. 3. In mixtures of formate and those substrates upon which the organism can grow faster than on formate, e.g. succinate, lactate or citrate, heterotrophic metabolism results. 4. In mixtures of formate and those substrates upon which the organism can grow at a similar rate to that on formate, e.g. glycollate or glyoxylate, the predominant mode of metabolism adopted is heterotrophic utilization of the C2 substrate coupled with oxidation of formate as ancillary energy source. 5. P. oxalaticus grows on oxalate 30% slower than on formate. In mixtures of formate and oxalate, the predominant mode of metabolism adopted is autotrophic utilization of formate coupled with oxidation of oxalate as ancillary energy source. 6. In mixtures of formate and those substrates upon which the organism grows at a much lower rate ...
Nitrobacter hamburgensis, gram negative bacteria, was isolated from soil of the Old Botanic Garden in Hamburg and of a corn field in Yucatan. The main types of environments they inhabit are soil, building sandstone, and sewage sludge. Its cells are 0.5-0.8 x 1.2-2.0 m in size. They are pleomorphic; mostly pear-shaped and motile via one subpolar to lateral flagellum. Intracytoplasmic membranes appear as caps of flattened vesicles or membrane vesicles in the central region of the cell. The bacteria have an enzyme capable of oxidizing nitrite. This is why it is important to sequence the genome of N. hamburgensis ...
Abstract: Structural Fe in ferruginous smectite (sample SWa-1, Source Clays Repository of the Clay Minerals Society) was reduced by a mixture of five Pseudomonas species of bacteria in a defined Fe-free medium to determine the effect of microbial reduction on clay swelling. Iron(II), total Fe, and gravimetric water content (mw/mc) were determined in clay gels equilibrated at applied pressures of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 MPa. The water content of microbially reduced SWa-1 decreased at all three applied pressures as the Fe(II) content approached about 0.8 mmol Fe(II)/g-clay. As Fe(II) increased from 0.8 mmol/g-clay, however, further change in mw/mc was negligible. Concurrent with microbial reduction of structural Fe was a significant decrease in the swelling pressure (PI) of SWa-1: for example, when mw/mc = 1.2 (g/g), PI changed from 0.47 MPa at Fe(II) = 0.2, to 0.19 MPa at Fe(II) = 0.9 mmol/g-clay. Both biologically and chemically reduced smectites displayed lower values of mw/mc and a concurrent ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Applications Synthetic organisms utilizing this revolutionary technology can offer higher carbon fixation rates as compared to natural alternatives allowing: Superior rate of biomass generation, providing cost effective feedstock for the production of biofuels. Enhanced food production via increased crop yields.Advantages Minimal thermodynamic bottlenecks and superior kinetics over natural counterparts.Technologys Essence
Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and reproduce. Microbes use many different types of metabolic strategies and species can often be differentiated from each other based on metabolic characteristics. The specific metabolic properties of a microbe are the major factors in determining that microbes ecological niche, and often allow for that microbe to be useful in industrial processes or responsible for biogeochemical cycles. All microbial metabolisms can be arranged according to three principles: 1. How the organism obtains carbon for synthesising cell mass: autotrophic - carbon is obtained from carbon dioxide (CO2) heterotrophic - carbon is obtained from organic compounds mixotrophic - carbon is obtained from both organic compounds and by fixing carbon dioxide 2. How the organism obtains reducing equivalents used either in energy conservation or in biosynthetic reactions: lithotrophic - reducing equivalents are ...
Avril E. Gunter; An experimental study of iron-magnesium exchange between biotite and clinopyroxene. The Canadian Mineralogist ; 12 (4): 258-261. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Plancke et al., 2014] C. Plancke, H. Vigeolas, R. Hohner, S. Roberty, B. Emonds-Alt, V. Larosa, R. Willamme, F. Duby, D. Onga Dhali, P. Thonart, S. Hiligsmann, F. Franck, G. Eppe, P. Cardol, M. Hippler, and C. Remacle. (2014) Lack of isocitrate lyase in chlamydomonas leads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under mixotrophic growth. Plant J, 77(3):404-417, Feb 2014 ...
Biaxial (-), a=1.565-1.625, b=1.605-1.675, g=1.605-1.675, bire=0.0400-0.0500, 2V(Calc)=0, 2V(Meas)=0-25. Dispersion r > v or r < v ...
View Notes - Heterotrophy_et_al_Feb2010_post from ENVSCI 411 at Rutgers. LIFE STYLE OF THE SMALL AND DIVERSE - HETEROTROPHY, AUTOTROPHY, PHOTOTROPHY and ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION A. Heterotrophy 1. To be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inactivation of the open reading frame slr0399 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 functionally complements mutations near the Q(A) niche of photosystem II. A possible role of Slr0399 as a chaperone for quinone binding. AU - Ermakova-Gerdes, Svetlana. AU - Vermaas, Willem. PY - 1999/10/22. Y1 - 1999/10/22. N2 - The Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 triple mutant D2R8 with V247M/A249T/M329I mutations in the D2 subunit of the photosystem II is impaired in Q(A) function, has an apparently mobile Q(A), and is unable to grow photoautotrophically. Several photoautotrophic pseudorevertants of this mutant have been isolated, each of which retained the original psbDI mutations of D2R8. Using a newly developed mapping technique, the site of the secondary mutations has been located in the open reading frame slr0399. Two different nucleotide substitutions and a deletion of about 60% of slr0399 were each shown to restore photoautotrophy in different pseudorevertants of the mutant D2R8, suggesting that ...
Soil nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is and driven by bacterial and archaeal autotrophic ammonia oxidisers (AOB and AOA) that carry out the first, rate limiting, step of oxidising ammonia to nitrite. Previous work has suggested that adaptation and selection in AOA and AOB communities is, to some extent, pH driven. Acidophilic, acido-neutral, and alkalinophilic groups have been identified by environmental surveys of amoA genes. These studies of the role of pH in determining ammonia oxidiser community structure and activity have largely relied on spatial pH gradients. In many managed soil systems (e.g., agricultural systems) edaphic factors (e.g., pH, N concentrations) vary widely temporally and the implications of short term temporal shifts in factors thought to govern oxidiser community structure, and therefore our ability to manipulate edaphic factors to direct community structure, are not well understood. We investigated the roles of pH in driving nitrifier activity ...
Early Oligocene partial melting via biotite dehydration melting and prolonged low-pressure-low-temperature metamorphism of the upper High Himalaya Crystalline Sequence in the far east of Nepal
Threonine--tRNA ligase; Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction- L-threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr). Also edits incorrectly charged L-seryl-tRNA(Thr); Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family (621 aa ...
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
There are thousands of known species of molds, which have diverse life-styles including saprotrophs, mesophiles, psychrophiles and thermophiles and a very few opportunistic pathogens of humans.[6] They all require moisture for growth and some live in aquatic environments. Like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live, utilising heterotrophy. Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips. These enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae. In this way molds play a major role in causing decomposition of organic material, enabling the recycling of nutrients throughout ecosystems. Many molds also synthesise mycotoxins and siderophores which, together with lytic enzymes, inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. Molds can also grow on stored food for animals and humans, making the food unpalatable or toxic and are thus ...
There are thousands of known species of molds, which have diverse life-styles including saprotrophs, mesophiles, psychrophiles and thermophiles and a very few opportunistic pathogens of humans.[6] They all require moisture for growth and some live in aquatic environments. Like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live, utilising heterotrophy. Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips. These enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae. In this way molds play a major role in causing decomposition of organic material, enabling the recycling of nutrients throughout ecosystems. Many molds also synthesise mycotoxins and siderophores which, together with lytic enzymes, inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms. Molds can also grow on stored food for animals and humans, making the food unpalatable or toxic and are thus ...
Carbon fixation is a part of the photosynthesis process that occurs during the second half, also known as the Calvin cycle. Carbon fixation itself refers to a large number of different carbon-related...
HETEROTROPHIE + HETEROTROPHE ORGANISMEN (BIOLOGIE); ENERGIEMETABOLISMUS; ADENOSINTRIPHOSPHAT (NUKLEOSIDE, NUKLEOTIDE); NUMERISCHE SIMULATION UND MATHEMATISCHE MODELLRECHNUNG; MODELLRECHNUNG UND SIMULATION IN DER ÖKOLOGIE; HETEROTROPHY + HETEROTROPHIC ORGANISMS (BIOLOGY); ENERGY METABOLISM; ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (NUCLEOSIDES, NUCLEOTIDES); NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING; MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN ...
Use the most plentiful protein on the planet-RuBisCO-to teach the DNA→RNA→protein pathway of molecular biology that also makes a connection to the global climate through attention to the carbon fixation pathways. The curriculum is concise and an excellent way to teach about current research methods in plant biology that cross over to animal and medical fields. It also provides insight into potential science careers. The curriculum is flexible so that you can use all or part of it to teach what works for you.. Highlights of full curriculum: ...
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This paper presents results of a systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of biotites from a suite of core samples from the Cyprus Casa Grande porphyry copper deposit, Arizona. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the mode and timing of copper enrichment in biotite and to compare the results to TEM observations of biotites from other porphyry copper deposits. The core samples represent both oxidized and unoxidized rock. Biotites and chlorites from unoxidized protore contain less than 200 ppm copper as measured by electron microprobe and are free of copper-enriched expanded interlayers and the native copper inclusions described by Ilton and Veblen (1988); biotites and chlorites from oxidized ore are commonly copper enriched. The mode of copper incorporation in biotites and chlorites in oxidized rock is complex and varies with depth. Biotites from the goethite zone contain submicroscopic native copper inclusions and both copper-enriched expanded interlayers and ...
A metaproteomic survey of surface coastal waters near Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, West Antarctica, was performed, revealing marked differences in the functional capacity of summer and winter communities of bacterioplankton. Proteins from Flavobacteria were more abundant in the summer metaproteome, whereas winter was characterized by proteins from ammonia-oxidizing Marine Group I Crenarchaeota. Proteins prevalent in both seasons were from SAR11 and Rhodobacterales clades of Alphaproteobacteria, as well as many lineages of Gammaproteobacteria. The metaproteome data were used to elucidate the main metabolic and energy generation pathways and transport processes occurring at the microbial level in each season. In summer, autotrophic carbon assimilation appears to be driven by oxygenic photoautotrophy, consistent with high light availability and intensity. In contrast, during the dark polar winter, the metaproteome supported the occurrence of chemolithoautotrophy via the ...
Search +Network science -Ron Burt -Animal social network +Modularity +Paul Adams +Block model +Steven Pinker -Dynamic community structure -Iain D. Couzin +The Sense of Style +Community evolution +Link clustering -Community structure ...
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive ...
We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis ...
Definition of carbon fixation - the incorporation of carbon into organic compounds by living organisms, chiefly by photosynthesis in green plants.
Hyperthermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing organism. Cells are irregular spheres with a glycoprotein envelope and monopolar flagella. They grow between 60 and 95 degrees Celsius but their optimum is 83 degrees Celsius. They can be either organoheterotrophic using a variety of carbon and energy sources or they can also be lithoautotrophic using hydrogen, thiosulphate and carbon dioxide. (HAMAP: ARCFU ...
4 prong. D handle. 32. High tensile steel handles Gives the fork superior strength yet are far lighter than a mild steel alternative. High tensile handles are 40% stronger than mild steel ones as used by other manufacturers (as per tube manufacturers spe
T00509 (apre,bapi,bgg,bhan,bths,cchv,ceh,chon,cwa,epa,eti,mmas,myi,nab,nhi,pmai,pspo,rdi,tbs,thh,xhr,zdf : calculation not yet completed ...
Evaluation of the C. perfringens lactose-inducible promoter system in C. ljungdahlii.In order to determine if the bgaR-PbgaL lactose-inducible system developed for C. perfringens (23) would function in C. ljungdahlii, it was transformed with the plasmid pAH2. This plasmid contains a β-glucuronidase reporter gene fusion downstream of the bgaR-PbgaL sequence, comprised of the ribosomal binding site and 13 codons of the 5′ end of the cpe gene (encoding CPE, a C. perfringens enterotoxin) fused in frame with gusA, an E. coli gene for β-glucuronidase (23).. The addition of lactose to fructose-grown, mid-log-phase cells of C. ljungdahlii containing the pAH2 plasmid increased the expression of β-glucuronidase (Fig. 2). Within 5 h of induction, a substantial increase in gusA expression was observed with the addition of 10 or 20 mM lactose (Fig. 2A, inset). However, even with only 1 mM lactose, expression of gusA was increased 8-fold (Fig. 2A). This pattern of expression of gusA was similar to that ...
One of the biggest limitations in the study and engineering of anaerobic Clostridium organisms is the lack of strong fluorescent reporters capable of strong and real-time fluorescence. Recently, we developed a strong fluorescent reporter system for Clostridium organisms based on the FAST protein. Here, we report the development of two new strong fluorescent reporter systems for Clostridium organisms based on the HaloTag and SNAP-tag proteins, which produce strong fluorescent signals when covalently bound to fluorogenic ligands. These new fluorescent reporters are orthogonal to the FAST ligands and to each other, allowing for simultaneous labeling and visualization. We used HaloTag and SNAP-tag to label the strictly anaerobic organisms Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium ljungdahlii. We have also identified a new strong promoter for protein expression in C. acetobutylicum, based on the phosphotransacetylase gene (pta) from C. ljungdahlii. Furthermore, the HaloTag and the SNAP-tag, in ...
Organisms in the food chain are categorized into three basic nutritional groups in reference to what kind of carbon, energy, or electron source is utilized to make energy. Heterotrophic organisms use organic substrates and autotrophic organisms use inorganic substrates to obtain carbon. The reducing equivalent source is how organisms get electrons to reduce for biological processes. Lithotrophic organisms utilize inorganic compounds to get electrons and organotrophic organisms use organic compounds to get electrons necessary for biological processes. It is common to find autotrophic lithotrophic organisms or those that use an inorganic source to obtain electrons and carbon dioxide to obtain carbon. The energy source is how an organism makes ATP, the molecules that fuel biosynthetic pathways for energy. Phototrophic organisms use light energy and chemotrophic organisms, like those found near hydrothermal vents, use energy from chemical sources.. Organisms like the photolithotrophic cyanobacteria, ...
are heterotrophic but not organotrophic. Myco-heterotrophy has evolved multiple times in different plant families. These plants obtain carbon from soil fungi. Interestingly, there are photosynthetic bacteria that are heterotrophs, notably the purple nonsulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillaceae). Organisms have a wide range of degrees of heterotrophy. Many bacteria, like pseudomonads, can use any of a variety of organic compounds as their sole carbon source, while on the opposite extreme, intracellular symbionts and parasites are often so dependent on their host cells for nutrition that they are very difficult to grow in lab conditions. The animal kingdom is somewhat intermediate, sharing the need to consume a variety of biomolecules, but still able to make many others. The essential amino acids (EAAs), familiar from human nutrition as those that cannot be made by our bodies and therefore must be consumed, are a nutritional need across the animal kingdom. Likewise, the B vitamins are enzyme cofactors ...
Heterotrophy supports much of the energy-starved life in the deep biosphere, yet we know almost nothing about the pathways by which organic matter (OM) is remineralized in the deep subseafloor. The microbes responsible for OM breakdown in the subsurface are taxonomically diverse, but their lack of resemblance to well-characterized lab cultures makes it impossible to use taxonomy alone to predict the nature of their interactions with OM. Even when metagenomes or metatranscriptomes are available to provide functional information, common analysis tools only categorize annotated genes into general classes that do not distinguish between degradative, synthetic, or housekeeping processes. We propose to develop detailed gene homologue analyses to unlock hidden details about OM degradation pathways in subsurface metagenomes from a range of OM types and amounts in the Peru Margin deep biosphere. This will allow us to describe the intricate landscape of biological remineralization of OM in the marine ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Mild steel Low Hydrogen welding rods easily produce quality results on smaller amperage AC (Alternating Current)/DC (Direct Current) welders. ...
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Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E. & Oremland, Ronald S. (November 1983). "Autotrophic Processes in Meromictic Big Soda Lake, ...
There are both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in Laguna Negra. Autotrophs include cyanobacteria, as well as green ... Carmona, F.; Rivas, R.; Faramiñán, A. M. G.; Mancino, C.; Bayala, M.; Perez, W. (23 December 2019). "Evaporation process study ... Analyses of isotope fractionation processes at Laguna Negra also demonstrate that oxygen and carbon isotope variations are not ... sulfur deposits form during the process. Heterotrophic organisms include polysaccharide degrading and sulfate-reducing bacteria ...
They exploit the autotrophic, heterotrophic or mixotrophic properties of C. vulgaris. Growing C. vulgaris autotrophically is ... Harvesting the biomass is then generally done by centrifugation due to the high process efficiency (95% recovery). Other ... Safi, C., Zebib, B., Merah, O., Pontalier, P. Y., & Vaca-Garcia, C. (2014). "Morphology, composition, production, processing ...
The process of succession starts when autotrophic organisms start living in the rocks. Foliose lichens have leaf-like thalli, ... All these processes lead to formation of a little soil at the surface of these bare rocks. Animals such as spiders which can ... Their roots penetrate deep down, secrete acids and enhance the process of weathering. Leaf litter and death of herbs add humus ...
... is an aerobic process performed by small groups of autotrophic bacteria and archaea. The oxidation of ammonia ... The process of oxidation of ammonia by AMO is regarded with importance due to the fact that other processes require the co- ... and the process of N-heterocyclic compounds. The process for the latter of the three is not yet widely understood, but is ... Through the process, AMO is deactivated and one or more proteins is covalently bonded to the final product. This is found to be ...
nov., isolated from a biofilm on sulfur particles used in an autotrophic denitrification process". International Journal of ...
Such a metabolic process had never before been observed in nature. This process is of astrobiological importance as an analogue ... Its autotrophic bacteria metabolize sulfate and ferric ions. According to geomicrobiologist Jill Mikucki at the University of ... The first part of this process may be related to the processes that form the Recurring Slope Lineae (RSLs) on Mars. This valley ... As it does so, sulfuric acid forms, and microbes accelerate the process. The high abundance of sulfur on Mars combined with ...
though the A. aeolicus genome is dense, many enzyme subunits used for respiration processes are found in separate operons. Any ... Aquifex respiration and fixation pathways use similar pathways to that of other autotrophic bacteria. Carbon fixation is done ... Like other thermophilic bacteria, Aquifex has important uses in industrial processes. The genome of "A. aeolicus" has been ... many enzymes that are necessary for these gluconeogenic processes have not been identified in A. aeolicus suggesting a ...
These are chemoorganotrophic, but still autotrophic in using CO 2 as only carbon source. The biochemistry of this process is ... All of the processes described below are dissimilative, meaning that they are used during energy production and not to provide ... Nitrification is the process by which ammonia (NH 3) is converted to nitrate (NO− 3). Nitrification is actually the net result ... All autotrophic methanogens use a variation of the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway to fix CO 2 and obtain cellular carbon. ...
"Kinetics of autotrophic denitrification process and the impact of sulphur/limestone ratio on the process performance". ... Wood AP, Kelly DP (1986). "Chemolithotrophic metabolism of the newly-isolated moderately thermophilic, obligately autotrophic ... both of which comprise autotrophic organisms dependent on thiosulfate, other sulfur oxyanions and sulfide as electron donors ... "Isolation and physiological characterization of Thiobacillus aquaesulis new-species a novel facultatively autotrophic moderate ...
Another well established pathway is via autotrophic denitrifying bacteria in the process termed the Anammox process. It is ... The Orbal process is a technology in practice today using this method. The other method is to produce an oxygen gradient within ... They are termed autotrophic because of their carbon source and termed aerobes because of their aerobic environment. The ... The process is dependent on floc characteristics, reaction kinetics, mass loading of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen ...
It is autotrophic for eight out of the ten essential amino acids that Buchnera produces. Although dependent, the H. defensa ... genome preserves more genes and pathways for cell structures and processes, than that of obligate symbionts. It also has ...
Key microbial processes in the nitrogen cycle can be influenced by gold and vice versa; for example autotrophic denitrifying ... These processes are influenced by various microbial populations and cycling of other elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and ... Overall, it is likely that gold mobility, biomineralization, and ore forming processes are impacted by the reactive nitrogen- ... Gold is important in the biotech field for applications such as mineral exploration, processing and remediation, development of ...
Ammonia oxidation in autotrophic nitrification is a complex process that requires several enzymes, proteins and presence of ... This two-step process was described already in 1890 by the Russian microbiologist Sergei Winogradsky. Ammonia can be also ... The second step of this process has recently fallen into question. For the past few decades, the common view was that a ... Nitrification in nature is a two-step oxidation process of ammonium (NH4+) or ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−) and then to ...
This is due to human activities such as forest clearing, soil denuding, and developments that destroy autotrophic processes. ... Since the process relies on oxygen to occur, this is referred to as aerobic respiration. Fermentation is another process in ... Due to these processes, the rate of nitrogen added to the soil is coupled with rates of microbial respiration. Studies have ... Soil respiration is a key ecosystem process that releases carbon from the soil in the form of CO2. CO2 is acquired by plants ...
This feature allows autotrophic bacteria to grow on CO2 without light at a fast growth rate. Since H2 can be made efficiently ... In 1781, processes for preparing highly concentrated forms of yeast were established. Research on Single Cell Protein ... Like plants, autotrophic microorganisms are capable to grow on CO2. Some of them, such as bacteria with the Wood-Ljungdahl ... Autotrophic SCP represents options of fail-safe mass food-production which can produce food reliably even under harsh climate ...
However, ammonium can also be oxidised to nitrate (via nitrite), by the process of nitrification. This is performed by ... These forms are utilised by autotrophic phytoplankton to synthesise organic molecules such as amino acids (the building blocks ... New production depends on mixing and vertical advective processes associated with the circulation. Bio-available nitrogen ... different bacteria in two stages : NH3 + O2 → NO2− + 3H+ + 2e− NO2− + H2O → NO3− + 2H+ + 2e− Crucially, this process is ...
Bacteria evolve in a similar process to other organisms. This is through the process of natural selection, whereby beneficial ... They metabolise is a different ways, but this most common is either by a heterotrophic or autotrophic (either photosynthetic or ... This prokaryote produces oxygen as a byproduct of its photosynthetic processes. They have made a distinctive impact in ... They utilise sunlight in order to drive their metabolic processes, which removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and ...
This process has been observed on all rimmed carbonate platforms in the Quaternary, such as the Great Bahama Bank. Flat topped ... Despite being autotrophic, red algae are mostly associated to heterotrophic carbonate producers, and need less light than green ... This process accumulates coral debris in clinoforms. The maximum angle that a slope can achieve is the settlement angle of ... This process accumulates coral debris in clinoforms. Clinoforms are beds that have a sigmoidal or tabular shape, but are always ...
This process differs from natural self-replication in that the process is directed by an engineer, not by the subject itself. ... For example, an autotrophic self-replicating machine could cover a moon or planet with solar cells, and beam the power to the ... Autotrophic replicators can reproduce themselves "in the wild". They mine their own materials. It is conjectured that non- ... "Self-replication process holds promise for production of new materials". Science Daily. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October ...
Organic matter produced by autotrophic bacteria is then used to support the upper trophic levels. The hydrothermal vent fluid ... Different microbial species utilize different chemical species of an element in their metabolic processes. For example, some ... Hydrothermal vents produce high quantities of methane which can originate from both geological and biological processes. ... Symbiotic chemosynthesis is an important process for hydrothermal vent communities. At warm vents, common symbionts for ...
Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host,[43][44][80] a process ... The alveolates are a major clade of unicellular eukaryotes of both autotrophic and heterotrophic members. The most notable ... They store CO2 in a four-carbon compound, which is why the process is called C4 photosynthesis. The four-carbon compound is ... The division process starts when the proteins FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 assemble into filaments, and with the help of a protein ARC6, ...
There are three autotrophic pathways, which all result in depletion of carbon dioxide and favouring calcium carbonate ... Many of these limitations can be overcome through the use of MICP through bio-stimulation - a process through which indigenous ... All three principal kinds of bacteria that are involved in autotrophic production of carbonate obtain carbon from gaseous or ... The calcium carbonate heals the concrete by solidifying on the cracked concrete surface, mimicking the process by which bone ...
... and more than one enzymatic pathway has been identified in the reduction process. The denitrification process does not only ... although autotrophic denitrifiers have also been identified (e.g., Thiobacillus denitrificans). Denitrifiers are represented in ... Denitrification processes are also used in the treatment of industrial wastewater. Many denitrifying bioreactor types and ... The process is performed primarily by heterotrophic bacteria (such as Paracoccus denitrificans and various pseudomonads), ...
The amount of autotrophic bacteria is small compared to heterotrophic bacteria (the opposite of autotrophic bacteria, ... Bacteria are responsible for the process of nitrogen fixation, which is the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen- ... Autotrophic bacteria derive their energy by making their own food through oxidation, like the Nitrobacter species, rather than ...
... separated heterotrophic-autotrophic reactions'. This process eliminates chemical treatment and denitrification step. TSB ... NEERI paid special attention to cost-effective process development. The processes for defluoridation, removal of heavy metals ... The scientists are trying to develop a cost-effective process for bio-methanation of municipal solid waste with two-phase ... Recently, the Institute has developed a two-stage bio-oxidation (TSB) process for treatment of high COD and ammonia bearing ...
This process is known as kleptoplasty, from the Greek, kleptes, thief. In 1977 J.M Whatley proposed a plastid development cycle ... They are also the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds used by the cells of autotrophic eukaryotes. ... some organisms sequester ingested plastids in a process that is known as kleptoplasty. Plastids were discovered and named by ... which said that plastid development is not always unidirectional but is a cyclic process several times. The proplatids are ...
The growth of A. caldus is enhanced when the air used for sparging, a process by which bubbles of a chemically inert gas are ... Reduced sulfur compounds are used by A. caldus to support its autotrophic growth in an environment which lacks sunlight. ...
The cell containing the carriers (caps) can be flooded as needed; in this way the depuration process control is obtained and it ... then the decrease of COD and BOD concentration and then the development of autotrophic bacteria. They belong to the ... The rotating cell biofilm reactor (RCBR) is a new type of biological process based on biofilm active sludge used in wastewaters ... responsible of the depuration process. These plastic elements are contained in a cilindric permeable cell, which is like the ...
Such a metabolic process had never before been observed in nature. A puzzling observation is the coexistence of Fe2+ and SO2− 4 ... Chemical and microbial analyses both indicate that a rare subglacial ecosystem of autotrophic bacteria developed that ... The analyses of stable isotopes of water allow, in principle, to distinguish between both processes as long as there is no ...
About eighty to ninety percent of the energy is expended for the organism's life processes or is lost as heat or waste. Only ... that are autotrophic organisms that partially obtain organic matter from sources other than the atmosphere, and complete ... The energy ingested is utilized for metabolic processes and transformed into biomass. The energy flow continues on its path if ... This energy flow diagram illustrates how energy is lost as it fuels the metabolic process that transform the energy and ...
Leaves are the most important organs of most vascular plants.[8] Green plants are autotrophic, meaning that they do not obtain ... Some of the smallest veins (veinlets) may have their endings in the areoles, a process known as areolation.[26] These minor ... The sugars are then stored as starch, further processed by chemical synthesis into more complex organic molecules such as ... Rutishauser, R.; Sattler, R. (1997). "Expression of shoot processes in leaf development of Polemonium caeruleum". Botanische ...
2 in the atmosphere as a source of carbon, in a process called carbon fixation (they are autotrophs). This process involves ... nov., an acidophilic, autotrophic, ferrous-iron-oxidizing, cell-wall-lacking, mesophilic member of the Ferroplasmaceae fam. nov ... The energy stored in these electrochemical gradients is then converted into ATP by ATP synthase.[86] This process is a form of ... Plasmids may be transferred between cells by physical contact, in a process that may be similar to bacterial conjugation.[132][ ...
However, if geological processes were involved in the genesis of the compound, then the product can be accepted as a mineral."[ ... including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water ... These rare compounds contain organic carbon, but can be formed by a geologic process. For example, whewellite, CaC2O4⋅H2O is an ... This process of mineralogical alteration is related to the rock cycle. An example of a series of mineral reactions is ...
... is a key factor in photosynthesis, the process used by plants and other autotrophic organisms to convert light energy ... This process is known as cellular respiration.. In prehistory, humans began to further extend this process by putting plant and ... As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares.[12] The Sun ... Although the Sun produces gamma rays as a result of the nuclear-fusion process, internal absorption and thermalization convert ...
Most eukaryotic algae are autotrophic, but the pigments were lost in some groups.[vague] Other protists are heterotrophic, and ... by extending their cell membrane around them to form a food vacuole and digesting them internally in a process termed ... These "plant-like" (autotrophic) organisms are composed mostly of unicellular algae. The dinoflagelates, diatoms and Euglena- ...
Like all autotrophic plants, seagrasses photosynthesize so are limited to growing in the submerged photic zone, and most occur ...
This process generally produces CO. 2, water and a collection of simple nutrients like nitrate or phosphate that can then be ... Heterotrophic organisms will utilize the materials produced by the autotrophic (and chemotrophic) organisms and via respiration ... Boudreau, Bernard (2001). The Benthic Boundary Layer: Transport Processes and Biogeochemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN ... Biogeochemists study this process across all ecosystems for a variety of reasons. This is done primarily to investigate the ...
a b McCollom, Thomas M.. Methanogenesis as a potential source of chemical energy for primary biomass production by autotrophic ... Experiment lithopanspermia: test of interplanetary transfer and re-entry process of epi- and endolithic microbial communities ... European Space Agency: Dry heat sterilisation process to high temperatures. http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Aurora/SEMBJG9ATME_0.html ...
... is the process by which living organisms produce minerals,[a][2] often to harden or stiffen existing tissues ... including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water ... Not only is there a marked similarity between the magnetite deposition process and enamel deposition in vertebrates but some ... Studies of their significant roles in geological processes, "geomycology", has shown that fungi are involved with ...
this process is outlined graphically in page 73. *^ Hui S, Ghergurovich JM, Morscher RJ, Jang C, Teng X, Lu W, et al. (November ... including obligately autotrophic and methanotrophic bacteria and archaea, bypass succinyl-CoA entirely, and convert 2- ... Two carbon atoms are oxidized to CO2, the energy from these reactions is transferred to other metabolic processes through GTP ( ... Processes that remove intermediates from the cycle are termed "cataplerotic" reactions. In this section and in the next, the ...
"Algae Systems » Process".. *^ "Solazyme Delivers 100% Algal-Derived Renewable Jet Fuel to U.S. Navy". Archived from the ... Chlorella protothecoides(autotrophic/heterotrophic): 15-55% dw. *Crypthecodinium cohnii: 20%dw. *Cyclotella DI- 35: 42%dw ... or diesel fuel using one or many upgrading processes.[107] The test process converted between 50 and 70 percent of the algae's ... Solazyme has developed a way to use up to 80% percent of dry algae as oil.[199] This process requires the algae to grow in a ...
"Ferrara refines its granulation process". Nitrogen 219, 51-56 (1996) *↑ (1981) "NSM's Fluidized-Bed Urea Granulation Process ... "Availability of urea to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as related to the fate of 14C- and 15N-labeled urea added to ... 2008) "MHI Proprietary Process for Reducing CO2 Emission and Increasing Urea Production". {{{booktitle}}}.. ... Thermodynamics of the Urea Process. https://www.academia.edu/8373516. பார்த்த நாள்: 5 August 2018. ...
2O Dissociation Process". NCF - Technology Process. New CO2 Fuels Ltd. Retrieved 19 May 2015.. ... "Electrosynthesis of commodity chemicals by an autotrophic microbial community". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 78 (23): 8412-8420. ... "The AFS Process - turning air into a sustainable fuel". Air Fuel Synthesis - Technical Review. Air Fuel Synthesis Limited. ... "SOLARJET demonstrates full process for thermochemical production of renewable jet fuel from H2O & CO2". Green Car Congress. ...
This organism oxidizes ammonia into nitrite as a metabolic process. Nitrosomonas are useful in bioremediation. They are ... Availability of urea to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as related to the fate of 14C- and 15N-labeled urea added to ... Nitrosomonas must consume large amounts of ammonia before cell division can occur, and the process of cell division may take up ... Unlike plants, which fix carbon into sugar through energy gained through the process of photosynthesis, Nitrosomonas use energy ...
Francis C. A., Beman J. M., Kuypers M. M. New processes and players in the nitrogen cycle: the microbial ecology of anaerobic ... nov., an acidophilic, autotrophic, ferrous-iron-oxidizing, cell-wall-lacking, mesophilic member of the Ferroplasmaceae fam. nov ... Norris P. R., Burton N. P., Foulis N. A. Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing. Extremophiles. 2000, roč. 4, čís. 2, s. ... Synowiecki J., Grzybowska B., Zdziebło A. Sources, properties and suitability of new thermostable enzymes in food processing. ...
Pseudofossils are visual patterns in rocks that are produced by geologic processes rather than biologic processes. They can ... including a biosphere based on autotrophic, chemotrophic and/or chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms, as well as ancient water ... Fossilization processes. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding ... This process can occur in very small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can ...
Just found this newer patent from 1996[2] that applies to the process, so it looks like that specific process is proprietary. I ... The "half-plant" comment seems oversimplifying it, but autotrophic dinoflagellates are considered algae. I agree that it is a ... The process is similar to how snow compacts into a glacier. For this reason (and others) it would be inacurate to calculate ... The patent for the process was filed in 1981[1], and is expired since 20 years have passed. If you are talking about a specific ...
Protophyta the "plant-like" (autotrophic) protophyta (mostly unicellular algae). Molds the "fungus-like" (saprophytic) slime ... by extending their cell membrane around them to form a food vacuole and digesting them internally in a process termed ... Most eukaryotic algae are autotrophic, but the pigments were lost in some groups.[which?] Other protists are heterotrophic, and ...
This process is called conjugation and occurs for example in Spirogyra. The species of Ulva are reproductively isomorphic, the ... This primary endosymbiosis event gave rise to three autotrophic clades with primary plastids: the green plants, the red algae ...
As an example, the occurrence of ROS have been linked to the aging process in humans, as well as several other diseases ... "On the allelochemical potency of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii against heterotrophic and autotrophic ... In sea water, ROS can be generated through abiotic as well as biotic processes, among which are the radiolysis and photolysis ... Forman, H.; Fisher, A.B. (1981). "Antioxidant defense". In Gilbert, Daniel L. Oxygen and living processes: An interdisciplinary ...
... development than in industrial production processes because their use adds additional steps and material costs to the process. ... Although shikimic acid is present in most autotrophic organisms, it is a biosynthetic intermediate and in general found in very ...
Based on the process of mutualistic symbiosis, the hypotheses can be categorized as - the serial endosymbiotic theory (SET),[ ... In the hydrogen hypothesis, the symbiotic linkage of an anaerobic and autotrophic methanogenic archaeon (host) with an alpha- ... For example, Thiodendron has been known to have originated via an ectosymbiotic process based on a similar syntrophy of sulfur ... Cell division generally takes place asexually by mitosis, a process that allows each daughter nucleus to receive one copy of ...
nov., an acidophilic, autotrophic, ferrous-iron-oxidizing, cell-wall-lacking, mesophilic member of the Ferroplasmaceae fam. nov ... Norris PR, Burton NP, Foulis NA (2000). "Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing". Extremophiles 4 (2): 71-6. PMID ... 2005). "Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing marine archaeon". Nature 437 (7057): 543-6. Bibcode:2005Natur.437..543K. ... Könneke M, Bernhard AE, de la Torre JR, Walker CB, Waterbury JB, Stahl DA (2005). "Isolation of an autotrophic ammonia- ...
Applications for ecosystem process analysisEdit. Isotopic tracers are used to examine processes in natural systems, especially ... Availability of urea to autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as related to the fate of 14C- and 15N-labeled urea added to ... Tectonic processes and climate changeEdit. Isotopes with extremely long half-lives and their decay products can be used to ... Tracers are also used extensively in oceanography to study a wide array of processes. The isotopes used are typically naturally ...
However, it is not clear whether this is an autotrophic process or if these require organic carbon from cyanobacterial blooms, ... Photosynthesis provides the primary energy source for life in soda lakes and this process dominates the activity at the surface ...
Sex appears to be a ubiquitous and ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life.[30] Meiosis, a true sexual process, ... both autotrophic and heterotrophic).[43] An example is Euglena gracilis. ... These organisms live together, and each cell must carry out all life processes to survive. In contrast, even the simplest ... However, about 80 different species can undergo a sexual process referred to as natural genetic transformation.[12] ...
Photosynthesis is a process that is taken place by the leaves on the plant. The leaves are the only parts of a plant that can ... They are autotrophic eukaryotes, which means they have complex cells, and make their own food. Usually they cannot move (not ... The process by which pollen gets transferred from one flower to another flower is called pollination. This transfer can happen ... This process needs certain minerals: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, iron and magnesium.[8] ...
As a result, A. ferrooxidans may be of interest for bioremediation processes.[6] ... oxidising iron and sulfur as energy sources to support autotrophic growth and producing ferric iron and sulfuric acid. ...
Kinetic behavior of heterotrophic and autotrophic biofilms in wastewater treatment processes M. Moreau; M. Moreau ... Kinetic behavior of heterotrophic and autotrophic biofilms in wastewater treatment processes. Water Sci Technol 1 October 1994 ... Kinetic behavior of heterotrophic and autotrophic biofilms in wastewater treatment processes. Water Sci Technol 1 October 1994 ... It is preferable to use thin biofilms for attached culture industrial processes such as three-phase fluidized-bed and turbulent ...
Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E. & Oremland, Ronald S. (November 1983). "Autotrophic Processes in Meromictic Big Soda Lake, ...
There are both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms in Laguna Negra. Autotrophs include cyanobacteria, as well as green ... Carmona, F.; Rivas, R.; Faramiñán, A. M. G.; Mancino, C.; Bayala, M.; Perez, W. (23 December 2019). "Evaporation process study ... Analyses of isotope fractionation processes at Laguna Negra also demonstrate that oxygen and carbon isotope variations are not ... sulfur deposits form during the process. Heterotrophic organisms include polysaccharide degrading and sulfate-reducing bacteria ...
An optimization model for autotrophic microbial growth, the autotrophic replicator model (ARM), was developed based upon ... The present model describes autotrophic growth in terms of the allocation protein resources among core functional groups ... and cell surface to volume ratios represent the underlying constraints on the maximal rate of autotrophic microbial growth. The ... proteins with the corresponding diminution of space devoted to other functions including proteins of core autotrophic ...
The Plantae kingdom is the only kingdom that is entirely autotrophic; Eubacteria, Protista and Archeabacteria contain some ... Plants are considered autotrophic because they can convert sunlight into a food source for energy in a process known as ... Organisms such as animals do not have these biological processes. Instead, they feed on other organisms to take in the proteins ... Living things that are autotrophic can make their own energy, while heterotrophic organisms must look to other organisms for ...
Unlike previously described deep subsurface ecosystems, H2-driven autotrophic processes (sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and ... For sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrification to take place, Sulfuritalea- and Sulfuricella-like taxa need the electron donors ... As described earlier, sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrifiers fix CO2 via the CBB cycle (green-outlined in Fig. 1; SI Appendix, ... The model results showed that the autotrophic SRB are consistently less abundant than the SOB (SI Appendix, Fig. S4), which is ...
Biology X , LIFE PROCESSES , Autotrophic Nutrition. Posted on June 23, 2010. by admin ... 10 comments on "Biology X , LIFE PROCESSES , Autotrophic Nutrition" *. June 25, 2010 at 5:16 pm. ... Carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by photosynthesis. It is the process by which ... Let us now see what actually happens during the process of photosynthesis. The following events occur during this process - ...
The putative AtCtpA gene appeared to be essential for autotrophic growth and starch synthesis, consistent with its role in ... Assembly of this photosystem is a multistep process that functions in a highly coordinated fashion (1⇓-3). The process starts ... Defect in C-Terminal Processing Renders Mutant Plants Hypersensitive to Photoinhibition.. Photoinhibition refers to the process ... the D1 turnover rate is high and so is pD1 processing; under low light, D1 turnover is slow and pD1 processing also slows down ...
THE NET ENERGY RETURN OF THE LOW TEMPERATURE CONVERSION PROCESS IS BETTER THAN 65%. THEREFORE THIS PROCESS SEEMS TO BE SUPERIOR ... BESIDES OIL COAL IS PRODUCED, WHICH IS SUFFICIENT TO PROVIDE THE NECESSARY ENERGY FOR DRYING OF THE BIOMASS AND THE PROCESS ... THE LOW TEMPERATURE CONVERSION PROCESS IS A FEASIBLE ROUTE TO GENERATE OIL FROM ALGAE. EXPERIMENTS WITH DIFFERENT ALGAE SPECIES ... PRODUCTION OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS FROM AUTOTROPHIC BIOMASS BY LOW TEMPERATURE AUTOCATALYTIC CONVERSION.. ...
By what process do autotrophic organisms concert solar energy into chemical energy. ?. Photosynthesis (light dependent ... Total amount of energy and mass in process must be conserved it may change to another type of energy but can not just disappear ... In other words, there are irreversible processes in the Universe. One important implication is that the Universe cant have ...
These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. Here ... Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 Accurately Predicts Phenotypes under Autotrophic, ... Genome-Scale Metabolic Model for the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris UTEX 395 Accurately Predicts Phenotypes under Autotrophic, ...
The heterotrophic-combined-with-autotrophic denitrification process: performance and interaction mechanisms In this work, the ... A FBCR filled with elemental sulfur and limestone was operated for about 94 days under autotrophic and mixotrophic (autotrophic ... process in a heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) system were investigated, and the performance of the HAD system ... The AQUAMEND® process has proven to be successful for the treatment of a wide range of constituents of interest. Much work was ...
A Novel Membrane Process for Autotrophic Denitrification Author(s): K Jahan. Publication Date: 30/06/2003 ... It is based on a Plan-Do-Check-Act process and is in accordance with the key principles of the International Standards ... Management of Change in Water Companies tells real stories of real water companies that went through processes of change and ... It is designed to assist water supply and wastewater utility decision-makers in their analyses and planning processes. ...
Mixed electron donor autotrophic denitrification processes for groundwater treatment by immobilized biological filters An ... The conventional process to remove nitrate from water, the biological denitrification, uses the addition of dissolved organic ... Treatment of mixed municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process: a case study ABSTRACTThe ... In order to find the suitable conditions of this process, a mixed flow activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration ...
a type of chemical process typified by the exchange of one or more hydrogen ions, H +, between species that may be neutral ( ... bacterial metabolism (in bacteria: Autotrophic metabolism) *air pollution concerns (in air pollution: Greenhouse gases) ...
Producers are Autotrophic Organisms. "Autotrophic" means self-nourishing. The most conspicuous group of autotrophs are the ... Decomposition is a natural process but decomposers speed up the process of decomposition. Bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes are ... By this mental process we can arrive at some understanding of the specific system and can make comparisons with other systems ... The exchange process within the vole involves tissue and organ level activities (lungs and circulatory system). ...
Autotrophic organisms take inorganic substances into their bodies and transform them into organic nourishment. Autotrophs are ... Source for information on Autotrophic Bacteria: World of Microbiology and Immunology dictionary. ... Autotrophic bacteria An autotroph is an organism able to make its own food. ... These bacteria take in carbon dioxide and water and convert the chemical energy in sulfur compounds to run metabolic processes ...
Nitrous oxide production in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process: A simulation study. Peng, L Liu, Y Ni, BJ ... Nitrous oxide production in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process: A simulation study. en_US. ... which might weaken the advantages of nitrogen removal in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process. In this work ... which might weaken the advantages of nitrogen removal in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process. In this work ...
... where the nitrogen is removed through the autotrophic BNR process. Autotrophic BNR is a two-step process. First, half of the ... So far researchers have focused on implementing the autotrophic BNR in one-stage systems, where the whole process takes place ... Autotrophic biological nitrogen removal in a two-stage system at mainstream conditions. Reino Sánchez, Clara ... Autotrophic BNR has been successfully applied for treating some industrial wastewaters and reject water from digested sludge ( ...
Membrane supported biofilm process for autotrophic reduction. US20060037896 *. Aug 15, 2005. Feb 23, 2006. Cote Pierre L. ... Membrane supported biofilm process for autotrophic reduction. US7279215. Dec 3, 2003. Oct 9, 2007. 3M Innovative Properties ... Membrane supported biofilm process for autotrophic reduction. WO2007056818A1. Nov 17, 2006. May 24, 2007. Australian Nuclear ... Carbonic Anhydrase Bioreactor and Process. US20130040350 *. Apr 12, 2011. Feb 14, 2013. Eth Zurich. Process for the Direct ...
ammonia-oxidizing bacteria; anaerobic ammonium oxidation(ANAMMOX); completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON ... The operation characteristics of the biofilm CANON process during the temperature reduction process were determined, by ... The aim was to explore the methods needed for the CANON process to obtain stable shortcut nitrification and a good nitrogen ... Operation Characteristics of the Biofilm CANON Reactor During the Temperature Reduction Process].. [Article in Chinese] ...
the various maintenance processes need energy what is the source of energy and where it is located - Biology - TopperLearning. ... Autotrophic Nutrition - Part 1 This video explains the types of nutrition, photosynthesis in plants and th... ... the various maintenance processes need energy. what is the source of energy and where it is located? ... The energy required fopr the various life processes comes from food that we eat, mainly carbohydrates, proteins and fats. These ...
This difficulty might be levered by considering how spatially these processes can be separated and organised. For example, in ... RC2: Review of Marakushev Development of nascent autotrophic carbon fixation systems, Anonymous Referee #2, 03 Oct 2018 * ... Among the existing theories of the autotrophic origin of life, CO2 is usually considered to be the carbon source for nascent ... SC1: Development of nascent autotrophic carbon fixation systems in various redox conditions of the fluid degassing in early ...
MK3 are capable of autotrophic growth and are likely important primary producers in situ linking CO2 fixation directly with Fe( ... Macur, R. E., Langner, H. W., Kocar, B. D., and Inskeep, W. P. (2004). Linking geochemical processes with microbial community ... MK3 is capable of autotrophic growth and all isolates are capable of oxidizing Fe(II) except the Acidicaldus str. MK6. The ... The primary goal of this study was to couple geochemical processes with microbial community analysis to understand mechanisms ...
Autotrophic processes in Big Soda Lake, Nevada. Limnol & Oceanog. 28: 1049-1061. ... Microbial and biogeochemical processes in Big Soda Lake, Nevada, p. 59-75. In Lacustrine Oil Source Rocks, K. Kelts, A.J. Fleet ... Oremland, R.S., J.F. Stolz, and C.W., Saltikov. 2012. Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite by autotrophic bacteria: The view from ... In "Dehalogenation: Microbial Processes and Environmental Applications" M.M. Haggblom & I.D. Bossert (eds), Kluwer, Netherlands ...
Autotrophic organisms obtain food through a process known as photosynthesis, in which sunlight is utilized and converted into ... A: Bacteria that make their own food are known as autotrophs or producers, and they do this through the process of ... Eubacteria may display both heterotrophic and autotrophic characteristics. Heterotrophic organisms obtain their nutrients ...
Autotrophic: A plant that supplies its own food by turning inorganic material into food. Example: process of photosynthesis ... Apical dominance: The process wherein the central shoot or stem of a plant or tree inhibits the growth of lateral stems in ...
part of human body where bacteria help process food. 5. autotrophic. _____. singular form. ...
Autotrophic nutrition is the process of an organism being able to create/produce its own food. Autotrophic... ... Autotrophic nutrition is the process of an organism being able to create/produce its own food. Autotrophic nutrition refers to ... The following parts of the plant play an active role in the process of autotrophic nutrition: *Roots: During photosynthesis, ... MaximumYield explains Autotrophic Nutrition. Autotrophs usually feature chlorophyll, a green-colored pigment that traps energy ...
Bayrakdar, A., Tilahun, E., Calli, B.: Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process. Appl. Microbiol. ... Process Biochem. 40(3-4), 1285-1292 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Chen, Y., Cheng, J.J., Creamer, K.S.: Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 99(10), 4044- ... Yuan, H., Zhu, N.: Progress in inhibition mechanisms and process control of intermediates and by-products in sewage sludge ...
  • Certain bacteria are autotrophic, meaning they synthesize their own foods. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Such bacteria engage in the process of photosynthesis. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • These bacteria take in carbon dioxide and water and convert the chemical energy in sulfur compounds to run metabolic processes that create carbohydrates and sugars. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteria that make their own food are known as autotrophs or producers, and they do this through the process of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • Depending on processing parameters, more than 90% of algae cells were disrupted by passing through the bead mills and bacteria count in algae suspension was reduced to about two orders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by photosynthesis. (myindialist.com)
  • Let us now see what actually happens during the process of photosynthesis. (myindialist.com)
  • Plants are considered autotrophic because they can convert sunlight into a food source for energy in a process known as photosynthesis. (reference.com)
  • Autotrophic organisms obtain food through a process known as photosynthesis, in which sunlight is utilized and converted into an energy source. (reference.com)
  • All living things are dependent either directly or indirectly on the energy produced by photosynthesis, and the byproduct of this process, oxygen, is essential to animals. (slideserve.com)
  • Autotrophic nutrition refers to a nutritional system whereby complex full molecules essential for life emerge through photosynthesis. (maximumyield.com)
  • Plants show autotrophic nutrition and the central process in plant nutrition is photosynthesis. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Marco Matteucci: Partitioning soil CO2 fluxes by tree-girdling in a Mediterranean (Pinus pinaster) ecosystem reveals a different response of autotrophic and heterotrophic components to environmental variables and photosynthesis under drought conditions. (copernicus.org)
  • Ben Runkle: Separating direct temperature responses from phenological control of gross photosynthesis during the short tundra growing season: measurements and process modeling from the Lena River Delta, Russia. (copernicus.org)
  • Common pigments, typically of yellow, orange, or red hues, that serve in both light absorption and the protection against too much light in photosynthesis as well as in the vision process. (accessscience.com)
  • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants take in atmospheric carbon dioxide and generate organic molecules. (ehow.com)
  • Cellular respiration is carried out by all plants, animals and soil microbes, and can be thought of as the reverse process of photosynthesis. (ehow.com)
  • Respiration requires the use of available energy in the form of ATP, but the process results in the generation of a net gain in ATP, meaning more energy is available for continued photosynthesis and respiration. (ehow.com)
  • The transition from heterotrophic metabolism to photosynthesis-supported autotrophic metabolism was already detectable 2 h after illumination and affected most essential metabolic modules. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This plastid differentiation process is paralleled by the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic energy metabolism, which involves massive reorganization of the etioplast proteome to support photosynthesis-dependent autotrophic growth. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Some species of autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms use arsenic oxyanions for their regeneration of energy. (hindawi.com)
  • Certain species of microorganisms are able to use arsenate as their nutrient in respiratory process. (hindawi.com)
  • Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was done for one time point in Aug., 2013, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was done for a 5-month time series (Mar.-Aug., 2013) to capture the spatiotemporal dynamics of genes and microorganisms mediating the modeled processes. (springer.com)
  • However, microorganisms that mediate denitrification and the mechanisms or most important controls of the process remain understudied in terrestrial aquifers ( 20 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Only microorganisms and autotrophic plants (diatomea, fungus, etc.) are able to process mineral silica. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • A laboratory-scale completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (Canon) biofilm reactor was applied to remove nitrogen and organic carbon from swine digester liquor for 150 d. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is the process by which autotrophs take in substances from the outside and convert them into stored forms of energy. (myindialist.com)
  • Plants are autotrophic organisms, meaning they generate their own food, as opposed to animals, heterotrophs, which need to actively acquire their food from autotrophs or other heterotrophs. (ehow.com)
  • This enables the collection of comprehensive multidisciplinary datasets on organism responses covering a wide range of relevant biological processes and strophic levels. (epoca-project.eu)
  • Metagenomic binning analysis resulted in many metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) that are implicated in the modeled processes through gene content similarity to cultured organism and the presence of key genes involved in these pathways. (springer.com)
  • Autotrophic nutrition is the process of an organism being able to create/produce its own food. (maximumyield.com)
  • An organism that can produce its own nourishment through the process of oxidizing inorganic compounds. (studystack.com)
  • The reproductive process involving two parents whose genetic material is combined to produce a new organism different from themselves. (studystack.com)
  • The complex of physical and chemical processes necessary to synthesize and transform substances into energy that is made available for use by a plant organism. (accessscience.com)
  • What is Autotrophic Nutrition? (maximumyield.com)
  • Definition - What does Autotrophic Nutrition mean? (maximumyield.com)
  • Minerals, water, and carbon dioxide have a direct impact on autotrophic nutrition. (maximumyield.com)
  • Through this type of nutrition, plants can produce their own food, i.e., they use autotrophic nutrition to feed themselves and grow. (maximumyield.com)
  • Name the process and explain the type of nutrition found in green plants. (indiastudychannel.com)
  • Syngas (CO/H 2 mixtures) and CO 2 /H 2 mixtures, especially from waste gas streams or biomass conversion, can play a major role in biotechnological production processes, combining the advantage of avoiding substrates competing with nutrition (such as starch or sugar) or high crude oil prices (if products are made by chemical synthesis) with climate improvement by reducing greenhouse gases. (uni-ulm.de)
  • net primary production (NPP) is what is what remains after autotrophic respiration, i.e., respiration by photosynthetic organisms (estimate from Falkowski et al. (ipcc.ch)
  • In this work two versions of a process-based model that differed in the autotrophic respiration modelling were analysed. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • The original version (3PGN) was based on a constant ratio between net and gross primary production, while in a new version (3PGN*) the autotrophic respiration was modelled as a function of temperature and biomass. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Bayesian model comparison showed that 3PGN*, with the new autotrophic respiration model, has a higher conditional probability of being correct than the original 3PGN model. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Net autotrophic O-2 production, estimated as gross O-2 production minus a floristically determined chlorophyll a specific respiration rate times the chlorophyll a concentration, was compared for the first time with C-14 uptake. (columbia.edu)
  • Autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration are both related to assimilation, with time delays ranging from seconds to years. (copernicus.org)
  • The session aims to bring together experimentalists and modellers to share their results on measuring carbon and water use efficiency and the relationship between assimilation and respiration, at local and global scales, as well as their findings on the environmental factors controlling the time shift between carbon assimilation and release processes. (copernicus.org)
  • Rather, respiration is the metabolic process by which carbon compounds, such as glucose, are utilized for energy. (ehow.com)
  • Respiration is the metabolic process by which energy is harvested from glucose through the consumption of oxygen. (ehow.com)
  • Single-tank simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SNdN) processes can potentially eliminate the need for separate tanks and for recycling mixed liquor from oxic nitrifying zones to the typically upstream anoxic zones for denitrification. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Salinity has significant effects on nitrification and denitrification processes, particularly in estuarine systems. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The aim was to explore the methods needed for the CANON process to obtain stable shortcut nitrification and a good nitrogen removal effect, when the influent NH 4 + -N concentration is high and the temperature low. (nih.gov)
  • ③ When adapting biological CANON sludge during the temperature reduction process, shortcut nitrification should be given priority. (nih.gov)
  • Although two-stage and one-stage processes each have their advantages, the one-stage configuration is mostly applied, termed here as oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND), and is the focus of this review. (ugent.be)
  • Normally the contribution to the nitrogen cycle is very limited as autotrophic nitrification is a lot more effective and efficient for this purpose. (reefcentral.com)
  • The finite capacity of membrane and cytoplasmic space also leads to the hypothesis that the species-specific differences in maximal growth rates likely reflect differences in the allocation of space to niche-specific proteins with the corresponding diminution of space devoted to other functions including proteins of core autotrophic metabolism, which drive cell reproduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since the fastest rate of growth in heterotrophs occurs in "rich" media containing abundant amino acids and cofactors and since the main macromolecular investment in cell growth is the synthesis of proteins, then a reasonable hypothesis is that autotrophic metabolism in cyanobacteria results in slower maximal growth because of the necessity for the synthesis of the amino acids and all other cell components from CO 2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • One process is propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) metabolism in plants. (asm.org)
  • A third process is bacterial dimethylsulfonopropionate (DMSP) metabolism. (asm.org)
  • Specifically, it integrates distributed information from the literature to provide a complete and detailed view for metabolic processes such as acetyl-CoA synthesis, pyruvate synthesis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, reductive tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle, non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (NOPPP), nitrogen metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and nucleotide biosynthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This difference in energy metabolism is often used to distinguish the autotrophic chloroplast from heterotrophic plastids. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is therefore conceivable that the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic plastid metabolism involves most essential metabolic functions to support the availability of sufficient energy and reduction equivalents for different metabolic pathways. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It was found that the same was true for the volumic substrate removal rate (kov), which shows a surface reaction independent of the film thickness, and that substrate removal in both heterotrophic and autotrophic biofilm reactors remains reactive. (iwaponline.com)
  • Operation Characteristics of the Biofilm CANON Reactor During the Temperature Reduction Process]. (nih.gov)
  • The operation characteristics of the biofilm CANON process during the temperature reduction process were determined, by continuously adjusting different operating conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Mathematical models of the wastewater treatment processes were developed using the first principles of conservation of mass and energy (Copp, 2002), on the basis of developed biological models, such as the first ones described by Dold et al. (scielo.org.za)
  • About 30 full-scale partial nitritation/anammox plants are established, treating mostly sewage sludge reject water, landfill leachate or food processing digestate. (ugent.be)
  • Primero, la mitad del amonio presente en el agua residual se oxida a nitrito mediante el proceso de nitritación parcial (PN), y a continuación el amonio restante y el nitrito generado se convierten en N2 mediante el proceso anammox, sin necesidad de oxígeno ni materia orgánica. (tesisenred.net)
  • Así, el principal objetivo fue demostrar la estabilidad de los dos procesos implicados, PN y anammox, en dos reactores independientes tratando un agua residual urbana. (tesisenred.net)
  • En segundo lugar se operó en continuo un reactor UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) realizando el proceso anammox a largo plazo. (tesisenred.net)
  • Por una parte, se presentó el reactor UASB como una buena alternativa para realizar el proceso anammox en la línea principal de aguas de la depuradora. (tesisenred.net)
  • Además se realizó un estudio exhaustivo del efecto de la velocidad ascensional en el reactor y del efecto de la baja temperatura en la actividad anammox. (tesisenred.net)
  • Performance and microbial features of the partial nitritation-anammox process treating fish canning wastewater with variable salt concentrations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Microbial processes are intricately linked to the depletion of oxygen in in-land and coastal water bodies, with devastating economic and ecological consequences. (springer.com)
  • This work demonstrates that the unique capabilities of resident microbial populations will substantially impact the concentration and speciation of chemicals in the water column, unless other microbial processes adjust to compensate for these differences. (springer.com)
  • Improving predictive models of microbial processes in low-oxygen environments will provide a way to test the community response to altered environmental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Population dynamics are not typically used to improve predictive models of microbial processes because of the difficulty of determining in situ relationships between populations and processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on the experimental observations and physiological aspects, which consist of defining two types of biomass: active biomass (Ma) responsible for substrate removal, and non-active biomass (Md), which plays no role in the biological substrate removal process but is responsible for the observed additional accumulation of biofilms. (iwaponline.com)
  • In order to find the suitable conditions of this process, a mixed flow activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration is investigated, and some key control parameters are examined for nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Simultaneous nitrogen and carbon removal from swine digester liquor by the Canon process and denitrification. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Autotrophic nitrogen removal by a two-step SBR process applied to mixed agro-digestate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Influence of organic shock loads on the production of N₂O in denitrifying phosphorus removal process. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Theyprovide an array ofphysical, biological and chemical processes tofacilitate the removal, recycling, transformation or immobilisation ofsediment and nutrients. (docme.ru)
  • 8 ] indicated that the mobility of arsenic inorganic compound in contaminated aquatic and sediment environment is controlled by redox processes, precipitation, sorption, and dissolution processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Autotrophic organisms take inorganic substances into their bodies and transform them into organic nourishment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Heterotrophic organisms use organic substrates and autotrophic organisms use inorganic substrates to obtain carbon. (marinebio.org)
  • Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes. (springer.com)
  • Phytoplankton is a general term encompassing all autotrophic organisms. (hawaii.edu)
  • The conventional process to remove nitrate from water, the biological denitrification, uses the addition of dissolved organic carbon that has the potential risk to further deteriorate water quality. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The external dosing of soluble organic substrate can be therefore avoided and process can be simplified as normal bio-filter. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The process by which plants and other autotrophic organisms convert light energy into organic materials. (sparknotes.com)
  • I get what you mean by saying this process makes nitrogen export dependent organic carbon availability. (reefcentral.com)
  • Also shown are processes with even longer time-scales: burial of organic matter as fossil organic carbon (including fossil fuels), and outgassing of CO 2 through tectonic processes (vulcanism). (ipcc.ch)
  • They then use the ATP and NADPH to make organic molecules from carbon dioxide in a process known as the Calvin cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a group of naturally occurring, organic substances that influence plant physiological processes at low concentrations. (accessscience.com)
  • Yuan, H., Zhu, N.: Progress in inhibition mechanisms and process control of intermediates and by-products in sewage sludge anaerobic digestion. (springer.com)
  • Based on the mode of H 2 generation, the biological routes for H 2 production are categorized into four groups: photobiological fermentation, anaerobic fermentation, enzymatic and microbial electrolysis, and a combination of these processes. (mdpi.com)
  • Many microbial populations involved in primary carbon oxidation had dynamics similar to the model, while those associated with secondary oxidation processes deviated substantially. (springer.com)
  • Although demonstrating the functional significance of C-terminal D1 processing in PSII biogenesis, our study reveals an unsuspected link between D1 maturation and PSII supercomplex assembly in land plants, opening an avenue for exploring the mechanism for the association of light-harvesting complexes with the PSII core complexes. (pnas.org)
  • However, plants require significant amounts of water, which is needed for the photosynthetic process, to maintain cell structure and facilitate growth, and as a means of bringing nutrients to plant cells. (slideserve.com)
  • Living things that are autotrophic can make their own energy, while heterotrophic organisms must look to other organisms for food to use as energy. (reference.com)
  • Topics covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. (ets.org)
  • Here we report functional characterization of the Arabidopsis gene encoding D1 C-terminal processing enzyme (AtCtpA) in the chloroplast thylakoid lumen. (pnas.org)
  • Overall, this study demonstrates the applicability and advantages of the BSP test in sulfidogenic applications for characterization of organics biodegradability and identification of BPO average elemental composition, furthermore develops a process model utilizing the derived BPO average elemental composition to provide optimized reactor retention time and substrates feed mixture for optimum performance. (deepdyve.com)
  • The energy required fopr the various life processes comes from food that we eat, mainly carbohydrates, proteins and fats. (topperlearning.com)
  • Eubacteria may display both heterotrophic and autotrophic characteristics. (reference.com)
  • The activated sludge process (ASP) is a waste-water treatment process characterised by complex nonlinear dynamics, a large number of variables, and a lack of sensors for real-time measurement of many of these variables. (scielo.org.za)
  • Modern optimal control design and implementation for the activated sludge process demands extensive insight into the plant's operation, clear objectives, and knowledge about process dynamics described by an appropriate mathematical model. (scielo.org.za)
  • The above process characteristics require real-time control design and implementation strategies to be developed in order to achieve process operation which is compliant with the international standards for effluent quality. (scielo.org.za)
  • So far, there are at least five known metabolic processes involving 3-hydroxypropionate. (asm.org)
  • However, a comprehensive review describing its cell structure, metabolic processes, and methanogenesis is still lacking in the literature. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Total amount of energy and mass in process must be conserved it may change to another type of energy but can not just disappear. (answers.com)
  • the various maintenance processes need energy. (topperlearning.com)
  • An indispensable thermodynamic prerequisite for such a primordial anabolism is the mechanistic coupling to processes that supplied the free energy required. (mdpi.com)
  • Consequently, the plant uses this trapped energy to process carbon dioxide and water into glucose. (maximumyield.com)
  • Nitrate and uranium are priority cocontaminants at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed nuclear legacy waste sites where nitric acid was used for the extraction and processing of radioactive metals ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Autotrophic: simple compounds, which are absorbed and build up into complex substances, which may be oxidized (broken down) to release energy. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • and on the reorientation of agricultural and industrial processes that use less energy. (treedictionary.com)
  • BASF and bse Engineering have signed an exclusive joint development agreement for BASF to provide custom-made catalysts for a new chemical energy storage process. (greencarcongress.com)
  • When assessing the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems, it is important to understand the driving mechanisms for biological and chemical processes. (springer.com)
  • It further highlights the importance of the biological aspects of biogeochemical processes, such as fluctuations in microbial population dynamics. (springer.com)
  • Biogeochemical processes in hypoxic and anoxic environments can feedback on changes to local and global ecosystems, so understanding how they are regulated will serve to aid remediation efforts, model climate change, and protect public health. (springer.com)
  • Understanding their linkage in time and the controlling environmental drivers is key to understanding biogeochemical processes. (copernicus.org)
  • These processes were quantified in pelagic and benthic habitats on temporal and spatial scales. (diva-portal.org)
  • Another process involves autotrophic CO 2 fixation pathways. (asm.org)
  • The behaviour of the sensitivity functions is used to determine which parameters of the reduced model need to be estimated in order to fit the reduced model behaviour to the real data for the process behaviour. (scielo.org.za)
  • Conventional laboratory scale annular reactors were employed to investigate the growth dynamics of both heterotrophic and autotrophic biofilms. (iwaponline.com)
  • 491 M. Creenway I 11 trod uct ion The use of natural wetlands to assist in water purification has been in existence in many parts of the world for centuries, however the functional processes were not understood until ecological research focused on the nutrient dynamics of wetland systems in the 1960s and 1970s [l]. (docme.ru)
  • Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • It is preferable to use thin biofilms for attached culture industrial processes such as three-phase fluidized-bed and turbulent reactors. (iwaponline.com)
  • To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured according to key ecosystem components and functional groups. (epoca-project.eu)
  • To maintain healthy ecosystem in aquaculture ponds and hatchery tanks bioremediation is the best biotechnology process, says Dr A. Venkateswara Rao, technical manager for Neospark Drugs and Chemicals. (thefishsite.com)
  • The oxygen rates were measured with new instruments called productivity autosamplers (PA's), which automate the process of water sampling, incubation, and O-2 measurement. (columbia.edu)
  • We will give emphasis to the role of arable systems as there are strong indications that they are a source for greenhouse gases, although the processes underlying GHG fluxes from agricultural systems are some of the least well quantified and most uncertain elements in the terrestrial biogeochemical cycle. (copernicus.org)
  • This report presents the results of an evaluation of technologies that may result in less biomass production in activated sludge processes. (iwapublishing.com)
  • These metabolic models have long been utilized to generate optimized design strategies for an improved production process. (osti.gov)
  • the ratio of net autotrophic O-2 production to C-14 uptake varied from 1.0 at 2 m to 0.2 at 15 m. (columbia.edu)
  • In addition to butanol, metabolic engineering of autotrophic acetogens for production of a number of platform chemicals from gases is performed. (uni-ulm.de)
  • This process, termed primary production, can result in the drawdown and sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. (hawaii.edu)
  • If it can be successfully implemented at an industrial scale, the entire production process - from syngas production to pure methanol - will no longer release any carbon dioxide emissions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • This process will enable the economically viable transformation of excess power and off-gas carbon dioxide into methanol in small-scale, decentralized production units. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The present model describes autotrophic growth in terms of the allocation protein resources among core functional groups including the photosynthetic electron transport chain, light-harvesting antennae, and the ribosome groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, the factors accounting for the diversity of maximal rates of cyanobacterial growth remain poorly understood and it appears that autotrophic growth tends to be slower than heterotrophic growth, which can be as short as ~10 min doubling times ( Labbe and Huang, 1995 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The effects of rising CO 2 and related changes in seawater chemistry, including changes in nutrient and trace metal chemistry, are studied in WP5 Sensitivities of autotrophic processes. (epoca-project.eu)