Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.NevadaGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)New JerseyHeterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Euryarchaeota: A phylum of ARCHAEA comprising at least seven classes: Methanobacteria, Methanococci, Halobacteria (extreme halophiles), Archaeoglobi (sulfate-reducing species), Methanopyri, and the thermophiles: Thermoplasmata, and Thermococci.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Metagenomics: The genomic analysis of assemblages of organisms.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)BrazilHydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Pacific OceanCarbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Shewanella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods. It is a saprophytic, marine organism which is often isolated from spoiling fish.Rhodopseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.Acidithiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Ophiostomatales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that are important plant pathogens.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Proteostasis Deficiencies: Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.

The PsbQ protein is required in Arabidopsis for photosystem II assembly/stability and photoautotrophy under low light conditions. (1/128)

RNA interference was used to simultaneously suppress the expression of the two genes that encode the PsbQ proteins of Photosystem II (PS II) in Arabidopsis thaliana, psbQ-1 (At4g21280) and psbQ-2 (At4g05180). Two independent PsbQ-deficient plant lines were examined. These plant lines produced little detectable PsbQ protein. Under normal growth light conditions, the wild type and mutant plants were visually indistinguishable. Additionally, analysis of steady state oxygen evolution rates and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics indicated little alteration of photosynthetic capacity in the mutant plants. No loss of other PS II proteins was evident. Interestingly, flash oxygen yield analysis performed on thylakoid membranes isolated from the mutant and wild type plants indicated that the oxygen-evolving complex was quite unstable in the mutants. Furthermore, the lifetime of the S2 state of the oxygen-evolving complex appeared to be increased in these plants. Incubation of the wild type and mutant plants under low light growth conditions led to a significantly stronger observed phenotype in the mutants. The mutant plants progressively yellowed (after 2 weeks) and eventually died (after 3-4 weeks). The wild type plants exhibited only slight yellowing after 4 weeks under low light conditions. The mutant plants exhibited a large loss of a number of PS II components, including CP47 and the D2 protein, under low light conditions. Additionally, significant alterations of their fluorescence characteristics were observed, including an increased FO and decreased FV, yielding a large loss in PS II quantum efficiency (FV/FM). Analysis of QA- decay kinetics in the absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea indicated a defect in electron transfer from QA- to QB, whereas experiments performed in the presence of this herbicide indicated that the recombination rate between QA- and the S2 state was strongly retarded. These results indicate that the loss of the PsbQ protein induces significant changes in Photosystem II function, particularly in low light-grown plants, and that the PsbQ protein is required for photoautotrophic growth under low light conditions.  (+info)

Coupling of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus methane formation and growth in fed-batch and continuous cultures under different H2 gassing regimens. (2/128)

In nature, H2- and CO2-utilizing methanogenic archaea have to couple the processes of methanogenesis and autotrophic growth under highly variable conditions with respect to the supply and concentration of their energy source, hydrogen. To study the hydrogen-dependent coupling between methanogenesis and growth, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was cultured in a fed-batch fermentor and in a chemostat under different 80% H(2)-20% CO2 gassing regimens while we continuously monitored the dissolved hydrogen partial pressures (pH2). In the fed-batch system, in which the conditions continuously changed the uptake rates by the growing biomass, the organism displayed a complex and yet defined growth behavior, comprising the consecutive lag, exponential, and linear growth phases. It was found that the in situ hydrogen concentration affected the coupling between methanogenesis and growth in at least two respects. (i) The microorganism could adopt two distinct theoretical maximal growth yields (YCH4 max), notably approximately 3 and 7 g (dry weight) of methane formed mol-1, for growth under low (pH2 < 12 kPa)- and high-hydrogen conditions, respectively. The distinct values can be understood from a theoretical analysis of the process of methanogenesis presented in the supplemental material associated with this study. (ii) The in situ hydrogen concentration affected the "specific maintenance" requirements or, more likely, the degree of proton leakage and proton slippage processes. At low pH2 values, the "specific maintenance" diminished and the specific growth yields approached YCH4 max, indicating that growth and methanogenesis became fully coupled.  (+info)

CO2 uptake and fixation by endosymbiotic chemoautotrophs from the bivalve Solemya velum. (3/128)

Chemoautotrophic symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria are the major source of organic carbon for the host, are found in marine habitats where sulfide and oxygen coexist. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pH, alternate sulfur sources, and electron acceptors on carbon fixation and to investigate which form(s) of inorganic carbon is taken up and fixed by the gamma-proteobacterial endosymbionts of the protobranch bivalve Solemya velum. Symbiont-enriched suspensions were generated by homogenization of S. velum gills, followed by velocity centrifugation to pellet the symbiont cells. Carbon fixation was measured by incubating the cells with (14)C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon. When oxygen was present, both sulfide and thiosulfate stimulated carbon fixation; however, elevated levels of either sulfide (>0.5 mM) or oxygen (1 mM) were inhibitory. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate did not enhance carbon fixation rates when sulfide was present. Symbionts fixed carbon most rapidly between pH 7.5 and 8.5. Under optimal pH, sulfide, and oxygen conditions, symbiont carbon fixation rates correlated with the concentrations of extracellular CO(2) and not with HCO(3)(-) concentrations. The half-saturation constant for carbon fixation with respect to extracellular dissolved CO(2) was 28 +/- 3 microM, and the average maximal velocity was 50.8 +/- 7.1 micromol min(-1) g of protein(-1). The reliance of S. velum symbionts on extracellular CO(2) is consistent with their intracellular lifestyle, since HCO(3)(-) utilization would require protein-mediated transport across the bacteriocyte membrane, perisymbiont vacuole membrane, and symbiont outer and inner membranes. The use of CO(2) may be a general trait shared with many symbioses with an intracellular chemoautotrophic partner.  (+info)

Isolation and functional characterization of PgTIP1, a hormone-autotrophic cells-specific tonoplast aquaporin in ginseng. (4/128)

The suppression subtractive hybridization technique was used to identify differentially expressed genes between hormone-autotrophic and hormone-dependent Panax ginseng callus lines. A tonoplast intrinsic protein cDNA (PgTIP1) was found to be highly and specifically expressed in hormone-autotrophic ginseng cells, which was slightly up-regulated by cytokinin while significantly down-regulated when treated with auxin. PgTIP1 encodes a polypeptide of 250 amino acids which shows sequence and structure similarity with tonoplast aquaporins in plants. The water channel activity of PgTIP1 was demonstrated by its expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. When over-expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, PgTIP1 substantially altered the plant's vegetative and reproductive growth and development. Arabidopsis plants over-expressing PgTIP1 showed significantly enhanced seed size and seed mass plus greatly increased growth rate compared with those of the wild type. Moreover, the seeds from PgTIP1 over-expressing Arabidopsis had 1.85-fold higher fatty acid content than the wild-type control. These results demonstrate a significant function of PgTIP1 in the growth and development of plant cells.  (+info)

Characterization of a marine gammaproteobacterium capable of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis. (5/128)

Members of the gammaproteobacterial clade NOR5/OM60 regularly form an abundant part, up to 11%, of the bacterioplankton community in coastal systems during the summer months. Here, we report the nearly complete genome sequence of one cultured representative, Congregibacter litoralis strain KT71, isolated from North Sea surface water. Unexpectedly, a complete photosynthesis superoperon, including genes for accessory pigments, was discovered. It has a high sequence similarity to BAC clones from Monterey Bay [Beja O, Suzuki MT, Heidelberg JF, Nelson WC, Preston CM, et al. (2002) Nature 415:630-633], which also share a nearly identical gene arrangement. Although cultures of KT71 show no obvious pigmentation, bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin-like carotenoids could be detected by HPLC analysis in cell extracts. The presence of two potential BLUF (blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide sensors), one of which was found adjacent to the photosynthesis operon in the genome, indicates a light- and redox-dependent regulation of gene expression. Like other aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAnPs), KT71 is able to grow neither anaerobically nor photoautotrophically. Cultivation experiments and genomic evidence show that KT71 needs organic substrates like carboxylic acids, oligopeptides, or fatty acids for growth. The strain grows optimally under microaerobic conditions and actively places itself in a zone of approximately 10% oxygen saturation. The genome analysis of C. litoralis strain KT71 identifies the gammaproteobacterial marine AAnPs, postulated based on BAC sequences, as members of the NOR5/OM60 clade. KT71 enables future experiments investigating the importance of this group of gammaproteobacterial AAnPs in coastal environments.  (+info)

Initial characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus of "Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila," a filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph. (6/128)

"Candidatus Chlorothrix halophila" is a recently described halophilic, filamentous, anoxygenic photoautotroph (J. A. Klappenbach and B. K. Pierson, Arch. Microbiol. 181:17-25, 2004) that was enriched from the hypersaline microbial mats at Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Analysis of the photosynthetic apparatus by negative staining, spectroscopy, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus in this organism has similarities to the photosynthetic apparatus in both the Chloroflexi and Chlorobi phyla of green photosynthetic bacteria. The chlorosomes were found to be ellipsoidal and of various sizes, characteristics that are comparable to characteristics of chlorosomes in other species of green photosynthetic bacteria. The absorption spectrum of whole cells was dominated by the chlorosome bacteriochlorophyll c (BChl c) peak at 759 nm, with fluorescence emission at 760 nm. A second fluorescence emission band was observed at 870 nm and was tentatively attributed to a membrane-bound antenna complex. Fluorescence emission spectra obtained at 77 K revealed another complex that fluoresced at 820 nm, which probably resulted from the chlorosome baseplate complex. All of these results suggest that BChl c is present in the chlorosomes of "Ca. Chlorothrix halophila," that BChl a is present in the baseplate, and that there is a membrane-bound antenna complex. Analysis of the proteins in the chlorosomes revealed an approximately 6-kDa band, which was found to be related to the BChl c binding protein CsmA found in other green bacteria. Overall, the absorbance and fluorescence spectra of "Ca. Chlorothrix halophila" revealed an interesting mixture of photosynthetic characteristics that seemed to have properties similar to properties of both phyla of green bacteria when they were compared to the photosynthetic characteristics of Chlorobium tepidum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus.  (+info)

Insights into the autotrophic CO2 fixation pathway of the archaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis: comprehensive analysis of the central carbon metabolism. (7/128)

Ignicoccus hospitalis is an autotrophic hyperthermophilic archaeon that serves as a host for another parasitic/symbiotic archaeon, Nanoarchaeum equitans. In this study, the biosynthetic pathways of I. hospitalis were investigated by in vitro enzymatic analyses, in vivo (13)C-labeling experiments, and genomic analyses. Our results suggest the operation of a so far unknown pathway of autotrophic CO(2) fixation that starts from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). The cyclic regeneration of acetyl-CoA, the primary CO(2) acceptor molecule, has not been clarified yet. In essence, acetyl-CoA is converted into pyruvate via reductive carboxylation by pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Pyruvate-water dikinase converts pyruvate into phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), which is carboxylated to oxaloacetate by PEP carboxylase. An incomplete citric acid cycle is operating: citrate is synthesized from oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA by a (re)-specific citrate synthase, whereas a 2-oxoglutarate-oxidizing enzyme is lacking. Further investigations revealed that several special biosynthetic pathways that have recently been described for various archaea are operating. Isoleucine is synthesized via the uncommon citramalate pathway and lysine via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway. Gluconeogenesis is achieved via a reverse Embden-Meyerhof pathway using a novel type of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Pentosephosphates are formed from hexosephosphates via the suggested ribulose-monophosphate pathway, whereby formaldehyde is released from C-1 of hexose. The organism may not contain any sugar-metabolizing pathway. This comprehensive analysis of the central carbon metabolism of I. hospitalis revealed further evidence for the unexpected and unexplored diversity of metabolic pathways within the (hyperthermophilic) archaea.  (+info)

Construction costs and physico-chemical properties of the assimilatory organs of Nepenthes species in Northern Borneo. (8/128)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Species of the Nepenthaceae family are under-represented in studies of leaf traits and the consequent view of mineral nutrition and limitation in carnivorous plants. This study is aimed to complement existing data on leaf traits of carnivorous plants. METHODS: Physico-chemical properties, including construction costs (CC), of the assimilatory organs (leaf and pitcher) of a guild of lowland Nepenthes species inhabiting heath and/or peat swamp forests of Brunei, Northern Borneo were determined. KEY RESULTS: Stoichiometry analyses indicate that Nepenthes species are nitrogen limited. Most traits vary appreciably across species, but greater variations exist between the assimilatory organs. Organ mass per unit area, dry matter tissue concentration (density), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon, heat of combustion (H(c)) and CC values were higher in the leaf relative to the pitcher, while organ thickness, potassium (K) and ash showed the opposite trend. Cross-species correlations indicate that joint rather than individual consideration of the leaf and the pitcher give better predictive relationships between variables, signalling tight coupling and functional interdependence of the two assimilatory organs. Across species, mass-based CC did not vary with N or P, but increases significantly with tissue density, carbon and H(c), and decreases with K and ash contents. Area-based CC gave the same trends (though weaker in strength) in addition to a significant positive correlation with tissue mass per unit area. CONCLUSIONS: The lower CC value for the pitcher is in agreement with the concept of low marginal cost for carnivory relative to conventional autotrophy. The poor explanatory power of N, P or N : P ratio with CC suggests that factors other than production of expensive photosynthetic machinery (which calls for a high N input), including concentrations of lignin, wax/lipids or osmoregulatory ions like K(+), may give a better explanation of the CC variation across Nepenthes species.  (+info)

*Meromictic lake

Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E. & Oremland, Ronald S. (November 1983). "Autotrophic Processes in Meromictic Big Soda Lake, ...

*Soil respiration

This is due to man's activities such as forest clearing, soil denuding, developments that destroy autotrophic processes. With ... Since the process relies on oxygen to occur, this is referred to as aerobic respiration. Fermentation is another process in ... Due to these processes, the rate of nitrogen added to the soil is coupled with rates of microbial respiration. Studies have ... Soil respiration is a key ecosystem process that releases carbon from the soil in the form of CO2. CO2 is acquired from the ...

*Soda lake

However, it is not clear whether this is an autotrophic process or if these require organic carbon from cyanobacterial blooms, ... Photosynthesis provides the primary energy source for life in soda lakes and this process dominates the activity at the surface ...

*Annwoodia

"Kinetics of autotrophic denitrification process and the impact of sulphur/limestone ratio on the process performance". ... obligately autotrophic Thiobacillus tepidarius". Archives of Microbiology. 144: 71-77. doi:10.1007/BF00454959. ... both of which comprise autotrophic organisms dependent on thiosulfate, other sulfur oxyanions and sulfide as electron donors ... "Isolation and physiological characterization of Thiobacillus aquaesulis new-species a novel facultatively autotrophic moderate ...

*CO-methylating acetyl-CoA synthase

For example, acetate-forming bacteria use acetyl-CoA for their autotrophic growth processes, and methanogenic archae such as ... Along with the process of methanogenesis, organisms can subsequently convert the acetate to methane. Furthermore, the Wood- ... The farther nickel centre and the [Fe4S4] cluster are not thought to be involved in the process. In the paramagnetic mechanism ... It also appears to interact with a ferredoxin compound which may activate the subunit during the CO transferring process from ...

*Xerosere

The process of succession starts when autotrophic organisms start living in the rocks. Foliose lichens have leaf-like thalli, ... All these processes lead to formation of a little soil at the surface of these bare rocks. Animals such as spiders which can ... Their roots penetrate deep down, secrete acids and enhance the process of weathering. Leaf litter and death of herbs add humus ...

*Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification

Another well established pathway is via autotrophic denitrifying bacteria in the process termed the Anammox process. It is ... The Orbal process is a technology in practice today using this method. The other method is to produce an oxygen gradient within ... They are termed autotrophic because of their carbon source and termed aerobes because of their aerobic environment. The ... The process is dependent on floc characteristics, reaction kinetics, mass loading of readily biodegradable chemical oxygen ...

*Nitrifying bacteria

Ammonia oxidation in autotrophic nitrification is a complex process that requires several enzymes, proteins and presence of ... The second step of this process has recently fallen into question. For the past few decades, the common view was that a ... Nitrification in nature is a two-step oxidation process of ammonium (NH4+) or ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3−) catalyzed by two ... Michael H. Gerardi (2002). Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process. John Wiley & Sons,. Metabolism ...

*Nitrification

... is an aerobic process performed by small groups of autotrophic bacteria and archaea. This process was discovered ... The process of oxidation of ammonia by AMO is regarded with importance due to the fact that other processes require the co- ... and the process of N-heterocyclic compounds. The process for the latter of the three is not yet widely understood, but is ... Through the process, AMO is deactivated and one or more proteins is covalently bonded to the final product. This is found to be ...

*Terrestrial biological carbon cycle

Because carbon is consumed in the process of autotrophic growth, more carbon is consumed in spring and summer during daytime ... releasing oxygen in the process. This process occurs most quickly in ecosystems with high amounts of growth, such as in young ... the carbon can enter the geosphere through tectonic processes and remain there for several million years. This process can lead ... Carbon storage in the biosphere is influenced by a number of processes on different time-scales: while carbon uptake through ...

*Sunlight

... is a key factor in photosynthesis, the process used by plants and other autotrophic organisms to convert light energy ... This process is known as cellular respiration. In prehistory, humans began to further extend this process by putting plant and ... As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares. The Sun also ... Although the Sun produces gamma rays as a result of the nuclear-fusion process, internal absorption and thermalization convert ...

*Carbon fixation

Given the scale of this process, it is understandable that RuBisCO is the most abundant protein on Earth. Six autotrophic ... The process works like this: 2H2O → 4e− + 4H+ + O2 CO2 + 4e− + 4H+ → CH2O + H2O In the first step, water is dissociated into ... This process consumes ATP and NADPH. The Calvin cycle in plants accounts for the preponderance of carbon fixation on land. In ... C3 plants have a carbon isotope signature of −24 to −33‰. Of the five other autotrophic pathways, two are known only in ...

*Microbial metabolism

These are chemoorganotrophic, but still autotrophic in using CO2 as only carbon source. The biochemistry of this process is ... All of the processes described below are dissimilative, meaning that they are used during energy production and not to provide ... Nitrification is the process by which ammonia (NH 3) is converted to nitrate (NO− 3). Nitrification is actually the net result ... All autotrophic methanogens use a variation of the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway to fix CO2 and obtain cellular carbon. ...

*Denitrification

The process is performed primarily by heterotrophic bacteria (such as Paracoccus denitrificans and various pseudomonads), ... although autotrophic denitrifiers have also been identified (e.g., Thiobacillus denitrificans). Denitrifiers are represented in ... Direct reduction from nitrate to ammonium, a process known as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium or DNRA, is also ... It is also an instrumental process in constructed wetlands and riparian zones for the prevention of groundwater pollution with ...

*Animal nutrition

A few amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis; this ... In other words, green plants have autotrophic mode of nutrition. Heterotrophs~ The organisms which cannot make food themselves ... All non-green plants do not have chlorophyll for carrying the process of photosynthesis. So, they depend other organisms for ... In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of ...

*Single-cell protein

This feature allows autotrophic bacteria to grow on CO2 without light at a fast growth rate. Since H2 can be made efficiently ... In 1781, processes for preparing highly concentrated forms of yeast were established. Research on Single Cell Protein ... Like plants, autotrophic microorganisms are capable to grow on CO2. Some of them, such as bacteria with the Wood-Ljungdahl ... Autotrophic SCP represents options of fail-safe mass food-production which can produce food reliably even under harsh climate ...

*Nitrous oxide

Ostwald process. 2 NH 3 + 2 O 2 → N 2O + 3 H 2O Hydroxylammonium chloride reacts with sodium nitrite to give nitrous oxide. If ... Specifically, they include: aerobic autotrophic nitrification, the stepwise oxidation of ammonia (NH 3) to nitrite (NO− 2) and ... 2003). The emission of the gas to the atmosphere is limited greatly by its consumption inside the cells, by a process catalyzed ... Natural processes that generate nitrous oxide may be classified as nitrification and denitrification. ...

*Nanophytoplankton

They are the autotrophic part of nanoplankton. Like other phytoplankton, nanophytoplankton are microscopic organisms that ... obtain energy through the process of photosynthesis and must therefore live in the upper sunlit layer of ocean or other bodies ...

*Euxinia

... photo-autotrophic bacteria, and entrainment of oxygen horizontally from the boundaries of the fjord. These oxidation processes ... Rising sea level can exacerbate this process by increasing the amount of deep water entering a silled basin and enhancing ... The Black Sea is a commonly used modern model for understanding biogeochemical processes that occur under euxinic conditions. ... Isotopic records of microbially mediated processes. 195 (1-4): 159-179. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(02)00393-5. Lyons, Timothy W; ...

*Carbonate platform

A carbonate factory is the ensemble of the sedimentary environment, the intervening organisms and the precipitation processes ... Precipitation is biotically controlled by heterotrophic organisms, sometimes in association with photo-autotrophic organisms ... mostly by autotrophic organisms. Organisms that build this kind of platform are mostly corals, green algae, foraminifers and ... most of the sediment produced in the lagoon and reef is transported by various processes and accumulates in the slope. ...

*Pyrocystis fusiformis

P. fusiformis is autotrophic, deriving their energy from the sun through photosynthesis. P. fusiformis will only ... daylight hours and mostly produce bioluminescence during night because of their circadian rhythm which controls both processes ...

*Nitrosomonadales

Other autotrophic genera such as Thiobacillus and Annwoodia oxidize reduced inorganic sulfur ions such as thiosulfate and ... Members of the genus Nitrosomonas oxidize ammonium ions into nitrite, - a process called nitrification - and are important in ... Gallionella and Ferriphaselus oxidise ferric iron (Fe3+) ions into ferric hydroxide (Fe(OH)3) during autotrophic growth, and ... are critical to biogeochemical cycling of the elements and many species have key roles in principle biochemical processes. ...

*Chlorella vulgaris

They exploit the autotrophic, heterotrophic or mixotrophic properties of C. vulgaris. Growing C. vulgaris autotrophically is ... Harvesting the biomass is then generally done by centrifugation due to the high process efficiency (95% recovery). Other ... processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 35, 265-278. doi: 10.1016/ ...

*Acidithiobacillus caldus

The growth of A. caldus is enhanced when the air used for sparging, a process by which bubbles of a chemically inert gas are ... Reduced sulfur compounds are used by A. caldus to support its autotrophic growth in an environment which lacks sunlight. ...

*Methanotroph

... and two autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB). Gratuitous detoxification of some environmental contaminants such as ... chlorinated hydrocarbons by methanotrophs have made them attractive models for such bioremediation processes. Equally methane ...

*Metabolism

Steroids are also broken down by some bacteria in a process similar to beta oxidation, and this breakdown process involves the ... Hügler M, Wirsen C, Fuchs G, Taylor C, Sievert S (May 2005). "Evidence for Autotrophic CO2 Fixation via the Reductive ... The metabolism of a cell achieves this by coupling the spontaneous processes of catabolism to the non-spontaneous processes of ... This process is often coupled to the conversion of carbon dioxide into organic compounds, as part of photosynthesis, which is ...
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PubMed journal article Paired RNA Radiocarbon and Sequencing Analyses Indicate the Importance of Autotrophy in a Shallow Alluvial Aquife were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Elevated [CO2] directly reduces stomatal conductance in C3 and C4 species, and also directly stimulates photosynthesis in C3 species (Drake et al., 1997; Long et al., 2004; Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007). All other effects of elevated [CO2] on crops, including the stimulation in yield, are derived from these primary responses (Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007). How can we engineer crops to maximize the advantages of rising [CO2]? As Rubisco is the key carboxylating enzyme and frequently the rate-limiting factor for photosynthesis (Rogers and Humphries, 2000), it is worth asking: Can crop responsiveness to elevated [CO2] be improved by altering the properties of Rubisco, and are current efforts to improve Rubisco relevant to the production environment of 2050? In C3 crops, increasing the affinity of Rubisco for CO2, and thereby avoiding photorespiratory carbon (C) losses, is a target for increasing yield potential (Reynolds and Borlaug, 2006; Ainsworth and Rogers, 2007), but the conserved inverse ...
There is provided an image decoding apparatus for decoding a coded image signal having an image identifier based on a data structure of the image signal. This apparatus comprises a data analyzer for analyzing the coded image signal with reference to the image identifier to decide whether the coded image signal is a coded arbitrary shape signal including both of coded shape bit streams obtained by coding a shape signal which represents the shape of each object as one of the components of a display image and coded pixel value bit streams obtained by coding a pixel value signal representing the gradation of the object, or a coded binary signal including only coded shape bit streams obtained by coding a shape signal representing a display image of binary information; a first decoder for decoding the coded shape bit streams by a first decoding process; and a second decoder for decoding the coded pixel value bit streams by a second decoding process. The first decoding process and the second decoding process
Looking for heterotrophy? Find out information about heterotrophy. living organism that obtains its energy from carbohydrates and other organic material. All animals and most bacteria and fungi are heterotrophic. Explanation of heterotrophy
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, ...
This section summarizes some of the current research on nitrobacter hamburgensis. While this organism has long-been described, this species in particular has not sparked current research interest. After exhausting my resources I was only able to find two articles about nitrobacter hamburgensis that were recently published. The other two articles are about nitrobacter species in general. Recent research has investigated the benefits of using nitrifying bacteria in neutralizing wastewater. Researchers have constructed biofilms with different nitrifying bacteria including N. hamburgensis. They were successful in removing high levels of nitrogen in a short amount of time from municipal effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The biofilms are sufficient alternatives for the treatment of industrial wastewaters that otherwise requires very large and expensive reactors for efficient bioremediation of effluents. (4) Other current research has identified evidence that the previously published sequence ...
Autotrophic life is defined as deriving carbon atoms for biomass exclusively from CO2. Carbon dioxide is indeed practically ubiquitous in all habitats on our planet and certainly was even more so on the early Earth given that the atmospheric pressures may have been as high as 10 bar [66,67]. Owing to the very low redox potentials of the reduction steps converting carbon in CO2 (with a formal oxidation number of +4) to biomass-available carbon (where carbon mainly is 0 to −3), autotrophic CO2-fixation is a bioenergetically challenging reaction; hence, lifes avidity to use carbon pre-reduced by different (heteros in ancient Greek) organisms to the so-called organic molecules, a lifestyle consequently termed heterotrophy. Organic soup scenarios stipulate that sufficient quantities of organic molecules may have been produced in Miller-Urey-type reactions to allow heterotrophy as the ancestral system of biomass production. Apart from all the controversy concerning the soundness of the starting ...
1. The type of metabolism adopted by Pseudomonas oxalaticus during growth on a variety of carbon sources was studied. 2. The only substrate upon which autotrophic growth was observed is formate. 3. In mixtures of formate and those substrates upon which the organism can grow faster than on formate, e.g. succinate, lactate or citrate, heterotrophic metabolism results. 4. In mixtures of formate and those substrates upon which the organism can grow at a similar rate to that on formate, e.g. glycollate or glyoxylate, the predominant mode of metabolism adopted is heterotrophic utilization of the C2 substrate coupled with oxidation of formate as ancillary energy source. 5. P. oxalaticus grows on oxalate 30% slower than on formate. In mixtures of formate and oxalate, the predominant mode of metabolism adopted is autotrophic utilization of formate coupled with oxidation of oxalate as ancillary energy source. 6. In mixtures of formate and those substrates upon which the organism grows at a much lower rate ...
Nitrobacter hamburgensis, gram negative bacteria, was isolated from soil of the Old Botanic Garden in Hamburg and of a corn field in Yucatan. The main types of environments they inhabit are soil, building sandstone, and sewage sludge. Its cells are 0.5-0.8 x 1.2-2.0 m in size. They are pleomorphic; mostly pear-shaped and motile via one subpolar to lateral flagellum. Intracytoplasmic membranes appear as caps of flattened vesicles or membrane vesicles in the central region of the cell. The bacteria have an enzyme capable of oxidizing nitrite. This is why it is important to sequence the genome of N. hamburgensis ...
Abstract: Structural Fe in ferruginous smectite (sample SWa-1, Source Clays Repository of the Clay Minerals Society) was reduced by a mixture of five Pseudomonas species of bacteria in a defined Fe-free medium to determine the effect of microbial reduction on clay swelling. Iron(II), total Fe, and gravimetric water content (mw/mc) were determined in clay gels equilibrated at applied pressures of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 MPa. The water content of microbially reduced SWa-1 decreased at all three applied pressures as the Fe(II) content approached about 0.8 mmol Fe(II)/g-clay. As Fe(II) increased from 0.8 mmol/g-clay, however, further change in mw/mc was negligible. Concurrent with microbial reduction of structural Fe was a significant decrease in the swelling pressure (PI) of SWa-1: for example, when mw/mc = 1.2 (g/g), PI changed from 0.47 MPa at Fe(II) = 0.2, to 0.19 MPa at Fe(II) = 0.9 mmol/g-clay. Both biologically and chemically reduced smectites displayed lower values of mw/mc and a concurrent ...
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Applications Synthetic organisms utilizing this revolutionary technology can offer higher carbon fixation rates as compared to natural alternatives allowing: Superior rate of biomass generation, providing cost effective feedstock for the production of biofuels. Enhanced food production via increased crop yields.Advantages Minimal thermodynamic bottlenecks and superior kinetics over natural counterparts.Technologys Essence
Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains the energy and nutrients (e.g. carbon) it needs to live and reproduce. Microbes use many different types of metabolic strategies and species can often be differentiated from each other based on metabolic characteristics. The specific metabolic properties of a microbe are the major factors in determining that microbes ecological niche, and often allow for that microbe to be useful in industrial processes or responsible for biogeochemical cycles. All microbial metabolisms can be arranged according to three principles: 1. How the organism obtains carbon for synthesising cell mass: autotrophic - carbon is obtained from carbon dioxide (CO2) heterotrophic - carbon is obtained from organic compounds mixotrophic - carbon is obtained from both organic compounds and by fixing carbon dioxide 2. How the organism obtains reducing equivalents used either in energy conservation or in biosynthetic reactions: lithotrophic - reducing equivalents are ...
Plancke et al., 2014] C. Plancke, H. Vigeolas, R. Hohner, S. Roberty, B. Emonds-Alt, V. Larosa, R. Willamme, F. Duby, D. Onga Dhali, P. Thonart, S. Hiligsmann, F. Franck, G. Eppe, P. Cardol, M. Hippler, and C. Remacle. (2014) Lack of isocitrate lyase in chlamydomonas leads to changes in carbon metabolism and in the response to oxidative stress under mixotrophic growth. Plant J, 77(3):404-417, Feb 2014 ...
Biaxial (-), a=1.565-1.625, b=1.605-1.675, g=1.605-1.675, bire=0.0400-0.0500, 2V(Calc)=0, 2V(Meas)=0-25. Dispersion r > v or r < v ...
View Notes - Heterotrophy_et_al_Feb2010_post from ENVSCI 411 at Rutgers. LIFE STYLE OF THE SMALL AND DIVERSE - HETEROTROPHY, AUTOTROPHY, PHOTOTROPHY and ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION A. Heterotrophy 1. To be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inactivation of the open reading frame slr0399 in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 functionally complements mutations near the Q(A) niche of photosystem II. A possible role of Slr0399 as a chaperone for quinone binding. AU - Ermakova-Gerdes, Svetlana. AU - Vermaas, Willem. PY - 1999/10/22. Y1 - 1999/10/22. N2 - The Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 triple mutant D2R8 with V247M/A249T/M329I mutations in the D2 subunit of the photosystem II is impaired in Q(A) function, has an apparently mobile Q(A), and is unable to grow photoautotrophically. Several photoautotrophic pseudorevertants of this mutant have been isolated, each of which retained the original psbDI mutations of D2R8. Using a newly developed mapping technique, the site of the secondary mutations has been located in the open reading frame slr0399. Two different nucleotide substitutions and a deletion of about 60% of slr0399 were each shown to restore photoautotrophy in different pseudorevertants of the mutant D2R8, suggesting that ...
Soil nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is and driven by bacterial and archaeal autotrophic ammonia oxidisers (AOB and AOA) that carry out the first, rate limiting, step of oxidising ammonia to nitrite. Previous work has suggested that adaptation and selection in AOA and AOB communities is, to some extent, pH driven. Acidophilic, acido-neutral, and alkalinophilic groups have been identified by environmental surveys of amoA genes. These studies of the role of pH in determining ammonia oxidiser community structure and activity have largely relied on spatial pH gradients. In many managed soil systems (e.g., agricultural systems) edaphic factors (e.g., pH, N concentrations) vary widely temporally and the implications of short term temporal shifts in factors thought to govern oxidiser community structure, and therefore our ability to manipulate edaphic factors to direct community structure, are not well understood. We investigated the roles of pH in driving nitrifier activity ...
Threonine--tRNA ligase; Catalyzes the attachment of threonine to tRNA(Thr) in a two-step reaction- L-threonine is first activated by ATP to form Thr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Thr). Also edits incorrectly charged L-seryl-tRNA(Thr); Belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family (621 aa ...
associations are meant to be specific and meaningful, i.e. proteins jointly contribute to a shared function; this does not necessarily mean they are physically binding each other. ...
Carbon fixation is a part of the photosynthesis process that occurs during the second half, also known as the Calvin cycle. Carbon fixation itself refers to a large number of different carbon-related...
HETEROTROPHIE + HETEROTROPHE ORGANISMEN (BIOLOGIE); ENERGIEMETABOLISMUS; ADENOSINTRIPHOSPHAT (NUKLEOSIDE, NUKLEOTIDE); NUMERISCHE SIMULATION UND MATHEMATISCHE MODELLRECHNUNG; MODELLRECHNUNG UND SIMULATION IN DER ÖKOLOGIE; HETEROTROPHY + HETEROTROPHIC ORGANISMS (BIOLOGY); ENERGY METABOLISM; ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (NUCLEOSIDES, NUCLEOTIDES); NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND MATHEMATICAL MODELING; MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN ...
Use the most plentiful protein on the planet-RuBisCO-to teach the DNA→RNA→protein pathway of molecular biology that also makes a connection to the global climate through attention to the carbon fixation pathways. The curriculum is concise and an excellent way to teach about current research methods in plant biology that cross over to animal and medical fields. It also provides insight into potential science careers. The curriculum is flexible so that you can use all or part of it to teach what works for you.. Highlights of full curriculum: ...
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This paper presents results of a systematic transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of biotites from a suite of core samples from the Cyprus Casa Grande porphyry copper deposit, Arizona. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the mode and timing of copper enrichment in biotite and to compare the results to TEM observations of biotites from other porphyry copper deposits. The core samples represent both oxidized and unoxidized rock. Biotites and chlorites from unoxidized protore contain less than 200 ppm copper as measured by electron microprobe and are free of copper-enriched expanded interlayers and the native copper inclusions described by Ilton and Veblen (1988); biotites and chlorites from oxidized ore are commonly copper enriched. The mode of copper incorporation in biotites and chlorites in oxidized rock is complex and varies with depth. Biotites from the goethite zone contain submicroscopic native copper inclusions and both copper-enriched expanded interlayers and ...
A metaproteomic survey of surface coastal waters near Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula, West Antarctica, was performed, revealing marked differences in the functional capacity of summer and winter communities of bacterioplankton. Proteins from Flavobacteria were more abundant in the summer metaproteome, whereas winter was characterized by proteins from ammonia-oxidizing Marine Group I Crenarchaeota. Proteins prevalent in both seasons were from SAR11 and Rhodobacterales clades of Alphaproteobacteria, as well as many lineages of Gammaproteobacteria. The metaproteome data were used to elucidate the main metabolic and energy generation pathways and transport processes occurring at the microbial level in each season. In summer, autotrophic carbon assimilation appears to be driven by oxygenic photoautotrophy, consistent with high light availability and intensity. In contrast, during the dark polar winter, the metaproteome supported the occurrence of chemolithoautotrophy via the ...
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive ...
We report the isolation of a pinnacle-forming cyanobacterium isolated from a microbial mat covering the sediment surface at Little Salt Spring-a flooded sinkhole in Florida with a perennially microoxic and sulfidic water column. The draft genome of the isolate encodes all of the enzymatic machinery necessary for both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis, as well as genes for methylating hopanoids at the C-2 position. The physiological response of the isolate to H2S is complex: (i) no induction time is necessary for anoxygenic photosynthesis; (ii) rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are regulated by both H2S and irradiance; (iii) O2 production is inhibited by H2S concentrations as low as 1 μM and the recovery rate of oxygenic photosynthesis is dependent on irradiance; (iv) under the optimal light conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis, rates of anoxygenic photosynthesis are nearly double those of oxygenic photosynthesis ...
Definition of carbon fixation - the incorporation of carbon into organic compounds by living organisms, chiefly by photosynthesis in green plants.
Hyperthermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing organism. Cells are irregular spheres with a glycoprotein envelope and monopolar flagella. They grow between 60 and 95 degrees Celsius but their optimum is 83 degrees Celsius. They can be either organoheterotrophic using a variety of carbon and energy sources or they can also be lithoautotrophic using hydrogen, thiosulphate and carbon dioxide. (HAMAP: ARCFU ...
4 prong. D handle. 32. High tensile steel handles Gives the fork superior strength yet are far lighter than a mild steel alternative. High tensile handles are 40% stronger than mild steel ones as used by other manufacturers (as per tube manufacturers spe
T00509 (apre,bapi,bgg,bhan,bths,cchv,ceh,chon,cwa,epa,eti,mmas,myi,nab,nhi,pmai,pspo,rdi,tbs,thh,xhr,zdf : calculation not yet completed ...
Organisms in the food chain are categorized into three basic nutritional groups in reference to what kind of carbon, energy, or electron source is utilized to make energy. Heterotrophic organisms use organic substrates and autotrophic organisms use inorganic substrates to obtain carbon. The reducing equivalent source is how organisms get electrons to reduce for biological processes. Lithotrophic organisms utilize inorganic compounds to get electrons and organotrophic organisms use organic compounds to get electrons necessary for biological processes. It is common to find autotrophic lithotrophic organisms or those that use an inorganic source to obtain electrons and carbon dioxide to obtain carbon. The energy source is how an organism makes ATP, the molecules that fuel biosynthetic pathways for energy. Phototrophic organisms use light energy and chemotrophic organisms, like those found near hydrothermal vents, use energy from chemical sources.. Organisms like the photolithotrophic cyanobacteria, ...
are heterotrophic but not organotrophic. Myco-heterotrophy has evolved multiple times in different plant families. These plants obtain carbon from soil fungi. Interestingly, there are photosynthetic bacteria that are heterotrophs, notably the purple nonsulfur bacteria (Rhodospirillaceae). Organisms have a wide range of degrees of heterotrophy. Many bacteria, like pseudomonads, can use any of a variety of organic compounds as their sole carbon source, while on the opposite extreme, intracellular symbionts and parasites are often so dependent on their host cells for nutrition that they are very difficult to grow in lab conditions. The animal kingdom is somewhat intermediate, sharing the need to consume a variety of biomolecules, but still able to make many others. The "essential" amino acids (EAAs), familiar from human nutrition as those that cannot be made by our bodies and therefore must be consumed, are a nutritional need across the animal kingdom. Likewise, the B vitamins are enzyme cofactors ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Mild steel "Low Hydrogen" welding rods easily produce quality results on smaller amperage AC (Alternating Current)/DC (Direct Current) welders. ...
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Nitrification is the process within the global Nitrogen Cycle where ammonia (NH3) is oxidized to nitrate (NO₃⁻) and can be carried out by two distinct groups of bacteria. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) first oxidize NH₃ to nitrite (NO₂⁻), and second, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) oxidize NO₂⁻ to NO₃⁻. In aerobic conditions, in either natural or engineered systems, nitrifying bacteria often compete for oxygen (O₂). In nitrification, low O₂ environments can cause the accumulation of NH₃, NO₂⁻ and the greenhouse gases NO and N₂O, compounds that can be detrimental to the environment. This work examined the effects of O₂ limitation on the AOB Nitrosomonas europaea and the NOB Nitrobacter hamburgensis, and determined their transcriptome responses under replete and limiting O₂. When grown in co-culture with replete O₂, both N. europaea and N. hamburgensis were capable of consuming ~99% of the available NH₃, or NO₂⁻, accordingly, and grew to 0.35 ...
This page lists notable faculty (past and present) of the University of California, Berkeley. Faculty who were also alumni are listed in bold font, with degree and year in parentheses. Faculty of the University of California, Berkeley George A. Akerlof - Professor of Economics Nobel laureate (2001, economics) for the "analyses of markets with asymmetric information" Luis Walter Alvarez - Professor of Physics, Nobel laureate (1968, physics) "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis" Melvin Calvin - University Professor of Chemistry, discovered Calvin Cycle; Nobel laureate (1961, chemistry), "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants" Owen Chamberlain - Professor of Physics; Nobel laureate (1959, physics) for the "discovery of the antiproton" Steven Chu (Ph.D. 1976) - Professor of ...
Microalgae are capable of producing sustainable bioproducts and biofuels by using carbon dioxide or other carbon substances in various cultivation modes. It is of great significance to exploit microalgae for the economical viability of biofuels and the revenues from high-value bioproducts. However, the industrial performance of microalgae is still challenged with potential conflict between cost of microalgae cultivation and revenues from them, which is mainly ascribed to the lack of comprehensive understanding of carbon metabolism and energy conversion. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in carbon and energy fluxes of light-dependent reaction, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis pathway and processes of product biosynthesis in microalgae, with focus on the increased photosynthetic and carbon efficiencies. Recent strategies for the enhanced production of bioproducts and biofuels from microalgae are discussed in detail. Approaches to alter microbial
Microalgae are capable of producing sustainable bioproducts and biofuels by using carbon dioxide or other carbon substances in various cultivation modes. It is of great significance to exploit microalgae for the economical viability of biofuels and the revenues from high-value bioproducts. However, the industrial performance of microalgae is still challenged with potential conflict between cost of microalgae cultivation and revenues from them, which is mainly ascribed to the lack of comprehensive understanding of carbon metabolism and energy conversion. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in carbon and energy fluxes of light-dependent reaction, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis pathway and processes of product biosynthesis in microalgae, with focus on the increased photosynthetic and carbon efficiencies. Recent strategies for the enhanced production of bioproducts and biofuels from microalgae are discussed in detail. Approaches to alter microbial
A novel thermophilic, microaerophilic, anoxygenic, and chlorophototrophic member of the phylum Acidobacteria, Chloracidobacterium thermophilum strain B T, was isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture derived from microbial mats associated with Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. C. thermophilum is strictly dependent on light and oxygen and grows optimally as a photoheterotroph at irradiance values between 20 and 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹. C. thermophilum is unable to synthesize branched-chain amino acids (AAs), L-lysine, and vitamin B₁₂, which are required for growth. Although the organism lacks genes for autotrophic carbon fixation, bicarbonate is also required. Mixtures of other AAs and 2-oxoglutarate stimulate growth. As suggested from genomic sequence data, C. thermophilum requires a reduced sulfur source such as thioglycolate, cysteine, methionine, or thiosulfate. The organism can be grown in a defined medium at 51° C (T opt; range 44-58°C) in the pH ...
Heterotrophic protists are an important link between the microbial and the classical food web. However, little is known about their biochemical composition and nutritional quality as prey. In this thesis, I analysed (1) whether the biochemical composition of the protists depends on their dietary resources (bacterial or algal food) or trophic mode (autotrophy, mixotrophy or heterotrophy), and (2) whether the biochemical composition of protists determines their nutritional quality as prey for a rotifer species (Keratella quadrata). The fatty acid, sterol, and amino acid composition of four heterotrophic protists generally resembled the dietary composition, but the protists accumulated these compounds. Moreover, the trophic mode strongly affected the composition of a flagellate (Ochromonas sp.), especially that of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). When investigating the nutritional quality of four protist species for K. quadrata, several PUFAs, three sterols (desmosterol, ergosterol, ...
1. Write an essay on sporangiophores?. 2. What are meristems? How are they classified on the basis of their mode of origin, position and function?. 3. Comment on :. (a) Gemmules. (b) Heteronereis. (c) Salient features of porifera.. 4. Define translation and protein biosynthesis.. 5. Why is digestion important? How food is digested?. 6. Write notes on:. (a) functions of taste buds. (b) transmission of taste signals into the central nervous system.. 7. What is the Calvin cycle and what is its relationship to autotrophy? What is the key enzyme involved in autotrophic CO2 fixation in most organisms?. 8. Give an account of microbial enzymes and biotransformation. ...
In order to characterize the petrological and chemical effects of illuviation, we collected 17 samples of saprock adjacent to, and 14 samples of corestone from, an ~6.7 m high tonalitic corestone (tor). Based on thin section observations, all saprock samples are characterized by a network of transgranular and intergranular cracks filled or lined with illuviated clay. In contrast, the silicate framework has been weakly to mildly weathered, and as result, biotite has been partially transformed into mixed-layer biotite/vermiculite, plagioclase has been weakly weathered to a dusting of smectite, and hornblende has been weakly weathered to Fe- and/or Mn-oxyhydroxide. The weathering of biotite translates into an ~5-6% loss of K mass while the weathering of plagioclase resulted in no statistically significant loss of Ca or Na mass.. The above effects of eluviation contrast markedly with the statistically significant additions of Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc, Cr, Cu, Rb, Y, and Yb mass produced by ...
Phagocytosis (literally, cell eating) is a form of endocytosis where large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... Microtubules are protein structures found within cells. ... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Classes & Subclasses Class Karyorelictea Class Heterotrichea (e. ... This article is about the protist group called excavates. ... ...
Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde versucht, die A1AO ATP-Synthase von I. hospitalis zu reinigen und die Untereinheitenzusammensetzung des Komplexes zu bestimmen. Obwohl der gekoppelte Komplex erfolgreich durch das Detergenz DDM (n-Dodecyl-β-D-Maltopyranosid) aus der Membran herausgelöst werden konnte, war eine Reinigung des Gesamtkomplexes bisher nicht möglich. Zahlreiche Versuche, das Enzym über säulenchromatographische Verfahren zu reinigen, führten lediglich zu einer Anreicherung der dissoziierten A1- und AO-Subkomplexe der ATP-Synthase. Eine Identifizierung der Untereinheiten war durch eine Kombination von 2D-Native/SDS-PAGE, Western-Blot-Analysen und MALDI-TOF MS/MS möglich. So konnte die in vivo Expression von acht annotierten Untereinheiten der ATP-Synthase (A, B, C, D, E, F, a(I) und c(K)) bestätigt und das Protein Igni1215 als Bestandteil der ATP-Synthase (Untereinheit H) identifiziert werden. Die beiden erhaltenen Subkomplexe bestanden aus A, B, E und F (A1) und aus C, D, H und a ...
Jeanthon, C., LHaridon, S., Reysenbach, A.L., Vernet, M., Messner, P., Sleytr, U.B., and Prieur,D. Methanococcus infernus sp. nov., a novel extremely thermophilic lithotrophic methanogen isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1998) 48:913-919 ...
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Carlisle county, ky. live car zips onto a seine designed by mississippi state university during a demonstration at tommy wards farm near fancy farm, ky. seine design based on research by dr. ed robinson.
Abstract: The Poiana Botizei- ible -Toroiaga-Rodna-Bargau intrusive area (PBTTRB), northwest Romania, known as the "Subvolcanic Zone", is located between the Gutai (NW) and Calimani (SE) volcanic massifs. It consists of rocks displaying a wide range of compositions and textures: equigranular or porphyritic with holocrystalline groundmass (gabbro-diorites, diorites, monzodiorites and granodiorites), and/or porphyritic with fine holocrystalline or glassycryptocrystalline groundmass, similar with effusive rocks: basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites, dacites and rhyolites. The time-span of intrusive rocks emplacement is similar with the nearest calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from Gutai (NW) and Calimani (SE) massifs. They are represented by stocks, laccoliths, dykes and sills typical for an upper crustal intrusive environment. In the absence of biostratigraphic evidence, a comprehensive K-Ar study of intrusive rocks using whole rock samples, groundmass and monomineral fractions (biotite, hornblende) ...
Polonium radiohalos found in biotite flakes of granites in Yosemite National Park place severe time constraints on the formation and cooling of the granite plutons.
Hypertherm, Hanover, N.H., says it has introduced an entirely new class of plasma called X-Definition. The new plasma is available for the first time in a 300-amp plasma system called the XPR300. X-Definition class plasma combines engineering advances and refined high-definition plasma processes to deliver high cut quality on mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum. Laboratory testing shows ISO-9013 Range 2 cut quality on thin mild steel and extended ISO Range 3 cuts on thicker metals ...
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Developments in scientific research follow improvements in apparatus- sources of 14C and autoradiography enabled Calvin to elucidate the pathways of carbon fixation. ...
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To search for genetic clues to carbon and energy metabolism in Crenarchaeota, the researchers extracted C. symbiosum DNA from its host sponge and constructed a DNA library for sequencing the symbiont s genome. Hallam et al. then searched for representative genes linked to pathways associated with autotrophic carbon assimilation. They found many components of two pathways: the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid (citric acid) pathway (TCA). Both cycles involve a multistep series of chemical reactions that convert inorganic compounds in this case, carbon dioxide into organic carbon molecules. Though some components of the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle were missing in C. symbiosum, enough elements (including core proteins) were found to support a modified version of this pathway for carbon assimilation, using carbon dioxide ...
Conclusions. The multiplex PCR reaction described above allows for the rapid and reliable identification of single seeds of small broomrape. This PCR-based assay detected DNA from all small broomrape samples collected in this study, including a sample with a distinct phenotype. The primers did not amplify DNA from other Orobanche species with similar host ranges found in Oregon. The primers also did not anneal to the DNA of red- and white clover, two hosts for small broomrape that are of agricultural significance.. Orobanche species have historically been extremely difficult to identify based on morphological characteristics (8,9,10). The plant phenotypes of the broomrapes are often dependent upon the host species being attacked. Also, although seed morphology can be used to identify broomrapes to species, these morphological characteristics are subject to change over time (10). Thus, researchers have turned to molecular methods, in particular the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ...
Systematic exploration has delineated significant gold mineralization in the River Reef Zone and the presence of a siliceous body at Watuputih Hill, which is a Poboya gold prospect in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The mineralization is hosted within the Palu Metamorphic Complex. The host rocks consist of granite, biotite gneiss, and biotite schist, which is intercalated by feldspar porphyroblastic biotite schist and amphibolitic schist. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the granite and biotite gneiss suggests that the granitic rocks can be characterized as magnesian arc calc-alkaline rocks, with a weakly peraluminous composition. Alteration minerals were analyzed by a combination of petrographic and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the River Reef Zone, the hydrothermal alteration zones can be sorted by their proximity to the primary fluid conduit and divided into inner, high-T, and low-T propylitic zones. In Watuputih Hill, the hydrothermal alteration can be divided into advanced argillic and argillic
My initial research interest was in the dynamics of DOC and its composition as food for marine bacteria. This led me to be one of a group of people who drove through the new and the present paradigm of the role of bacteria in the planktonic food web. From this my interest broadened to overall heterotrophic metabolism - respiration. To enable this work I developed an ultra high precision analytical method for the analysis of oxygen concentrations in seawater and the group I assembled became leaders in this field. This work led on to the question of the balance of metabolism (photosynthesis versus respiration) in the oceans and I played a leading role in the debate over purported ocean heterotrophy. Recently, I have developed an interest on the physiology and biochemistry of micro-algae in relation to their potential for biomass and biofuel production. ...
Buy Orobanche: The European Broomrape Species: A Field Guide / Die Sommerwurzarten Europas: Ein Bestimmungsbuch, Volume 1 (9789074508056): Central and Northern Europe / Mittel- und Nordeuropa: NHBS - Karel AJ Kreutz, Meijs Publishers
Seedling establishment is a crucial phase during plant development when the germinating heterotrophic embryo switches to autotrophic growth and dev...
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Reductionist philosophy has directed biological research for decades [1, 2]. A significant amount of information has been generated so far in the field of biological sciences as enrichment of human knowledgebase to understand life [1]. Despite enormous success of reductionism to decode the structural and functional attributes at cellular and molecular levels of life-organization, it is progressively becoming clearer that biological functions can rarely be credited to discrete perception of individual molecules. Alternatively, most biological phenomena emerge due to extremely interactive complexity derived from functional integrity of cells numerous constituents [2]. Various recent approaches have been initiated and accomplished to study biological systems in more integrative and comprehensive way. Network model can play an important role to understand the complex network system based on multiple sets of interactions and to make plain and clear analysis of the origin of observed network ...
Chloroflexus aurantiacus ATCC ® 29366D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Chloroflexus aurantiacus strain J-10-fl TypeStrain=True Application:
The question of which proteins are involved in the interaction cell-cell contact and in transport between these two archaea cannot be addressed, at least presently, by genetics, such as mutagenesis or knockouts. We have therefore chosen the direct approach, by isolating a complex of membrane and membrane-associated proteins, using detergent-induced solubilization, followed by size-exclusion chromatography.. In the analysis of all proteins identified to be present in the detergent-solubilized membranes, approx. 26% of the I. hospitalis proteins, but only 4.2% of the N. equitans proteins belong to the category Transport and metabolism. This reflects the known difference between both organisms in their physiology and genome capacity: whereas I. hospitalis has the ability to grow alone and has a genome with full capacity for all biosynthetic pathways, N. equitans is not able to thrive alone and its genome is very compact and highly reduced; enzymes involved in many biosynthetic pathways cannot be ...
31. Tarafa, M., J. Whelan, R.S. Oremland, and R.L. Smith. 1986. Evidence for microbiological activity in Leg 95 (New Jersey transect) sediments. Initial Reports DSDP, C. Poag and A. Watts, editors, 635-640.. 32. Kiene, R., R.S. Oremland, A. Catena, L. Miller, and D.G. Capone. 1986. Metabolism of reduced methylated sulfur compounds in anaerobic sediments and by a pure culture of an estuarine methanogen. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 1037-1045.. 33. Oremland, R.S., and J.P. Zehr. 1986. Formation of methane and carbon dioxide from dimethylselenide in anoxic sediments and by a methanogenic bacterium. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52: 1031-1036.. 34. Zehr, J.P., and R.S. Oremland. 1987. Reduction of selenate to selenide by sulfate-respiring bacteria: Experiments with cell suspensions and estuarine sediments. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 1365-1369.. 35. Zehr, J.P., R.W. Harvey, R.S. Oremland, J.E. Cloern, L. George and J.L. Lane. 1987. Big Soda Lake(Nevada). 1. Pelagic bacterial heterotrophy and biomass. ...
For many decades, sunflower broomrape has been damaging crops in Europe. It appeared in 2009 in France since when more regions have become infested. As members of a project funded by Promosol, INRA scientists in Toulouse and their partners are exploring the interactions between sunflower and broomrape in order to improve management of the risk induced by this parasitic weed.
The genome of PCC 6803 contains a single gene encoding an aquaporin, remains ambiguous. the cells along with decreased PSII activity at ENX-1 pH figures ranging from 7.5 to 8.5. A mutant in mutant, lacking a putative glucose-sensing kinase, both showed higher glucose level of sensitivity Olaparib than the cells. Exam of protein appearance indicated that functioned as a positive regulator of gene appearance but not as the only regulator. Overall, the cells showed problems in macronutrient rate of metabolism, pH homeostasis, and cell division under photomixotrophic conditions, consistent with an essential part of AqpZ in glucose rate of metabolism. sp. PCC 6803 (henceforth referred to as have not been identified, although microarray tests possess recognized a list of genes caused by hyperosmotic stress in both the crazy type (WT) and a strain (5). Moreover, loss of aquaporins in organisms in general does not result in growth problems under a range of environmental conditions (6). Hence, the query ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Archaea; TACK group; Crenarchaeota; Thermoprotei; Thermoproteales; Thermoproteaceae; Pyrobaculum; Pyrobaculum ...
Scientists working toward the elusive lithium-air battery discovered an unexpected approach to capturing and storing carbon dioxide away from the atmosphere. Using a design intended for a lithium-CO2 battery, researchers in Japan and China have developed a way to isolate solid carbon dust from gaseous carbon dioxide, with the potential to also separate out oxygen gas through the same method. Their work appears Aug. 9 in Joule, a new interdisciplinary energy journal from Cell Press.
A study evaluated the effects of adding vermicompost to substrates in organically grown greenhouse tomatoes. Results showed the incorporation of vermicompost into organic substrates to be beneficial in terms of growth and ...
Looking for a Reggae Band in the Chimney Rock, NC area? GigMasters will help you choose the best local event vendors. Start here!
Re-lax 2 wirkt wahre Wunder. Seine synergetische Wirkstoffkombination aus biotechnologischen und natürlichen Essenzen wirkt auf mehreren Ebenen gleichzeitig.
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
or proton motive force (pmf). The pmf drives the synthesis of ATP to power the reactions of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and other essential metabolic processes in the chloroplast. The pmf is also a key regulator of photosynthesis in that it activates the photoprotective qE response to dissipate excess light energy and down-regulates electron transfer by controlling the rate of oxidation of plastoquinol at the cytochrome b6f complex (b6f), thus preventing the buildup of reduced intermediates (1, 2).. LEF results in the transfer or deposition into the lumen of three protons for each electron transferred through PSII, plastoquinone (PQ), b6f, plastocyanin, and photosystem I (PSI) to ferredoxin (Fd). The synthesis of one ATP is thought to require the passage of 4.67 protons through the ATP synthase, so that LEF should produce a ratio of ATP/NADPH of about 1.33; this ratio is too low to sustain the CBB cycle or supply ATP required for translation, protein transport, or other ATP-dependent ...
Biogeochemical measurements from 1978-2003 were analyzed to develop a carbon and nutrient budget for the Delaware Bay estuary using a box-model. Two different box-models were constructed to calculate nutrient transport and production throughout the estuary. The first consisted of a single box to capture estuary wide net production and transport, the second was comprised of four boxes in the salinity gradient. The models indicated massive amounts of nutrient production, specifically NO3 and NH4 in the estuary. Overall heterotrophy was prominent in the upper regions and shifted to autotrophic tendencies in the lower estuary. Box-model calculations were then compared to geochemistry data in the upper river and box-models of other similar estuaries, including Chesapeake Bay and Roskilde Fjord. With further analysis, the upper regions of the estuary exhibited uncharacteristically higher production of both NO3 and NH4 (almost twenty times higher). Competition between nitrification and remineralization ...
Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty), and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth) of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly ...
are ubiquitous and abundant microbial constituents of soils, sediments, lakes, and ocean waters. Archaea and shared many core metabolic features in common with its free-living planktonic relatives. of the domain Archaea (1, 2) now are recognized to comprise a significant 1527473-33-1 manufacture component of marine microbial biomass, 1028 cells in todays oceans (3C5). Although marine span the depth continuum (6), their numbers are greatest in waters just below the photic zone (3, 7). Isotopic analyses of lipids suggest that marine have the capacity for autotrophic carbon assimilation (8C12). The recent isolation of (20), falls well within the lineage of ubiquitous and abundant planktonic marine (18, 20, 21). Although yet uncultivated, can be harvested in significant quantities from host tissues, where it comprises up to 65% of the total microbial biomass (20, 21). These enriched uniarchaeal preparations of have facilitated DNA analyses (20, 22, 23), as well as the identification and structural ...
A cohort mortality study was conducted among welders and nonwelders at three heavy equipment manufacturing facilities from 1950 through 1980. The welders at these facilities were exposed to little or no asbestos and they welded only mild steel. The mortality of the welders was compared to that of the United States population as well as to that of nonwelders at the same facilities. The exposed coho
Simple Sustainable Process in Nature: Oxygenic Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae and bacteria to harness ghe energy of the sun and convert it into chemical energy. Photosynthetic processes can be of two types ; oxygenic photosynthesis and anoxygenic photosynthesis.During oxygenic photosynthesis, light energy reduces Carbon Dioxide and oxidizes water to…
Seine the Bay Day is an annual late summer event. Volunteers will help drag a long net (called a seine net) through the water to discover what awesome sea creatures live in the shallow part of the bay. The catch is never the same; we may catch juvenile fish, shrimp, or even baby puffers or seahorses in the net. It will be a fun day ...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. However, Rubisco performs this reaction slowly and can also have unwa ...
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An assay system useful for the determination of NAD(P)H, NAD(P), or a substrate of an enzyme which reacts with the formation or comsumption of NAD(P)H. Concentrations of organic substrates for example
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Oceanic crust is a massive potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet our understanding of this ecosystem is limited due to difficulty in access. In particular, measurements of rates of microbial activity are sparse. We used stable carbon isotope incubations of crustal samples, coupled with functional gene analyses, to examine the potential for carbon fixation on oceanic crust. Both seafloor-exposed and subseafloor basalts were recovered from different mid-ocean ridge and hot spot environments (i.e., the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the Loihi Seamount) and incubated with 13C-labeled bicarbonate. Seafloor-exposed basalts revealed incorporation of 13C-label into organic matter over time, though the degree of incorporation was heterogeneous. The incorporation of 13C into biomass was inconclusive in subseafloor basalts. Translating these measurements into potential rates of carbon fixation indicated that 0.1 - 10 nmol C g-1rock d-1 could be fixed by seafloor-exposed rocks. When
Topic: Diversity of eukaryotic picoplankton using molecular approaches Postdoctoral Position 1 year (March 2002 - March 2003) Oceanic Phytoplankton group Station Biologique de Roscoff CNRS et Universit=E9 Pierre et Marie Curie BP 74, 29682 Roscoff, France This position is funded by the FP5 EU program PICODIV (2001- 2003) which focuses on the diversity of picoplankton in coastal and oceanic waters following on recent work showing that oceanic picoplankton diversity is very high with many phyla containing uncultured representatives (Moon-van der Staay S.Y., De Wachter R., Vaulot D. 2001. Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton reveal new eukaryotic lineages. Nature 409: 607-610). Emphasis will be on the acquisition and phylogentic analysis of rDNA gene sequences both from newly isolated cultures and from environmental clone libraries of eukaryotic picoplankton from coastal and oceanic waters. Skills : - The candidate is expected to have a strong academic background, to have published in ...

Biology X | LIFE PROCESSES | Autotrophic Nutrition - CBSE TutorialsBiology X | LIFE PROCESSES | Autotrophic Nutrition - CBSE Tutorials

Biology X , LIFE PROCESSES , Autotrophic Nutrition. Posted on June 23, 2010. by admin ... 10 comments on "Biology X , LIFE PROCESSES , Autotrophic Nutrition" *. June 25, 2010 at 5:16 pm. ... Carbon and energy requirements of the autotrophic organism are fulfilled by photosynthesis. It is the process by which ... Let us now see what actually happens during the process of photosynthesis. The following events occur during this process - ...
more infohttp://cbse.myindialist.com/biology-x-life-processes-autotrophic-nutrition/

Ronald OremlandRonald Oremland

Autotrophic processes in Big Soda Lake, Nevada. Limnol & Oceanog. 28: 1049-1061. ... Microbial and biogeochemical processes in Big Soda Lake, Nevada, p. 59-75. In Lacustrine Oil Source Rocks, K. Kelts, A.J. Fleet ... Oremland, R.S., J.F. Stolz, and C.W., Saltikov. 2012. Anaerobic oxidation of arsenite by autotrophic bacteria: The view from ... In "Dehalogenation: Microbial Processes and Environmental Applications" M.M. Haggblom & I.D. Bossert (eds), Kluwer, Netherlands ...
more infohttps://www.usgs.gov/staff-profiles/ronald-oremland?page=8

OPUS at UTS: Nitrous oxide production in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process: A simulation study - Open...OPUS at UTS: Nitrous oxide production in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process: A simulation study - Open...

Nitrous oxide production in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process: A simulation study. Peng, L Liu, Y Ni, BJ ... Nitrous oxide production in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process: A simulation study. en_US. ... which might weaken the advantages of nitrogen removal in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process. In this work ... which might weaken the advantages of nitrogen removal in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal biofilm process. In this work ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/107550

Theme 2: Biological and ecosystem responses, acclimation and adaptationTheme 2: Biological and ecosystem responses, acclimation and adaptation

... are studied in WP5 Sensitivities of autotrophic processes. Off-shore pelagic mesocosm experiments are conducted to quantify ... Sedimentary microbial processes, including nitrogen cycling, may also be affected by OA-related changes in benthic macrofauna ... An efficient transfer of knowledge gained in experimental, process-oriented research in WPs 4-8 for global system analyses ... To address these questions for a wide range of potentially sensitive biological processes, Theme 2 activities are structured ...
more infohttp://www.epoca-project.eu/index.php/what-do-we-do/science/themes-a-wp/theme-2.html

Meromictic lake - WikipediaMeromictic lake - Wikipedia

Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E. & Oremland, Ronald S. (November 1983). "Autotrophic Processes in Meromictic Big Soda Lake, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meromictic_lake

Chapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION - PDFChapter 6: CELLULAR RESPIRATION - PDF

3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes ... The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration Energy flows into an ... Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to: and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity ... 3 What is Cellular Respiration? It is the process by which organisms use energy from food (e.g., glucose, fatty acids) to fuel ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/32911886-Chapter-6-cellular-respiration.html

Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings...Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings...

3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes ... Visualizing Cell Processes Visualizing Cell Processes A Series of Five Programs produced by BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Content Guide ... 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below ... The chemical energy used for most cell processes is carried by ATP. 4.1 CHEMICAL ENERGY AND ATP Study Guide KEY CONCEPT All ...
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Science Propaganda | In the DarkScience Propaganda | In the Dark

Many of the models I work with incorporate such processes. Many archaea and anaerobic bacteria use such autotrophic processes. ... "leading the view that evolution is actually a fairly convergent process. For instance, eyes, or at least optical sensors, ... I have no idea whether Conway Morris is right or not, but time is not an argument against him if the processes involved are ... Photoautotrophy (the process whereby organisms use light as an energy source to metabolize and fix essential elements such as ...
more infohttps://telescoper.wordpress.com/2013/01/02/science-propaganda/?replytocom=56119

Denitrification  Articles  on Environmental XPRTDenitrification Articles on Environmental XPRT

The heterotrophic-combined-with-autotrophic denitrification process: performance and interaction mechanisms In this work, the ... A FBCR filled with elemental sulfur and limestone was operated for about 94 days under autotrophic and mixotrophic (autotrophic ... process in a heterotrophic-autotrophic denitrification (HAD) system were investigated, and the performance of the HAD system ... The AQUAMEND® process has proven to be successful for the treatment of a wide range of constituents of interest. Much work was ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/keyword-denitrification-4813

Denitrification (Industrial Mixing - Water and Wastewater)  Articles  on Environmental XPRTDenitrification (Industrial Mixing - Water and Wastewater) Articles on Environmental XPRT

Mixed electron donor autotrophic denitrification processes for groundwater treatment by immobilized biological filters An ... The conventional process to remove nitrate from water, the biological denitrification, uses the addition of dissolved organic ... Treatment of mixed municipal and winery wastewaters in a conventional activated sludge process: a case study ABSTRACTThe ... In order to find the suitable conditions of this process, a mixed flow activated sludge system under low oxygen concentration ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/water-wastewater/industrial-mixing/articles/keyword-denitrification-4813

ZFIN Publication: Chávez et al., 2016ZFIN Publication: Chávez et al., 2016

Autotrophic Processes*/drug effects. *Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology. *Chlamydomonas/drug effects. *Chlamydomonas/ ... Towards autotrophic tissue engineering: Photosynthetic gene therapy for regeneration. Chávez, M.N., Schenck, T.L., Hopfner, U ... Towards autotrophic tissue engineering: Photosynthetic gene therapy for regeneration. Biomaterials. 75:25-36. ...
more infohttp://zfin.org/ZDB-PUB-170214-94

Visual Tool for Supporting Asset Management Performance, Risk, and Cost Analysis | IWA PublishingVisual Tool for Supporting Asset Management Performance, Risk, and Cost Analysis | IWA Publishing

A Novel Membrane Process for Autotrophic Denitrification Author(s): K Jahan. Publication Date: 30/06/2003 ... It is based on a Plan-Do-Check-Act process and is in accordance with the key principles of the International Standards ... Management of Change in Water Companies tells real stories of real water companies that went through processes of change and ... It is designed to assist water supply and wastewater utility decision-makers in their analyses and planning processes. ...
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What does the law of concert of energy imply - AnswersWhat does the law of concert of energy imply - Answers

By what process do autotrophic organisms concert solar energy into chemical energy. ?. Photosynthesis (light dependent ... Total amount of energy and mass in process must be conserved it may change to another type of energy but can not just disappear ... In other words, there are irreversible processes in the Universe. One important implication is that the Universe cant have ...
more infohttps://www.answers.com/Q/What_does_the_law_of_concert_of_energy_imply

Frontiers | Carbon fixation by basalt-hosted microbial communities | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Carbon fixation by basalt-hosted microbial communities | Microbiology

Finally, the Calvin cycle appears to be the dominant autotrophic process used in seafloor-exposed basalt based on gene ... indicating that autotrophic processes in the oceanic crust could be significant contributors to the local, and potentially ... These autotrophic primary production rates of >1012 g cellular carbon per year are similar in magnitude to the rate of ... Our results reveal the potential for autotrophic carbon fixation in basalt biofilms, as demonstrated by the enrichment of 13C- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2015.00904/full

Soil respiration - WikipediaSoil respiration - Wikipedia

This is due to mans activities such as forest clearing, soil denuding, developments that destroy autotrophic processes. With ... Since the process relies on oxygen to occur, this is referred to as aerobic respiration. Fermentation is another process in ... Due to these processes, the rate of nitrogen added to the soil is coupled with rates of microbial respiration. Studies have ... Soil respiration is a key ecosystem process that releases carbon from the soil in the form of CO2. CO2 is acquired from the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil_respiration

OPUS at UTS: Algal evolution in relation to atmospheric CO2: carboxylases, carbon-concentrating mechanisms and carbon oxidation...OPUS at UTS: Algal evolution in relation to atmospheric CO2: carboxylases, carbon-concentrating mechanisms and carbon oxidation...

Autotrophic Processes. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Biological Evolution. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Carbon Cycle. en_US. ... rather than one of the five other known pathways of autotrophic CO(2) assimilation. The high CO(2) and (initially) O(2)-free ... rather than one of the five other known pathways of autotrophic CO(2) assimilation. The high CO(2) and (initially) O(2)-free ...
more infohttps://opus.lib.uts.edu.au/handle/10453/114241

Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics | PNASQuantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics | PNAS

In particular, we show that proteins involved in (photo)autotrophic processes, such as photosynthesis, oxidative ... although variation in the reliance on autotrophic processes is not unexpected, these observations illustrate the potential of ... We do find strong environment-linked variation in a plethora of lipid and glycan metabolism-related processes (see Fig. 3 and ... Further, variation in specific community biological processes have been shown for different water column zones at a single ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/106/5/1374.full

Quantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics | PNASQuantifying environmental adaptation of metabolic pathways in metagenomics | PNAS

In particular, we show that proteins involved in (photo)autotrophic processes, such as photosynthesis, oxidative ... although variation in the reliance on autotrophic processes is not unexpected, these observations illustrate the potential of ... We do find strong environment-linked variation in a plethora of lipid and glycan metabolism-related processes (see Fig. 3 and ... Further, variation in specific community biological processes have been shown for different water column zones at a single ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/5/1374?ijkey=a2fb84915ee3dcc2a16b3c53f1e0a8eeb6407ff2&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Synergistic Effect of Sulfide and Ammonia on Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Manure | SpringerLinkSynergistic Effect of Sulfide and Ammonia on Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Manure | SpringerLink

Bayrakdar, A., Tilahun, E., Calli, B.: Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process. Appl. Microbiol. ... Process Biochem. 40(3-4), 1285-1292 (2005). doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.05.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Chen, Y., Cheng, J.J., Creamer, K.S.: Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour. Technol. 99(10), 4044- ... Yuan, H., Zhu, N.: Progress in inhibition mechanisms and process control of intermediates and by-products in sewage sludge ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12649-017-0090-z

Campos J[au] - PubMed - NCBICampos J[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Heterotrophy as a tool to overcome the long and costly autotrophic scale-up process for large scale production of microalgae. ... Predicting Accumulation of Intermediate Compounds in Nitrification and Autotrophic Denitrification Processes: A Chemical ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Campos+J%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

DeCS Ingl sDeCS Ingl s

G03.087 Autotrophic Processes .. G03.087.630 Nitrogen Fixation .. G06 Microbiological Phenomena .. G06.625 Nitrogen Fixation . ... G02.111.071 Autotrophic Processes .. G02.111.071.630 Nitrogen Fixation .. G02.111.587 Nitrogen Cycle .. G02.111.587.750 ...
more infohttp://trigramas.bireme.br/cgi-bin/mx/[email protected]?collection=DeCSi&lang=p&minsim=0.30&maxrel=10&text=Nifluril

TCDB » SEARCHTCDB » SEARCH

... and NADH for autotrophic processes such as carbon fixation. As part of the mtoAB gene cluster, S. lithotrophicus also contains ... The autotrophic Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 can grow by coupling the oxidation of ferrous iron to the reduction of oxygen ...
more infohttp://tcdb.org/search/result.php?tc=5.B.5

Patent US5116506 - Support aerated biofilm reactor - Google PatentsPatent US5116506 - Support aerated biofilm reactor - Google Patents

Membrane supported biofilm process for autotrophic reduction. US20060037896 *. Aug 15, 2005. Feb 23, 2006. Cote Pierre L. ... Membrane supported biofilm process for autotrophic reduction. US7279215. Dec 3, 2003. Oct 9, 2007. 3M Innovative Properties ... Membrane supported biofilm process for autotrophic reduction. WO2007056818A1. Nov 17, 2006. May 24, 2007. Australian Nuclear ... Carbonic Anhydrase Bioreactor and Process. US20130040350 *. Apr 12, 2011. Feb 14, 2013. Eth Zurich. Process for the Direct ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5116506?dq=U.S.+Patent+%23+5,723,324

Encyclopedia of LifeEncyclopedia of Life

... that is the only source of carbon or reducing equivalents source is a autotrophic process ... Alisols are soils that have a higher clay content in the subsoil than in the topsoil as a result of pedogenetic processes ( ...
more infohttps://eol.org/terms/glossary/a/http:%2F%2Feol.org%2Fschema%2Fterms%2FArabian_Peninsula_coastal_fog_desert

Denitrifying Bacteria Isolated from Terrestrial Subsurface Sediments Exposed to Mixed-Waste Contamination | Applied and...Denitrifying Bacteria Isolated from Terrestrial Subsurface Sediments Exposed to Mixed-Waste Contamination | Applied and...

nov., isolated from a biofilm on sulfur particles used in an autotrophic denitrification process. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol ... Nitrate attenuation in groundwater: a review of biogeochemical controlling processes. Water Res. 42:4215-4232. ... managed nuclear legacy waste sites where nitric acid was used for the extraction and processing of radioactive metals (47). ... microorganisms that mediate denitrification and the mechanisms or most important controls of the process remain understudied in ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/76/10/3244?ijkey=9c6964685fb1a936279a326dcd6e55f4899a03bc&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
  • Nitrate and uranium are priority cocontaminants at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed nuclear legacy waste sites where nitric acid was used for the extraction and processing of radioactive metals ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • Chemiosmosis (this is actually described better in the 4th edition) - describes the process of using the electron chain to set up a chemical gradient of H+ ions. (docplayer.net)
  • This difference is not consistent with additional terrestrial loading and is more likely to be due to balancing of mixing and in situ production and loss processes across the North Sea. (biogeosciences.net)
  • The effects of rising CO 2 and related changes in seawater chemistry, including changes in nutrient and trace metal chemistry, are studied in WP5 Sensitivities of autotrophic processes. (epoca-project.eu)