Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A general term covering bibliographical and bibliothecal classifications. It mostly refers to library CLASSIFICATION for arrangement of books and documents on the shelves. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p85)
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.
Financial support of research activities.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Mechanical ascending and descending devices which convey objects and/or people.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.

Sympathetic inhibition of ascending and descending interneurones during the peristaltic reflex in the isolated guinea-pig distal colon. (1/140)

1. We investigated the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation within ascending and descending reflex pathways underlying the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig distal colon. 2. A three-chambered partitioned bath was used to divide a segment of distal colon into stimulation, recording and intermediate regions. The effects of lumbar colonic nerves (LCN) could be localized to the intermediate region by surgical lesions of the mesentery and by application of guanethidine (3 microM) to the stimulation and recording chambers. 3. Brush stroking the mucosa in the anal and oral stimulation chambers elicited a synchronous contraction of the longitudinal muscle (LM) and circular muscle (CM) oral to, and transient relaxation of the LM and CM anal to, the stimulus, respectively. 4. After N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA; 100 microM) in the oral and intermediate chambers, mucosal stimulation in the oral chamber elicited a prolonged descending inhibitory and excitatory complex in both the LM and CM in the anal recording chamber. This was blocked by hexamethonium (300 microM), which did not affect the transient relaxation response recorded in control conditions. 5. Stimulation of the LCN (1200 pulses, 20 Hz), delivered to the intermediate region, abolished the oral contraction and the L-NA-induced anal complex in both the LM and CM, but was without effect on the transient hexamethonium-resistant anal relaxation. These effects of LCN stimulation were reversed by phentolamine (3 microM) or yohimbine (100 nM), but not propranolol (10 microM), when added to the intermediate chamber. 6. LCN stimuli (2-20 Hz, 600 micros pulses) directed to the recording chamber elicited synchronous relaxations in the LM and CM that were unaffected by hexamethonium (300 microM), but were reduced by yohimbine and usually blocked by the further addition of propranolol (10 microM). 7. In conclusion, sympathetic nerve stimulation inhibits orally and anally projecting cholinergic interneurones underlying the peristaltic reflex in the distal colon. In addition, the LM and CM relax synchronously following release of sympathetic neurotransmitter, over a range of stimulus frequencies.  (+info)

Changes in peptidergic nerves in the atrioventricular valves of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a confocal microscopy study. (2/140)

Several previous studies have described the distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactive nerve fibres in the atrioventricular valves of humans and various animals. It has been suggested that peptide-containing nerve fibres might have motor or sensory roles in valvular function. Although there is evidence that diabetic changes occur in the sympathetic (preganglionic and postganglionic), parasympathetic (vagal) and peptidergic nerves of rats, the changes of peptide-containing nerve fibres in the atrioventricular valves of the diabetic rat have not been studied. The distribution, relative density and staining intensity of NPY-like and CGRP-like immunoreactive nerve fibres in the mitral and tricuspid valves were studied in whole mount preparations using confocal microscopy with a computer-assisted image analysis system. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were sacrificed at 12 and 24 months. The nerve staining intensity within the tricuspid valve was greater than the mitral valve in both control (P < 0.01) and diabetic (P < 0.001) rats. Nerve density in the anterior leaflet was greater than the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve. However, the anterior leaflet of the mitral and tricuspid valves showed a decreased number of nerve fibres, followed by drastic reduction in the staining intensities for both the peptides studied (P < 0.001) in the long-term diabetic rat. The decrease in the number of nerve fibres that follow the mechanical interruption of nerves raises the possibility that cycles of degeneration may occur. It is suggested that these peptide-containing nerve fibres in the atrioventricular valves may be involved in valvular dysfunction in the diabetic state.  (+info)

Neuronal pathways for the propagation of herpes simplex virus type 1 from one retina to the other in a murine model. (3/140)

Herpetic retinitis in humans is characterized by a high frequency of bilateral localization. In order to determine the possible mechanisms leading to bilateral retinitis, we studied the pathways by which herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is propagated from one retina to the other after intravitreal injection in mice. HSV-1 strain SC16 (90 p.f.u.) was injected into the vitreous body of the left eye of BALB/c mice. Animals were sacrificed 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation (p.i.). Histological sections were studied by immunochemical staining. Primary retinitis in the inoculated eye (beginning 1 day p.i.) was followed by contralateral retinitis (in the uninoculated eye) starting at 3 days p.i. Infected neurons of central visual pathway nuclei (lateral geniculate nuclei, suprachiasmatic nuclei and pretectal areas) were detected at 4 days p.i. Iris and ciliary body infection was minimal early on, but became extensive thereafter and was accompanied by the infection of connected sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The pattern of virus propagation over time suggests that the onset of contralateral retinitis was mediated by local (non-synaptic) transfer in the optic chiasm from infected to uninfected axons of the optic nerves. Later, retinopetal transneuronal propagation of the virus from visual pathways may have contributed to increase the severity of contralateral retinitis.  (+info)

Changes in catecholaminergic pathways innervating paraventricular nucleus and pituitary-adrenal axis response during morphine dependence: implication of alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. (4/140)

We have previously shown an enhanced activity of the pituitary-adrenal response in rats dependent on morphine, which occurs concomitantly with an increase in the activity of catecholaminergic terminals in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study examined the possible role of noradrenergic system in the regulation of opioid withdrawal-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. Rats were given morphine by s.c. implantation of morphine pellets for 7 days. On the seventh day, morphine withdrawal was induced by s.c. administration of naloxone (1 mg/kg), rats were sacrificed 30 min later, and changes in noradrenaline (NA) turnover (estimated by the 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylen glycol/NA ratio) and in dopamine turnover (estimated by the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio) in the PVN (HPLC with electrochemical detection) and in plasma corticosterone levels were determined. We found a parallelism between the behavioral signs of withdrawal, an increased activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic terminals in the PVN, and the hypersecretion of the HPA axis. Pretreatment with alpha(1)- or alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin or yohimbine, respectively, 15 min before naloxone administration significantly prevented the withdrawal-induced corticosterone hypersecretion and attenuated the behavioral signs of morphine withdrawal. In addition, biochemical analysis indicated that both prazosin and yohimbine completely abolished the withdrawal-induced increase in NA turnover in the PVN. In contrast, neither prazosin nor yohimbine modified the hyperactivity of dopaminergic terminals in the PVN during withdrawal. Collectively, these data suggest that the secretory activity in the HPA axis after morphine withdrawal results from an increase in noradrenergic activity that is dependent on alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor activation. Activation of dopaminergic pathways might not contribute to the neuroendocrine response during withdrawal.  (+info)

The soma and neurites of primary afferent neurons in the guinea-pig intestine respond differentially to deformation. (5/140)

1. Intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the small intestine are exposed to distortion of their processes and of their cell bodies. Recordings of mechanosensitivity have previously been made from these neurons using intracellular microelectrodes, but this form of recording has not permitted detection of generator potentials from the processes, or of responses to cell body distortion. 2. We have developed a technique to record from enteric neurons in situ using patch electrodes. The mechanical stability of the patch recordings has allowed recording in cell-attached and whole cell configuration during imposed movement of the neurons. 3. Pressing with a fine probe initiated generator potentials (14 +/- 9 mV) from circumscribed regions of the neuron processes within the same myenteric ganglion, at distances from 100 to 500 microm from the cell body that was patched. Generator potentials persisted when synaptic transmission was blocked with high Mg2+, low Ca2+ solution. 4. Soma distortion, by pressing down with the whole cell recording electrode, inhibited action potential firing. Consistent with this, moderate intra-electrode pressure (10 mbar; 1 kPa) increased the opening probability of large-conductance (BK) potassium channels, recorded in cell-attached mode, but suction was not effective. In outside-out patches, suction, but not pressure, increased channel opening probability. Mechanosensitive BK channels have not been identified on other neurons. 5. The BK channels had conductances of 195 +/- 25 pS. Open probability was increased by depolarization, with a half-maximum activation at a patch potential of 20 mV and a slope factor of 10 mV. Channel activity was blocked by charybdotoxin (20 nM). 6. Stretch that increased membrane area under the electrode by 15 % was sufficient to double open probability. Similar changes in membrane area occur when the intestine changes diameter and wall tension under physiological conditions. Thus, the intestinal intrinsic primary afferent neurons are detectors of neurite distortion and of compression of the soma, these stimuli having opposite effects on neuron excitability.  (+info)

Acute sarin exposure causes differential regulation of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, and acetylcholine receptors in the central nervous system of the rat. (6/140)

Acute neurotoxic effects of sarin (O:-isopropylmethylphosphonoflouridate) in male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. The animals were treated with intramuscular (im) injections of either 1 x LD(50) (100 microg/kg), and sacrificed at 0. 5, 1, 3, 6, 15, or 20 h after treatment, or with im injections of either 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 x LD(50) and sacrificed 15 h after treatment. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and brain regional acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were inhibited (45-55%) by 30 min after the LD(50) dose. BChE in the plasma and AChE in cortex, brainstem, midbrain, and cerebellum remained inhibited for up to 20 h following a single LD(50) treatment. No inhibition in plasma BChE activity was observed 20 h after treatment with doses lower than the LD(50) dose. Midbrain and brainstem seem to be most responsive to sarin treatment at lower doses, as these regions exhibited inhibition (approximately 49% and 10%, respectively) in AChE activity following 0.1 x LD(50) treatment, after 20 h. Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity was increased in cortex, brainstem, and midbrain 6 h after LD(50) treatment, and the elevated enzyme activity persisted up to 20 h after treatment. Cortex ChAT activity was significantly increased following a 0.1 x LD(50) dose, whereas brainstem and midbrain did not show any effect at lower doses. Treatment with an LD(50) dose caused a biphasic response in cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2-mAChR) ligand binding, using [(3)H]cytisine and [(3)H]AFDX-384 as ligands for nAChR and mAChR, respectively. Decreases at 1 and 3 h and consistent increases at 6, 15, and 20 h in nAChR and m2-mAChR were observed following a single LD(50) dose. The increase in nAChR ligand binding densities was much more pronounced than in mAChR. These results suggest that a single exposure of sarin, ranging from 0.1 to 1 x LD(50), modulates the cholinergic pathways differently and thereby causes dysregulation in excitatory neurotransmission.  (+info)

Genes, lineages and the neural crest: a speculative review. (7/140)

Sensory and sympathetic neurons are generated from the trunk neural crest. The prevailing view has been that these two classes of neurons are derived from a common neural crest-derived progenitor that chooses between neuronal fates only after migrating to sites of peripheral ganglion formation. Here I reconsider this view in the light of new molecular and genetic data on the differentiation of sensory and autonomic neurons. These data raise several paradoxes when taken in the context of classical studies of the timing and spatial patterning of sensory and autonomic ganglion formation. These paradoxes can be most easily resolved by assuming that the restriction of neural crest cells to either sensory or autonomic lineages occurs at a very early stage, either before and/or shortly after they exit the neural tube.  (+info)

Dominant anti-vagal effect of pentobarbital on cardiac responses to intracardiac autonomic nerve stimulation in the dog. (8/140)

The isolated canine atrium was perfused by heparinized blood of the donor dog. An adequate dose of pentobarbital that induced a potent hypotension in the donor did not produce any significant change in the atrial rate and developed tension in the isolated atrium perfused with donor's blood. Pentobarbital in doses that modified neither cardiac responses to intracardiac adrenergic nerve stimulation nor exogenously given norepinephrine or acetylcholine significantly inhibited intracardiac vagal responses. From these results, it is concluded that a large dose of pentobarbital has a dominant antivagal effect in the heart.  (+info)

A method and device for controlling autonomic or sympathic nerve stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract. The method comprises selecting waveforms from a storage area that are representative of body organ function. The selected waveforms are then transmitted to a treatment member, which is in direct contact with the body or attached to internal targets, and which then broadcasts the waveforms to a specific body organ to modulate the body organ functioning. A control module is provided for transmission to the treatment member. The control module contains waveforms which are selected and transmitted to the treatment member, and computer storage can be provided for greater storage capacity and manipulation of the waveforms.
Adani Enterprises Ltd (AEL) on Saturday said it has incorporated a wholly-owned subsidiary, Adani Cement Industries Limited (ACIL), to manufacture all types of cements.In a filing to BSE, the company said it incorporated the wholly-owned subsidiary on June 11, 2021 and the subsidiary company yet to
Voiding dysfunction is a common complication after radical pelvic surgery. To reduce this complication, nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery was introduced. However, several patients experienced voiding difficulty despite nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. Thus, we investigated the functional and molecular changes of the bladder in rats, which demonstrated voiding dysfunction induced by nerve damage during nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. Male rats were used and assigned to normal, sham-operated, and bilateral crushing nerve bundles from major pelvic ganglion (MPG) to bladder group. After one, two, and four-week crushing injury, significantly decreased contractile response and increased connective tissue of the detrusor were observed and these results were reliable findings with voiding difficulty following nerve-sparing radical pelvic surgery. After crushing injury, significantly increased M2 muscarinic receptor expression was observed and this might be regarded as the compensatory response.
TY - BOOK. T1 - Multilevel determinants of foreign direct investment entry mode strategies and subsidiary survival of multinationals in China: an analysis of Nordic firms.. AU - Wang, Yi. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. M3 - Ph.D. thesis. BT - Multilevel determinants of foreign direct investment entry mode strategies and subsidiary survival of multinationals in China: an analysis of Nordic firms.. PB - Vaasan yliopisto. ER - ...
IFM Therapeutics LLC is launching its second subsidiary in less than a year. This morning, the Boston-based company, launched IFM Due (pronounced du-way), a subsidiary company developing a suite of cGAS inhibitors and STING antagonists that can target diseases like NASH, lupus and Parkinsons.
DGAP-News: MPC Münchmeyer Petersen Capital AG / Key word(s): Miscellaneous16.11.2020 / 07:50 The issuer is solely responsible for the content of this announcement.Press releaseMPC Capitals subsidiary Cairn Real Estate completes EUR 120 million capital increase for Gateway FundThe onboarding of new institutional investors allows an acceleration of the growth strategy in the logistics and light-industrials segment Hamburg/Amsterdam, 16. November 2020 - MPC Capital AG (Deutsche Börse Scale, ISIN DE000A1TNWJ4), through its Dutch subsidiary Cairn Real Estate, has successfully completed a capital increase of EUR 120 million for the Gateway Fund. Originally launched as ABN AMRO MeesPierson Real Estate Growth Fund, the fund is an unlisted REIT and focuses on the market for logistics and light industrial real estate in the Netherlands and Germany. The fund currently comprises around 30 properties, mainly located in the Netherlands. Further assets are located in Western and Northern Germany.The capital
Innoval Döhler, based in Mexico City, will become a 100% Döhler subsidiary in January 2014 and thus will be fully integrated into the globally active Döhler group. Headquartered in Darmstadt, Germany, Döhler is a leading manufacturer of technology-based natural ingredients, ingredient systems and integrated solutions for the food and beverage industry. The Mexican ingredient specialist Innovación Alimentaria was founded in 1992 by Gustavo León. Döhler acquired close to 40% of the company back in 2006. Managed jointly by Innovación Alimentarias founder and Döhler, the company has since developed into Döhlers most important hub in Central America under its new name, Innoval Döhler. Doehler Mexico S.A. de C.V., as the 100% Döhler subsidiary will now be called, will also be increasingly active in the United States and Canada markets. An additional expertise of Doehler Mexico is the development of tailored sweetening systems and innovative low-calorie food and beverage ...
ALAMEDA, Calif.---- BioTime, Inc. and its subsidiary OrthoCyte Corporation today announced the appointment of Francois Binette, PhD, as OrthoCyte s Vice President of Research and Business Development. OrthoCyte is a wholly owned subsidiary of BioTime, Inc. that develops cellular therapeutics for orthopedic repair, diseases, and injuries.
Looking for bichir? Find out information about bichir. common name for African freshwater fishes as of the family Polypteridae, and particularly for those of the genus Polypterus. Bichirs are among the most... Explanation of bichir
LifeMap Sciences, a Subsidiary of BioTime, Signs Definitive Distribution Agreement with ProSpec-Tany TechnoGene ALAMEDA, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- LifeMap Sciences, Inc. a subsidiary of
Educational video demonstrating the anatomy of the autonomic nerves of he pelvis and the laparoscopic neuronavigation technique for nerve-sparing radical endometriosis surgery.
In the Brain Electrophysiology Laboratory, physicians use a variety of noninvasive studies of the central nervous system, including SEP, to analyze the spinal cord, brain stem and brain. The lab test results reveal the continuity and quality of conduction through central nervous system pathways to determine which nerve pathways are open and functioning properly and which are impaired. Physicians use these tests to diagnose nervous system disorders, locate sites of nerve damage and evaluate a patients condition after treatment or surgery.. During SEP, electrophysiologists use three major types of stimulation -- visual, auditory and somatosensory -- to assess sensory pathways through the nervous system. Using visual stimulation, our physicians check the nerve pathways from the eye to the brain, while auditory stimulation is used to check the pathway from the ear to the brain and somatosensory stimulation is used to evaluate the pathway from the upper and lower extremity to the brain.. The term ...
This anatomical poster depicts the anatomy of clinically important blood vessels and nerve pathways. The anatomy of the blood vessels and nerve pathways…
...DURHAM N.C. Jan. 10 2011 /- Advanced Pain Remedies (AP...SP-SAP is a conjugate of the pain-processing peptide Substance P and t...Following discussions and input from the Food and Drug Administration ... I am pleased that the National Cancer Institute has recognized the im...,Advanced,Pain,Remedies,,a,Subsidiary,of,Cato,BioVentures,,Announces,a,Three,Million,Dollar,Award,from,the,National,Cancer,Institute,for,SP-SAP,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Strategy is to Screen and Qualify Viable Applicants/Patients for Treatment in DR Through Regenerative BioScience, Inc.. Treatments Have Already Commenced. SARASOTA, Fla., May 5, 2014 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Caribbean International Holdings (Pink Sheets:CIHN) through its subsidiary, Regenerative BioScience, Inc., (RBS) previously announced on May 2, 2014, that it had appointed Dr. Leonel Liriano as its Medical Director, today announced, in a further development, that via the Companys new website ( is now fully operational and it has begun processing initial requests for its no-cost cost complimentary consultations regarding the applicants suitability to qualify for Companys revolutionary stem cell procedures.. Adult stem cells work as the repairmen of the body by replenishing and regenerating damaged tissues and cells. Certain conditions have shown marked improvement when treated with adult stem cells taken from the patients own body. ...
PLANTATION, Florida, April 12, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- CD International Enterprises Launches Newly Formed Subsidiary and Online Store to Distribute...
Hewlett-Packard announced that it will convert its Mechanical Design Division into a subsidiary company, CoCreate, focusing on software for mechanical design and product-data management. CoCreate will market globally under its own brand and identity, and is scheduled to start operations in November.
Car manufacturer, Suzuki, has decided to set up a 100% subsidiary in Gujarat, India, in addition to its majority-owned listed-entity, Maruti Suzuki. Wider business decisions aside, there are transfer pricing implications, which must be considered by any multinational in this position.
UK food and soft drinks firm Nichols has announced the sale of its food subsidiary for £11.6m (US$21.6m) to Gary Unsworth, former group managing director of Nichols.
ADVANCED SUBSIDIARY GCE CHEMISTRY A Atoms, Bonds and Groups F321 *F * Candidates answer on the question paper. OCR supplied materials: Data Sheet for Chemistry A (inserted) Other materials required:
Notice to Employment / Recruitment Agents:. Employment / Recruitment agents may only submit candidates for vacancies only if they have written authorization to do so from Shire, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takedaâ s Talent Acquisition department. Any agency candidate submission may only be submitted to positions opened to the agency through the specific Agency Portal. Shire, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda will only pay a fee for candidates submitted or presented where there is a fully executed contract in place between the Employment / Recruitment agents and Shire, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda and only if the candidate is submitted via the Agency Portal. Candidates submitted or presented by Employment / Recruitment Agents without a fully executed contract or submitted through this site shall not be deemed to form part of any Engagement for which the Agency may claim remuneration. Equal Employment Opportunity Shire, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Takeda, is an Equal Opportunity ...
FORT WORTH, TX--(Marketwired - Nov 2, 2017) - AppYea Inc. (OTC PINK: APYP) announced today that its subsidiary The Diagnostic Centers has signed its first new client, Pacific Pain & Regenerative Medicine, with locations in Los Angeles and Irvine, California and has started shipping PGx samples for testing. Under this new...
View complete news release for Amarantus+Subsidiary+MANF+Therapeutics+Announces+Publication+in+Science+Magazine+of+Positive+Animal+Data+for+MANF+in+Treatment+of+Retinal+Damage+and+Issuance+of+Retinal+Patent+in+Japan+Covering+MANF+and+CDNF -
Waterfront Shipping (Vancouver, BC), the marine transportation subsidiary of Methanex, said on Monday that it has reached an agreement with Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL; Tokyo), Westfal-Larsen & Co. (WL;...
alphadogg is one of several readers to note the opening of the Mozilla Foundations new subsidiary, Mozilla Messaging, charged with developing the free, open source Thunderbird email software. Mozilla Messaging will initially focus on Thunderbird 3, which aims at improving several aspects of the sof...
STOCKHOLM, April 23, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Swedens innovation authority Vinnova is investing in Lipidors subsidiary Emollivet. The funding from V...
Singaporean-Australian water and wastewater treatment company De.mem Ltd has won its sixth contract through its recently acquired subsidiary Akwa-Worx.
Generex Biotechnology Corporation (OTCQB:GNBT) is pleased to announce that Olaregen Therapeutix Inc., a subsidiary of Generex Biotechnology will launch three doses of FDA 510K-Cleared Excellagen, the companys wound conforming gel matrix that is designated as a Cellular & Tissue Bas...
Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. today announced that effective April 3, 2017, its wholly owned subsidiary Mitsui O.S.K Bulk Shipping (Europe) Ltd. will change its name to MOL (Europe Africa) Ltd., in line with the MOL Groups efforts to promote its comprehensive service lineup under the One MOL concept.. ...
Following the prioritisation of oil and gas development in Pengerang, Kota Tinggi, Johor as national project of strategic importance, Johor Petroleum Development Corporation Berhad (JPDC) was established on 9 April 2012 as a federal agency and wholly owned subsidiary of MPRC to spearhead the planning and development of the project.
In a 17-year-old patent case a North Carolina federal judge has awarded two Dow Chemical Co. affiliates $5.3 million in attorney fees and costs for inequitable conduct by a Bayer A.G. subsidiary.
Wyeth Pharmaceuticals LLC, a Subsidiary of Pfizer Inc.: TYGACIL is a tetracycline class antibacterial indicated in patients 18 years of age and older for:...
Multiregional veterinary distributor Miller Vet has been purchased by Patterson Veterinary Supply, a subsidiary of Patterson Companies.
Vancouver, BC, December 16, 2016 - Novelion Therapeutics (NASDAQ: NVLN) (TSX: NVLN), today announced that subsidiary Aegerion Pharmaceuticals completed the first commercial shipment of JUXTAPID® (lomitapide) to a patient in Japan. In September 2016, JUXTAPID was approved by Japans Ministry of Health, Labor & Welfare (MHLW) for patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH).
TechAccel LLC, the private technology and equity development company in agriculture and animal health, today announced its subsidiary RNAissance Ag LL
Royal Holdings Inc. (Royal), a holding company of Arsenal Capital Partners (Arsenal), announced that it has through its Royal Packaging Specialties subsidiary, acquired the stock of Adhesives Packaging Specialties Inc. (APS) Based
Rayner announced its investment into the US market with the establishment of a dedicated subsidiary, Rayner Surgical Inc. Based out of New York, Rayner Surgical will provide US specific marketing, reg…
The subsidiary, called Arrayit Diagnostics, will use its parents chip platform to identify genomic and proteomic biomarkers for specific diseases, with the aim of making early-stage diagnoses.
/PRNewswire/ -- MRGs subsidiary Mr Green Ltd has been fined EUR 312,500 by the Dutch gaming authority. Mr Green has in its opinion complied with the Dutch...
TAMPA, FL / ACCESSWIRE / July 24, 2019 / Advanzeon Solutions, Inc. (OTC PINK: CHCR) (Advanzeon) announced today the extension of its wholly-owned Subsidiarys (collectively, the
KATY, TX / ACCESSWIRE / September 24, 2020 / Neutra Corporation (OTC PINK:NTRR) subsidiary VIVIS will be entering two new lines of business - equipment leasing and CBD production consulting - in a move intended to generate additional revenue streams.
Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Subsidiary Sues Watson Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Sandoz Pharmaceuticals for SEASONALE(R) Patent Infringement - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Theyre working! So why not? I asked. I would be a given serious look and a statement like No, no, not a good idea long term. I was told that they effect bone density, among other things, and of course, you dont want to have the bones of an eighty year old when you are forty, not if you can avoid it! In addition, steroids are an immuno-suppressant, which is why they are working for me. One of the things my immune system does is erroneously attack my autonomic nerves. Its why I am sick. So suppressing my immunity reduces that misguided malfunction, making me feel better. Its just another convoluted body conundrum, my immune system is making me sick… but I still need it.. See, suppressing the immune system isnt selective. The medication cant specifically target the part of my immune system that isnt working properly, it suppresses all of it. And that means that all the work my immune system usually does, battling infections and reducing the impact of other threats to the body, is ...
Results A total of 44 acute episodes were recorded. Out of the 36 patients who received vagal manoeuvres 6 responded. 33 patients in total received IV adenosine. 27% (9/33) received 100mcg/kg as first dose, 33% responded reverting back to sinus, 67% of patients did not respond. 63% (21/33) received 150mcg/kg as first dose, 29% of patients responded, 71% of patients did not respond. 2/33 of the time 1st dose was ,150mcg/kg both responded. 19 patients needed 2nd dose. 10/17 patients who received 2nd dose of 150mcg/kg or more responded, 7 patients did not responded and required further doses of ,200mcg/kg. 4/33 episodes needed 4th dose 3 were effective. 1/33 episodes needed 5th dose of up to 500mcg/kg. ...
THE HAGUE, Netherlands - A Dutch court has ruled that a subsidiary of international oil giant Royal Dutch Shell should be held responsible for a pipeline leak poisoning farmland in Nigeria, as it had failed to take adequate measures to prevent sabotage.. In its ruling Wednesday the Hague Civil Court rejected most of the case brought by Nigerian farmers and environmental pressure group Friends of the Earth against Shell, saying pipeline leaks were caused by saboteurs, not Shell negligence.. However, in one case, the judges ordered a subsidiary, Shell Nigeria, to compensate a farmer for breach of duty of care by making it too easy for saboteurs to open an oil well head that leaked on to his land.. It was believed to be the first time a Dutch court has held a multinationals foreign subsidiary liable for environmental damage and ordered it to pay damages. Pressure groups welcomed the judges decision, saying the ruling opens the door for similar pollution cases against multinationals.. Shell hailed ...
Security Council appoints Chairs and Vice-Chairs of its subsidiary bodies for 2017. In a Note by the President dated 3 January 2017 (S/2017/2), the Council announced the bureaux of its subsidiary bodies for the year. An article on this website describes the breakthrough Note by the President S/2016/619, issued on 15 July 2016, which institutionalized two advances in the selection process for the bureaux:. 1) With greater specificity than in previous Notes by the President on the selection process, S/2016/619 provides a recommended target date when it states in paragraph 5 that the Council members should make every effort to agree provisionally on the appointment of the Chairs of the subsidiary organs for the following year no later than 1 October.. 2) Whereas previously, by an informal arrangement, only permanent members of the Council facilitated the appointment process, paragraph 7 of S/2016/619 provides that the consultations on the appointment process will be facilitated jointly by two ...
OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced that it has commenced a cash tender offer for all of the outstanding shares of common stock of Spark Therapeutics, Inc. (ONCE) at a price of US$ 114.50 per share. The tender offer is being made pursuant to the previously announced merger agreement dated as of 22 February 2019 among Spark Therapeutics, Inc., Roche Holdings, Inc., an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Roche Holding Ltd, and 022019 Merger Subsidiary, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Roche Holdings, Inc. The tender offer period will expire at 12am midnight, Eastern Time, at the end of the day on 3 April 2019, unless the offer is extended.
This is an international journal with broad coverage of all aspects of the autonomic nervous system in man and animals. The main areas of interest include the innervation of blood vessels and viscera, autonomic ganglia, efferent and afferent autonomic pathways, and autonomic nuclei and pathways in the central nervous system ...
The Nervous System Week 3 Assignment 1:. Reflexes Nerve impulses travel through the nervous system via nerve pathways. A reflex is a rapid, involuntary response to a stimulus which occur over pathways called reflex arcs. Procedure 1. Before you begin the experiment, review the reflex arc animation in the Nervous System section of the e Science Labs Student Portal here: 2. Find an area with dim lighting to conduct this experiment. 3. Stand next to the participant and instruct him/her to focus on a distant object. 4. Quickly shine the light into the right eye. 5. Wait 30 seconds and repeat the procedure with the left eye. Examine the response of the left eye.. Nervous System The Nervous System Week 3 Assignment 2:. Testing Cranial Nerve Functions Twelve pairs of nerves arise from the inferior area of the brain. The cranial nerves are numbered from I to XII indicating the order in which they originate from front to back. Each cranial nerve has a distinct function. ...
PubMed journal article: Initial and Sustained Response Effects of 3 Vagal Maneuvers in Supraventricular Tachycardia: A Randomized, Clinical Trial. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Latvia - First instance decisions on asylum applications: Subsidiary protection status was 15.00 persons in December of 2020, according to the EUROSTAT. Historically, Latvia - First instance decisions on asylum applications: Subsidiary protection status reached a record high of 235.00 persons in December of 2017 and a record low of 5.00 persons in December of 2019. Trading Economics provides the current actual value, an historical data chart and related indicators for Latvia - First instance decisions on asylum applications: Subsidiary protection status - last updated from the |a href= target=blank>EUROSTAT|/a> on September of 2021.
Belgium - First instance decisions on asylum applications: Subsidiary protection status was 975.00 persons in December of 2020, according to the EUROSTAT. Historically, Belgium - First instance decisions on asylum applications: Subsidiary protection status reached a record high of 3290.00 persons in December of 2016 and a record low of 480.00 persons in December of 2009. Trading Economics provides the current actual value, an historical data chart and related indicators for Belgium - First instance decisions on asylum applications: Subsidiary protection status - last updated from the |a href= target=blank>EUROSTAT|/a> on September of 2021.
Ballards Protonex Subsidiary Demonstrates UAV Propulsion System with Boeing Insitu. Vancouver, BC, April 26, 2016--Ballard Power Systems (NASDAQ: BLDP; TSX: BLD) announced today that the companys subsidiary, Protonex, has delivered prototype PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell propulsion modules to Insitu, a wholly owned subsidiary of The Boeing Company, for use in its ScanEagle unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
Treatment of prostate cancer with nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (costs for program #65245) ✔ Multispecialty Hospital Lindberg ✔ Department of Urology ✔
Downloadable! This paper examines the association between the default risk of foreign bank subsidiaries in developing countries and their parents during the global financial crisis, with the purpose of determining the size and sign of this correlation and, more importantly, understanding what factors can help insulate affiliates from their parents. We find evidence of a significant and robust positive correlation between parent banks and foreign subsidiaries default risk. This correlation is lower for subsidiaries that have a higher share of retail deposit funding and that are more independently managed from their parents. Host country bank regulations also influence the extent to which shocks to the parents affect the subsidiaries default risk. In particular, the correlation between the default risk of subsidiaries and their parents is lower for subsidiaries operating in countries that impose higher capital, reserve, provisioning, and disclosure requirements, and tougher restrictions on bank
Dot Technology Corp. has established an Alberta subsidiary, Dot Intelligence Inc., based out of the Alberta Machinery Intelligence Institute in Edmonton. The goal in establishing this subsidiary is to focus on the development of leading-edge technologies and enhance adoption of the Dot robotic system for use in autonomous farming.
Drug firm, subsidiary settle suits for $515m Pricing schemes, fraud alleged By Jonathan Saltzman and Liz Kowalczyk, Globe Staff | September 29, 2007 Bristol-Myers Squibb and a subsidiary...
CALGARY, ALBERTA--(Marketwired - Sept. 9, 2014) - Americas Petrogas Inc. (TSX VENTURE:BOE) and its subsidiary, GrowMax Agri Corp., (collectively, Americas Petrogas or the Company) are pleased to announce that its Peruvian subsidiary, Americas Potash Peru S.A., has officially recorded, with the public registry in Peru, 8,800 additional hectares (approximately 21,700...
The structure that connects the brain to the spinal cord, that is, the brain stem, can be compared to a station that sends messages that leave and arrive at the brain. The brain stem is divided into three parts: the midbrain , the bridge and the medulla oblongata . Together, these three parts allow you to control your respiratory, swallowing and vasomotor functions. These are vital functions of fundamental importance. Each of the nerve pathways that depart from or arrive at or pass through the brain cross into the brain stem . From here, moreover, 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves originate , except the nerve connected to thesmell and optic nerve . The remaining nerves allow motility and sensory abilities to the structures of the skull, and also involve the pharynx , larynx , tongue, facial muscles. These nerve pathways also participate in the senses of balance, taste and smell . They also house fundamental nuclei for autonomous sympathetic and parasympathetic functions.. ...
A type of sensory nerve injury known as dysesthesia, which literally means abnormal sensation and is often used to refer to unpleasant and painful sensation, can sometimes be seen following the extraction of the lower wisdom teeth. These teeth are located quite close to the nerve pathway that is responsible for your ability to feel normal sensations. Should that nerve pathway be disrupted during the surgical procedure, you may experience an unpleasant or uncomfortable sensation that is temporary, extended, or sustained.. Patients who suffer from this condition frequently report feelings of pain, burning, electric shock, wetness, tingling, numbness, or coldness. The degree of the discomfort can range from minimal to debilitating, and it generally occurs spontaneously.. Most patients who experience dysesthesia can expect a full or dramatically improved recovery with time. Improvement is slow, however, and can take many months to over a year.. During your initial consultation, be sure to discuss ...
Cystometry is a diagnostic procedure used to identify problems with the filling and emptying of the urinary bladder. This test measures the amount of volume or urine in the bladder compared with the bladder pressure and the persons perception of bladder fullness. Cystometry provides information about the muscle function, mechanics, and nerve response of the bladder and urinary tract.. A normally functioning bladder sends messages to the brain via nerve pathways when it needs emptying. The spinal cord then transmits a message to the bladder to contract and begin the reflex of urinating. A person can override this reflex voluntarily by holding his or her urine.. Some medical conditions may interfere with the muscular function or nerve pathways between the bladder and the brain. These conditions may lead to urinary incontinence (loss of bladder control) or urinary obstruction. Cystometry may be indicated to determine the source of such problems. It is often done together with Uroflowmetry, which ...
A specific preparation of cocoa-extract called Lavado may reduce damage to nerve pathways seen in Alzheimers disease patients brains long before they develop symptoms, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published June 20 in the Journal of Alzheimers Disease (JAD). Specifically, the study results, using mice genetically engineered to mimic Alzheimers disease, suggest that Lavado cocoa extract prevents the protein β-amyloid- (Ab) from gradually forming sticky clumps in the brain, which are known to damage nerve cells as Alzheimers disease progresses. Lavado cocoa is primarily composed of polyphenols, antioxidants also found in fruits and vegetables, with past studies suggesting that they prevent degenerative diseases of the brain. The Mount Sinai study results revolve around synapses, the gaps between nerve cells. Within healthy nerve pathways, each nerve cell sends an electric pulse down itself until it reaches a synapse where it triggers the ...
The Arthrostim® is unique in that it produces a rapid thrust and recoil rate of 12 thrusts / second. This frequency is often referred to as the Low Beta Somato-Motor Rhythm because of its profound effect on the nervous system. This rapidity stimulates specialized nerve pathways that send messages to the brain called proprioceptors and mechanoreceptors which inhibit the nociceptors. Nociceptors are the patient s pain sensing nerve pathways that carry pain messages to the brain.. Also, these nociceptors are not stimulated by the Arthrostim® because of the thrust and recoil. This means that the adjustment can be delivered painlessly to patients of all ages. The Arthrostim® can be used on anyone and is especially useful in our larger than average patients or our pain sensitive patients ...
How is this possible? You see, there are nerve pathways that travel from the foot to the brain and it is by walking barefoot on textured surfaces (textures offered by the earth such as sticks, stones, grass & sand) that these nerve pathways are stimulated to sends signals to our brain that interrupt stress and/or pain to any body part, organ or gland. This is a practice that our brain yearns for daily, and when our brain receives the signal, circulation improves, and stress gets interrupted immediately, returning us to a state of well-being. ...
I wanted to share with you the important sciatica stretches that you can do to help get rid of back pain. There are a lot of people out there that have back problems and most of these people would describe it as the greatest pain youll ever experience. I think its important to understand that it isnt a sharp pain that hits you in one spot; its a sharp pain that spreads across your back. You feel it everywhere and your back tenses up just at the anticipation of more pain to come. The good news is that you can do some easy stretches that will help relieve the pain. Im going to share with you the important sciatica stretches that you need to do ...
...NEW YORK Oct. 19 2011 /- Progenitor Cell Therapy ( PCT ...Timothy Fong PhD MBA formerly of BD Biosciences is joining PCT as ...Dr. Fong brings with him significant experience from his previous posi...,Progenitor,Cell,Therapy,,a,Wholly-Owned,Subsidiary,of,NeoStem,,Inc.,,Announces,Additions,to,Management,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Water Quality Monitor (WQM) by Sea-Bird Scientific - a subsidiary of Danaher Corporation. The Water Quality Monitor (WQM) is designed to deliver core biogeochemical water quality parameters in coastal ecosystems from a single integrated package.
PotNetwork Holding, Inc. (OTC: POTN) this morning announced that its wholly owned subsidiary, Diamond CBD, Inc., achieved record-breaking revenues for the month of August. Diamond CBDs August revenues totaled $1.76 million, marking an increase of 20.9 percent over the prior month. As the summer comes to a close, we continue to be very happy with our growth on every level, Maria Gomez, regional vice president of sales for Diamond CBD, stated in the news release. In consideration of our recent trend of monthly record breaking growth, we prepare for a whole new level of corporate growth. In a separate news release, the company also announced its appointment of Dr. Michael McKenzie to the Diamond CBD advisory board. McKenzie brings more than two decades of health care experience to the Diamond CBD team, as well as in-depth knowledge related to the supplementary potential of CBD. We are seeking to be the leading contender in the CBD marketplace and now have the professional credibility for it, ...
We regret to tell you that a computer of our subsidiary in the Philippines, FUTABA Corporation of The Philippines (hereafter called FCP), was infected by computer virus, and some e-mail addresses saved on such computer were stolen.. The result of investigation we gathered before now is as follows. We have no information about secondary damage. We will keep on investigation to prevent further damage or diffusion, and to identify the cause ...
Chief Oil and Gas Subsidiary Pays $34,000 Fine, Surrenders Permit after Discharging Industrial Waste Illegally in Lycoming County More than 25,000 Gallons Discharged to Big Run Watershed COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA Dept. of Environmental Protection Commonwealth News Bureau Room 308, Main Capitol Building Harrisburg PA., 17120 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE 01/7/2011 CONTACT: Daniel T. Spadoni, Department of…
DELRAY BEACH, Fla., May 30, 2017-- PositiveID Corporation, a Life Sciences company focused on detection and diagnostics, announced today its wholly owned subsidiary, ExcitePCR Corporation, has named Dr. Smith served as Senior Advisor for International Biodefense at DHS Office of Health Affairs and as Acting Director of the National Biosurveillance...
MIAMI, March 25, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Green Innovations Subsidiary Forming Joint Venture with Leading Biosafety Laboratory to Develop the First EPA...
The cutting-edge full-vertical business management solution will be displayed at BioTrackTHCs booth, #2630, throughout the 2018 Marijuana Business Conference in Las Vegas, NV.. FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla., Nov. 7, 2018 /PRNewswire/ - Helix TCS, Inc. (OTCQB: HLIX) technology subsidiary, BioTrackTHC, will unveil its highly anticipated second-generation seed-to-sale software system at the Marijuana Business Conference (MJBizCon) in Las Vegas, Nevada, November 14-16.. The next generation product is a full-vertical business management solution with the robust functionality, comprehensive reporting, and data security that BioTrackTHC is known for. This iteration will update BioTrackTHCs legacy platform with a clean and intuitive interface, world-class API capabilities, and innovative new feature sets designed to meet the ever-changing needs of licensed cannabis businesses worldwide.. As the leader in seed-to-sale software for nearly a decade, having tracked over $18 billion in commercial cannabis sales ...
Business There are three unique types of Singapore company that have been specifically created for foreign entrepreneurs and business entities planning to have a presence in the country: a subsidiary company, branch office, and representative office. These are the basic differences between these business entities for foreign entrepreneurs and investors: 1. Subsidiary Company This is probably the most ideal business entity for foreign companies planning to form a Singapore company or expand their presence in the country. This is because this formation provides countless of benefits especially when it comes to tax incentives and limited liability. As a separate legal entity from its parent company, a subsidiary company may have a different name and is allowed to conduct any business activities in the country as long as these are legal. A foreign company with a subsidiary company enjoys a limited liability, an arrangement in which it is not liable for any losses, liabilities, and debts of its ...
The board of directors of Seiko Epson Corporation today approved the absorption of subsidiary company Epson Imaging Devices Corporation.
NEW YORK, April 2, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Coronado Biosciences, Inc., (Nasdaq:CNDO) has formed a new subsidiary company, DiaVax Biosciences, to develop novel immunotherapies for the prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus that affects people of all ages. According to the U.S.
Acacia Research Corporation (Nasdaq: ACTG) announced today that its Advanced Data Access LLC subsidiary has entered into a license agreement with Powerchip Technology Corporation....ACTG
LAS VEGAS, NV / ACCESSWIRE / May 27, 2020 /Alkame Holdings, Inc. (OTC PINK:ALKM), a publicly-traded holding company, announced today that as part of its continued growth and expansion it has launched its new wholly-owned specialty manufacturing subsidiary, West Coast Co Packer, Inc. West Coast Co Packer, Inc. is a specialty liquid and single-serve manufacturer, co-packer, private labeler, and contract packager and is expected to immediately
For Tri-Arrows, that blueprint was born out of a complex divestiture and accompanying purchase that ultimately led to their formation. Formerly a subsidiary of BP Company North America, where they were known as ARCO Aluminum, they were purchased by a consortium of five Japanese companies, who had formed a holding company and a subsidiary for purposes of the purchase. The subsidiary then purchased the ARCO stock, and enlisted Dinsmore to guide a merger into the subsidiary company, which was then renamed Tri-Arrows Aluminum. Efficiently managing the multi-layer transaction, our team worked to expedite the process, structuring the merger and managing the flow of documents to complete the transaction ...
Forays by Google subsidiary DeepMind Health into the UKs medical institutions have been characterized by two major themes. First, amazing results powered by cutting-edge AI; and second, a lack of transparency over the handling of the UKs public-funded data. With the science going swimmingly, DeepMind Health is focusing more than ever on reassuring UK citizens that their medical records are in safe hands. Its latest plan is a public ledger that shows which bits of data its using; when; and for what purposes. The initiative is called the Verifiable Data Audit, and was announced this week in a blogpost written by DeepMind co-founder Mustafa Suleyman and the companys head of security and transparency, Ben Laurie. The Audit technology is not yet in place, but would keep a publicly accessible record of every time DeepMind accesses hospital data, using technology related to the blockchain. Each time theres any interaction with data, well begin to add an entry to a special digital ledger, ...
BioTime, Inc. (NYSE MKT: BTX and TASE: BTX), a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing and commercializing products addressing degenerative diseases, and its majority-owned subsidiary, Cell Cure Neurosciences......BTX
Emosis SAS, is opening a subsidiary in Israel . This new business entity, Emosis Ltd, headquartered in Tel Aviv , will be mostly dedicated to research and development of novel
Liberty Global s Subsidiary Telenet to Acquire BASE Unique opportunity to drive mobile services on attractive financial terms Denver, Colorado April 19, 015: Liberty Global plc ( Liberty Global ) (NASDAQ:
Keswick Enterprises Group has announced that it has reached agreement to sell its Tibbett Logistics subsidiary in Romania to Yusen Logistics
Regional Jet OÜ, a subsidiary of Nordic Aviation Group AS, the Estonian state-owned airline company operating under the Nordica brand, began operating flights between the Swedish cities of Stockholm, Gällivare and Arvidsjaur on Saturday.
A Johnson & Johnson subsidiary downplayed and hid risks associated with the antipsychotic drug Risperdal, a jury determined Tuesday in Arkansas billion-dollar lawsuit against Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc.
List of 347 causes for Autonomic nerve symptoms and Gait disturbances, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Contents: There is a Taurine-Linked Disease Known As Melas.- Taurine And Hearty Topics.- Taurine Regulation Of Peripheral Hemodynamics.- Regulation Of Taurine Release By Neurotransmitter Receptors.- Neuropsychopharmacological Actions Of Taurine.- Neuro-Protective Mechanism Of Taurine - Role Of Endoplasmic Reticulum.- Differential Regulation Of Taut By Vitamin D3 And Retinoic Acid Via Vdr/Rxr In Llc-Pk1 And Mcf-7 Cells.- Are Taurine Haloamines (Taucl And Taubr) Good Candidates For The Treatment Of Biofilm-Associated Infections?.- Comparative Evaluation Of Taurine And Thiotaurine As Protectants Against Experimental Diabetes-Induced Nephropathy In A Rat Model.- The Mechanism of Taurine Protection against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Stroke Related Conditions in Primary Neuronal Cell Culture.- Direct interaction of taurine with the NMDA glutamate receptor sub-type via multiple mechanisms.- Perinatal taurine exposure affects patterns of autonomic nerve activity in adult male rats.- Lethality of ...
The method of manufacturing VCSEL composed of multiple material layers uses a main measuring laser having same wavelength of that of VCSEL so as to estimate the growth periods required for growing a predetermined thickness of the material layers by analyzing the reflected signal of the main measuring laser and then control the growth time durations of subsequent material layers. This method eliminates the need of pre-knowledge of refractive indexes and the growing speeds of the material layers. Also, an interruptive process for measuring thickness, growth speed or refractive indexes can be omitted so as to perform the entire epitaxial growth in-situ and thus improve the reproducibility and the uniformity. In addition, a subsidiary measuring laser may be used other than the main measuring laser for improving the accuracy of the control of growth time duration, where the subsidiary measuring laser has a different wavelength from that of VCSEL. The subsidiary measuring laser may be used especially in the
Using a large sample of business groups from several countries around the world, we show that group information matters for parent and subsidiary default prediction. Group firms may support each other when in financial distress. Potential group support represents an off-balance sheet asset for the receiving firm and an off-balance sheet liability for the firm offering support. We find that subsidiary information improves parent default prediction over and above group-level consolidated information possibly because intra-group exposures are netted out upon consolidation. Moreover, we document that the improvements in parent default prediction are decreasing in the extent of parent-country financial reporting transparency which suggests that within-group information matters most when the consolidated financial statements are expected to be of lower quality. We also show that parent and other group-firms default risk exhibits predictive power for subsidiary default. Lastly, we find that ...
As far back as the 1970s, Balluff was represented in the markets of Great Britain and Ireland. Originally, Balluff was a dealer who handled sales for the sensor and automation specialists, but in 1997 the company decided to convert to a wholly owned subsidiary. Now, the sales subsidiary is looking back on 20 successful years in Cheshire. Balluff UK is celebrating the occasion with a variety of activities: an internal celebration took place in the anniversary year in July. The subsidiary presented an in-house produced video about the companys history. In addition, to mark 20 years of business we will be organizing 20 free training courses for our customers in order to share directly our expert knowledge, says John Radford, head of the British location.. ...
Crisil Ltd has acquired EconoMatters Ltd, a London-based energy and gas advisory firm, and its subsidiary companies for over Rs 15 crore, subject to the regulatory nod.. The Board has approved the acquisition of 100 per cent equity of EconoMatters Ltd and its subsidiary companies and the total value of deal is over Rs 15 crore, Crisil Managing Director R. Ravimohan said here today.. The deal size was around 15 per cent of the company s networth and the entire payment of acquisition would be met out of internally generated resources, Ravimohan added.. The combined revenue of the company and EconoMatters were over $ 22 million for last year. The transaction was subject to relevant statutory approvals. The board of EconoMatters would be reconstituted, he said, adding that key people of the London-based energy and gas advisory entity would continue to work with the firm after acquisition, he said.. Following the acquistion, EconoMatters would become a subsidiary of Crisil and we will maintain the ...
Swissfluid was founded in 2002 as a small and independent company. The permanent facility at the centrally located Lenzburg, AG, provides approximately 2,800m² for offices, production assembly, testing as well as storage. Swissfluid is specialised in the design, manufacturing and worldwide marketing of a comprehensive line of industrial valves and piping components.. Swissfluid (USA), Inc., subsidiary was incorporated in 2007 to serve our customers in North America as a sales and distribution centre. Our subsidiary, ideally located on the Gulf of Mexico, offers fast deliveries out of Houston, Texas, for any valves, automation packages including actuators, switch boxes, solenoid valves and positioners, reactor sampling systems as well as spare parts for all products.. Swissfluid (China) Co. Ltd, subsidiary was incorporated in 2010, located in Shanghai, as a representative office for the Chinese market.. ...
The system is composed of the sympathetic (generally excitatory) and parasympathetic (generally calming) nerves, which when balanced help maintain healthy function throughout the body. Unfortunately stress both physical and emotional creates an imbalance and can contribute to compromised function of organs and predisposes us to poor health.. Quite simply if you can remove these physical stresses and help balance the autonomic nerves, the systems in the body responsible for filtering and cleaning will function more effectively, aiding, and accelerating the detoxification process. Interestingly the autonomic nerves enter the body from the sacrum (base of the spine) and the neck; therefore Osteopathic treatment on these areas will have a direct effect on the autonomic nerves.. In addition to effects on the autonomic nervous system, the tension in the muscles and tissues has a direct adverse effect on fluid movement throughout the body and obviously, it is more difficult to detox if toxins are ...
These neural pathways regulate autonomic state and the expression of emotional and social behaviour. Thus, according to this ... The vagus nerve is a primary component of the autonomic nervous system. The polyvagal theory focuses on the structure and ... Stressful events disrupt the rhythmic structure of autonomic states, and subsequently, behaviors. Since the vagus plays such an ... As has been established since the early days of neuroanatomy, the Autonomic nervous system encompasses nerve fibers ...
... is another way to describe the pathways in the autonomic nervous system that mediate HRV. The polyvagal theory highlights three ... HRV measures fluctuations in autonomic inputs to the heart rather than the mean level of autonomic inputs. Thus, both ... Variation in the output of these two branches of the autonomic system produces HRV and activity in the prefrontal cortex can ... The neurovisceral integration is a model of HRV that views the central autonomic network as the decision maker of cognitive, ...
They connect with reticular neurons important in visceral and autonomic activity. The tract is a continuation of the medial ... In human neuroanatomy, the hypothalamotegmental tract is a pathway from the hypothalamus to the reticular formation. Axons from ...
Wang, Shih-chun (1940). The autonomic centers and descending pathways in the brain stem and spinal cord (Ph.D. thesis). ... Wang, S.C.; Ranson, S.W. (1939). "Autonomic responses to electrical stimulation of the lower brain stem". Journal of ...
A full study of the pathways regulating pain is needed.[citation needed] Hyperalgesia Hypoalgesic effect of swearing Vane, J. ( ... There are many diseases like this, and they all fall under the category of hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathies. ... Alternatively, some diseases affect other functions in your body, which can activate the pathways that cause hypoalgesia. This ... Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), e.g. CIPA, are hereditary disorders that are characterized by ...
Baroreflex and autonomic pathways normally ensure that blood pressure is maintained despite various stimuli including postural ... orthostatic hypotension with the BP going both high and low at times due to autonomic dysfunction Type 2 diabetes Vascular ...
The regulator mechanism works primarily through the autonomic nervous system and includes endocrine, neural, and perception ... pathways. This mechanism prepares the individual for coping with environmental stimuli. The cognator mechanism includes ...
The trigeminal V1 (fifth cranial) nerve bears the sensory pathway of the tear reflexes. When the trigeminal nerve is cut, tears ... The great (superficial) petrosal nerve from cranial nerve VII provides autonomic innervation to the lacrimal gland. It is ... Felicia B Axelrod; Gabrielle Gold-von Simson (October 3, 2007). "Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies: types II, III, ...
These two autonomic effector pathways reduce heart rate and vasomotor tone, leading to a reduction in blood pressure. Effects ... an afferent limb which activates central nervous system pathways that in turn exert two different but synergistic autonomic ... Autonomic Neuroscience. 201: 60-67. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2016.07.010. PMID 27539629. S2CID 3777576.. ...
Johnson AK, Gross PM (May 1993). "Sensory circumventricular organs and brain homeostatic pathways". FASEB Journal. 7 (8): 678- ... Ganong WF (2000). "Circumventricular organs: definition and role in the regulation of endocrine and autonomic function". ...
He identified pathways of inactivation of catecholamines in which a membrane transport protein and an enzyme are arranged in ... Trendelenburg's main field of research was the pharmacology of the autonomic nervous system. He discovered new receptors at ... He termed such pathways "inactivating systems". From 1975 to 1979 he was president of the German Pharmacological Society and ... autonomic ganglion cells. He clarified mechanisms of hypersensitivity and subsensitivity to drugs, and his review of this ...
Pathways from central nucleus of the amygdala to downstream areas then control defensive behavior (freezing) and autonomic and ... These pathways converge in the lateral amygdala. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity that enhances the ... It is also clear that synaptic plasticity at conditioned stimulus input pathways to the lateral amygdala does occur with fear ... Therefore, these receptors are crucial to the metabolic pathway of processing and eliciting for the percept of fear. It is ...
Horner's syndrome is a disorder resulting from damage to the sympathetic autonomic nervous pathway in the head. Damage to the ... The ANS is composed of pathways that lead to and from ganglia, groups of nerve cells. A ganglion allows a large amount of ... This pathway of SCG innervation is shown through stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve, which invokes action potentials ... The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), more specifically it is part of the ...
The PNS can be divided into the autonomic and somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system can be divided into the ... The spinal cord is the pathway for sensory input to the brain and motor output from the brain. The brain is responsible for ... The somatic nervous system engages in voluntary reactions, and the autonomic nervous system engages in involuntary reactions. ...
Besides, the disturbances of autonomic nervous system innervating cerebral arteries is also thought to cause vasospasm.[21] ... Blood products released from subarachnoid haemorrhage stimulates the tyrosine kinase pathway causing the release of calcium ...
... included detailed analyses of transmission in autonomic ganglia to studies of the organisation of autonomic nervous pathways ... is a world authority on neural pathways within the autonomic nervous system. Her work has ... Jänig, W.; McLachlan, E.M. (1992). "Characteristics of function-specific pathways in the sympathetic nervous system". Trends in ...
... polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These pathways reach the ... influences muscle tone Mediates autonomic functions Modulates pain impulses Influences blood flow to lateral geniculate nucleus ... The four pathways can be grouped into two main system pathways - a medial system and a lateral system. The medial system ... It is also the origin of the descending analgesic pathways. The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block ...
In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. The ... acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter responsible for the communication between neurons on the parasympathetic pathway ... In both divisions of the autonomic nervous system, postganglionic neurons express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to receive ...
"The pathway descends along the spinal ventralateral column. The descending tract for autonomic inspiration is located laterally ... This is referred to as the corticospinal pathway or ascending respiratory pathway. The pathway of the electrical signal starts ... The neurological pathway for involuntary respiration is called the bulbospinal pathway. It is also referred to as the ... and the tract for autonomic expiration is located ventrally." Autonomic Inspiration is controlled by the pontine respiratory ...
It functions as a pathway for the innervation in the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal wall. The ENS is capable of ... The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS ... Auerbach's plexus, also known as the myenteric plexus, is a collection of unmyelinated fibers and postganglionic autonomic cell ... 2015). "Genetics and pharmacogenetics of aminergic transmitter pathways in functional gastrointestinal disorders". ...
In humans, the stress response pathway consists of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary- ... adrenal axis (HPA). The SAM system is a part of the sympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system. These systems are ...
It is caused by problems in autonomic pathways such as damage to the lateral grey column. Progressive autonomic failure is a ... and the autonomic nervous system (involuntary processes). The autonomic nervous system is divided into the parasympathetic ... 2006). Autonomic Dysfunction After Spinal Cord Injury. Progress in Brain Research. 152. doi:10.1016/s0079-6123(05)x5200-1. ISBN ... A study estimated the number of nerve cells in the lateral grey columns of 21 people with progressive autonomic failure in ...
Neural pathways regulate brain-body interactions and allow to sense and control its body and interact with the environment. ... The brain and spinal cord are interwoven with the body and interact with other organ systems through the somatic, autonomic and ... Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D (2018). "An Autonomic Network: Synchrony Between Slow Rhythms of Pulse and ... "Cerebral correlates of autonomic cardiovascular arousal: a functional neuroimaging investigation in humans". The Journal of ...
... and both the central and autonomic nervous systems. The circulating gut hormones that regulate many pathways in the body can ... Varela L, Horvath TL (2012). "Leptin and insulin pathways in POMC and AgRP neurons that modulate energy balance and glucose ... the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system), stimulation of the thyroid (thyroxine regulates the metabolic ... receptors work to inhibit appetite upon distention of the GI tract by sending signals along the vagus nerve afferent pathway ...
The autonomic nervous system controls a wide range of involuntary and unconscious body functions. Its main branches are the ... the abundance of intracellular choline paved the way for choline to become incorporated into other synthetic pathways, ... Acetylcholine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, both as an internal transmitter for the ... Partly because of its muscle-activating function, but also because of its functions in the autonomic nervous system and brain, ...
Shattock MJ, Tipton MJ (2012). "'Autonomic conflict': a different way to die during cold water immersion?". The Journal of ... Datta A, Tipton M (2006). "Respiratory responses to cold water immersion: neural pathways, interactions, and clinical ...
Both pathways originate in posterior orbitofrontal cortex, but one targets heavily the inhibitory intercalated masses, whose ... A strong pOFC influence on IM that activates DARPP-32+ and CB+ neurons may help modulate autonomic function by downregulating ... DARPP-32+ neurons in IM may thus be primarily inhibited, rendering the pOFC pathway ineffective. Walton M. E.; Behrens T. E.; ... OFC inputs to the amygdala synapse on multiple targets, including two robust pathways to the basolateral amygdala and ...
autonomic pathways involved in the cardiac responses during exercise. It is said that the intensity of exercise has the ... heart rate and the autonomic nervous system. Journal of Sports Medical Physical Fitness, 46, 425-430. Rejeski, W.J. (1985). ...
Sensory pathways[edit]. Sensory pathways from the periphery to the cortex are separate for touch-position and pain-temperature ... Adding to the complexity of this nerve is the fact that autonomic nerve fibers as well as special sensory fibers (taste) are ... Pathways to the thalamus and cortex[edit]. Sensation has been defined as the conscious perception of touch-position and pain- ... Pathways for touch-position and pain-temperature sensations from the face and body merge in the brainstem, and touch-position ...
Emotional stress (anxiety, depression, anger) may increase pain by causing autonomic, visceral and skeletal activity and by ... reduced inhibition via the descending pathways of the limbic system. The interactions of these biological systems have been ...
Some models are also tracking biochemical pathways at very small scales such as spines or synaptic clefts. ...
Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting.[36] ... and general autonomic discharge. The actions of aprepitant are said to be entirely central, thus requiring passage of the drug ... Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... "Delineation of the endocytic pathway of substance P and its seven-transmembrane domain NK1 receptor". Molecular Biology of the ...
Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. Brain centers ... the type due to interruption of facilitatory and inhibitory pathways descending from the brain. In all three types the bladder ... The muscles controlling micturition are controlled by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. During the storage phase the ...
The CNS regulates the immune system through neuroendocrine pathways, such as the HPA axis. The HPA axis is responsible for ... Heim C.; Newport D. J.; Heit S.; Graham Y. P.; Wilcox M.; Bonsall R.; Nemeroff C. B. (2000). "Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic ... though via different pathways.[16] Several monoamine neurotransmitters are important in regulating the HPA axis, especially ...
The main group of sensory neuron diseases are hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) such as HSAN I, HSAN II, and ... B vitamins are involved in the metabolic pathway that leads to SAM production. SAM is the donor of the methyl group utilized by ... miRNAs are involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing via inhibiting translation or involvement in RNAi pathways. Some ...
Nevertheless, the anterior commissure is a significant pathway that can be clearly distinguished in the brains of all mammals. ...
Dystonia, nystagmus, and problems with the autonomic nervous system suggest damage to the basal ganglia and brain stem ... Assessing the level of organic acids in urine can also indicate a dysfunction in the metabolic pathway.[6] ... which is an enzyme in the Link reaction pathway.[1] Some types of SURF1 mutations cause a subtype of Leigh syndrome that has a ...
Nerves move muscles in response to voluntary and autonomic (involuntary) signals from the brain. Deep muscles, superficial ... Besides surrounding each fascicle, the perimysium is a pathway for nerves and the flow of blood within the muscle. The ...
The medulla oblongata then distributes messages along motor or efferent nerves belonging to the autonomic nervous system to a ... The glucose that enters the fat cells in this manner is converted into triglycerides (via the same metabolic pathways as are ... From here motor nerves belonging to the autonomic nervous system are stimulated to influence the activity of chiefly the heart ... "Chemosensory pathways in the brainstem controlling cardiorespiratory activity". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal ...
Neural pathways and circuits of the cerebellum[edit]. Neural pathways and circuits in the cerebellum ...
The strength of two connected neural pathways is thought to result in the storage of information, resulting in memory. This ... The neurotransmitter may initiate an electrical response or a secondary messenger pathway that may either excite or inhibit the ...
Serotonergic pathways are classified into two main ways in the brain; the ascending projections from the medial and dorsal ... autonomic instability with fluctuating vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to ...
自律神經(英語:Template:Autonomic diseases). *先天(英語:Template:Congenital malformations and deformations of nervous system) ...
... is a bodily function; it is a semi-autonomic rapid closing of the eyelid.[1] A single blink is determined by the ... Greater activation of dopaminergic pathways dopamine production in the striatum is associated with a higher rate of spontaneous ...
Drugs that increase GABA activity alleviate muscle stiffness caused by a lack of GABAergic tone.[2] They increase pathways that ... Most patients have upper motoneuron issues and autonomic disturbances.[20] Jerking man syndrome or jerking SPS is another ... includes symptoms of SPS with brainstem issues and autonomic disturbances.[16] It involves polio-encephalomyelitis in the spine ... These deaths are usually caused by metabolic acidosis or an autonomic crisis.[37] ...
There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ... Alterations in the autonomic nervous system can lead to orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), oily skin ... Blum D, Torch S, Lambeng N, Nissou M, Benabid AL, Sadoul R, Verna JM (October 2001). "Molecular pathways involved in the ... Anticholinergics and surgery (lesioning of the corticospinal pathway or some of the basal ganglia structures) were the only ...
Pathway effects are experiences that set individuals onto trajectories that influence health, well-being, and competence over ... Feelings of shame, worthlessness, and envy can lead to harmful effects upon neuro-endocrine, autonomic and metabolic, and ... These involve the combination of latent and pathways effects. Adopting a life-course perspective directs attention to how ...
Autonomic arousal symptoms. (1) Palpitations or pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate.. (2) Sweating.. (3) Trembling or ... Smout, M (2012). "Acceptance and commitment therapy - pathways for general practitioners". Australian family physician. 41 (9 ...
People may also experience additional symptoms related to irregular reactions of the autonomic nervous system. These symptoms ... central pathways. Equilibrioception. *Vertigo/Balance disorder: peripheral *Ménière's disease. *BPPV. *Vestibular neuronitis ( ...
Though the symptoms are mainly sensory, in some cases motor nerves and the autonomic nervous system are affected.[99] CIPN ... Chen HX, Cleck JN (Aug 2009). "Adverse effects of anticancer agents that target the VEGF pathway". Nature Reviews. Clinical ... Cancer cells can also cause defects in the cellular pathways of apoptosis (programmed cell death). As most chemotherapy drugs ... Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has shown similar effect, but its mechanism of inhibiting the sphingomyelin apoptotic pathway may ...
Enzymes and pathways: citric acid cycle *enzymes. *pentose phosphate *intermediates. *glycoproteins *enzymes ...
... and both the central and autonomic nervous systems.[5] The circulating gut hormones that regulate many pathways in the body can ... the activity of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system), stimulation of the thyroid (thyroxine regulates the metabolic ... "Leptin and insulin pathways in POMC and AgRP neurons that modulate energy balance and glucose homeostasis". EMBO Reports. 13 ...
The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, and their ... It is a cone-shaped neuronal mass responsible for autonomic (involuntary) functions ranging from vomiting to sneezing. The ... medulla contains the cardiac, respiratory, vomiting and vasomotor centers and therefore deals with the autonomic functions of ...
Mitochondria possess many of the same DNA repair pathways as nuclei do-but not all of them;[10] therefore, mutations occur more ... autonomic dysfunction. *dementia[1]. Acquired conditions in which mitochondrial dysfunction has been involved are: *diabetes ... Pieczenik, Steve R; Neustadt, John (2007). "Mitochondrial dysfunction and molecular pathways of disease". Experimental and ... the energy generated by the mitochondria and the glycogen capacity is very loose and is mediated by many biochemical pathways.[ ...
... commonly involves the polygraph; however it is not considered reliable.[5] It detects autonomic reactions.[4] ... behavioural cues to deception and the indirect pathway of intuition". In Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif A. The detection ... If a person is showing a deception there will be changes in the autonomic arousal responses to the relevant questions. Results ... that selects neural pathways represented in one hemisphere, while unsuccessful outcome implicates a non-discrete knowledge ...
"Synaptic Vesicle Mobilization Is Regulated by Distinct Synapsin I Phosphorylation Pathways at Different Frequencies". Neuron. ...
... and autonomic control. The insula controls autonomic functions through the regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic ... The insula receives information from "homeostatic afferent" sensory pathways via the thalamus and sends output to a number of ... To be specific, the anterior insula is related more to olfactory, gustatory, viscero-autonomic, and limbic function, whereas ... Critchley HD (December 2005). "Neural mechanisms of autonomic, affective, and cognitive integration". J. Comp. Neurol. 493 (1 ...
"Pentose Phosphate Pathway". Molecular Biochemistry II Notes. The Biochemistry and Biophysics Program at Renssalaer Polytechnic ... These defects in the medulla could lead to an inability to control essential autonomic functions such as the cardiovascular and ... Transaldolase, the namesake of aldehyde transferases, is an important part of the pentose phosphate pathway. The reaction it ... This occurs via the following pathway: UDP-β-D-galactose + D-glucose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP + lactose. EC ...
Autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (Dysautonomia). *Operation on the prostate. It is a common complication of transurethral ... It can also be caused by a retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer if nerve pathways to the bladder ...
Shared White Matter Disruption in Sensory Pathways but Divergent Connectivity in Social-Emotional Pathways". PLOS ONE. 9 (7): 1 ... and autonomic function. After sensory information passes through these centers, it is then routed to brain regions responsible ... it is known that the mid-brain and brain stem regions of the central nervous system are early centers in the processing pathway ... "Pathways to seeing music: enhanced structural connectivity in colored-music synesthesia". NeuroImage. 74: 359-66. doi:10.1016/ ...
... ; explained beautifully in an illustrated and interactive way. Click and start learning ... autonomic pathways that allow the CNS to regulate blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). ... Sample Somatic Nervous System Pathways. Sample Somatic Nervous System Pathways; explained beautifully in an illustrated and ... Action potentials (electro-chemical impulses) are generated in autonomic sensory (afferent) neurons and conducted to the ...
We have hypothesized that these responses occur through activation of vestibulo-sympathetic pathways. In the present study, c- ... We have hypothesized that these responses occur through activation of vestibulo-sympathetic pathways. In the present study, c- ... of c-Fos protein following sGVS is a reliable marker for sGVS-activated neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic pathway. ... The vestibular system sends projections to brainstem autonomic nuclei that modulate heart rate and blood pressure in response ...
Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotional expression. BMC Neuroscience, 4, 25. ... Barbas, H., Saha, S., Rempel-Clower, N. and Ghashghaei, T. (2003) Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic ... Autonomic Mechanisms of Emotional Reactivity and Regulation. Catherine C. Uy, Iain A. Jeffrey, Matthew Wilson, Viswanath Aluru ... Autonomic Nervous System (ANS); Hearts Conducting System; Acute Sressor-Evoked Cardiovascular (Blood Pressure) Reactivity; ...
... have shown that the cerebellum is directly or indirectly connected to various centres that appear to be involved in autonomic ... Possible pathways for cerebellar modulation of autonomic responses: micturition.. @article{Dietrichs2002PossiblePF, title={ ... Possible pathways for cerebellar modulation of autonomic responses: micturition.}, author={E Dietrichs and Duane E. Haines}, ... have shown that the cerebellum is directly or indirectly connected to various centres that appear to be involved in autonomic ...
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a very complex, multifaceted neural network that maintains internal physiologic ... The afferent pathways synapse locally or in the ganglia, spinal cord, and more rostral portions of the autonomic nervous system ... Efferent pathways. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The ... encoded search term (Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy) and Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy What to Read Next on Medscape. ...
... , Autonomic System, Autonomic Pathway, Postganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers. ... Autonomic Pathways, Autonomic Pathway, Pathway, Autonomic, Pathways, Autonomic. French. Voies neurovégétatives, Voie nerveuse ... Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Nervous System Aka: Autonomic Nervous System, Autonomic System, Autonomic Pathway, ... Autonomic Nervous System, Autonomic Nervous Systems, Nervous Systems, Autonomic, System, Autonomic Nervous, Systems, Autonomic ...
All autonomic pathways from the CNS to the innervated organ are composed of two-neuron systems. This stands in contrast to ... Nearly all major organs are innervated by autonomic fibers and in most cases by both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. ... The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is the portion of the peripheral nervous system that regulates subconscious control of ... Here we talk about basic themes of the autonomic nervous system and connect to more specific features of the sympathetic and ...
Pathways and Integrative Functions Chapter 18. Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 19. Senses: General and Special Chapter 20. ...
The Vagus is divided into two parts: the ventral vagal pathway and the dorsal vagal pathway. The Ventral Vagal Pathway responds ... The Autonomic Nervous System. The ANS is made up of two main branches, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic and responds to ... The Autonomic Nervous System is our personal surveillance system always on guard and asking "Is this safe?" Its goal is to ... It is when we feel as though we are trapped and cant escape the danger that the dorsal vagal pathway pulls us all the way back ...
Central autonomic pathways. In: Loewy AS, Spyer KM, eds. Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions New York, NY: Oxford ... FD-familial dysautonomia • ANS-autonomic nervous system • CAN-central autonomic network • PHOX2B-paired-like homeobox 2B • NGF- ... PEDIATRIC AUTONOMIC DISORDERS. Many pediatric autonomic disorders are apparent at birth or within the first year of life. Some ... Autonomic Failure: A Textbook of Clinical Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University ...
... the second edition of Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions presents the extraordinary advances that have ... Central autonomic circuits in the brain and spinal cord are essential to vertebrate life: they control all basic bodily ... She is best known for analyzing central nerve pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system using sophisticated light and ... The autonomic clinician would find the lovely basic scientific reviews of centrally regulated autonomic function a complement ...
Clinical Autonomic Research aims to draw together and disseminate research work from various disciplines and specialties ... Pathway Studio. *ProQuest Biological Science Database. *ProQuest Calcium and Calcified Tissue Abstracts ... Clinical Autonomic Research Official journal of the American Autonomic Society and the European Federation of Autonomic ... Longitudinal change in autonomic symptoms predicts activities of daily living and depression in Parkinsons disease Authors ( ...
Reflex pathways: …trigger what is called the baroreceptor reflex, which causes a decrease in the discharge of sympathetic ... function in autonomic and cardiovascular systems. *. In human nervous system: Reflex pathways. …trigger what is called the ...
Transneuronal viral labelling of rat heart left ventricle controlling pathways. Ter Horst, Gert J.; den Brink, Albert Van; ... Autonomic Nervous System and Vegetative Control PDF Only. ... Autonomic Nervous System and Vegetative Control: PDF Only * ...
A diagrammatic sketch of the tracts concerned is shown in figure 1. Afferent pathways are ... AUTONOMIC HYPERREFLEXIA AND ITS CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH SPINAL CORD LESIONS(AUTONOMIC HYPERREFLEXIA AND ITS CONTROL IN ... AUTONOMIC HYPERREFLEXIA AND ITS CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH SPINAL CORD LESIONS(AUTONOMIC HYPERREFLEXIA AND ITS CONTROL IN ... There is, perhaps, less awareness of the analogous autonomic hyperreflexia.1-6 Since the major splanchnic outflow in this ...
2003) Serial pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotional expression. BMC Neurosci 4:25. ... Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Yi-Yuan Tang, Yinghua Ma, Yaxin Fan, ... 1999) Autonomic and EEG patterns during eyes-closed rest and transcendental meditation (TM) practice: The basis for a neural ... Central and Autonomic Nervous System Interaction.. Increased EEG frontal midline theta power has been widely reported during ...
TH Promoter Variants and Autonomic Pathway Pleiotropy. Because the same TH promoter SNPs predicted both biochemical (Figures 2A ... "Intermediate" Phenotypes, Pathways, and Pleiotropy Investigations of putative pathways toward disease (Figure 8) yielded ... TH Promoter Haplotype Effects on Autonomic Traits. Haplotypes We formed haplotypes from the 4 most common promoter SNPs (C-824T ... Heredity and the autonomic nervous system in human hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2000; 2: 16-22. ...
autonomic pathway -signal must travel across two neurons to get to the target organ. -must cross a synapse where these two ... 0-1 Chapter 15 - Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview 2 - Keiser A&P 2 , 0-1 Chapter 15 - Autonomic Nervous System , ... exaggerated response of cardiac and smooth muscle if autonomic nerves are severed ... Autonomic Nervous System flashcards from Dennis Dickenson ... Flashcards in 0-1 Chapter 15 - Autonomic Nervous System Deck ( ...
Several mechanisms regulate these post-exercise autonomic responses and thermoregulation has been proposed to play an important ... Several mechanisms regulate these post-exercise autonomic responses and thermoregulation has been proposed to play an important ... Morrison, S. F., and Nakamura, K. (2011). Central neural pathways for thermoregulation. Front. Biosci. 16, 74-104. doi: 10.2741 ... Post-exercise Cardiac Autonomic Recovery. HR at the end of exercise was similar between the sessions; however post-exercise HR ...
Autonomic Nervous System / physiology*. Energy Metabolism*. Feedback. Humans. Models, Biological. Neural Pathways / physiology* ... by acting on the metabolic pathways and on the plasticity (proliferation, differentiation, transdifferentiation, apoptosis) of ... focuses on the cellular mechanisms participating in the plasticity of adipose tissues and their regulation by the autonomic ...
Nervous Pathways; Autonomic Nervous System. 16 (all); 17 (all). 46. 16. Male Reproductive System. 19 (717-729). ... Blood Vessels, Circulatory Pathways; Fetal Circulation, Hepatic Portal System. 22 (572-580; 599-603, beginning with hepatic ...
... certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic ... The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, ... The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS" ... The Autonomic Nervous. The Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Motor Pathways. ANS vs. SNS. ...
4) Autonomic nerve-transfer : After anastomosis of the hypogastric nerve with the pelvic nerve, the pathway from the spinal ... The multiple crossed pathways from the LSN to the target organs were also demonstrated to be reconstructed spontaneously.. 2) ... The multiple crossed pathways from the LSN to the target organs were demonstrated to be reconstructed. The rate of ... 3) Autonomic nerve graft : After grafting the hypogastric nerve or the genitofemoral nerve into the defect of the pelvic nerve ...
Autonomic Nervous System. pathway. Somatic motor neurons extending from CNS synapse directly with effector. ... Sensory pathways- they adapt -Olfactory receptors- adapt very little Olfactory sensory pathways-Decrease activity by 50% within ... Includes autonomic sensory neurons/integration centers (in CNS)/autonomic motor neurons Enteric Nervous System- specialized ... Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System. -ANS has sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions -ANS job is to contribute to ...
The autonomic nervous system includes sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. Both pathways include afferent pathways (e.g., ... A "fast" pathway 328 is shown along with a "slow" pathway 332. In FIG. 3. , both pathways 328, 332 are oriented primarily from ... Autonomic Pathways. As already mentioned, the autonomic nervous system includes both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. In ... is a simplified approximate anatomical diagram of a parasympathetic pathway and a sympathetic pathway of the autonomic nervous ...
Study A&P 2.16 Autonomic Nervous System flashcards from Dennis Dickenson ... Motor pathways of the autonomic division Motor neuron from CNS to another motor neuron (ganglion) to synapse with autonomic ... A&P 2.16 Autonomic Nervous System Flashcards Preview A&P 2 , A&P 2.16 Autonomic Nervous System , Flashcards ... Autonomic - viscera, blood vessels, smooth muscles. Sympathetic - fight or flight. Parasympathetic - rest or digest ...
The autonomic nervous system has an important role in the short- and, also, long-term regulation of homeostasis and, thus, on ... Autonomic modulation in acute and chronic inflammation has been implicated with a sympathetic interference in the earlier ... The present review focuses on the autonomic mechanisms controlling proinflammatory responses, and we will discuss novel ... therapeutic options linked to autonomic modulation for diseases associated with a chronic inflammatory condition such as sepsis ...
Descending pathways. Nerve pathways that conduct nerve impulses from the brain to the spinal cord and thereby allow the brain ... Autonomic dysreflexia. Dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system can result in a potentially life-threatening increase in ... Ascending pathways. Nerve pathways that go upward from the spinal cord towards the brain and carry sensory information from the ... form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, and help guide neuronal migration during development. The three major types of ...
Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Anti-Asthmatic Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Free Radical Scavengers. ... The aim of the present study is to further elucidate the in vivo effects of GH on the NO pathway and NO mediated cardiovascular ... The purpose of the study is to determine whether the treatment with growth hormone has an influence on the nitric oxide pathway ... Again, there is good evidence, that alterations of the NO-pathway are involved in this increase of cardiovascular risk. A ...
... was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin anterograde pathway tracing method in rats. Many brain regions receive ... autonomic, and drinking responses J Comp Neurol. 2006 Jan 1;494(1):75-107. doi: 10.1002/cne.20790. ... central autonomic control network (central amygdalar nucleus, BST anterolateral group, descending paraventricular hypothalamic ... was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin anterograde pathway tracing method in rats. Many brain regions receive ...
  • How do the neural pathways of the autonomic nervous system differ from the somatic nervous system? (
  • Neural pathways in the autonomic nervous system always consist of two neurons. (
  • This process requires the integrity of autonomic neural pathways. (
  • Most of the neural pathways in the enteric plexuses lack direct preganglionic inputs and can operate independently of central control. (
  • In this re-view, it is attempted to newly delineate the underlying neural pathways for this post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. (
  • Here we talk about basic themes of the autonomic nervous system and connect to more specific features of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, their component neurons, and and the basic classes of autonomic neurotransmitter receptors. (
  • All autonomic ganglia, whether of the sympathetic or parasympathetic, are functionally similar. (
  • Nearly all major organs are innervated by autonomic fibers and in most cases by both sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. (
  • however, in nearly all cases the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways exert opposing physiological changes in the organ. (
  • Here we outline briefly some of the general opposing effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways on specific target organs. (
  • The ANS is made up of two main branches, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic and responds to signals and sensations via three pathways, each with a characteristic pattern of response. (
  • In the PARASYMPATHETIC BRANCH, Polyvagal theory focuses on two pathways travelling within a nerve called the VAGUS. (
  • The origin of the Dorsal Vagal Pathway of the parasympathetic branch and its immobilisation response lies with our ancient vertebrae ancestors and is the oldest pathway. (
  • The most recent addition, the ventral vagal pathway of the parasympathetic branch brings patterns of social engagement that are unique to mammals. (
  • Appreciation of the breadth of autonomic disorders has increased since Langley 1 originally proposed the generic term "autonomic nervous system" (ANS) and designated its division into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems. (
  • Autoimmune paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy is a rare paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS), which manifests as disturbance in sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nervous system function. (
  • 2 The term was coined to reflect a part of the pathophysiology of these conditions that is a common thread-that is, excessive cranial parasympathetic autonomic reflex activation to nociceptive input in the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. (
  • The basic science work outlined above implies an integral role for the ipsilateral trigeminal nociceptive pathways in TACs and predicts in some patients cranial parasympathetic autonomic activation. (
  • Figure 1: Summary of sympathetic (A) and parasympathetic (B) autonomic neural outflows from the central nervous system . (
  • This chapter is an overview of the clinical aspects of autonomic dysfunction that emphasizes the clinical aspects of sympathetic and parasympathetic disorders. (
  • Autonomic nerve (sympathetic & parasympathetic). (
  • The etiology of autonomic dysfunction can be primary or idiopathic and secondary causes. (
  • In addition, autonomic dysfunction is associated with various medications. (
  • To illustrate further the breadth and complexities of autonomic dysfunction, some pediatric disorders are described, concentrating on those that present at birth or appear in early childhood. (
  • Now, more than 20 years later, investigators are beginning to appreciate the value of genetic autonomic disorders as models to advance the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in autonomic dysfunction. (
  • 6 , 7 In fact, the original description of FD in 1949 8 preceded the description by Shy and Drager 9 of the adult neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by central autonomic dysfunction by 11 years. (
  • 2 , 3 We provide an overview of the ANS and stress the extent of its influence, discuss the protean symptoms and manifestations caused by autonomic perturbations, and emphasize the expanding number of pediatric disorders that feature autonomic dysfunction. (
  • Clinical Autonomic Research aims to draw together and disseminate research work from various disciplines and specialties dealing with clinical problems resulting from autonomic dysfunction. (
  • 1-6 Since the major splanchnic outflow in this system is from the T4 or T6 to L2 segments of the cord, dramatic dysfunction of the autonomic system is seen primarily following lesions above this level, i.e., high thoracic and cervical cord lesions. (
  • Autonomic dysfunction in patients with Brugada syndrome: further biochemical evidence of altered signaling pathways. (
  • Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in Brugada syndrome. (
  • matory pathways, and autonomic dysfunction ( 1 ). (
  • However, paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy should be considered in all cancer patients who present with signs or symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (
  • The main paraneoplastic syndromes associated with autonomic dysfunction include paraneoplastic autoimmune autonomic gangliopathy (AAG), paraneoplastic sensory neuropathies and neuronopathies, paraneoplastic encephalomyeloneuropathies, and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). (
  • Autonomic dysfunction can occur as a secondary condition of another disease process, like diabetes, or as a primary disorder where the autonomic nervous system is the only system impacted. (
  • Background- Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been correlated with fasting insulin and glucose, independent of clinically diagnosed diabetes. (
  • There is ample clinical and cross-sectional epidemiological evidence connecting diabetes to subsequent autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (
  • Yet, there are numerous pathways whereby autonomic dysfunction could in turn affect insulin function and glucose regulation. (
  • 2,3,7,8 This suggests that autonomic dysfunction may not only be the consequence of but also a precursor to hyperglycemia. (
  • At a minimum, autonomic dysfunction is a correlate of insulin resistance that could influence glucose dysregulation as seen in new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Alternatively, it is possible that both insulin resistance and autonomic dysfunction have a shared precursor, such as physical inactivity or obesity, both of which are established risk factors for developing diabetes 9 and are correlates of autonomic function. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that persons with autonomic dysfunction, estimated by low heart rate variability (HRV) and high resting heart rate, were at increased risk for developing diabetes over follow-up in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. (
  • We also evaluated whether any observed relationship between autonomic dysfunction and incident diabetes persisted after accounting for established diabetes risk factors. (
  • Despite challenges inherent to studying causal pathways by epidemiological approaches, we also investigated the role of obesity and physical inactivity in the relation between autonomic dysfunction and incident diabetes. (
  • Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs. (
  • Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. (
  • Its axons synapse on the cell body of the second neuron, termed the "Postganglionic Neuron", within autonomic ganglia located outside the CNS. (
  • These cells migrate and eventually evolve into sensory and autonomic ganglia as well as the adrenal chromaffin cells. (
  • The greater superficial petrosal nerve supplies classic autonomic preganglionic fibres to the sphenopalatine (pterygopalatine in humans) and otic ganglia. (
  • The term autonomic nervous system (ANS) refers to collections of motor neurons (ganglia) situated in the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, and to the axonal connections of these neurons (Figure 1 ). (
  • There are also CNS components of the ANS, including brainstem and spinal autonomic preganglionic neurons that project to the autonomic motor neurons in the peripheral ganglia. (
  • In this respect preganglionic autonomic motor neurons are clearly distinguished from somatic motor neurons that project from the CNS directly to the innervated tissue (skeletal muscle), without any intervening ganglia. (
  • Post-ganglionic axonal processes of motor neurons in the autonomic ganglia innervate organs and tissues throughout the body (eyes, salivary glands, heart, stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels, etc). (
  • Complex autonomic ganglia in the walls of the stomach and small intestine are separately classified as the enteric nervous system . (
  • Langley noted the absence of sensory (afferent) nerve cell bodies in autonomic ganglia and defined the ANS as a purely motor system. (
  • Modern experiments have shown that neurons in autonomic ganglia do not have inbuilt discharge patterns sufficiently integrated to regulate physiological functions, with the possible exception of neurons within the enteric nervous system of the small and large intestines. (
  • dorsal root ganglia at and below the site and autonomic ganglia. (
  • These results suggest a direct effect of angiotensin II on autonomic ganglia, which can contribute to the pressor effects of angiotensin II through sympathetic activation. (
  • Sympathetic efferent pathways project bilaterally to the vas deferens in the rat'Anat. (
  • Sympathetic efferent pathways projecting to the bladder neck and proximal urethra in the rat'J. (
  • By being inserted between afferent and efferent pathways in a long reflex arc, these higher centers in the brain, which also serve to integrate a variety of visceral and behavioral sensations, allow for a wide range of modulation of specific autonomic, cardiovascular, and motor responses ( 5 ). (
  • The amygdalofugal pathway (Latin for "fleeing from the amygdala" and commonly distinguished as the ventral amygdalofugal pathway) is one of the three major efferent pathways of the amygdala, meaning that it is one of the three principal pathways by which fibers leave the amygdala. (
  • The other main efferent pathways from the amygdala are the stria terminalis and anterior commissure. (
  • Autonomic reflexes occur over autonomic reflex arcs. (
  • Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) and Visceral Reflexes. (
  • Dysregulation of the autonomous nervous system can result in a potentially life-threatening increase in blood pressure, sweating, and other autonomic reflexes in reaction to bowel impaction or some other stimulus. (
  • This stands in contrast to skeletal motor pathways in which a single neuron composes the entire pathway. (
  • Autonomic Motor Pathways. (
  • Autonomic pathways, together with somatic motor pathways to skeletal muscle and neuroendocrine pathways, are the means whereby the central nervous system (CNS) sends commands to the rest of the body. (
  • Repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC), Broadman Area 10 (BA10) may stimulate transynaptically perigenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex (pACC, BA 33), insula, amigdala, hypothalamus and connected branches of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) involved in stressorevoked cardiovascular reactivity. (
  • She is best known for analyzing central nerve pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system using sophisticated light and electron microscopic techniques, many of which she developed herself. (
  • Does common genetic variation at human TH alter autonomic activity and predispose to cardiovascular disease? (
  • Recent studies could confirm this close association between parameters of the NO pathway and cardiovascular disease and could further enhance the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms. (
  • Again, there is good evidence, that alterations of the NO-pathway are involved in this increase of cardiovascular risk. (
  • The aim of the present study is to further elucidate the in vivo effects of GH on the NO pathway and NO mediated cardiovascular functions. (
  • Disease states such as fever, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, autonomic hyperreflexia and cardiac arrhythmia are associated with altered regulation of the sympathetic outflow to cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular tissues. (
  • The third area of research involves the organization of the medullary pathways regulating sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system. (
  • Autonomic Cardiovascular Regulation in the Newborn. (
  • This paper reviews the baroreflex mediated heart rate response in human infants with a focus on data acquisition, signal processing and autonomic cardiovascular modeling. (
  • Baroreflex mediated heart rate response is frequently used as an estimate of autonomic cardiovascular regulation. (
  • Figure 1 shows a diagram of these neuronal pathways that are involved in autonomic cardiovascular regulation. (
  • Studies that evaluated mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) from 2001 onward. (
  • Diabetic autonomic neuropathy, particularly cardiac autonomic neuropathy, is considered an important potential factor involved in the disruption of circadian cardiovascular rhythms [ 10 ]. (
  • The review summarises the battery of non-invasive autonomic function tests available for diabetic autonomic neuropathy diagnosis as well as cross-sectional and follow-up studies supporting their importance in risk stratification for diabetic micro-vascular complications and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. (
  • Similarly, when brain control of spinal autonomic preganglionic neurons is removed (as in quadriplegia), cardiovascular, bowel and bladder functions are profoundly impaired. (
  • It is believed that morning blood pressure surge is mediated by autonomic mechanisms, and these results are in agreement with the higher incidence of cardiovascular events reported early in the morning. (
  • The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is the portion of the peripheral nervous system that regulates subconscious control of visceral organs. (
  • Two additional chapters discuss cardio-respiratory integration and regulation of autonomic function by visceral and somatic afferents. (
  • 6 Control of Autonomic NS Not aware of autonomic responses because control center is in lower regions of the brain Hypothalamus is major control center input: emotions and visceral sensory information smell, taste, temperature, osmolarity of blood, etc. (
  • Pathways of pain for the visceral and parietal layer are different and the quality is different as well. (
  • We have hypothesized that these responses occur through activation of vestibulo-sympathetic pathways. (
  • Possible pathways for cerebellar modulation of autonomic responses: micturition. (
  • Several mechanisms regulate these post-exercise autonomic responses and thermoregulation has been proposed to play an important role. (
  • Autonomic modulation in acute and chronic inflammation has been implicated with a sympathetic interference in the earlier stages of the inflammatory process and the activation of the vagal inflammatory reflex to regulate innate immune responses and cytokine functional effects in longer processes. (
  • The present review focuses on the autonomic mechanisms controlling proinflammatory responses, and we will discuss novel therapeutic options linked to autonomic modulation for diseases associated with a chronic inflammatory condition such as sepsis. (
  • The twenty first century has seen a revolution in our understanding of the receptor systems and regulatory pathways that underlie the responses of these specialised cells to the occurrence of tissue damage. (
  • The present study investigates the involvement of P2X receptors in contributing to pressor responses during autonomic dysreflexia. (
  • These findings would suggest that the autonomic responses at birth are at least in part mediated by direct stimulation of cutaneous thermoreceptors. (
  • However, in utero cutaneous cooling also elicits a sympathoexcitatory response in premature fetal sheep, at a stage of development where delivery by cesarean section is not accompanied by an increase in sympathetic nerve activity ( 30 ), implying that other factors may be involved in mediating autonomic responses at birth. (
  • Several autonomic, hormonal, behavioural and neuropeptidergic bodily responses to stressful stimuli have been described over the past few decades. (
  • These various responses to stress are presumably attributed to the preferential activation of specific neuronal pathways under the influence of a given stimulus or its intensity. (
  • In clinical depression, however, a transition occurs to sensitization of immuno-inflammatory pathways, progressive damage by oxidative and nitrosative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA, and autoimmune responses directed against self-epitopes. (
  • We conclude that localization of c-Fos protein following sGVS is a reliable marker for sGVS-activated neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic pathway. (
  • Effector organs o Cardiac muscle o Smooth muscle o Glands o Adipose tissue Autonomic Neurons - 2 neurons in the effector pathway. (
  • These results suggest that AMPA and NMDA glutamatergic synaptic mechanisms play a key role in the spinal processing of afferent input from the bladder and that these mechanisms function synergistically in the ascending limb of the spinobulbospinal micturition reflex pathway. (
  • afferent fibers , central pathways, discharge characteristics. (
  • One of the only texts to provide the whole story of how the brain controls basic bodily functions that are critical for life, Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions will be essential reading for graduate students and researchers in neuroscience, anatomy, pharmacology and physiology as well as a valuable reference work for established workers in the field. (
  • By taking considerable care in integrating the written and visual components of each chapter, the authors more than met their objectives Persons working or studying in the field of human anatomy, physiology, or medicine who find the intricacies of the autonomic nervous system fascinating, yet at times perplexing, should visit this work. (
  • Persons working or studying in the field of human anatomy, physiology, or medicine who find the intricacies of the autonomic nervous system fascinating, yet at times perplexing, should visit this work. (
  • Appreciating the physiology of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex can make patients presenting with varying degrees of cranial autonomic activation, such as lacrimation, conjunctival injection, nasal congestion or rhinorrhoea and the like, comprehensible at the bedside. (
  • I will briefly review the underlying physiology of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex that underpins these conditions and set out their classification and differential diagnosis. (
  • Figure drawn by the authors, incorporating material from Gray's Anatomy 31st Edition 1954, and from Cannon and Rosenblueth Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System , 1937. (
  • Thus, shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology. (
  • Purinergic receptor antagonism: A viable strategy for the management of autonomic dysreflexia? (
  • However, the role of the purinergic system in contributing to autonomic dysreflexia following spinal cord injury is unclear. (
  • Circumstances that can trigger autonomic dysreflexia are often related to stimulation of the bladder, bowel, and skin of the patient. (
  • Once the symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia are manifest, emergency care is indicated. (
  • this prevents increasing the stimulus to autonomic dysreflexia. (
  • 3) Autonomic nerve graft : After grafting the hypogastric nerve or the genitofemoral nerve into the defect of the pelvic nerve, stimulation of the pelvic nerve elicited bladder contraction. (
  • 4) Autonomic nerve-transfer : After anastomosis of the hypogastric nerve with the pelvic nerve, the pathway from the spinal cord, passing through the LSN, hypogastric nerve, pelvic nerve and pelvic plexus to the intrapelvic target organs were constructed. (
  • 5) Histological study of the nerve at the site reattached demonstrated regeneration of the autonomic nerve. (
  • Nerve pathways that go upward from the spinal cord towards the brain and carry sensory information from the body. (
  • Nerve pathways that conduct nerve impulses from the brain to the spinal cord and thereby allow the brain to control movement of the body below the head. (
  • Restoration of autonomic regulatory function with vagal nerve stimulation resulting in anti-inflammatory effects and modulation of centrally-mediated mechanisms could be of clinical relevance. (
  • This review briefly summarizes renal nerve anatomy, basic insights into neural control of renal function in the physiological state and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AKI chiefly due to sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass and ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. (
  • Efferent nerve pathways from the brainstem and spinal cord. (
  • Autonomic nerve disorders (dysautonomia) refer to disorders of autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. (
  • Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors (GANTs) are rare tumors, probably developing from the myenteric plexus of Auerbach. (
  • The goal for this article remains focused at step III on the anatomy of the autonomic nervous system, as follows. (
  • The present review focuses on the cellular mechanisms participating in the plasticity of adipose tissues and their regulation by the autonomic nervous system. (
  • To describe the role of the autonomic nervous system in the development of sodium induced hypertension is critical to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the genesis of this pathology. (
  • Its myelinated axon extends from the central nervous system to an autonomic ganglion, or junction, where it synapses with a second neuron. (
  • Synapses with 2 nd neuron within an autonomic ganglion which extends to synapse with effector organ - Postganglionic neuron. (
  • 4 Previously, we found that the common hepta-allelic (TCAT) n polymorphism predicted alterations in human autonomic function. (
  • Clear, concise, color-coded images, bare-bone text peppered with "specialist information," informative case bases, and a CD ROM all serve to make this "user interactive book" a worthy addition to the library of any student or health related practitioner interested in comprehending the details of the human autonomic nervous system. (
  • Outflow can occur independently, but to some extent it is regulated and integrated by the central autonomic network (CAN). (
  • Central autonomic circuits in the brain and spinal cord are essential to vertebrate life: they control all basic bodily functions, including blood pressure, body temperature regulation, digestion, and reproduction. (
  • Written in a clear and readable manner by an international collection of neuroscientists and physiologists, and nine chapters describe central autonomic circuits from the cerebral cortex to the periphery. (
  • Eight more chapters address specific bodily functions and their control by central autonomic circuits. (
  • All of the chapters are up-to-date and cover topics such as the central autonomic regulation of airways, gastrointestinal function, energy homeostasis, body temperature, and sexual function, reflecting the latest research. (
  • 7 It is well demonstrated that abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), are an independent predictor of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death after myocardial infarction. (
  • 9 Stroke 10 has also been shown to produce changes in cardiac autonomic balance and several studies report increased susceptibility to SUD after acute cerebral ischemic events. (
  • Reconstruction of injured autonomic nerves in the abdominal and pelvic spaces. (
  • Authored by the same team that created Cranial Nerves, this book provides an easy-to-follow overview of autonomic nerves. (
  • The first part describes the structure and function of the autonomic nerves, and the second part addresses autonomic control of individual organ systems in a problem-based learning format. (
  • 1 The pain producing innervation of the cranium projects through branches of the trigeminal and upper cervical nerves 6, 7 to the trigeminocervical complex 8 from whence nociceptive pathways project to higher centres. (
  • Small myelinated fibers transmit preganglionic autonomic efferents (B fibers) and somatic afferents (A delta fibers). (
  • Unmyelinated (C) fibers transmit postganglionic autonomic efferents as well as somatic and autonomic afferents. (
  • Edited by two experts in the field, Ida Llewellyn-Smith and Anthony Verberne, and extensively illustrated, the second edition of Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions presents the extraordinary advances that have been made over the last 20 years in the understanding of how the central nervous system controls autonomic functions. (
  • There is compelling evidence with regard to the importance of the nervous system in the regulation of adipose tissue mass, either brown or white, by acting on the metabolic pathways and on the plasticity (proliferation, differentiation, transdifferentiation, apoptosis) of these tissues. (
  • Specific circuits within the CNS are dedicated to the maintenance of homeostasis and an optimal cellular environment through regulation of autonomic function. (
  • By addressing basic questions in autonomic neuroscience, we seek to understand the altered regulation of sympathetic outputs characteristic of several disease states. (
  • Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease : Potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis. (
  • The autonomic nervous system has an important role in the short- and, also, long-term regulation of homeostasis and, thus, on inflammation. (
  • Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. (
  • Because the autonomic nervous system maintains internal physiologic homeostasis, disorders of this system can be present with both central as well as peripheral nervous system localization. (
  • Autonomic Nervous System Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Nervous System Divisions of the nervous system The human nervous system consists of the central nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). (
  • Several of these pathways are likely involved in regulating the physiological adaptations at birth required for successful transition, including an increase in heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and peripheral vascular resistance, and a redistribution of cardiac output. (
  • Thus the ANS is best seen as one of the outflows whereby the CNS controls bodily organs, so that "peripheral autonomic pathways" is a better term, but "autonomic nervous system" is well-established. (
  • 1-3 It is generally accepted that hyperglycemia among persons with diabetes causes degradation of the microvasculature that results in central and peripheral autonomic neuropathy. (
  • Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) or hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a group of autosomal dominant inherited neurological diseases that affect the peripheral nervous system particularly on the sensory and autonomic functions. (
  • American Airlines, the preferred airline for the American Autonomic Society meeting to be held on October 27-29, 2000, is pleased to offer discounted airfares. (
  • A major feature of Clinical Autonomic Research is its speed of publication coupled with the highest refereeing standards. (
  • The olfactory receptors and and the olfaction pathway. (
  • The gustatory receptors and the taste pathway. (
  • Our group combines recombinant DNA technology, electrophysiology, in vivo imaging, gene targeting and behavioural approaches to explore the channels, receptors, transcription factors and regulatory pathways that control nociceptor excitability. (
  • Although the report by Shy and Drager initiated expansion of autonomic research and eventual founding of an autonomic subsection within neurology and autonomic societies in the United States and Europe, the same level of interest has not been seen within the pediatric community. (
  • Autonomic response after hemorrhagic stroke in the right insular cortex: What is the common pathophysiology in rat and human? (
  • The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. (
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a very complex, multifaceted neural network that maintains internal physiologic homeostasis. (
  • The Morrison lab's research uses electrophysiological and anatomical approaches to understand the functional organization, rhythmicities, developmental influences and pharmacology of the CNS circuits that regulate the sympathetic outflows controlling variables critical for homeostasis such as body temperature, energy expenditure, blood glucose, blood pressure, cardiac output and plasma catecholamines.We are currently pursuing three main areas of investigation in the rapidly growing field of autonomic neuroscience. (
  • All autonomic pathways from the CNS to the innervated organ are composed of two-neuron systems. (
  • Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical In: , 08.09.2015. (
  • Although a number of texts dedicated to various aspects of autonomic function now are available, 2 - 4 they tend to concentrate on adult disorders, with pediatric autonomic disorders poorly represented. (
  • Therefore, one could postulate that an early genetic error affecting initial migration would cause profound decreases in both sensory and autonomic populations, whereas a later genetic error might only affect cell survival to one or both populations, causing more erratic and varied clinical expression. (
  • Please read chapter 15, The Autonomic Nervous System, complete this study guide, and study this material BEFORE coming to the first class. (
  • The multiple crossed pathways from the LSN to the target organs were also demonstrated to be reconstructed spontaneously. (
  • Cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and mainly during sleep, suggesting that changes in autonomic modulation play an important role in the arrhythmogenesis of the disease. (
  • However, we observed that symptomatic males developed a more female-like autonomic modulation, probably related to a more protective autonomic response to exercise. (
  • At least 85% of quadriplegic patients develop autonomic hyperreflexia characterized by paroxysmal hypertension (Bors, personal communication). (
  • Patients may develop autonomic disturbances at any time relative to the diagnosis of cancer. (
  • Autonomic failure is seen in multiple system atrophy, pure or progressive autonomic failure, Parkinson and other neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases such as Wernicke and cobalamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, trauma, vascular diseases, neoplastic diseases, and multiple sclerosis . (
  • Normally, the autonomic nervous system will compensate by constricting blood vessels and pushing the blood to the brain. (
  • autonomic pathways that allow the CNS to regulate blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). (
  • During this session, Jennifer shared with us how Clean Language can help us regulate our Autonomic Nervous System. (
  • Not only do they provide physical support, but they also respond to injury, regulate the chemical composition surrounding cells, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, and help guide neuronal migration during development. (
  • The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the expanding spectrum of pediatric autonomic disorders by providing an overview of the autonomic nervous system, including the roles of its various components and its pervasive influence, as well as its intimate relationship with sensory function. (
  • in contrast, we observed in vivo directionally opposite associations of common (TCAT) n alleles with autonomic function: (TCAT) 10i with activation and (TCAT) 6 with diminution of sympathetic outflow. (
  • These results could be a step forward toward the understanding of the autonomic function in BS along with a potential impact on risk stratification. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of a newly developed experimental paradigm, designed to assess relationships among emotional responsivity, physiologic (autonomic) reactivity, airway reactivity, and pulmonary function in asthmatic children under controlled conditions of ecologically valid emotional stimulation. (
  • Animals were assessed for autonomic outcome (bladder function). (
  • Drug classes which may interfere with autonomic function tests and some examples of medications [12]. (
  • Misalignment of circadian rhythms has been evidenced in patients with type 1 diabetes and there is a close relationship between alterations in neuroendocrine sleep architecture, circadian clock oscillations, glucose metabolism, autonomic function, and diurnal profiles of blood pressure and heart rate [ 1 - 5 ]. (
  • Impaired autonomic function has previously been associated with elevated concentrations of serum insulin and decreased insulin sensitivity (markers of insulin resistance), independent of glucose levels. (
  • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM Somatic efferent and ANS Somatic Efferent Control is over skeletal muscles. (
  • The voluntary nervous system governs the striated or skeletal muscles, whereas the autonomic nervous system governs the glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscles such as those of the digestive system, respiratory system, and skin. (
  • There is, perhaps, less awareness of the analogous autonomic hyperreflexia. (
  • Hypothalamic and medullary pathways involved in sodium-induced hypertension. (
  • Transneuronal tracing of a nociceptive pathway, the spino-(trigemino)-parabrachio-amygdaloid pathway, was performed using an α-herpes virus, the Bartha strain of pseudorabies virus (PRV). (
  • The central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) is the terminal area of a major ascending nociceptive pathway, the spino-(trigemino)-parabrachio-amygdaloid tract ( Bernard and Besson, 1992 ). (
  • The present study uses pseudorabies virus (PRV), a transneuronal retrograde tracer, to identify the pathway by which nociceptive information is transmitted from the spinal dorsal horn and TNC to the Ce via the parabrachial nuclei. (
  • Dr. Benarroch maintains a particular focus on neurochemical organization of autonomic control regions of the medulla and brain stem to the hypothalamus. (
  • Both the amygdalofugal pathway and the stria terminalis project to the septal region, the hypothalamus, and the thalamus, but the stria terminalis reaches the septal region and the hypothalamus in a much longer and less direct path. (
  • The amygdalofugal pathway and the stria terminalis together " enable the corticomedial amygdala to directly control the medial hypothalamus and enable the basolateral amygdala to directly control the lateral hypothalamus and PAG," or midbrain periaqueductal gray. (
  • Autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury. (
  • 10 Brain Stem, Monoaminergic Pathways, and Reticular Formation. (
  • The amygdalofugal pathway connects the central nucleus of the amygdala to the brainstem. (
  • Lesion experiments show that the central nucleus of the amygdala connects with the startle circuit via the caudal part of the amygdalofugal pathway. (