Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A rare, slowly progressive encephalitis caused by chronic infection with the MEASLES VIRUS. The condition occurs primarily in children and young adults, approximately 2-8 years after the initial infection. A gradual decline in intellectual abilities and behavioral alterations are followed by progressive MYOCLONUS; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; autonomic dysfunction; and ATAXIA. DEATH usually occurs 1-3 years after disease onset. Pathologic features include perivascular cuffing, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, neurophagia, and fibrous gliosis. It is caused by the SSPE virus, which is a defective variant of MEASLES VIRUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp767-8)
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Enterovirus Infections are acute viral illnesses caused by various Enterovirus serotypes, primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, manifesting as a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild self-limiting fever to severe and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis-like illness, depending on the age, immune status, and serotype of the infected individual.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A subclass of developmentally regulated lamins having a neutral isoelectric point. They are found to disassociate from nuclear membranes during mitosis.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord. This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with ORTHOSTASIS and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Activity which reduces the feelings of tension and the effects of STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.

System identification of closed-loop cardiovascular control mechanisms: diabetic autonomic neuropathy. (1/693)

We applied cardiovascular system identification (CSI) to characterize closed-loop cardiovascular regulation in patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN). The CSI method quantitatively analyzes beat-to-beat fluctuations in noninvasively measured heart rate, arterial blood pressure (ABP), and instantaneous lung volume (ILV) to characterize four physiological coupling mechanisms, two of which are autonomically mediated (the heart rate baroreflex and the coupling of respiration, measured in terms of ILV, to heart rate) and two of which are mechanically mediated (the coupling of ventricular contraction to the generation of the ABP wavelet and the coupling of respiration to ABP). We studied 37 control and 60 diabetic subjects who were classified as having minimal, moderate, or severe DAN on the basis of standard autonomic tests. The autonomically mediated couplings progressively decreased with increasing severity of DAN, whereas the mechanically mediated couplings were essentially unchanged. CSI identified differences between the minimal DAN and control groups, which were indistinguishable based on the standard autonomic tests. CSI may provide a powerful tool for assessing DAN.  (+info)

Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: potential importance of altered autonomic control of vasculature. (2/693)

Current evidence suggests that alterations in the autonomic function and abnormal vascular control play a significant role either as independent triggers themselves or as modifiers of ischaemia and tolerance to to arrhythmias. A combination of several factors--that is, arrhythmia, hypotension, altered autonomic function including vascular control, and ischaemia are therefore likely to act as triggers for sudden death. The relative contribution of each of these factors needs further detailed study.  (+info)

Precise genetic mapping and haplotype analysis of the familial dysautonomia gene on human chromosome 9q31. (3/693)

Familial dysautonomia (FD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental arrest in the sensory and autonomic nervous systems and by Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. We previously had mapped the defective gene (DYS) to an 11-cM segment of chromosome 9q31-33, flanked by D9S53 and D9S105. By using 11 new polymorphic loci, we now have narrowed the location of DYS to <0.5 cM between the markers 43B1GAGT and 157A3. Two markers in this interval, 164D1 and D9S1677, show no recombination with the disease. Haplotype analysis confirmed this candidate region and revealed a major haplotype shared by 435 of 441 FD chromosomes, indicating a striking founder effect. Three other haplotypes, found on the remaining 6 FD chromosomes, might represent independent mutations. The frequency of the major FD haplotype in the Ashkenazim (5 in 324 control chromosomes) was consistent with the estimated DYS carrier frequency of 1 in 32, and none of the four haplotypes associated with FD was observed on 492 non-FD chromosomes from obligatory carriers. It is now possible to provide accurate genetic testing both for families with FD and for carriers, on the basis of close flanking markers and the capacity to identify >98% of FD chromosomes by their haplotype.  (+info)

Noninvasive exploration of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Four reliable methods for diabetes? (4/693)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to assess relevant information that could be provided by various mathematical analyses of spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) variabilities in diabetic cardiovascular neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 10 healthy volunteers and 11 diabetic subjects included in the study. Diabetic patients were selected for nonsymptomatic orthostatic hypotension in an assessment of their cardiovascular autonomic impairment. Cardiac autonomic function was scored according to Ewing's methodology adapted to the use of a Finapres device. The spontaneous beat-to-beat BP and HR variabilities were then analyzed on a 1-h recording in supine subjects. The global variabilities were assessed by standard deviation, fractal dimension, and spectral power. The cardiac baroreflex function was estimated by cross-spectral sequences and Z analyses. RESULTS: In diabetic patients, Ewing's scores ranged from 1 to 4.5, confirming cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. In these diabetic patients, global indices of variabilities were consistently lower than in healthy subjects. Furthermore, some of them (standard deviation and fractal dimension of HR, spectral power of systolic blood pressure and HR) were significantly correlated with the Ewing's scores. The Z methods and the spectral analysis found that the cardiac baroreflex was less effective in diabetic subjects. However, the baroreflex sensitivity could not be reliably assessed in all the patients. The sequence method pointed out a decreased number of baroreflex sequences in diabetic subjects that was correlated to the Ewing's score. CONCLUSIONS: Indices of HR spontaneous beat-to-beat variability are consistently related to the degree of cardiac autonomic dysfunction, according to Ewing's methodology. The Z method and spectral analysis confirmed that the cardiac baroreflex was impaired in diabetic patients. These methods might be clinically relevant for use in detecting incipient neuropathy in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Natural history of diabetic gastroparesis. (5/693)

OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this study was to evaluate the prognosis of diabetic gastroparesis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1984 and 1989, 86 outpatients with diabetes (66 type 1, 20 type 2; 40 male, 46 female) underwent assessment of solid and liquid gastric emptying and esophageal transit (by scintigraphy), gastrointestinal symptoms (by questionnaire), autonomic nerve function (by cardiovascular reflex tests), and glycemic control (by HbAlc and blood glucose concentrations during gastric emptying measurement). These patients were followed up in 1998. RESULTS: Of the 86 patients, solid gastric emptying (percentage of retention at 100 min) was delayed in 48 (56%) patients and liquid emptying (50% emptying time) was delayed in 24 (28%) patients. At follow-up in 1998, 62 patients were known to be alive, 21 had died, and 3 were lost to follow-up. In the group who had died, duration of diabetes (P = 0.048), score for autonomic neuropathy (P = 0.046), and esophageal transit (P = 0.032) were greater than in those patients who were alive, but there were no differences in gastric emptying between the two groups. Of the 83 patients who could be followed up, 32 of the 45 patients (71%) with delayed solid emptying and 18 of the 24 patients (75%) with delay in liquid emptying were alive. After adjustment for the effects of other factors that showed a relationship with the risk of dying, there was no significant relationship between either gastric emptying or esophageal transit and death. CONCLUSIONS: In this relatively large cohort of outpatients with diabetes, there was no evidence that gastroparesis was associated with a poor prognosis.  (+info)

Ischaemic enterocolitis complicating idiopathic dysautonomia. (6/693)

A previously fit 23 year old adult male who presented with a sudden onset of profound autonomic neuropathy, for which no cause could be found, is described. The patient subsequently developed ischaemic enterocolitis that ultimately necessitated colectomy and subtotal enterectomy. Potential neural and humoral mechanisms are discussed.  (+info)

Cardiovascular autonomic nervous system dysfunction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. (7/693)

Although peripheral and central nervous system involvement have been well recognized in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autonomic nervous system (ANS) involvement has rarely been studied, and has shown conflicting results. We performed cardiovascular ANS assessment in 34 RA and 37 SLE patients, using standard cardiovascular reflex tests. The results in each patient were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Forty-seven percent of the RA patients and 19% of the SLE patients had symptoms suggesting ANS dysfunction. The heart rate variation in response to deep breathing was significantly decreased in both the RA and SLE patients (p = 0.001). This diminished heart rate response showed no correlation with the disease duration, the number of swollen joints, the Ritchie articular index, ESR, or rheumatoid factor in the RA group, or the disease duration, the SLEDAI score or ESR in the SLE group. The clinical significance of the diminished cardiovascular ANS response needs to be investigated.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein E4, cholinergic integrity and the pharmacogenetics of Alzheimer's disease. (8/693)

Recent evidence indicates that apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays a central role in the brain's response to injury. The coordinated expression of apoE and its receptors (the so-called LDL [low density lipoprotein] receptor family) appears to regulate the transport and internalization of cholesterol and phospholipids during the early phase of the re-innervation process in the adult brain. During dendritic remodelling and synaptogenesis, neurons progressively repress the synthesis of cholesterol in favour of cholesterol internalization through the apoE/LDL receptor pathway. The discovery a few years ago, that the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele found in 15% of the normal population is strongly linked to both sporadic and familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), raises the possibility that a dysfunction of the lipid transport system associated with compensatory sprouting and synaptic remodelling could be central to the AD process. The role of apoE in the central nervous system is particularly important in relation to the cholinergic system, which relies to a certain extent on the integrity of phospholipid homeostasis in neurons. Recent evidence obtained by 4 independent research teams indicates that apo epsilon 4 allele directly affects cholinergic activity in the brain of AD subjects. It was also shown to modulate the drug efficacy profile of several cholinomimetic and noncholinomimetic drugs used for the treatment of AD patients.  (+info)

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases refer to medical conditions that primarily affect the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is responsible for controlling various functions in the body, including movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. Therefore, diseases of the CNS can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and overall health.

There are many different types of CNS diseases, including:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites that infect the brain or spinal cord. Examples include meningitis, encephalitis, and polio.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the brain or spinal cord. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
3. Structural diseases: These involve damage to the physical structure of the brain or spinal cord, such as from trauma, tumors, or stroke.
4. Functional diseases: These affect the function of the nervous system without obvious structural damage, such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy.
5. Genetic disorders: Some CNS diseases are caused by genetic mutations, such as spinal muscular atrophy and Friedreich's ataxia.

Symptoms of CNS diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the area of the brain or spinal cord that is affected. They may include muscle weakness, paralysis, seizures, loss of sensation, difficulty with coordination and balance, confusion, memory loss, changes in behavior or mood, and pain. Treatment for CNS diseases depends on the specific condition and may involve medications, surgery, rehabilitation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. It consists of two subdivisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

Autonomic Nervous System Diseases (also known as Autonomic Disorders or Autonomic Neuropathies) refer to a group of conditions that affect the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. These diseases can cause damage to the nerves that control automatic functions, leading to various symptoms and complications.

Autonomic Nervous System Diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: These are conditions that primarily affect the autonomic nervous system without any underlying cause. Examples include:
* Pure Autonomic Failure (PAF): A rare disorder characterized by progressive loss of autonomic nerve function, leading to symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, urinary retention, and constipation.
* Multiple System Atrophy (MSA): A degenerative neurological disorder that affects both the autonomic nervous system and movement coordination. Symptoms may include orthostatic hypotension, urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and Parkinsonian features like stiffness and slowness of movements.
* Autonomic Neuropathy associated with Parkinson's Disease: Some individuals with Parkinson's disease develop autonomic symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, constipation, and urinary dysfunction due to the degeneration of autonomic nerves.
2. Secondary Autonomic Nervous System Disorders: These are conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system as a result of an underlying cause or disease. Examples include:
* Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy: A complication of diabetes mellitus that affects the autonomic nerves, leading to symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying), and sexual dysfunction.
* Autoimmune-mediated Autonomic Neuropathies: Conditions like Guillain-Barré syndrome or autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy can cause autonomic symptoms due to the immune system attacking the autonomic nerves.
* Infectious Autonomic Neuropathies: Certain infections, such as HIV or Lyme disease, can lead to autonomic dysfunction as a result of nerve damage.
* Toxin-induced Autonomic Neuropathy: Exposure to certain toxins, like heavy metals or organophosphate pesticides, can cause autonomic neuropathy.

Autonomic nervous system disorders can significantly impact a person's quality of life and daily functioning. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing complications. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications, medications, and in some cases, devices or surgical interventions.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness and controls visceral functions. It is divided into two main subdivisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) prepares the body for stressful or emergency situations, often referred to as the "fight or flight" response. It increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and metabolic rate, while also decreasing digestive activity. This response helps the body respond quickly to perceived threats.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS), on the other hand, promotes the "rest and digest" state, allowing the body to conserve energy and restore itself after the stress response has subsided. It decreases heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, while increasing digestive activity and promoting relaxation.

These two systems work together to maintain balance in the body by adjusting various functions based on internal and external demands. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis, and cardiac arrhythmias, among others.

Nervous system diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. These diseases can affect various functions of the body, such as movement, sensation, cognition, and behavior. They can be caused by genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or tumors. Examples of nervous system diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, migraine, stroke, and neuroinfections like meningitis and encephalitis. The symptoms and severity of these disorders can vary widely, ranging from mild to severe and debilitating.

Central nervous system (CNS) viral diseases refer to medical conditions caused by the infection and replication of viruses within the brain or spinal cord. These viruses can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection within the CNS. Some common examples of CNS viral diseases include:

1. Meningitis: This is an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) caused by viruses such as enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus, or HIV. Symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck, and altered mental status.
2. Encephalitis: This is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by viruses such as herpes simplex virus, West Nile virus, or rabies virus. Symptoms may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and focal neurologic deficits.
3. Poliomyelitis: This is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus that can lead to paralysis of the muscles used for breathing, swallowing, and movement. It primarily affects children under 5 years old.
4. HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND): HIV can cause various neurologic symptoms such as cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and myopathy.
5. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML): This is a rare but serious demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the JC virus that primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those receiving immunosuppressive therapy.

Treatment for CNS viral diseases depends on the specific virus and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of symptoms. Prevention measures such as vaccination, avoiding contact with infected individuals, and practicing good hygiene can help reduce the risk of these infections.

Meningoencephalitis is a medical term that refers to an inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges), known as the meninges. It is often caused by an infection, such as bacterial or viral infections, that spreads to the meninges and brain. In some cases, it can also be caused by other factors like autoimmune disorders or certain medications.

The symptoms of meningoencephalitis may include fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications, such as brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities, or even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections or antiviral medications for viral infections, along with supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections refer to infectious processes that affect the brain, spinal cord, and their surrounding membranes, known as meninges. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Examples of CNS infections are:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges, usually caused by bacterial or viral infections. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain parenchyma, often caused by viral infections. Some viruses associated with encephalitis include herpes simplex virus, enteroviruses, and arboviruses.
3. Meningoencephalitis: A combined inflammation of both the brain and meninges, commonly seen in certain viral infections or when bacterial pathogens directly invade the brain.
4. Brain abscess: A localized collection of pus within the brain caused by a bacterial or fungal infection.
5. Spinal epidural abscess: An infection in the space surrounding the spinal cord, usually caused by bacteria.
6. Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord, which can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections.
7. Rarely, parasitic infections like toxoplasmosis and cysticercosis can also affect the CNS.

Symptoms of CNS infections may include fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, focal neurological deficits, or meningeal signs (e.g., Brudzinski's and Kernig's signs). The specific symptoms depend on the location and extent of the infection, as well as the causative organism. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term neurological complications or death.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal inflammatory disease of the brain characterized by seizures, cognitive decline, and motor function loss. It is caused by a persistent infection with the measles virus, even in individuals who had an uncomplicated acute measles infection earlier in life. The infection results in widespread degeneration and scarring (sclerosis) of the brain's gray matter.

The subacute phase of SSPE typically lasts for several months to a couple of years, during which patients experience a decline in cognitive abilities, behavioral changes, myoclonic jerks (involuntary muscle spasms), and visual disturbances. As the disease progresses, it leads to severe neurological impairment, coma, and eventually death.

SSPE is preventable through early childhood measles vaccination, which significantly reduces the risk of developing this fatal condition later in life.

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is a neurological disorder that occurs in people with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. It is also known as HIV-associated dementia (HAD) or HIV encephalopathy. ADC is characterized by cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, and behavioral changes that can significantly affect the individual's daily functioning and quality of life.

The symptoms of AIDS Dementia Complex may include:
- Difficulty with concentration and memory
- Slowness in thinking, processing information, or making decisions
- Changes in mood or personality, such as depression, irritability, or apathy
- Difficulty with coordination, balance, or speech
- Progressive weakness and wasting of muscles
- Difficulty with swallowing or speaking

The exact cause of ADC is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the direct effects of HIV on the brain. The virus can infect and damage nerve cells, leading to inflammation and degeneration of brain tissue. Treatment for ADC typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control HIV replication, as well as medications to manage specific symptoms. In some cases, supportive care such as physical therapy or occupational therapy may also be recommended.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Maus Elberfeld virus" doesn't seem to be a recognized term in current medical or scientific literature. It is possible that there may be some mistake or misunderstanding in the spelling or the name of the virus you are looking for.

Elberfeld is a city in Germany and "Maus" means mouse in German, so it might be referring to some virus affecting mice in Elberfeld. However, I cannot find any specific information about a virus with this exact name.

If you have more context or details, I'd be happy to help you try to find the information you need!

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

The meninges are the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. They consist of three layers: the dura mater (the outermost, toughest layer), the arachnoid mater (middle layer), and the pia mater (the innermost, delicate layer). These membranes provide protection and support to the central nervous system, and contain blood vessels that supply nutrients and remove waste products. Inflammation or infection of the meninges is called meningitis, which can be a serious medical condition requiring prompt treatment.

Demyelinating diseases are a group of disorders that are characterized by damage to the myelin sheath, which is the protective covering surrounding nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Myelin is essential for the rapid transmission of nerve impulses, and its damage results in disrupted communication between the brain and other parts of the body.

The most common demyelinating disease is multiple sclerosis (MS), where the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath. Other demyelinating diseases include:

1. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): An autoimmune disorder that typically follows a viral infection or vaccination, causing widespread inflammation and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord.
2. Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) or Devic's Disease: A rare autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to severe vision loss and motor disability.
3. Transverse Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord causing damage to both sides of one level (segment) of the spinal cord, resulting in various neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, depending on which part of the spinal cord is affected.
4. Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes rapid-onset muscle weakness, often beginning in the legs and spreading to the upper body, including the face and breathing muscles. It occurs when the immune system attacks the peripheral nerves' myelin sheath.
5. Central Pontine Myelinolysis (CPM): A rare neurological disorder caused by rapid shifts in sodium levels in the blood, leading to damage to the myelin sheath in a specific area of the brainstem called the pons.

These diseases can result in various symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision loss, difficulty with balance and coordination, and cognitive impairment, depending on the location and extent of the demyelination. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms, modifying the immune system's response, and promoting nerve regeneration and remyelination when possible.

Enterovirus infections are viral illnesses caused by enteroviruses, which are a type of picornavirus. These viruses commonly infect the gastrointestinal tract and can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific type of enterovirus and the age and overall health of the infected individual.

There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. Some enterovirus infections may be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms, while others can lead to more severe illnesses.

Common symptoms of enterovirus infections include fever, sore throat, runny nose, cough, muscle aches, and skin rashes. In some cases, enteroviruses can cause more serious complications such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and paralysis.

Enterovirus infections are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or fecal-oral transmission. They can also be spread through contaminated surfaces or objects. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for enterovirus infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. Prevention efforts include vaccination against poliovirus and surveillance for emerging enteroviruses.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

Astrocytes are a type of star-shaped glial cell found in the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord. They play crucial roles in supporting and maintaining the health and function of neurons, which are the primary cells responsible for transmitting information in the CNS.

Some of the essential functions of astrocytes include:

1. Supporting neuronal structure and function: Astrocytes provide structural support to neurons by ensheathing them and maintaining the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which helps regulate the entry and exit of substances into the CNS.
2. Regulating neurotransmitter levels: Astrocytes help control the levels of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft (the space between two neurons) by taking up excess neurotransmitters and breaking them down, thus preventing excessive or prolonged activation of neuronal receptors.
3. Providing nutrients to neurons: Astrocytes help supply energy metabolites, such as lactate, to neurons, which are essential for their survival and function.
4. Modulating synaptic activity: Through the release of various signaling molecules, astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength and plasticity, contributing to learning and memory processes.
5. Participating in immune responses: Astrocytes can respond to CNS injuries or infections by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which help recruit immune cells to the site of injury or infection.
6. Promoting neuronal survival and repair: In response to injury or disease, astrocytes can become reactive and undergo morphological changes that aid in forming a glial scar, which helps contain damage and promote tissue repair. Additionally, they release growth factors and other molecules that support the survival and regeneration of injured neurons.

Dysfunction or damage to astrocytes has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

The nervous system is a complex, highly organized network of specialized cells called neurons and glial cells that communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals to coordinate various functions and activities in the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the CNS.

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive, process, and integrate information from both internal and external environments and then respond by generating appropriate motor outputs or behaviors. This involves sensing various stimuli through specialized receptors, transmitting this information through afferent neurons to the CNS for processing, integrating this information with other inputs and memories, making decisions based on this processed information, and finally executing responses through efferent neurons that control effector organs such as muscles and glands.

The nervous system can be further divided into subsystems based on their functions, including the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and reflexes; the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological processes like heart rate, digestion, and respiration; and the enteric nervous system, which is a specialized subset of the autonomic nervous system that controls gut functions. Overall, the nervous system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating behavior, and enabling cognition and consciousness.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Ganglionic blockers are a type of medication that blocks the activity of the ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located outside the central nervous system. These medications work by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses between the ganglia and the effector organs they innervate, such as muscles or glands.

Ganglionic blockers were once used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), peptic ulcers, and certain types of pain. However, their use has largely been abandoned due to their significant side effects, which can include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and dizziness or lightheadedness upon standing.

There are two main types of ganglionic blockers: nicotinic and muscarinic. Nicotinic ganglionic blockers block the action of acetylcholine at nicotinic receptors in the ganglia, while muscarinic ganglionic blockers block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the ganglia.

Examples of ganglionic blockers include trimethaphan, hexamethonium, and pentolinium. These medications are typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to their short duration of action and potential for serious side effects.

Autonomic denervation is a medical term that refers to the interruption or loss of nerve supply to the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and pupil dilation.

Autonomic denervation can occur due to various reasons, including surgical procedures, trauma, degenerative diseases, or medical conditions such as diabetes. The interruption of nerve supply can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the specific autonomic functions that are affected.

For example, autonomic denervation in the heart can lead to abnormal heart rhythms or low blood pressure. In the digestive system, it can cause problems with motility and secretion, leading to symptoms such as bloating, constipation, or diarrhea. Autonomic denervation in the eyes can result in pupil abnormalities, dry eyes, or light sensitivity.

Treatment for autonomic denervation depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms that are present. In some cases, medication may be used to manage symptoms, while in others, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or restore nerve function.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a component of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary physiological functions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. The autonomic pathways refer to the neural connections and signaling processes that allow the ANS to carry out these functions.

The autonomic pathways consist of two main subdivisions: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). These systems have opposing effects on many organs, with the SNS generally stimulating activity and the PNS inhibiting it. The enteric nervous system, which controls gut function, is sometimes considered a third subdivision of the ANS.

The sympathetic pathway originates in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, with preganglionic neurons synapsing on postganglionic neurons in paravertebral ganglia or prevertebral ganglia. The parasympathetic pathway originates in the brainstem (cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X) and the sacral region of the spinal cord (S2-S4), with preganglionic neurons synapsing on postganglionic neurons near or within the target organ.

Acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter used in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways, although norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is also released by some postganglionic sympathetic neurons. The specific pattern of neural activation and inhibition within the autonomic pathways helps maintain homeostasis and allows for adaptive responses to changes in the internal and external environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "autonomic agents" is not a medical term or concept that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "autonomic" refers to the part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary physiological functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate. The term "agents," on the other hand, is often used in computer science and artificial intelligence to refer to software entities that can act on behalf of a user or another entity.

Therefore, "autonomic agents" might refer to software programs that are designed to regulate physiological functions autonomously, but this would be more related to the field of biomedical engineering or artificial intelligence than to medicine itself. If you have more context or information about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA), is a physiological response that reflects the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It measures changes in the electrical properties of the skin, which are influenced by the sweat gland activity. GSR is often used as an indicator of emotional arousal or psychological stress in various research and clinical settings.

An autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves injecting a local anesthetic or other medication into or near the nerves that make up the autonomic nervous system. This type of nerve block is used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system, such as neuropathy or complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling many involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and body temperature. It is made up of two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for preparing the body for "fight or flight" responses, while the parasympathetic nervous system helps the body relax and rest.

An autonomic nerve block can be used to diagnose a problem with the autonomic nervous system by temporarily blocking the nerves' signals and observing how this affects the body's functions. It can also be used to treat pain or other symptoms caused by damage to the autonomic nerves. The injection is usually given in the area near the spine, and the specific location will depend on the nerves being targeted.

It is important to note that an autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that should only be performed by a qualified healthcare professional. As with any medical procedure, there are risks and benefits associated with an autonomic nerve block, and it is important for patients to discuss these with their doctor before deciding whether this treatment is right for them.

Lamin Type A, also known as LMNA, is a gene that provides instructions for making proteins called lamins. These proteins are part of the nuclear lamina, a network of fibers that lies just inside the nuclear envelope, which is the membrane that surrounds the cell's nucleus. The nuclear lamina helps maintain the shape and stability of the nucleus and plays a role in regulating gene expression and DNA replication.

Mutations in the LMNA gene can lead to various diseases collectively known as laminopathies, which affect different tissues and organs in the body. These conditions include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction system disease, and a type of premature aging disorder called Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. The specific symptoms and severity of these disorders depend on the particular LMNA mutation and the tissues affected.

Sinus arrhythmia is a type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) where the normal rhythm generated by the sinus node in the heart varies in rate or pattern. The sinus node is the natural pacemaker of the heart and usually sets a steady pace for heartbeats. However, in sinus arrhythmia, the heart rate may speed up or slow down abnormally during breathing in (inspiration) or breathing out (expiration).

When the heart rate increases during inspiration, it is called "inspiratory sinus arrhythmia," and when the heart rate decreases during expiration, it is called "expiratory sinus arrhythmia." Most people experience a mild form of inspiratory sinus arrhythmia, which is considered normal, especially in children and young adults.

However, if the variation in heart rate is significant or accompanied by symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, or chest discomfort, it may require medical evaluation and treatment. Sinus arrhythmia can be caused by various factors, including lung disease, heart disease, electrolyte imbalances, or the use of certain medications.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

Cardiovascular physiological processes refer to the functioning and mechanisms of the heart and blood vessels to maintain adequate circulation of blood, oxygen, and nutrients throughout the body. This includes:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract and relax regularly to pump blood.
2. Cardiac output: The amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute, calculated as stroke volume (amount of blood pumped per beat) multiplied by heart rate.
3. Blood pressure: The force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels, determined by cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance.
4. Vascular tone: The degree of constriction or dilation of blood vessels, regulated by the autonomic nervous system and various hormones to maintain blood pressure and blood flow.
5. Blood flow distribution: The regulation of blood flow to different organs based on their metabolic demands, influenced by local autoregulation and neural and humoral factors.
6. Electrolyte and fluid balance: The maintenance of proper electrolyte concentrations and fluid volume in the blood and tissues, essential for cardiovascular function and overall homeostasis.
7. Cardiac and vascular response to stress: The adaptive changes in heart rate, contractility, vascular tone, and blood flow during exercise or other physiological stressors.
8. Hemostasis and thrombosis: The processes that maintain the integrity of the cardiovascular system by preventing excessive bleeding (hemostasis) while minimizing the risk of pathological clot formation (thrombosis).

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a series of organs that process food and liquids into nutrients and waste. Digestive system diseases refer to any conditions that affect the normal functioning of this system, leading to impaired digestion, absorption, or elimination of food and fluids.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Sores or ulcers that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the intestines, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
6. Diverticular Disease: A condition that affects the colon, characterized by the formation of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) that can become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation: A common digestive system issue where bowel movements occur less frequently than usual or are difficult to pass.
8. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal, often accompanied by cramps and bloating.
9. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, causing pain, inflammation, and potential blockages of the bile ducts.
10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins, leading to symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

These are just a few examples of digestive system disorders that can affect overall health and quality of life. If you experience any persistent or severe digestive symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Ambulatory electrocardiography, also known as ambulatory ECG or Holter monitoring, is a non-invasive method of recording the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period of time (typically 24 hours or more) while the patient goes about their daily activities. The device used to record the ECG is called a Holter monitor, which consists of a small, portable recorder that is attached to the patient's chest with electrodes.

The recorded data provides information on any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or electrical activity during different stages of activity and rest, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and evaluate various cardiac conditions such as arrhythmias, ischemia, and infarction. The ability to monitor the heart's activity over an extended period while the patient performs their normal activities provides valuable information that may not be captured during a standard ECG, which only records the heart's electrical activity for a few seconds.

In summary, ambulatory electrocardiography is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart over an extended period, allowing healthcare providers to diagnose and manage various cardiac conditions.

The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that directly controls the gastrointestinal tract, including the stomach, small intestine, colon, and rectum. It is sometimes referred to as the "second brain" because it can operate independently of the central nervous system (CNS).

The ENS contains around 500 million neurons that are organized into two main plexuses: the myenteric plexus, which lies between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut, and the submucosal plexus, which is located in the submucosa. These plexuses contain various types of neurons that are responsible for regulating gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow.

The ENS can communicate with the CNS through afferent nerve fibers that transmit information about the state of the gut to the brain, and efferent nerve fibers that carry signals from the brain back to the ENS. However, the ENS is also capable of functioning independently of the CNS, allowing it to regulate gastrointestinal functions in response to local stimuli such as food intake, inflammation, or infection.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Trimethaphan is a ganglionic blocker drug that is used primarily in the treatment of hypertensive emergencies. It works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses at the ganglionic synapse, leading to decreased sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. This results in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance, heart rate, and blood pressure.

Trimethaphan is administered intravenously and its effects are rapid in onset but also short-lived, typically lasting only 5-10 minutes after discontinuation of the infusion. It is therefore necessary to continuously monitor blood pressure during administration and adjust the dose as needed to maintain a stable blood pressure.

Common side effects of trimethaphan include flushing, diaphoresis, dizziness, headache, and blurred vision. More serious side effects can include bronchospasm, myocardial ischemia, and anaphylaxis. Trimethaphan should be used with caution in patients with preexisting respiratory or cardiovascular disease.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is that part of the nervous system which lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. It includes all the nerves and ganglia ( clusters of neurons) outside of the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS is divided into two components: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the CNS, and for controlling voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.

The autonomic nervous system, on the other hand, controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, and sexual arousal. It is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

Damage to the peripheral nervous system can result in various medical conditions such as neuropathies, neuritis, plexopathies, and radiculopathies, leading to symptoms like numbness, tingling, pain, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a genetic disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which controls automatic functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and digestion. It is also known as Riley-Day syndrome or Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type III (HSAN III).

FD is caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene, which provides instructions for making a protein that is essential for the development and function of certain nerves. The condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to have the disease.

The symptoms of familial dysautonomia can vary widely, but often include:

* Difficulty regulating blood pressure and heart rate, leading to fluctuations in blood pressure, dizziness, and fainting spells
* Poor temperature regulation, causing episodes of sweating or flushing
* Difficulty swallowing and poor muscle tone in the face and tongue
* Absent or reduced deep tendon reflexes
* Delayed growth and development
* Reduced sensitivity to pain and temperature changes
* Emotional lability and behavioral problems

There is no cure for familial dysautonomia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment may include medications to regulate blood pressure and heart rate, physical therapy to improve muscle tone and coordination, and feeding tubes or special diets to ensure adequate nutrition.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. Medically, it is defined as a non-selective beta blocker, which means it blocks the effects of both epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on the heart and other organs. These effects include reducing heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, leading to decreased oxygen demand by the myocardium. Propranolol is used in the management of various conditions such as hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, essential tremor, anxiety disorders, and infants with congenital heart defects. It may also be used to prevent migraines and reduce the risk of future heart attacks. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and contraindications.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is a biological system responsible for pumping and transporting blood throughout the body in animals and humans. It consists of the heart, blood vessels (comprising arteries, veins, and capillaries), and blood. The main function of this system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste products throughout the body to maintain homeostasis and support organ function.

The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes to circulate blood. It has four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body, pumps it through the lungs for oxygenation, and then sends it back to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart then pumps the oxygenated blood through the aorta and into the systemic circulation, reaching all parts of the body via a network of arteries and capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is collected by veins and returned to the right atrium, completing the cycle.

The cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in regulating temperature, pH balance, and fluid balance throughout the body. It also contributes to the immune response and wound healing processes. Dysfunctions or diseases of the cardiovascular system can lead to severe health complications, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

The baroreflex is a physiological mechanism that helps regulate blood pressure and heart rate in response to changes in stretch of the arterial walls. It is mediated by baroreceptors, which are specialized sensory nerve endings located in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. These receptors detect changes in blood pressure and send signals to the brainstem via the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX) and vagus nerves (cranial nerve X), respectively.

In response to an increase in arterial pressure, the baroreceptors are stimulated, leading to increased firing of afferent neurons that signal the brainstem. This results in a reflexive decrease in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels, which collectively work to reduce blood pressure back towards its normal level. Conversely, if arterial pressure decreases, the baroreceptors are less stimulated, leading to an increase in heart rate and cardiac output, as well as vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels, which helps restore blood pressure.

Overall, the baroreflex is a crucial homeostatic mechanism that helps maintain stable blood pressure and ensure adequate perfusion of vital organs.

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

Hexamethonium is defined as a ganglionic blocker, which is a type of medication that blocks the activity at the junction between two nerve cells (neurons) called the neurotransmitter receptor site. It is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, which means it works by binding to and inhibiting the action of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the motor endplate, where the nerve meets the muscle.

Hexamethonium was historically used in anesthesia practice as a adjunct to provide muscle relaxation during surgical procedures. However, its use has largely been replaced by other neuromuscular blocking agents that have a faster onset and shorter duration of action. It is still used in research settings to study the autonomic nervous system and for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies in some cases.

It's important to note that the use of Hexamethonium requires careful monitoring and management, as it can have significant effects on cardiovascular function and other body systems.

Parasympatholytics are a type of medication that blocks the action of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digest response, which includes slowing the heart rate, increasing intestinal and glandular activity, and promoting urination and defecation.

Parasympatholytics work by selectively binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and digestive system. By blocking these receptors, parasympatholytics can cause a range of effects, such as an increased heart rate, decreased glandular secretions, and reduced intestinal motility.

Some common examples of parasympatholytics include atropine, scopolamine, and ipratropium. These medications are often used to treat conditions such as bradycardia (slow heart rate), excessive salivation, and gastrointestinal cramping or diarrhea. However, because they can have significant side effects, parasympatholytics are typically used only when necessary and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Muscarinic antagonists, also known as muscarinic receptor antagonists or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which helps to regulate various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

Muscarinic antagonists work by binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract. By blocking the action of acetylcholine at these receptors, muscarinic antagonists can produce a range of effects depending on the specific receptor subtype that is affected.

For example, muscarinic antagonists may be used to treat conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways and reducing bronchoconstriction. They may also be used to treat conditions such as urinary incontinence or overactive bladder by reducing bladder contractions.

Some common muscarinic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and tiotropium. It's important to note that these drugs can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, and confusion, especially when used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time.

Parasympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the interruption or removal of part of the parasympathetic nervous system, which is a division of the autonomic nervous system. This type of surgery is typically performed to help manage certain medical conditions such as hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's disease, and some types of chronic pain.

The parasympathetic nervous system helps regulate many automatic functions in the body, including heart rate, digestion, and respiration. By interrupting or removing portions of this system, a parasympathectomy can help to reduce excessive sweating, improve circulation, or alleviate pain. However, it's important to note that this type of surgery carries risks and potential complications, and is typically only considered as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

The Valsalva maneuver is a medical procedure that involves forced exhalation against a closed airway, typically by closing one's mouth, pinching the nose shut, and then blowing. This maneuver increases the pressure in the chest and affects the heart's filling and pumping capabilities, as well as the pressures within the ears and eyes.

It is often used during medical examinations to test for conditions such as heart murmurs or to help clear the ears during changes in air pressure (like when scuba diving or flying). It can also be used to help diagnose or monitor conditions related to the autonomic nervous system, such as orthostatic hypotension or dysautonomia.

However, it's important to perform the Valsalva maneuver correctly and under medical supervision, as improper technique or overdoing it can lead to adverse effects like increased heart rate, changes in blood pressure, or even damage to the eardrum.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms refer to a group of abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant, and their growth can compress or disrupt the normal functioning of surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue.

Benign CNS neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause significant problems if they grow large enough to put pressure on vital structures within the brain or spinal cord. Malignant CNS neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue. They may also spread to other parts of the CNS or, rarely, to other organs in the body.

CNS neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain or spinal cord, including nerve cells, glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), and supportive tissues such as blood vessels. The specific type of CNS neoplasm is often used to help guide treatment decisions and determine prognosis.

Symptoms of CNS neoplasms can vary widely depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis, vision or hearing changes, balance problems, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality. Treatment options for CNS neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Autonomic ganglia are collections of neurons located outside the central nervous system (CNS) that are a part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is responsible for controlling various involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.

Autonomic ganglia receive inputs from preganglionic neurons, whose cell bodies are located in the CNS, and send outputs to effector organs through postganglionic neurons. The autonomic ganglia can be divided into two main subsystems: the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Sympathetic ganglia are typically located close to the spinal cord and receive inputs from preganglionic neurons whose cell bodies are located in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord. The postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system release noradrenaline (also known as norepinephrine) as their primary neurotransmitter, which acts on effector organs to produce a range of responses such as increasing heart rate and blood pressure, dilating pupils, and promoting glucose mobilization.

Parasympathetic ganglia are typically located closer to the target organs and receive inputs from preganglionic neurons whose cell bodies are located in the brainstem and sacral regions of the spinal cord. The postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system release acetylcholine as their primary neurotransmitter, which acts on effector organs to produce a range of responses such as decreasing heart rate and blood pressure, constricting pupils, and promoting digestion and urination.

Overall, autonomic ganglia play a critical role in regulating various physiological functions that are essential for maintaining homeostasis in the body.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Glycopyrrolate is an anticholinergic medication that works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical messenger in the body. It reduces the secretions of certain organs and is used to treat various conditions such as peptic ulcers, reducing saliva production during surgical procedures, preventing motion sickness, and managing some symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

In medical terms, glycopyrrolate is a competitive antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It has a particular affinity for the M1, M2, and M3 receptor subtypes. By blocking these receptors, it inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system's effects on various organs, leading to decreased glandular secretions (such as saliva, sweat, and gastric acid), slowed heart rate, and relaxation of smooth muscles in the digestive tract and bronchioles.

Glycopyrrolate is available in oral, intravenous, and topical forms and should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, drowsiness, and urinary retention.

Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. The most well-known catecholamines are dopamine, norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These hormones are produced by the adrenal glands and are released into the bloodstream in response to stress. They play important roles in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness. In addition to their role as hormones, catecholamines also function as neurotransmitters, transmitting signals in the nervous system. Disorders of catecholamine regulation can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension, mood disorders, and neurological disorders.

Chlorisondamine is a type of drug called an anticholinergic, which works by blocking the action of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body. It is a type of ganglionic blocker, which means that it blocks the activity of the ganglia, clusters of nerve cells that help transmit signals throughout the nervous system. Chlorisondamine has been used in the past to treat conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure) and certain types of muscle spasms. However, it is not commonly used today due to the availability of safer and more effective treatment options.

Chlorisondamine is a synthetic compound that was first synthesized in the 1940s. It has a number of effects on the body, including decreasing heart rate and reducing the force of heart contractions. It also causes relaxation of smooth muscle tissue, which can lead to decreased blood pressure and reduced secretions from glands such as the sweat glands and salivary glands.

Like other anticholinergic drugs, chlorisondamine can cause a number of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and dizziness. It can also cause more serious side effects such as rapid heartbeat, confusion, hallucinations, and seizures. Chlorisondamine should be used with caution and only under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Medical Definition of Massage:

Massage is defined as the manual manipulation of soft body tissues (such as muscle, connective tissue, tendons, and ligaments) to enhance health and well-being. It involves various techniques that include kneading, rubbing, pressing, and stretching the muscles and fascia (the connective tissue that covers the muscles).

The goal of massage is to increase circulation, relieve tension, reduce muscle stiffness and pain, promote relaxation, and improve range of motion and overall flexibility. Massage therapy may be used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including anxiety, headaches, insomnia, joint pain, soft tissue injuries, and sports-related injuries.

It is important to note that massage should be performed by a trained and licensed professional to ensure safety and effectiveness. Additionally, individuals with certain health conditions, such as deep vein thrombosis, fractures, or infectious diseases, should avoid massage or consult their healthcare provider before receiving treatment.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

Immune system diseases, also known as immunological disorders or autoimmune diseases, refer to a group of conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy tissues in the body. The immune system is designed to protect the body from harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and toxins. However, in immune system diseases, the immune system fails to distinguish between these harmful substances and the body's own cells, leading to an overactive or misdirected response.

There are several types of immune system diseases, including:

1. Allergies: An abnormal immune response to harmless substances such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Autoimmune disorders: A group of conditions in which the immune system attacks healthy tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis.
3. Immunodeficiency disorders: Conditions that weaken the immune system, making it harder for the body to fight off infections, such as HIV/AIDS or primary immunodeficiency diseases.
4. Autoinflammatory disorders: A group of conditions characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation due to abnormal activation of the immune system, such as familial Mediterranean fever and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.
5. Transplant rejection: A response in which the immune system attacks and rejects transplanted organs or tissues.

Immune system diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the specific condition and the severity of the disease. Treatment may involve medications to suppress the immune system, as well as other therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas, specifically by the F cells located in the islets of Langerhans. It is a small protein consisting of 36 amino acids, and it plays a role in regulating digestive functions, particularly by inhibiting pancreatic enzyme secretion and gastric acid secretion.

PP is released into the bloodstream in response to food intake, especially when nutrients such as proteins and fats are present in the stomach. It acts on the brain to produce a feeling of fullness or satiety, which helps to regulate appetite and eating behavior. Additionally, PP has been shown to have effects on glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, and energy balance.

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the potential therapeutic uses of PP for a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and clinical applications.

Hypoventilation is a medical condition that refers to the decreased rate and depth of breathing, which leads to an inadequate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. As a result, there is an increase in the levels of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and a decrease in the levels of oxygen (hypoxemia) in the blood. Hypoventilation can occur due to various reasons such as respiratory muscle weakness, sedative or narcotic overdose, chest wall deformities, neuromuscular disorders, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and sleep-disordered breathing. Prolonged hypoventilation can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Adrenergic agents are a class of drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors, which are cell surface receptors found in the nervous system and other tissues. These receptors are activated by neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline), which are released by the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or excitement.

Adrenergic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and the specific receptors they bind to. There are two main types of adrenergic receptors: alpha and beta receptors, each with several subtypes. Some adrenergic agents bind to both alpha and beta receptors, while others are selective for one or the other.

Adrenergic agents have a wide range of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of asthma, cardiovascular diseases, glaucoma, and neurological disorders. They can also be used as diagnostic tools to test the function of the sympathetic nervous system. Some examples of adrenergic agents include:

* Alpha-agonists: These drugs bind to alpha receptors and cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can be useful in the treatment of hypotension (low blood pressure) or nasal congestion. Examples include phenylephrine and oxymetazoline.
* Alpha-antagonists: These drugs block the action of alpha receptors, leading to vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) and a decrease in blood pressure. Examples include prazosin and doxazosin.
* Beta-agonists: These drugs bind to beta receptors and cause bronchodilation (opening of the airways), increased heart rate, and increased force of heart contractions. They are used in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory disorders. Examples include albuterol and salmeterol.
* Beta-antagonists: These drugs block the action of beta receptors, leading to a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation. They are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina (chest pain), and heart failure. Examples include metoprolol and atenolol.
* Nonselective alpha- and beta-antagonists: These drugs block both alpha and beta receptors and are used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, and heart failure. Examples include labetalol and carvedilol.

Psychophysiology is a branch of psychology that deals with the scientific study of the relationships between physical processes (such as heart rate, skin conductance, brain activity) and mental or emotional states. It involves the use of physiological measures to understand psychological phenomena and how they relate to behavior. This field of study often employs various research methods, including laboratory experiments, observational studies, and neuroimaging techniques, to examine these relationships in both healthy individuals and those with psychological disorders. The goal of psychophysiology is to better understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral functioning.

Oxymetazoline is a direct-acting mainly α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, which is primarily used as a nasal decongestant and an ophthalmic vasoconstrictor. It constricts blood vessels, reducing swelling and fluid accumulation in the lining of the nose, thereby providing relief from nasal congestion due to allergies or colds. Oxymetazoline is available over-the-counter in various forms, such as nasal sprays, drops, and creams. It's important to follow the recommended usage guidelines, as prolonged use of oxymetazoline can lead to a rebound effect, causing further congestion.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS) is a rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, digestion, and pupil dilation. SDS is also known as multiple system atrophy with orthostatic hypotension or Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome.

SDS is characterized by a combination of symptoms related to the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, including:

1. Orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing)
2. Autonomic failure (manifesting as erectile dysfunction, urinary retention or incontinence, and gastrointestinal disturbances)
3. Parkinsonian features (tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability)
4. Respiratory abnormalities (breathing difficulties, especially during sleep)
5. Ocular symptoms (abnormal pupil dilation and convergence insufficiency)
6. Smooth muscle atrophy (leading to reduced bladder capacity and gastrointestinal motility issues)

The underlying cause of Shy-Drager syndrome is the degeneration of nerve cells in specific areas of the brain, particularly within the autonomic nervous system centers. The exact etiology remains unclear; however, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no known cure for SDS, and treatment primarily focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Bradycardia is a medical term that refers to an abnormally slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute in adults. While some people, particularly well-trained athletes, may have a naturally low resting heart rate, bradycardia can also be a sign of an underlying health problem.

There are several potential causes of bradycardia, including:

* Damage to the heart's electrical conduction system, such as from heart disease or aging
* Certain medications, including beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and digoxin
* Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland)
* Sleep apnea
* Infection of the heart (endocarditis or myocarditis)
* Infiltrative diseases such as amyloidosis or sarcoidosis

Symptoms of bradycardia can vary depending on the severity and underlying cause. Some people with bradycardia may not experience any symptoms, while others may feel weak, fatigued, dizzy, or short of breath. In severe cases, bradycardia can lead to fainting, confusion, or even cardiac arrest.

Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the slow heart rate, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heart's rhythm. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bradycardia, as it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Impedance cardiography is a non-invasive method to measure cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. It uses low-frequency electrical currents passed through the thorax to measure changes in impedance or resistance to flow during each heartbeat. This allows for the calculation of stroke volume and cardiac output. Impedance cardiography can provide continuous, real-time monitoring of cardiovascular function, making it useful in critical care settings and for tracking changes in patients with heart failure or other cardiovascular conditions.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

The supine position is a term used in medicine to describe a body posture where an individual is lying down on their back, with their face and torso facing upwards. This position is often adopted during various medical procedures, examinations, or when resting, as it allows for easy access to the front of the body. It is also the position automatically assumed by most people who are falling asleep.

It's important to note that in the supine position, the head can be flat on the surface or raised with the use of pillows or specialized medical equipment like a hospital bed. This can help to alleviate potential issues such as breathing difficulties or swelling in the face and head.

In a medical context, relaxation generally refers to the reduction or release of tension in muscles, as well as a state of mental calmness and composure. This can be achieved through various techniques such as deep breathing exercises, progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, yoga, and other forms of stress management. The goal of relaxation is to reduce physical and emotional stress, lower blood pressure, improve sleep quality, and enhance overall well-being.

It's important to note that while relaxation can have many benefits for mental and physical health, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or therapy for any underlying conditions. Always consult with a healthcare professional for advice on managing your health.

Neurosecretory systems are specialized components of the nervous system that produce and release chemical messengers called neurohormones. These neurohormones are released into the bloodstream and can have endocrine effects on various target organs in the body. The cells that make up neurosecretory systems, known as neurosecretory cells, are found in specific regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, and in peripheral nerves.

Neurosecretory systems play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including fluid and electrolyte balance, stress responses, growth and development, reproductive functions, and behavior. The neurohormones released by these systems can act synergistically or antagonistically to maintain homeostasis and coordinate the body's response to internal and external stimuli.

Neurosecretory cells are characterized by their ability to synthesize and store neurohormones in secretory granules, which are released upon stimulation. The release of neurohormones can be triggered by a variety of signals, including neural impulses, hormonal changes, and other physiological cues. Once released into the bloodstream, neurohormones can travel to distant target organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a range of responses.

Overall, neurosecretory systems are an essential component of the neuroendocrine system, which plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of human physiology and behavior.

Adrenergic beta-antagonists, also known as beta blockers, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on beta-adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and blood vessels.

Beta blockers work by binding to these receptors and preventing the activation of certain signaling pathways that lead to increased heart rate, force of heart contractions, and relaxation of blood vessels. As a result, beta blockers can lower blood pressure, reduce heart rate, and decrease the workload on the heart.

Beta blockers are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), heart failure, irregular heart rhythms, migraines, and certain anxiety disorders. Some common examples of beta blockers include metoprolol, atenolol, propranolol, and bisoprolol.

It is important to note that while beta blockers can have many benefits, they can also cause side effects such as fatigue, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Additionally, sudden discontinuation of beta blocker therapy can lead to rebound hypertension or worsening chest pain. Therefore, it is important to follow the dosing instructions provided by a healthcare provider carefully when taking these medications.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A tilt-table test is a diagnostic procedure used to evaluate symptoms of syncope (fainting) or near-syncope. It measures your body's cardiovascular response to changes in position. During the test, you lie on a table that can be tilted to change the angle of your body from horizontal to upright. This simulates what happens when you stand up from a lying down position.

The test monitors heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen levels while you're in different positions. If you experience symptoms like dizziness or fainting during the test, these can provide clues about the cause of your symptoms. The test is used to diagnose conditions like orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure when standing), vasovagal syncope (fainting due to an overactive vagus nerve), and other heart rhythm disorders.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a medical treatment that involves the use of a device to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve, which is a key part of the body's autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls various automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and digestion.

In VNS, a small generator is implanted in the chest, and thin wires are routed under the skin to the vagus nerve in the neck. The generator is programmed to send electrical signals to the vagus nerve at regular intervals. These signals can help regulate certain body functions and have been found to be effective in treating a number of conditions, including epilepsy and depression.

The exact mechanism by which VNS works is not fully understood, but it is thought to affect the release of neurotransmitters, chemicals that transmit signals in the brain. This can help reduce seizure activity in people with epilepsy and improve mood and other symptoms in people with depression.

VNS is typically used as a last resort for people who have not responded to other treatments. It is generally considered safe, but like any medical procedure, it does carry some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to the vagus nerve or surrounding tissues.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Atrial function in a medical context refers to the role and performance of the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The main functions of the atria are to receive blood from the veins and help pump it into the ventricles, which are the lower pumping chambers of the heart.

The atria contract in response to electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This contraction helps to fill the ventricles with blood before they contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial function can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECGs), which can help identify any abnormalities in atrial structure or electrical activity that may affect heart function.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Neuroimmunomodulation is a complex process that refers to the interaction and communication between the nervous system (including the brain, spinal cord, and nerves) and the immune system. This interaction can have modulatory effects on both systems, influencing their functions and responses.

In simpler terms, neuroimmunomodulation describes how the nervous system and the immune system can affect each other's activities, leading to changes in behavior, inflammation, and immune response. For example, stress or depression can influence the immune system's ability to fight off infections, while an overactive immune response can lead to neurological symptoms such as fatigue, confusion, or mood changes.

Neuroimmunomodulation plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and health in the body, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and mental health conditions. Understanding this complex interplay is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that measures the magnetic fields produced by the electrical activity of the heart. It uses highly sensitive devices called magnetometers to detect and record these magnetic signals, which are then processed and analyzed to provide information about the heart's electrical function and structure.

MCG can be used to detect and monitor various cardiac conditions, including arrhythmias, ischemia (reduced blood flow to the heart), and myocardial infarction (heart attack). It can also help in identifying abnormalities in the heart's conduction system and assessing the effectiveness of treatments such as pacemakers.

One advantage of MCG over other diagnostic techniques like electrocardiography (ECG) is that it is not affected by the conductive properties of body tissues, which can distort ECG signals. This makes MCG a more accurate tool for measuring the heart's magnetic fields and can provide additional information about the underlying electrical activity. However, MCG requires specialized equipment and shielding to reduce interference from external magnetic sources, making it less widely available than ECG.

Telemetry is the automated measurement and wireless transmission of data from remote or inaccessible sources to receiving stations for monitoring and analysis. In a medical context, telemetry is often used to monitor patients' vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other important physiological parameters continuously and remotely. This technology allows healthcare providers to track patients' conditions over time, detect any abnormalities or trends, and make informed decisions about their care, even when they are not physically present with the patient. Telemetry is commonly used in hospitals, clinics, and research settings to monitor patients during procedures, after surgery, or during extended stays in intensive care units.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

Adrenergic fibers are a type of nerve fiber that releases neurotransmitters known as catecholamines, such as norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline). These neurotransmitters bind to adrenergic receptors in various target organs, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, glands, and other tissues, and mediate the "fight or flight" response to stress.

Adrenergic fibers can be classified into two types based on their neurotransmitter content:

1. Noradrenergic fibers: These fibers release norepinephrine as their primary neurotransmitter and are widely distributed throughout the autonomic nervous system, including the sympathetic and some parasympathetic ganglia. They play a crucial role in regulating cardiovascular function, respiration, metabolism, and other physiological processes.
2. Adrenergic fibers with dual innervation: These fibers contain both norepinephrine and epinephrine as neurotransmitters and are primarily located in the adrenal medulla. They release epinephrine into the bloodstream, which acts on distant target organs to produce a more widespread and intense "fight or flight" response than norepinephrine alone.

Overall, adrenergic fibers play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and responding to stress by modulating various physiological functions through the release of catecholamines.

Head-down tilt (HDT) is a positioning technique often used in medical settings, particularly during diagnostic procedures or treatment interventions. In this position, the person lies down on a specially designed table with their head tilted below the horizontal plane, typically at an angle of 6 degrees to 15 degrees, but sometimes as steep as 90 degrees. This posture allows for various medical evaluations such as carotid sinus massage or intracranial pressure monitoring. It is also used in space medicine to simulate some effects of weightlessness on the human body during spaceflight. Please note that prolonged exposure to head-down tilt can have physiological consequences, including changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and eye function, which should be monitored and managed by healthcare professionals.

Pressoreceptors are specialized sensory nerve endings found in the walls of blood vessels, particularly in the carotid sinus and aortic arch. They respond to changes in blood pressure by converting the mechanical stimulus into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain. This information helps regulate cardiovascular function and maintain blood pressure homeostasis.

Sympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves interrupting the sympathetic nerve pathways. These nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestion. The goal of sympathectomy is to manage conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's phenomenon, and certain types of chronic pain.

There are different types of sympathectomy, including thoracic sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the chest), lumbar sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the lower back), and cervical sympathectomy (which targets the sympathetic nerves in the neck). The specific type of procedure depends on the location of the affected nerves and the condition being treated.

Sympathectomy is usually performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as endoscopic surgery, which involves making small incisions and using specialized instruments to access the nerves. While sympathectomy can be effective in managing certain conditions, it carries risks such as nerve damage, bleeding, infection, and chronic pain.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

Fetal heart rate (FHR) is the number of times a fetus's heart beats in one minute. It is measured through the use of a fetoscope, Doppler ultrasound device, or cardiotocograph (CTG). A normal FHR ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute (bpm), although it can vary throughout pregnancy and is usually faster than an adult's heart rate. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other conditions that require medical attention. Regular monitoring of FHR during pregnancy, labor, and delivery helps healthcare providers assess fetal well-being and ensure a safe outcome for both the mother and the baby.

Nervous system neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that occur within the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their growth can compress or infiltrate surrounding tissues, leading to various neurological symptoms. The causes of nervous system neoplasms are not fully understood but may involve genetic factors, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and certain viral infections. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and size of the tumor and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Respiratory rate is the number of breaths a person takes per minute. It is typically measured by counting the number of times the chest rises and falls in one minute. Normal respiratory rate at rest for an adult ranges from 12 to 20 breaths per minute. An increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) or decreased respiratory rate (bradypnea) can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as lung disease, heart failure, or neurological disorders. It is an important vital sign that should be regularly monitored in clinical settings.

Adrenergic neurons are specialized type of nerve cells that release and utilize catecholamines, particularly norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and to a lesser extent, epinephrine (adrenaline), as their primary neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters play crucial roles in the body's sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response during stressful situations.

Adrenergic neurons are primarily located in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS, they are found mainly in brainstem nuclei, such as the locus coeruleus, which is the primary source of norepinephrine. In the PNS, adrenergic neurons are part of the sympathetic ganglia and innervate various target organs, including the heart, blood vessels, lungs, glands, and other smooth muscles.

The activation of adrenergic receptors by norepinephrine or epinephrine leads to a range of physiological responses, such as increased heart rate, contractility, and blood pressure; bronchodilation in the lungs; and modulation of pain perception, attention, and arousal in the CNS. Dysfunction of adrenergic neurons has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease.

Adrenergic agonists are medications or substances that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors, which are a type of receptor in the body that respond to neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).

There are two main types of adrenergic receptors: alpha and beta receptors. Alpha-adrenergic agonists activate alpha receptors, while beta-adrenergic agonists activate beta receptors. These medications can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on which type of receptor they act on.

Alpha-adrenergic agonists are often used to treat conditions such as nasal congestion, glaucoma, and low blood pressure. Examples include phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, and clonidine.

Beta-adrenergic agonists are commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They work by relaxing the smooth muscle in the airways, which makes it easier to breathe. Examples include albuterol, salmeterol, and formoterol.

It's important to note that adrenergic agonists can have both desired and undesired effects on the body. They should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, who can monitor their effectiveness and potential side effects.

Orthostatic hypotension is a type of low blood pressure that occurs when you stand up from a sitting or lying position. The drop in blood pressure causes a brief period of lightheadedness or dizziness, and can even cause fainting in some cases. This condition is also known as postural hypotension.

Orthostatic hypotension is caused by a rapid decrease in blood pressure when you stand up, which reduces the amount of blood that reaches your brain. Normally, when you stand up, your body compensates for this by increasing your heart rate and constricting blood vessels to maintain blood pressure. However, if these mechanisms fail or are impaired, orthostatic hypotension can occur.

Orthostatic hypotension is more common in older adults, but it can also affect younger people who have certain medical conditions or take certain medications. Some of the risk factors for orthostatic hypotension include dehydration, prolonged bed rest, pregnancy, diabetes, heart disease, Parkinson's disease, and certain neurological disorders.

If you experience symptoms of orthostatic hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment options. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, such as increasing fluid intake, avoiding alcohol and caffeine, and gradually changing positions from lying down or sitting to standing up. In some cases, medication may be necessary to manage orthostatic hypotension.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Adrenergic antagonists, also known as beta blockers or sympatholytic drugs, are a class of medications that block the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline (also known as epinephrine and norepinephrine) on the body. These neurotransmitters are part of the sympathetic nervous system and play a role in the "fight or flight" response, increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate.

Adrenergic antagonists work by binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in the body, preventing the neurotransmitters from activating them. This results in a decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. These medications are used to treat various conditions such as hypertension, angina, heart failure, arrhythmias, glaucoma, and anxiety disorders.

There are two types of adrenergic antagonists: beta blockers and alpha blockers. Beta blockers selectively bind to beta-adrenergic receptors, while alpha blockers bind to alpha-adrenergic receptors. Some medications, such as labetalol, have both beta and alpha blocking properties.

It is important to note that adrenergic antagonists can interact with other medications and may cause side effects, so it is essential to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Sympathetic ganglia are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions. These ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system, along the spinal cord. They serve as a relay station for signals sent from the central nervous system to the organs and glands. The sympathetic ganglia are responsible for the "fight or flight" response, releasing neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine that prepare the body for action in response to stress or danger.

Hexamethonium compounds are a type of ganglionic blocker, which are medications that block the transmission of nerve impulses at the ganglia ( clusters of nerve cells) in the autonomic nervous system. These compounds contain hexamethonium as the active ingredient, which is a compound with the chemical formula C16H32N2O4.

Hexamethonium works by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the ganglia, which prevents the release of neurotransmitters and ultimately inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses. This can have various effects on the body, depending on which part of the autonomic nervous system is affected.

Hexamethonium compounds were once used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but they are rarely used today due to their numerous side effects and the availability of safer and more effective medications. Some of the side effects associated with hexamethonium include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and dizziness upon standing.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Ganglionic stimulants are a type of medication that act on the ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located outside the central nervous system. These medications work by stimulating the ganglia, leading to an increase in the transmission of nerve impulses and the activation of various physiological responses.

Ganglionic stimulants were once used in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and cardiovascular disease. However, their use has largely been discontinued due to the development of safer and more effective treatments. These medications can have significant side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, dizziness, headache, and in rare cases, seizures and coma.

It's important to note that the medical community no longer recommends the use of ganglionic stimulants due to their potential for serious harm. If you have any questions about medications or treatments for a particular condition, it's best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Postganglionic sympathetic fibers are the portion of the sympathetic nervous system's nerve fibers that originate from the cell bodies located in the ganglia ( clusters of neurons) outside the spinal cord. After leaving the ganglia, these postganglionic fibers travel to and innervate target organs such as sweat glands, blood vessels, and various smooth muscles, releasing neurotransmitters like norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y to regulate physiological functions. Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter released by postganglionic fibers that innervate sweat glands.

Electroacupuncture is a form of acupuncture where a small electric current is passed between pairs of acupuncture needles. This technique is used to stimulate the acupoints more strongly and consistently than with manual acupuncture. The intensity of the electrical impulses can be adjusted depending on the patient's comfort level and the desired therapeutic effect. Electroacupuncture is often used to treat conditions such as chronic pain, muscle spasms, and paralysis. It may also be used in the treatment of addiction, weight loss, and stroke rehabilitation.

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... becomes a great concern for the elderly since strokes and Alzheimer's disease can interfere with the autonomic nervous system. ... The autonomic nervous system (ANS) coordinates this process in the pharyngeal and esophageal phases. Prior to the following ... The oral phase, which is entirely voluntary, is mainly controlled by the medial temporal lobes and limbic system of the ...
Her published research has been chiefly on the autonomic nervous system and its relation to disease especially in primary ... "Abnormalities in pH Handling by Peripheral Muscle and Potential Regulation by the Autonomic Nervous System in Chronic Fatigue ... She has also worked to establish a link between autonomic dysfunction and muscle fatigue linking POTS with abnormal muscle PH ... Complex Disease Genetics Research Group She has worked on a wide range of research programmes. ...
The Autonomic Nervous System, 1963; Our most interesting Diseases, 1964; A Defence of John Balliol, 1970 Bulbring, E.; Walker, ... Burn worked on the internal control of the body by the autonomic nervous system, carrying out seminal work on the release of ... Functions of Autonomic Transmitters, 1956; The Principles of Therapeutics, 1957; Drugs, Medicines and Man, 1962; ...
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... and autonomic nervous systems. Stroke Parkinson's disease Alzheimer's disease Huntington's disease Multiple sclerosis ... History of neuroscience Outline of the human nervous system Action potential Acetylcholinesterase Central nervous system (CNS) ... Neurophysiology is the study of the function (as opposed to structure) of the nervous system. Brain mapping Electrophysiology ... Neural oscillation Molecular neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that examines the biology of the nervous system with ...
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"The Autonomic Nervous System in its Relation to Some Forms of Heart and Lung Disease: I. Heart Disease". BMJ. 2 (5038): 173-9. ... The Autonomic Nervous System in its Relation to Some Forms of Heart and Lung Disease 1958 Aubrey Leatham, Auscultation of the ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)70876-2. Feiling, A. (1922). "THE INTERPRETATION OF SYMPTOMS IN DISEASE OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ... and Diseases of the Liver. 1793 John Latham 1794 Matthew Baillie On the Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System, in ...
... the cause of orthostatic hypotensive faints is structural damage to the autonomic nervous system due to systemic diseases (e.g ... The faint in this case is primarily caused by an abnormal nervous system reaction similar to the reflex faints. Women are ... Diseases involving the shape and strength of the heart can be a cause of reduced blood flow to the brain, which increases risk ... Arterial disease in the upper spinal cord, or lower brain that causes syncope if there is a reduction in blood supply. This may ...
... are a rare group of autosomal dominant diseases wherein the autonomic nervous system and/or other nerves are compromised by ... The aggregation of one precursor protein leads to peripheral neuropathy and/or autonomic nervous system dysfunction. These ... Grogan, Kevin (19 June 2012). "FDA rejects Pfizer rare disease drug tafamidis". Pharma Times. (Wikipedia articles that are too ... July 2006). "Impact of liver transplantation on cardiac autonomic denervation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy". Medicine ( ...
... autoimmune disease - autonomic nervous system - autosome - auxin - axillary bud - axon bacillary band - bacteria - ... nervous system - neural plate - neural tube - neuron - neuroscience - neurospora crassa - neurotransmitter - neurula - neutral ... immune system - immunology - inbreeding - inducibility - infectious disease carrier - infertility - inner matrix - insect - ... central nervous system - centriole - centrosome - cerebellum - cerebral cortex - cerebrum - chaperonin - chemiosmosis - ...
... type I Autonomic dysfunction Autonomic nervous system diseases Avian Flu Avoidant personality disorder Axial mesodermal ... This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "A". Diseases Alphabetical list 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T ... extrinsic allergic Alves Dos Santos Castello syndrome Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease, early-onset Alzheimer's disease ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Lists of diseases). ...
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... but also a new therapy for relieving and curing diseases, by affecting the autonomic nervous system, organs and glands in the ... Two distinct (but not incompatible) theories have emerged for how the nervous system coordinates redundant elements: ... While accurate and credible, these systems can come at high capital and operational costs. Modern-day systems have increased ... there are effectively an unlimited number of ways the nervous system could achieve that task. This redundancy appears at ...
Peripheral nervous system disorders, Autonomic ganglia, Autoimmune diseases). ... Vernino, Steven; Low, Phillip A. (2012). "Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy". Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. pp. 489 ... Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare form of dysautonomia in which the immune system produces ganglionic anti- ... In idiopathic AAG, the body's own immune system targets a receptor in the autonomic ganglia, which is part of a peripheral ...
Dart A (2002-02-15). "Gender, sex hormones and autonomic nervous control of the cardiovascular system". Cardiovascular Research ... Coronary Artery Disease (also known as coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease) is a result of the build-up of ... Similarly, RA increases the risk of death from CVD by 50%. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system reacts to the individual's ... Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an umbrella term for a wide range of diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, including ...
Some diseases, such as Chagas disease, Hirschsprung's disease and others damage the autonomic nervous system in the colon's ... inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and colitis, and autoimmune diseases such as amyloidosis, celiac disease, ... Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 45 (6): 833-5. doi:10.1007/s10350-004-6306-x. PMID 12072639. S2CID 19185688. Fagelman, D; ... Diseases of the Colon and Rectum. 52 (3): 534-7. doi:10.1007/DCR.0b013e318199db36. PMID 19333059. Kumar, P; Pearce, O; ...
People may also experience additional symptoms related to irregular reactions of the autonomic nervous system. These symptoms ... the balance system (vestibular system) and the hearing system (cochlea) of the inner ear are affected, but some cases occur ... Ménière's disease (MD) is a disease of the inner ear that is characterized by potentially severe and incapacitating episodes of ... Finally in 1995, the list was again altered to allow for degrees of the disease: Certain - Definite disease with ...
... which is a collection of various syndromes and diseases which affect the autonomic neurons of the autonomic nervous system (ANS ... PPachner, A. R. (1988). "Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: The new "great imitator"". Annals of the New York Academy ... cysts that occur in the central nervous system such as dermoid cysts and arachnoid cysts can cause neuropsychiatric symptoms ... Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made within 5 to 13 years."(Blanchet C, Luton JP. 2002)"This disease should be diagnostically ...
The failure to regulate emotions cognitively might result in prolonged elevations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and ... The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 179 (8): 490-494. doi:10.1097/00005053-199108000-00007. PMID 1856712. S2CID 12385601 ... A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior. 49 (3): 899-904. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.10.015. PMID ... A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior. 81: 215-220. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.03.021. PMC 4962768. ...
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336.9 Unspecified diseases of spinal cord 337 Disorders of the autonomic nervous system 337.0 Idiopathic peripheral autonomic ... This is a shortened version of the sixth chapter of the ICD-9: Diseases of the Nervous System and Sense Organs. It covers ICD ... sclerosis 341 Other demyelinating diseases of central nervous system 341.0 Neuromyelitis optica 341.1 Schilder's disease 341.8 ... Infectious and parasitic diseases. However, as it results in a disorder of the nervous system, it is also listed in this ...
... initiative in bioelectric medicine in which the autonomic nervous system's impact on the immune system and inflammatory disease ... has a variety of central nervous system targets, depending on the target pathology. For Parkinson's disease central nervous ... of neurostimulation of the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system for the treatment of chronic pain and ischemic diseases: ... Stanton-Hicks M, Salamon J (January 1997). "Stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous system for the control of pain". ...
... function refers to the autonomic nervous system control of sweat gland activity in response to various environmental ... neurodegenerative diseases, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. Sudomotor dysfunction can manifest as ... Impaired sudomotor function can occur in any disorder that directly and/or indirectly affects the autonomic nervous system, ... Freeman, Roy; Chapleau, Mark W. (2013). "Testing the autonomic nervous system". Peripheral Nerve Disorders. Handbook of ...
Systems that developed techniques for transtelephonic monitoring of cardiac rhythm disturbances and autonomic nervous system ... Journal of Central Nervous System Disease. 2012 (4): 65-72. doi:10.4137/JCNSD.S9381. PMC 3619436. PMID 23650468. Shell, William ... Journal of Central Nervous System Disease. 2014 (6): 93-8. doi:10.4137/JCNSD.S13793. PMC 4197905. PMID 25336998. "Warning ... "Administration of an Amino Acid-Based Regimen for the Management of Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction Related to Combat- ...
Alterations in the autonomic nervous system can lead to orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure on standing), oily skin, ... is a chronic degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that affects both the motor system and non-motor systems. The ... Parkinson's disease dementia becomes common in advanced stages of the disease. The motor symptoms of the disease result from ... multiple systems atrophy or MSA usually has early onset of autonomic dysfunction (such as orthostasis), and may have autonomic ...
Shy-Drager syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease that attacks the autonomic nervous system. Since the main symptom of ... Diseases characterized by disturbances in urination and defecation affect autonomic and Onufs nucleus cells similarly. Both ... The urethra is controlled by the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic divisions of the peripheral nervous system. The ... Lou Gehrig disease ) is a disease that causes degeneration of motoneurons that control voluntary muscle movement. Surprisingly ...
Insomnia is a type of sleep disorder which is associated with various diseases development and progression, such as obesity, ... Insomnia is a type of sleep disorder which is associated with various diseases development and progression, such as obesity, ... 2017). Sleep, sleep deprivation, autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular diseases. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 74(Pt B), 321- ... Insomnia disorder is functionally linked to cardiovascular and nervous system diseases (Javaheri and Redline, 2017; Tobaldini ...
This coordinated activity is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Shy-Drager syndrome is a rare, progressive, degenerative disease affecting the autonomic nervous system with multisystem organ ... What is the autonomic nervous system?. What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the neuroanatomy of neurogenic ... The autonomic nervous system lies outside of the central nervous system. It regulates the actions of the internal organs under ...
This coordinated activity is regulated by the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Shy-Drager syndrome is a rare, progressive, degenerative disease affecting the autonomic nervous system with multisystem organ ... What is the autonomic nervous system?. What is the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the neuroanatomy of neurogenic ... The autonomic nervous system lies outside of the central nervous system. It regulates the actions of the internal organs under ...
Degenerative Nerve Diseases ... Autonomic Nervous System Disorders/Specifics ... Autonomic Nervous System Disorders ... ... Many affected individuals have abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions such as ... Multiple System Atrophy (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Degenerative Nerve Diseases/Specifics ... ... sagging skin, a lung disease called emphysema, and abnormalities involving the digestive and urinary systems.Most of the LTBP4 ...
1) Background: The relationship between anxiety and depression in metabolic-dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) ... between anxiety and depression with GLS might be through autonomic nervous system disturbances that are found in these diseases ... Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Clin ... Patients with diverticular disease were found to be associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, as well as CV ...
Diagnostic Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation - Autonomic Nervous System Response as a Sign of Disease Progression. language. ... Cardiorespiratory interactions through the autonomic nervous system have been suggested to play a role in such variations. Here ... Cardiorespiratory interactions through the autonomic nervous system have been suggested to play a role in such variations. Here ... Cardiorespiratory interactions through the autonomic nervous system have been suggested to play a role in such variations. Here ...
... could halt disease progression to autonomic nervous system involvement and subsequently to often fatal pulmonary edema. ... An apparently new enterovirus isolated from patients with disease of the central nervous system. J Infect Dis. 1974;129:304-9. ... He Y, Ong KC, Gao Z, Zhao X, Anderson VM, McNutt MA, Tonsillar crypt epithelium is an important extra-central nervous system ... High incidence of complication disorders of central nervous system. Arch Dis Child. 1980;55:583-8. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
These included: B-cell small lymphocytic lymphoma, Basedows disease, autonomic nervous system imbalance, cerebrovascular ... and Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Characteristics of all included studies and surveillance systems are shown ... Name of system. Study design. Country (or more detail, if needed). Age, central tendency or range. Total population. N ... Safety Surveillance Systems. Evidence Retrieval for Observational Safety Studies: *Based on input from ACIPs COVID-19 Vaccine ...
Effect of yogic intervention on the autonomic nervous system in the patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized ...
... diseases, skin diseases, neurotoxicity and autonomic nervous system disorder [37]. ... When the patient takes opioid analgesics, it binds with the opioid receptor in the central and peripheral nervous system, which ... Osteoarthritis is generally an articular cartilage disease found in articulation organ systems like a capsule, ligaments, ... All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit ...
Patients with neurological disease require special management considerations. These include pretreatment treatment planning, ... an abnormality of the autonomic nervous system); placement of a blanket over the patient may help maintain warmth. ... www.consultantlive.com/nervous-system-diseases/content/article/10162/2111633. Accessed: November 9, 2012. ... Parkinson Disease. Parkinson disease, resulting from the degeneration of cells in the substantia nigra, causes a number of ...
The system of management of circulation including assessments of the autonomic nervous system and biological rhytms with ... Responses of Cardiovascular and Autonomic nervous system to Elastic Bandage of the Lower Limbs AL-KUBATI Mohamed FIŠER Bohumil ... Autonomic nervous system; Myocardial cell; Sudden death; Cardiomyopathies; Heart transplant ... Early diagnostics of Cardiovascular Diseases Project Identification MSM141100004 Project Period 1/1999 - 1/2004 Investor / ...
Alzheimer, Pain, Autonomic Nervous System Disease Trial in Saint-Étienne (cognitive assessment, Cold Pressor Test, digital. ... Autonomic Nervous System Modulation Trial (Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation, Heart rate variability biofeedback,. Not yet ... Autonomic Nervous System Imbalance Trial in Igdir (Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation). Not yet recruiting ... Vagus Nerve Autonomic Disorder Trial in Istanbul (Supine practice group, Prone application group). Recruiting ...
Diagnostic Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation - Autonomic Nervous System Response as a Sign of Disease Progression. Sandberg, F. ... Ph.D. project: Diagnostic Biomarkers in Atrial Fibrillation - Autonomic Nervous System Induced Modulation as a Sign of Disease ... An atrioventricular node model incorporating autonomic tone. Plappert, F., Wallman, M., Abdollahpur, M., Platonov, P., Östenson ... The research aims to provide tools for improved diagnosis and personalized treatment of cardiovascular disease. We develop ...
The brain integrates neuro-immune communication, and brain function is altered in diseases characterized by peripheral immune ... and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling ... The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, ... Autonomic nervous system tone measured by baroreflex sensitivity is depressed in patients with end-stage liver disease. Am. J. ...
Cardiovascular-disease; Physiological-stress; Psychological-stress; Autonomic-nervous-system; Adrenal-cortex; Pituitary-glands ... axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS)) involved in responding to stressors and their possible relationship to CVD. Police ... as well as to various pollutants can play an etiological role in disease including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dr. Miller ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ...
Carney, R. M., Freedland, K. E., & Veith, R. C. (2005). Depression, the autonomic nervous system, and coronary heart disease. ...
Nervous System Diseases, Sympathetic -- See Autonomic Nervous System Diseases Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic ... Nervous System Diseases, Parasympathetic -- See Autonomic Nervous System Diseases Diseases of the parasympathetic or ... Nervous System Diseases -- radiography. 2 Nervous System Diseases -- radiotherapy : Gamma knife neurosurgery / Jeremy C. Ganz ... Nervous System Diseases -- therapy. 126 Nervous System Diseases -- therapy -- Case Reports : Case-based neurology / [edited by ...
It is likely that the adaptive immune systems response to disease in the CNS is similar in a range of neurodegenerative ... How Parkinsons Disease Affects The Autonomic Nervous System And The Heart. In PD, there are two major reasons why the automatic ... PD is a multisystem disease in which both the central and peripheral nervous systems are affected. The disease is characterized ... Ask the PhD: Immune Systems Role in Parkinsons Disease It is likely that the adaptive immune systems response to disease in ...
The disease escalated to a point that caused her to cancel her scheduled New Years Eve performance at AfroPunk Festival in ... reports emerged that Solange Knowles was diagnosed with an unknown autonomic nerve disorder, referred to as dysautonomia. ... which has a serious impact on the bodys autonomic nervous system, also known as the ANS. The National Institute of ... It can range anywhere from a local part of your system to a full-blown autonomic failure throughout your body. ...
Autonomic Nervous System, Motor Neuron Disease, Peripheral Nervous System, Psychiatry, Mental Disorders, Neurology = Neurologia ... Endocrine System Diseases, Communicable Diseases, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Internal Medicine, ... Kidney Diseases, Cardiovascular Diseases, Emergency Medicine, Endocrine System Diseases, Metabolic Diseases, Bioethics, ... Public Health, Delivery of Health Care, 50230, Medical Care, Neurology, Nervous System Diseases, Mental Health, Diagnostic ...
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases 1 0 Atherosclerosis 1 0 Atrophy 1 0 ... in Genopedia reflects only the indexed disease term without children terms, but the number in the HuGE Literature Finder ... reflects all text searches of the disease term including the indexed term and corresponding children terms. ...
ANS (Autonomic Nervous System) Diseases ANS Disease ANS Diseases Autonomic Central Nervous System Diseases Autonomic Disease ... Autonomic Nervous System) Diseases. ANS Disease. ANS Diseases. Autonomic Central Nervous System Diseases. Autonomic Disease. ... Central Autonomic Nervous System Diseases Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System Nervous System Diseases, Autonomic ... Central Autonomic Nervous System Diseases. Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases, Autonomic. ...
FD is a devastating disease of the sensory and autonomic nervous system that causes multiple neuropathies in patients; one of ... Guide for en bloc cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (Anatomy Now: Official Newsletter of the American ... Novel dissection of the central nervous system to bridge gross anatomy and neuroscience for an integrated medical curriculum. ... Remarkable en bloc dissection of human central and peripheral nervous system accomplished at University of Colorado ( ...
... shows that heart diseases affect the production of the sleep hormone melatonin in the pineal gland. ... Like the heart, it is controlled through the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary processes in the body. The ... System setting Use this mode according to your system settings. Light mode Use the light mode regardless of your system setting ... At advanced stages of disease, there was a substantial decrease in the number of axons connecting the gland to the nervous ...
Diseases [C]. *Nervous System Diseases [C10]. *Autonomic Nervous System Diseases [C10.177]. *Primary Dysautonomias [C10.177.575 ... Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion or autonomic overaction which develop while the subject is standing, but are relieved on ...
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE (ANS): Your body has two nervous systems, the CNS is the regular nervous system that processes ... SICKLE CELL DISEASE: This is one of the most painful diseases known to man. Only occurs in people of African descent. This is a ... LATE STAGE LYME DISEASE is a disease caused by a bacteria picked up from ticks who pick up the bacteria from deer. It was ... VERTEBRAL STRUCTURAL DISEASE: This disease of the vertebral column that has not had surgery as palliative measure such as ...
Diseases [C]. *Nervous System Diseases [C10]. *Autonomic Nervous System Diseases [C10.177]. *Primary Dysautonomias [C10.177.575 ... The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ...
  • [ 1 ] Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to urinary bladder malfunction due to neurologic dysfunction emanating from internal or external trauma, disease, or injury. (medscape.com)
  • This results in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension , or drops in blood pressure upon standing due to autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Intestinal dysfunction and microbiome changes are actively discussed in the modern literature as the most important link in the development of neurodegenerative changes in Parkinson's disease. (mediasphera.ru)
  • In this review, we propose that modulation of the immune system is a potential link between prenatal stress and offspring vascular dysfunction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Keck School of Medicine of USC scientists have mapped an uncharted portion of the mouse brain to explain which circuit disruptions might occur in disorders such as Huntington's disease and autism. (usc.edu)
  • Parkinson's disease, obsessive compulsive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and many other movement disorders involve connections of this brain region, said Dong, senior author of the study. (usc.edu)
  • Overview of Prion Diseases Prion diseases are progressive, fatal, and untreatable degenerative brain disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Variations in heart rate during the night may reflect autonomic nervous system imbalance or cardiovascular system instability. (sleepon.us)
  • The potential mechanisms whereby prenatal stress negatively impacts vascular function in the offspring, including poor hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation of inflammatory response, activation of Th17 cells, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system hyperactivation, reactive oxygen species imbalance, generation of neoantigens and TLR4 activation, are discussed. (bvsalud.org)
  • As a result of dependence upon higher brain centers, certain lesions or diseases of the brain (eg, stroke, cancer, dementia) can result in a loss of voluntary control of the normal micturition reflex as well as symptoms such as urinary urgency. (medscape.com)
  • Knowing the clinical signs and symptoms of a stroke is important in managing older patients with longstanding cardiovascular disease. (medscape.com)
  • As the disease progresses, the more severe the symptoms become, eventually resulting in the patient being unable to do much of any tasks requiring movement on their own. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Symptoms of cerebral hypoperfusion or autonomic overaction which develop while the subject is standing, but are relieved on recumbency. (uchicago.edu)
  • The few who have provided a definition define it as: cannot directly treat the long term disease, so treat the symptoms to make life better. (jatheducational.com)
  • Gastrointestinal manifestations in Parkinson's disease: prevalence and occurrence before motor symptoms. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease. (mediasphera.ru)
  • That will help people in the future to really understand the pathways for diseases with specific symptoms. (usc.edu)
  • Early symptoms of Huntington's disease, for example, include slow or abnormal eye movement and stuttering. (usc.edu)
  • However, paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy should be considered in all cancer patients who present with signs or symptoms of autonomic nervous system disease. (medscape.com)
  • Each one of these may have other distinct symptoms and findings in addition to autonomic disturbances. (medscape.com)
  • Prion disease associated with diarrhea and autonomic neuropathy describes an inherited prion disease that manifests with peripheral rather than central nervous system symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This new prion disease shows that a novel mutation can radically change where the abnormal proteins deposit and which symptoms they cause, and it suggests that the diagnosis of prion disease should be considered in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhea and neuropathy or with an unexplained syndrome similar to familial amyloid polyneuropathy (which causes autonomic and peripheral neuropathy). (msdmanuals.com)
  • After several years of asymptomatic infection, 20% to 30% of those infected develop cardiac symptoms (which may lead to sudden death), 5% to 10% develop digestive damage (mainly megaviscera), and immunocompromised patients will present central nervous involvement. (who.int)
  • Structural problems of the heart such as coronary artery disease or cardiomyopathy are not thought to be part of the pathology of PD, although of course, could co-exist with PD. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • 2016 . Chronic vagus nerve stimulation in Crohn's disease: a 6-month follow-up pilot study. (annualreviews.org)
  • 2016 . Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cytokine production and attenuates disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis. (annualreviews.org)
  • Therefore, anisocoria may be related to myosis of either pupil caused by activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, which activates the iris sphincter, or to mydriasis of either pupil caused by the sympathetic nervous system, which activates the iris dilator muscle. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • Autoimmune paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome (PNS), which manifests as disturbance in sympathetic and/or parasympathetic nervous system function. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with neurological disease require special management considerations. (medscape.com)
  • Insomnia is a type of sleep disorder which is associated with various diseases' development and progression, such as obesity, type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The disorder can also affect the digestive system , kidneys, and genitalia. (nih.gov)
  • In late 2017, reports emerged that Solange Knowles was diagnosed with an unknown autonomic nerve disorder, referred to as dysautonomia. (papermag.com)
  • In the first instance, this defining feature of the neous disorder for which the aetiology, in the majority disease has been shown at post-mortem, as well as of cases, is unknown [1]. (lu.se)
  • Simulation of cardiovascular system diseases by including the autonomic nervous system into a minimal model. (auth.gr)
  • The clinician should be aware that patients with longstanding hypertension and cerebrovascular disease are at increased risk of a cerebrovascular accident. (medscape.com)
  • The fact that melatonin levels can decrease in patients with diseases of the heart muscle, for example after a heart attack, has been known for some time. (tum.de)
  • Reha-bilitation's possibility of the patients with severe Parkinson's disease. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Motor and auto-nomic diso-rders influence on pain syndrome of patients with Parkinson's disease of the I-III H&Y stages. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Analysis of GBA muta-tions in patients with Parkinson's disease in the Krasnoyarsk region. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Orthostatic hypo-tension in patients with Parkinson's disease. (mediasphera.ru)
  • More often, autonomic problems in cancer patients are attributable to prolonged bed rest, neurotoxic chemotherapy, high-dose analgesics, and malnutrition. (medscape.com)
  • Patients may develop autonomic disturbances at any time relative to the diagnosis of cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Wilson's disease, although rare, should be suspected in patients with decompensated liver disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • showed that Onuf nucleus cells have the same cytoskeletal abnormalities as alpha motor neurons in motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • hearing loss, short stature, or kidney or heart abnormalities .People with Feingold syndrome type 1 are frequently born with a blockage in part of their digestive system called gastrointestinal atresia. (nih.gov)
  • Neurologic conditions facing the dentist include abnormalities associated with the cranial nerves, facial sensory loss, facial paralysis, and conditions such as epilepsy, Parkinson disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (ucdenver.edu)
  • This event put more emphasis on updates about Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) of the critical advances in the study of the disease, including treatment. (dysautonomiasos.org)
  • Neurons in Onuf's nucleus lack autonomic dense-core vesicles even though they receive the same synaptic endings as alpha motor neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells in Onuf's nucleus resemble autonomic neurons and do not receive afferents from adjacent neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. (annualreviews.org)
  • On the other hand, if the light is weak, this time the sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system are activated. (gilmorehealth.com)
  • The use of stem cell-derived dopamine neurons or deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents two alternative approaches to treat Parkinson's Disease. (lu.se)
  • The bladder and urethra are innervated by 3 sets of peripheral nerves arising from the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and somatic nervous system. (medscape.com)
  • Moreover, there is new evidence that bacteria in the gut may actually trigger the immune system leading to disease initiation via the peripheral nerves that connect the gut with the brain. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • It is likely that the adaptive immune systems response to disease in the CNS is similar in a range of neurodegenerative diseases. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the immune response during disease may be applicable to several neurodegenerative diseases. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Diseases characterized by disturbances in urination and defecation affect autonomic and Onuf's nucleus cells similarly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart Rate Variability (HRV) monitors the current heart rate and autonomic nervous system function. (positivehealth.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to non-chemical stressors of both a psychological and physical nature (i.e., chronic stress) as well as to various pollutants can play an etiological role in disease including cardiovascular disease (CVD). (cdc.gov)
  • Possible issues: Sleep apnea, lung diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cardiovascular disease, etc. (sleepon.us)
  • The physical assessment showed moderate ascites and small liver size, and no other peripheral evidence of chronic liver disease was observed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The dominance of clinical and epidemiological features of autoimmune hepatitis as a common causative pathology for chronic liver disease in young and middle-aged ladies may hide the presence of other serious different pathologies such as Wilson's disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • During the chronic phase lesions affect internal organs of 30% of infected persons, namely the heart, oesophagus and colon and the autonomic nervous system. (who.int)
  • We hypothesize that in a subset of cases, PD is initiated by an autoimmune event involving recognition of alpha-synuclein in the gut, and that interactions between the immune system and the peripheral and central nervous systems establish the disease in the brain. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • 297 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with DRD2 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • The main paraneoplastic syndromes associated with autonomic neuropathy include paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies, paraneoplastic encephalomyeloneuropathies, and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). (medscape.com)
  • Prion disease associated with diarrhea and autonomic neuropathy was identified in 2013 in an extended British family. (msdmanuals.com)
  • First, areas of the brain that control this system often contain Lewy bodies and have undergone neurodegeneration. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • In addition, the autonomic nervous system itself is directly affected by Lewy body-like accumulations and neurodegeneration. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • The research aims to provide tools for improved diagnosis and personalized treatment of cardiovascular disease. (lu.se)
  • Tolosa E, Garrido A, Scholz SW, Poewe W. Challenges in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. (mediasphera.ru)
  • The autonomic problems can precede the cancer diagnosis, and a high level of suspicion is then required to identify the underlying neoplasm. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiorespiratory interactions through the autonomic nervous system have been suggested to play a role in such variations. (lu.se)
  • 2017 . Renaming all spinal autonomic outflows as sympathetic is a mistake. (annualreviews.org)
  • The interaction of a variety of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal systems influence the activity of the PMC, which by default attempts to trigger the voiding reflex. (medscape.com)
  • Trigger factors cause changes in the chemical equilibrium of the tissue, bothersome the systems. (bamboo-parc.com)
  • Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common disease in women caused by pelvic floor muscle weakness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain is the master control of the entire urinary system. (medscape.com)
  • The sympathetic nerve-an integrative interface between two supersystems: the brain and the immune system. (annualreviews.org)
  • Here we will discuss recent approaches taken to modulate the adaptive immune system for disease therapy. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Overactivation of the immune system negatively influences cardiovascular function and contributes to cardiovascular disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • This work will reveal fundamental mechanisms that account for the initiation and progression of PD, uncovering disease- and tissue-specific profiles of autoreactive T cells and overall T cell surveillance that will lead to the discover of perturbed immune pathways in PD with potential application in the development of immunomodulatory therapies. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Depression, the autonomic nervous system, and coronary heart disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many chemicals cause mild central nervous system depression that may be misdiagnosed as inebriation and, if undetected, can progress to psychoses or dementia. (cdc.gov)
  • anxiety and cardiovascular disease may also contribute to abnormal or irregular heart rates during sleep. (sleepon.us)
  • Recent investigation of the gut-brain axis enhances our understanding of the role of the gut microbiota in brain-related diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hype-rproliferative diseases of female geni-tal organs and inte-stinal microbiota: endo-metriosis, uterine fibroids, endo-metrial hype-rplasia. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Thus, whether you have an incurable disease like me or not, follow what the governors tell you to do at this time. (dysautonomiasos.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • Few standard organizations have proved that many countries have been following their ancient traditional ways as natural therapeutics and treating many diseases including joint inflammation [ 6 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. (annualreviews.org)
  • The brain integrates neuro-immune communication, and brain function is altered in diseases characterized by peripheral immune dysregulation and inflammation. (annualreviews.org)
  • 2014 . Sympathetic nervous system and inflammation: a conceptual view. (annualreviews.org)
  • While inflammation of the brain caused by immune cells has been implicated in Parkinsons disease , it is unknown whether these cells attacking the brain initiate the disease. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • As well, oxidative stress and inflammatory system are playing a significant role in this condition by activating T cells and inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Our studies will integrate cutting-edge technologies in humans and pre-clinical models to determine whether the disease is mediated by immune cells recognizing alpha-synuclein, a key brain protein implicated in PD. (parkinsonsinfoclub.com)
  • Data from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) study provides information on the body systems (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS)) involved in responding to stressors and their possible relationship to CVD. (cdc.gov)
  • The central nervous system is composed of the brain, brain stem, and the spinal cord. (medscape.com)
  • Based on research at JATH LLC, we believe it is time to create a new umbrella term for long-term, painful inflammatory diseases. (jatheducational.com)
  • Normal voiding is essentially a spinal reflex modulated by the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), which coordinates function of the bladder and urethra. (medscape.com)
  • Many of these are central nervous system disruptors that cause behavioural changes. (positivehealth.com)
  • The South East Asia Infectious Disease Clinical Research Network convened subject matter experts at a workshop to make consensus recommendations for study design of a clinical trial for use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). (cdc.gov)
  • The use of IVIg for treatment of severe disease is widespread and a part of local, national, and international guidelines, but no clinical evidence warrants the use of this drug, which is expensive and has potentially serious side effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Possible issues: Respiratory system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (sleepon.us)
  • The respiratory system is both a target organ and a portal of entry for toxicants. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2005, Chagas disease was incorporated into WHO's classification of neglected tropical diseases in order to promote synergistic advocacy and control efforts with other similarly neglected diseases. (who.int)
  • Just how under-treating a rare painful disease will stop the Heroin "overdose deaths" is beyond logic or even common sense. (jatheducational.com)
  • Prominent types of prion diseases include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the prototypic example (usually. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In a paper published in the journal Science, a team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) shows that heart diseases affect the production of the sleep hormone melatonin in the pineal gland. (tum.de)
  • Different hazards affect various and differing organ systems [Nelson et al. (cdc.gov)
  • High blood oxygen saturation may be related to abnormal lung function, inadequate ventilation, or problems with the circulatory system. (sleepon.us)
  • The urban migration from rural areas that occurred in Latin America in the 1970s and 1980s changed the traditional epidemiological pattern of Chagas disease into an urban infection that can be transmitted by blood transfusion. (who.int)