The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.
Biological actions and events that support the functions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord. This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with ORTHOSTASIS and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Activity which reduces the feelings of tension and the effects of STRESS, PHYSIOLOGICAL.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
An adjunctive treatment for PARTIAL EPILEPSY and refractory DEPRESSION that delivers electrical impulses to the brain via the VAGUS NERVE. A battery implanted under the skin supplies the energy.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The position or attitude of the body.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.
The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A characteristic symptom complex.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Freedom from activity.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Loss of consciousness due to a reduction in blood pressure that is associated with an increase in vagal tone and peripheral vasodilation.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Glucose in blood.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.

Central autonomic activation by intracisternal TRH analogue excites gastric splanchnic afferent neurons. (1/2230)

Intracisternal (ic) injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) or its stable analogue RX 77368 influences gastric function via stimulation of vagal muscarinic pathways. In rats, the increase in gastric mucosal blood flow evoked by a low ic dose of RX 77368 occurs via release of calcitonin gene-related peptide from capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons, most probably of spinal origin. In this study, the effect of low ic doses of RX 77368 on afferent impulse activity in splanchnic single fibers was investigated. The cisterna magna of overnight-fasted, urethan-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats was acutely cannulated, and fine splanchnic nerve twigs containing at least one fiber responsive to mechanical probing of the stomach were isolated at a site immediately distal to the left suprarenal ganglion. Unit mechanoreceptive fields were encountered in all portions of the stomach, both superficially and in deeper layers. Splanchnic afferent unit impulse activity was recorded continuously during basal conditions and in response to consecutive ic injections of saline and RX 77368 (15-30 min later; 1.5 or 3 ng). Basal discharge rates ranged from 0 to 154 impulses/min (median = 10.2 impulses/min). A majority of splanchnic single units with ongoing activity increased their mean discharge rate by >/=20% after ic injection of RX 77368 at either 1.5 ng (6/10 units; median increase 63%) or 3 ng (19/24 units; median increase 175%). Five units lacking impulse activity in the 5-min before ic RX 77368 (3 ng) were also excited, with the onset of discharge occurring within 1.0-5.0 min postinjection. In units excited by ic RX 77368, peak discharge occurred 15.6 +/- 1.3 min after injection and was followed by a decline to stable activity levels +info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (2/2230)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

Differences in heart rate variability between young and elderly normal men during graded head up tilt. (3/2230)

An autoregressive spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) was used to analyze the differences in autonomic functions during graded head up tilt (HUT) between young and elderly men. After recording at the 0 degree position, the table was rotated to an upright position. The incline of the table was increased progressively to 15 degrees, 30 degrees and 60 degrees. The data obtained from seven young subjects (mean age of 20.0 years) and nine elderly subjects (mean age of 63.3 years) were analyzed. The high frequency components expressed by normalized units (HFnu) were used as the parasympathetic indicators, and HFnu decreased with tilt angle in both age groups. These results suggested that parasympathetic withdrawal have an important role in adaptation to an upright posture in both age groups. However, mean HF amplitude at the 0 degree position in elderly men was not significantly different from that of young men at 60 degrees tilt. A significant interaction effect (age group x tilt angle) was found for mean HF amplitude. The increase of the low frequency components expressed by normalized units (LFnu) and the LF-to-HF ratio in elderly subjects from 0 degree to 15 degrees seemed to be larger than that in young subjects. Sympathetic activities may be sensitive to lower levels of orthostatic stress in the elderly, and the elderly workers are easily affected by a change in workload. Therefore, keeping the workload lower and constant may be recommended to avoid excessive sympathetic activation among the elderly.  (+info)

Selective potentiation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in obstructive sleep apnea. (4/2230)

BACKGROUND: The chemoreflexes are an important mechanism for regulation of both breathing and autonomic cardiovascular function. Abnormalities in chemoreflex mechanisms may be implicated in increased cardiovascular stress in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We tested the hypothesis that chemoreflex function is altered in patients with OSA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared ventilatory, sympathetic, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and the cold pressor test in 16 untreated normotensive patients with OSA and 12 normal control subjects matched for age and body mass index. Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was higher in the patients with OSA than in the control subjects (43+/-4 versus 21+/-3 bursts per minute; P<0. 001). During hypoxia, patients with OSA had greater increases in minute ventilation (5.8+/-0.8 versus 3.2+/-0.7 L/min; P=0.02), heart rate (10+/-1 versus 7+/-1 bpm; P=0.03), and mean arterial pressure (7+/-2 versus 0+/-2 mm Hg; P=0.001) than control subjects. Despite higher ventilation and blood pressure (both of which inhibit sympathetic activity) in OSA patients, the MSNA increase during hypoxia was similar in OSA patients and control subjects. When the sympathetic-inhibitory influence of breathing was eliminated by apnea during hypoxia, the increase in MSNA in OSA patients (106+/-20%) was greater than in control subjects (52+/-23%; P=0.04). Prolongation of R-R interval with apnea during hypoxia was also greater in OSA patients (24+/-6%) than in control subjects (7+/-5%) (P=0.04). Autonomic, ventilatory, and blood pressure responses to hypercapnia and the cold pressor test in OSA patients were not different from those observed in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is associated with a selective potentiation of autonomic, hemodynamic, and ventilatory responses to peripheral chemoreceptor activation by hypoxia.  (+info)

Differential effects of defibrillation on systemic and cardiac sympathetic activity. (5/2230)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of defibrillation shocks on cardiac and circulating catecholamines. DESIGN: Prospective examination of myocardial catecholamine balance during dc shock by simultaneous determination of arterial and coronary sinus plasma concentrations. Internal countershocks (10-34 J) were applied in 30 patients after initiation of ventricular fibrillation for a routine implantable cardioverter defibrillator test. Another 10 patients were externally cardioverted (50-360 J) for atrial fibrillation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transcardiac noradrenaline, adrenaline, and lactate gradients immediately after the shock. RESULTS: After internal shock, arterial noradrenaline increased from a mean (SD) of 263 (128) pg/ml at baseline to 370 (148) pg/ml (p = 0.001), while coronary sinus noradrenaline fell from 448 (292) to 363 (216) pg/ml (p = 0.01), reflecting a shift from cardiac net release to net uptake. After external shock delivery, there was a similar increase in arterial noradrenaline, from 260 (112) to 459 (200) pg/ml (p = 0.03), while coronary sinus noradrenaline remained unchanged. Systemic adrenaline increased 11-fold after external shock (p = 0.01), outlasting the threefold rise following internal shock (p = 0.001). In both groups, a negative transmyocardial adrenaline gradient at baseline decreased further, indicating enhanced myocardial uptake. Cardiac lactate production occurred after ventricular fibrillation and internal shock, but not after external cardioversion, so the neurohumoral changes resulted from the defibrillation process and not from alterations in oxidative metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: A dc shock induces marked systemic sympathoadrenal and sympathoneuronal activation, but attenuates cardiac sympathetic activity. This might promote the transient myocardial depression observed after electrical discharge to the heart.  (+info)

Lateralized effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions on neuroendocrine and autonomic stress responses in rats. (6/2230)

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is highly activated by stress and modulates neuroendocrine and autonomic function. Dopaminergic inputs to mPFC facilitate coping ability and demonstrate considerable hemispheric functional lateralization. The present study investigated the potentially lateralized regulation of stress responses at the level of mPFC output neurons, using ibotenic acid lesions. Neuroendocrine function was assessed by plasma corticosterone increases in response to acute or repeated 20 min restraint stress. The primary index of autonomic activation was gastric ulcer development during a separate cold restraint stress. Restraint-induced defecation was also monitored. Plasma corticosterone levels were markedly lower in response to repeated versus acute restraint stress. In acutely restrained animals, right or bilateral, but not left mPFC lesions, decreased prestress corticosterone levels, whereas in repeatedly restrained rats, the same lesions significantly reduced the peak stress-induced corticosterone response. Stress ulcer development (after a single cold restraint stress) was greatly reduced by either right or bilateral mPFC lesions but was unaffected by left lesions. Restraint-induced defecation was elevated in animals with left mPFC lesions. Finally, a left-biased asymmetry in adrenal gland weights was observed across animals, which was unaffected by mPFC lesions. The results suggest that mPFC output neurons demonstrate an intrinsic right brain specialization in both neuroendocrine and autonomic activation. Such findings may be particularly relevant to clinical depression which is associated with both disturbances in stress regulatory systems and hemispheric imbalances in prefrontal function.  (+info)

Noninvasive exploration of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Four reliable methods for diabetes? (7/2230)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this work was to assess relevant information that could be provided by various mathematical analyses of spontaneous blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) variabilities in diabetic cardiovascular neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 10 healthy volunteers and 11 diabetic subjects included in the study. Diabetic patients were selected for nonsymptomatic orthostatic hypotension in an assessment of their cardiovascular autonomic impairment. Cardiac autonomic function was scored according to Ewing's methodology adapted to the use of a Finapres device. The spontaneous beat-to-beat BP and HR variabilities were then analyzed on a 1-h recording in supine subjects. The global variabilities were assessed by standard deviation, fractal dimension, and spectral power. The cardiac baroreflex function was estimated by cross-spectral sequences and Z analyses. RESULTS: In diabetic patients, Ewing's scores ranged from 1 to 4.5, confirming cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. In these diabetic patients, global indices of variabilities were consistently lower than in healthy subjects. Furthermore, some of them (standard deviation and fractal dimension of HR, spectral power of systolic blood pressure and HR) were significantly correlated with the Ewing's scores. The Z methods and the spectral analysis found that the cardiac baroreflex was less effective in diabetic subjects. However, the baroreflex sensitivity could not be reliably assessed in all the patients. The sequence method pointed out a decreased number of baroreflex sequences in diabetic subjects that was correlated to the Ewing's score. CONCLUSIONS: Indices of HR spontaneous beat-to-beat variability are consistently related to the degree of cardiac autonomic dysfunction, according to Ewing's methodology. The Z method and spectral analysis confirmed that the cardiac baroreflex was impaired in diabetic patients. These methods might be clinically relevant for use in detecting incipient neuropathy in diabetic patients.  (+info)

Detection of autonomic sympathetic dysfunction in diabetic patients. A study using laser Doppler imaging. (8/2230)

OBJECTIVE: To study signs of the disturbed reflex autonomic sympathetic nerve function in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Measurements were made on 15 type 1 (duration 13-32 years) and on 50 recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients (duration 3-4 years). The vasoconstrictor responses in the distal phalanx of the middle finger (locally heated to 40 degrees C) to the cooling of the contralateral arm were measured using Laser Doppler Imaging (LDI). A vasoconstriction index (VAC) was calculated taking age into account and was compared with reference values obtained in 80 control subjects. The diabetic patients were also studied with deep-breathing tests (i.e., the heart-rate variation expressed as the expiration-to-inspiration [E/I] ratio, a test of parasympathetic nerve function). RESULTS: The vasoconstrictor responses to indirect cooling (VAC) were significantly reduced in the fingers of the diabetic patients, both type 2 (0.77 +/- 0.02 V; P < 0.01) and type 1 (0.83 +/- 0.04 V; P < 0.001), compared with the healthy control subjects (0.65 +/- 0.01); the age-corrected VAC (VACz) was slightly more impaired in type 1 than in type 2 diabetic patients. The frequency of an abnormal VACz corresponded well to the frequency of an abnormal E/I ratio in type 1 diabetic patients (approximately 50%), whereas the frequency of an abnormal VACz was significantly higher than an abnormal E/I ratio among type 2 diabetic patients (11/50 vs. 4/50; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients have impaired cutaneous blood flow regulation. The VAC index seems to be a promising tool for detection of subclinical changes in autonomic sympathetic function.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effects of prior intensive insulin therapy on cardiac autonomic nervous system function in type 1 diabetes mellitus: The diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications study (DCCT/EDIC). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of ageing on autonomic nervous system function. AU - Ingall, T. J.. AU - McLeod, J. G.. AU - OBrien, P. C.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025223817&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025223817&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 20. SP - 570. EP - 577. JO - Internal Medicine Journal. JF - Internal Medicine Journal. SN - 1444-0903. IS - 4. ER - ...
Remifentanil (RMFNT) is a very short active opioid, used for analgesia during general anaesthesia and for analgesic and sedative effect in intensive care units (ICU) patients. Registration for anesthesia includes bolus dose and continuous infusion, in ICU only infusion regimen is allowed. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters of RMFNT results in rapid onset and offset of clinical effect, which makes this drug almost ideal in many situations. Unfortunately, its vagomimetic influence on cardiac activity may result in decrease of heart rate. It may be hypothesized that patients with parasympathetic predominance may be prone to more intense parasympathomimetic effect of this opioid. An optimal method for assessment of autonomic nervous system activity and assessment of influence of RMFNT on that activity is Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis. Parasympathetic predominance is expressed as high frequency (HF) power and HF/(LF+HF) (LF-low frequency) ratio in frequency domain and Root Mean Square ...
Considering the small number of studies in the literature that investigated the association between SSCS and cardiac autonomic regulation, we endeavored to review recent studies from our group and others groups regarding this issue. The analysis of manuscripts selected for this review showed that exposure to SSCS impairs the autonomic regulation of the heart through the central nervous system and through the periphery.. A first study from our group mentioned in this review failed to report changes in baroreflex function in Wistar rats exposed to SSCS during three weeks, five days per week for 180 minutes per day. The baroreflex sensitivity was compared between rats exposed to SSCS and rats exposed to fresh air [7]. Nevertheless, previous studies indicated that active smoking influences cardiovascular reflexes. It was indicated that cigarette smoking in active smokers increases sympathetic nerve activity through an effect mediated by the central nervous system and also through a direct peripheral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validity of standard deviation and maximum. T2 - Minimum ratio in quantifying cardiac autonomic function following acute unilateral brachial artery occlusion. AU - Sheila, R. P.. AU - Sheelajoice, P.. AU - Subbalakshmi, N. K.. AU - Hemalatha, H.. AU - Kishan, K.. PY - 2011/1/1. Y1 - 2011/1/1. N2 - Objective The clinical utility of analysis of heart rate variability is currently under research. We evaluated the validity of time domain measures of heart rate variability parameters in appraising the impact of acute unilateral brachial artery occlusion on cardiac autonomic control in healthy subjects. Methods In 11 healthy female volunteers aged between 20-25 years, R-R intervals and blood pressure were recorded for 30 s under resting condition and during occlusion of left brachial artery. Heart rate variability was quantified by time domain method. Mean differences in values of measured parameters were compared between resting and during brachial artery occlusion employing paired ...
Nutrition and The Autonomic Nervous System - The Scientific Foundations of The Gonzalez Protocol.. Even without the help of modern scientific. loop between the autonomic nervous system and the innate immunity.2. nutrition. autonomic dysfunction.The GAPS Nutritional Protocol is being used successfully by.Download PDF eBook Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol, The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez.Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol M.D. Nicholas J.Home Education Download Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol READ ONLINE.The way in which the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves interact.Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Nutrition and the Autonomic Nervous System: The Scientific Foundations of the Gonzalez Protocol at Amazon.com.The Autonomic Nervous System. Dr. Nimir Dr. Safa. Objectives Review ...
The regulatory effects of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) concern almost all organs which permanently feed information back to this global biological vigilance system controlling allostasis. Heart rate fluctuations are highly dependent on ANS control, making the heart one of the best indicators of ANS activity.. Low ANS activity level is associated with severe cardiac and cerebral events, as well as to death from any cause in the general population. It is even associated with sleep apnea/hypopnea. ...
Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R-R interval - the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration - the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of heart rate variability. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek
Recent interest in autonomic nervous system dysfunction and its effect on mortality from cardiac events has led to power spectrum ECG measurements. There seems to be a significant relationship between decreased heart rate variability and mortality in ECGs recorded from patients following myocardial infarction. Further autonomic nervous system activity in patients can be evaluated by spectral frequency analysis of the ECG. This analysis is divided into ultra low, very low, low, and high frequencies. Such analysis demonstrates a marked decrease in variability in all four frequency categories in postmyocardial infarct patients. It is postulated that high-frequency power and heart rate variability are modulated by the parasympathetic nervous system, whereas low-frequency power is modulated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. This effect appears to last for at least 12 months following infarction. The recovery of normal heart rate variability and the declining rate of mortality ...
Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in cancer survivors is poorly understood. To better characterize the clinical characteristics and types of autonomic dysfunction in this population. A retrospective analysis of cancer survivors within an academic cardio-oncology program referred for suspected autonomic dysfunction was performed. Autonomic reflex testing of adrenergic, cardiovagal, and sudomotor function was done. Autonomic impairment was graded on severity based on the Composite Autonomic Severity Score system. Patients with pre-existing autonomic dysfunction prior to their cancer diagnosis were excluded. Of approximately 282 total patients in the UCLA Cardio-Oncology program, 24 were referred for suspected autonomic dysfunction and met the inclusion criteria. 22 had autonomic impairment on autonomic reflex testing. Eight patients were female, and the mean age at time of autonomic testing was 51.3 years. The average duration from cancer diagnosis to autonomic testing was 10.3 years. The reasons for
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of cardiac autonomic function by post exercise heart rate recovery in diabetics. AU - Takkar, Nidhi. AU - Takkar, Jai Prakash. AU - Padmakumar, R.. AU - Patil, Navin A.. AU - Rao, Karthik N.. AU - Bhattacharje, Dipanjan. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Background and Aims: Autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients may translate into an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Autonomic system regulates heart rate recovery (HRR), an important predictor of cardiovascular mortality, which can be assessed using the exercise electrocardiogram (ECG). Hence, utilizing HRR, this study assessed the autonomic function of the cardiovascular system after one minute of exercise stress test in both, patients with and without type 2 DM. Materials and Methods: A prospective case control study involving 50 patients with type 2 DM and 50 without type 2 DM, matched for age and sex, was carried out. Each subject underwent an exercise stress test by ...
Define autonomic imbalance. autonomic imbalance synonyms, autonomic imbalance pronunciation, autonomic imbalance translation, English dictionary definition of autonomic imbalance. n. A lack of balance, as in distribution or functioning. im·bal′anced adj. n a lack of balance, as in emphasis, proportion, etc: the political imbalance of...
Dysautonomia is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system, which controls functions such as breathing and heartbeat.RC: We are told that everyone should go on a diet high in complex.Diet and the sympathetic nervous system: relationship to hypertension.. NG: Because of FDA regulations, pancreatic enzymes fall in the category.The autonomic nervous system modulates several key metabolic processes including glucose and fat metabolism and energy balance, through both direct neural effec.It has to do with the autonomic nervous system. Dr. Paul Eck, my mentor and teacher of nutritional balancing,.The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates visceral functions, i.e. functions of the internal organs such as the heart, stomach and.The gluten syndrome: A neurological disease. frequently associated with malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. On a gluten-free diet,.For periodic updates about our work and our website, please subscribe.. NG: Parasympathetic dominant people need red meat three times ...
The main finding of this study is that GV is significantly associated with cardiac autonomic modulation in women but not in men. This occurred despite no observed sex differences in overall regulation of HbA1c, GV, cholesterol levels, and smoking habits. Cardiac autonomic modulation was measured noninvasively with HRV in the resting state and during active tests, which is a well-established diagnostic method to assess cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with diabetes (16). Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is a severe complication of diabetes and is associated with impaired left ventricular function, impaired dilations of coronary resistance vessels, unawareness of hypoglycemia, exercise intolerance, increased intraoperative cardiovascular risk, increased arterial pulse pressure, and a higher prevalence of reduced circadian variation in blood pressure (31). Furthermore, cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been associated with an increased risk of compromised cerebral blood flow (32,33), ...
Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter considers the link between biochemical factors and criminality. The discussions cover studies on testosterone, adrenalin, and neurotransmitters; nutritionally induced biochemical imbalances; criminality and the central nervous system; and criminality and the autonomic nervous system.
Small fiber and autonomic neuropathies are common but often unrecognized conditions that affect the peripheral, somatic, and autonomic nervous systems. Through the presentation of didactic material and cases of varying complexity, faculty will facilitate a discussion of the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, diagnostic evaluation, and therapy of these conditions. Part I will focus more heavily on conditions that impact the autonomic nervous system; Part II will focus more heavily on conditions that impact the somatic or sensory nervous system. Both parts will discuss conditions that may impact the sensory and autonomic small fibers simultaneously. This program complements Small Fiber Neuropathies: Sensory, Autonomic, and Both II: Focus on Sensory Nervous System, but covers independent topics ...
Small fiber and autonomic neuropathies are common but often unrecognized conditions that affect the peripheral, somatic, and autonomic nervous systems. Through the presentation of didactic material and cases of varying complexity, faculty will facilitate a discussion of the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, diagnostic evaluation, and therapy of these conditions. Part I will focus more heavily on conditions that impact the autonomic nervous system; Part II will focus more heavily on conditions that impact the somatic or sensory nervous system. Both parts will discuss conditions that may impact the sensory and autonomic small fibers simultaneously. This program complements Small Fiber Neuropathies: Sensory, Autonomic, and Both II: Focus on Sensory Nervous System, but covers independent topics ...
The relationship between somatosensory stimulation and the autonomic nervous system has been established with effects on heart rate (HR) and sympathetic tone. However, the involvement of the cortical autonomic network (CAN) during muscle sensory afferent stimulation has not been identified. The main objective of the research in this dissertation was to determine the representation of somatosensory afferents in the CAN and their physiologic impact on cardiovascular control. Somatosensory afferent activation was elicited by electrical stimulation of type I and II afferents (sub-motor threshold) and type III and IV afferents (motor threshold), and CAN patterns were assessed using blood-oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study 1 (Chapter 2) established CAN regions associated with sub-motor stimulation including the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC), subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC), and posterior insula, along with a trend towards increased heart rate
Looking for autonomic nervous system? Find out information about autonomic nervous system. see nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment.... Explanation of autonomic nervous system
Obesity is a chronic disease associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunctions and with functional capacity limitation. In this context, two studies were developed to understand the cardiac autonomic nervous system and cardiopulmonary systems behavior in obese women in response to different situations. The first study, entitled Impact of obesity in the autonomic nervous system in response to active postural changes and to treadmill six-minute walking test was designed to evaluate and compare the cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic women at rest and in response to postural changes, and to the treadmill six-minute walking test (tread-6MWT). In addition, we assessed the distance covered, walking work and physiological responses to the tread-6MWT in both groups. Heart rate (HR) and RR intervals were registered at resting supine position, active postural changes and during the tread-6MWT in 14 obese women (OG) and 15 eutrophic women (EG). Our results suggested that obese ...
Moxonidine, an imidazoline I1 receptor agonist, is a centrally acting antihypertensive agent having sympatholytic effect. However, there are only limited data regarding the effects of this drug on autonomic cardiac functions. In this study we i
Currently, heart rate variability (HRV) is among the useful tools used to assess modulatory effects of the autonomic nervous system on the heart...
- Nervous Control of GI SystemEnteric nervous system coordinates Autonomic network of neurons around GI tract independent of (but in communication with) parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous systemCoordination of peristalsis (motility), segmentation (churning/mixing), and secretion (of enzymes and hormones) after eatingStimulated by parasympathetic activity (rest and digest)Inhibited by sympathetic activity (fight or flight) - Enteric nervous system coordinates Autonomic network of neurons around GI tract independent of (but in communication with) parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous systemCoordination of peristalsis (motility), segmentation (churning/mixing), and secretion (of enzymes and hormones) after eating - Autonomic network of neurons around GI tract independent of (but in communication with) parasympathetic/sympathetic nervous system - Coordination of peristalsis (motility), segmentation (churning/mixing), and secretion (of enzymes and hormones) after eating - Stimulated by parasympathetic
Introduction: Allergic diseases have their incidence constantly increased especially asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema or atopic dermatitis. The causes related with the appearance of these diseases such as the environment, hereditary and others are unable to explain certain behaviors. Changes in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are cited as one of the factors that may contribute to the onset of exacerbations. Objective: Identify the autonomic nervous system´s behavior in allergic diseases. Methods: Integrative literature review conducted from the following databases: Scielo, Lilacs and PubMed. The keywords used were autonomic nervous system, asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema in Portuguese, English and Spanish languages. Four articles were selected for this review. Results: The selected articles point to an increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system or decreased activity of the sympathetic system in cases of allergic rhinitis. With asthma, it is believed that the changes in ...
The interaction between seizures and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is very complex. Abnormal neuronal electrical activity corresponding to a seizure can involve central centers for the regulation of autonomic activity.
This targeted FOA specifically seeks to generate scientific advancements addressing the role of the autonomic nervous system in the regulation of peripheral metabolism and its role in diabetes, obesity and related metabolic disease. Interdisciplinary teams may propose to develop resources in the form of novel tools or methodologies that when applied to the autonomic nervous system will contribute to elucidating its functional role in metabolism. Alternatively, teams may focus on novel approaches to address specific knowledge gaps or scientific questions that will significantly contribute to our understanding of role of the autonomic nervous system in metabolism with the goal of accelerating scientific progress in the treatment and prevention of metabolic disease.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoids: Roles in Development of the Autonomic Nervous System.. AU - Bohn, MC. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. M3 - Article. VL - 10. SP - 357. EP - 378. JO - In: Autonomic-Endocrine Interactions, ed. K. Unsicker ,The Autonomic Nervous System Series, Ed. G. Burnstock, Harwood Acad. Pub., Chur, Switzerland,. JF - In: Autonomic-Endocrine Interactions, ed. K. Unsicker ,The Autonomic Nervous System Series, Ed. G. Burnstock, Harwood Acad. Pub., Chur, Switzerland,. ER - ...
Breathing is an exceptional function of the body. Even though it is automatically regulated by the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS), it can be consciously modified. This is remarkable, given that autonomic implies that something cannot be controlled by the mind.. Both the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system are parts of the autonomic nervous system. These systems work in balance with one another, and directly or indirectly affect almost every structure in the body, including heart frequency, heart capacity, lumbar function, kidneys, blood vessels, stomach, and intestines.. Yogic traditions claim that all functions of the body controlled by the ANS - including the beating of the heart - can eventually become volitional with extensive practice. But to get to that point, it is necessary to concentrate on the breath.. The sympathetic nervous system has an active pushing function, and the parasympathetic nervous system has mainly a relaxing function. The nervous system is located ...
The autonomic function tests section offers a panel of tests to determine the integrity of the autonomic nervous system. These tests are useful in the evaluation of patients with ...
In this article we will discuss about the definition and types of autonomic nervous system in fishes. Definition of Autonomic Nervous System: The autonomic nerves in fishes, control the aperture of iris, blood pressure, blood flow through gills for oxygenation and blood supply to various parts of the body automatically. It controls heart performance, gastric […]. ...
Historically the autonomic nervous system was considered to be divided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions. The sympathetic is the fight or flight part, whereas the parasympathetic is the calming part. See a standard text to learn more about what these do.. Dr. Stephen Porgus, now at the University of Illinois in Chicago, questioned how the autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioned in emotional and social aspects, especially as related to infant and child development. He thought there must be a close connection with this to the nervous system. We speak of having a feeling and of gut feelings. How is this explained?. After decades of research and reviews of the literature, he has proposed the Polyvagal Theory. This new division is labeled the Social Nervous System. When a baby is born, breathing and heart action are paramount. The sympathetic nervous system causes an increase in heart rate. Stress can do this, but we dont want a new-born to be stressed on day one just to get ...
Inflammation and Autonomic Function. By Ângela Leal, Mafalda Carvalho, Isabel Rocha and Helder Mota-Filipe. Inflammation is generally a temporary and limited condition but may lead to a chronic one if immune and physiological homeostasis are disrupted. The autonomic nervous system has an important role in the short- and, also, long-term regulation of homeostasis and, thus, on inflammation. Autonomic modulation in acute and chronic inflammation has been implicated with a sympathetic interference in the earlier stages of the inflammatory process and the activation of the vagal inflammatory reflex to regulate innate immune responses and cytokine functional effects in longer processes. The present review focuses on the autonomic mechanisms controlling proinflammatory responses, and we will discuss novel therapeutic options linked to autonomic modulation for diseases associated with a chronic inflammatory condition such as sepsis.. Part of the book: Autonomic Nervous System ...
sympathetic nervous system The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system.. Preganglionic fibres originate in the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal cord and synapse with postganglionic nerve cells in the sympathetic ganglia. Most of these ganglia are in two ironss sidelong to the anchor, and others are within the bole ; postganglionic fibres extend to the variety meats innervated. Some effects of sympathetic stimulation are increased bosom rate, dilation of the bronchioles, dilation of the students, vasoconstriction in the tegument and entrails, vasodilation in the skeletal musculuss, decelerating of vermiculation, transition of animal starch to glucose by the liver, and secernment of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal myelin. Sympathetic effects are general instead than specific and fix the organic structure to get by with nerve-racking state of affairss. See: autonomic nervous system for illus.. and table ; parasympathetic nervous systemSympathetic urges have the ...
Previous studies have provided both direct and indirect evidence for a functional role of α7-containing receptors in autonomic function at the cellular level. Studies in α7-deficient mice have indicated that baroreflex stimulation of the parasympathetic limb does not display altered parasympathetic function but that stimulation of the sympathetic limb demonstrates abnormal sympathetic responses (7). The possibility has remained, however, that α7-subunits play a role in resting autonomic tone rather than in stimulated activity, and the possibility of some modulatory role on autonomic function has remained. In this study, we have shown that the α7-nAChR subunit is not required for parasympathetic modulation of HR in the resting state or under artificial controlled stimulation of vagal pathways to the heart throughout a wide stimulation range.. Resting HR and PSD profiles were not significantly different between the groups of mice, suggesting that either the α7-subunit does not play a role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural control of the cardiovascular system during exercise. AU - Iellamo, F.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The objective of this review was to give an overview on the current knowledge on the neural mechanisms of cardiovascular regulation during exercise. Evidence derived mainly from human studies which supports the contribution of the different control mechanisms, namely the central command, the reflex drive from active muscles and the arterial baroreflex, with the attendant modifications in autonomic nervous system activity, in determining the cardiovascular responses to exercise are discussed, along with some controversial issues and evolving concepts in exercise physiology. In particular, data that show how the various neural mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation during exercise are differently modulated by factors related to the muscular activity being performed, such as the type and intensity of exercise and the size of the active muscle masses are presented, ...
The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 15 The subconscious involuntary nervous system Regulates activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & certain glands The Autonomic Nervous System 1 2 ANS vs. SNS Somatic
Study Flashcards On Autonomic Nervous System at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Befriending the Nervous System: A Beginners Guide to Polyvagal Theory. This listening happens far below awareness and far away from our conscious control. Dr Porges, in understanding that this is not awareness that comes with perception, coined the term neuroception to describe the way our autonomic nervous system scans for cues of safety, danger and life-threat without involving the thinking parts of our brain. Because we humans are meaning-making beings, what begins as wordless experiencing of neuroception drives the creation of a story that shapes our daily living.. The Autonomic Nervous System. The ANS is made up of two main branches, the sympathetic and the parasympathetic and responds to signals and sensations via three pathways, each with a characteristic pattern of response. Through each of these patterns we react in service of survival.. The SYMPATHETIC BRANCH is found in the middle part of the spinal cord and represents the pathway that prepares for ACTION. It responds to cues of ...
Autonomic nervous system: Autonomic nervous system, in vertebrates, the part of the nervous system that controls and regulates the internal organs without conscious effort.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutritional stimulation of the autonomic nervous system. AU - Luyer, M.D.P.. AU - Habes, Q.. AU - van Hak, R.. AU - Buurman, W.A.. PY - 2011/9/14. Y1 - 2011/9/14. N2 - Disturbance of the inflammatory response in the gut is important in several clinical diseases ranging from inflammatory bowel disease to postoperative ileus. Several feedback mechanisms exist that control the inflammatory cascade and avoid collateral damage. In the gastrointestinal tract, it is of particular importance to control the immune response to maintain the balance that allows dietary uptake and utilization of nutrients on one hand, while preventing invasion of bacteria and toxins on the other hand. The process of digestion and absorption of nutrients requires a relative hyporesponsiveness of the immune cells in the gut to luminal contents which is not yet fully understood. Recently, the autonomic nervous system has been identified as an important pathway to control local and systemic inflammation and gut ...
he autonomic nervous system is composed of nerve fibers coming from the brain as well as from the spinal cord and towards the organ in question. Here are The Autonomic Nervous System Definition, Types, and Functions
Autonomic Nervous System Regulation Lessons and Activities GRADES 5 12 Section IV EG HQ, Education Standards, Grades 5 8, Introduction Autonomic Nervous System Regulation TOPIC How
Autonomic Nervous System and more specifically its Sympathetic, Picture of Autonomic Nervous System and more specifically its Sympathetic
MnemonicDictionary.com - Meaning of autonomic nervous system and a memory aid (called Mnemonic) to retain that meaning for long time in our memory.
Neuroscience For Kids Explore the nervous system. The autonomic nervous system consists of two large divisions (Figure 1): ∠sympathetic (thoracolumbar) outflow, and ∠parasympathetic (craniosacral) outflow. The two divisions are defined by their anatomic origin rather than by their physiological characteristics. Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the peripheral autonomic nervous system. The, The Nervous System is divided into Two Main Divisions: Central Nervous System (CNS) and The Nervous System - University of Colorado Boulder.pdf - 0 downloads Lecture5.pdf - Composed of the central nervous system (CNS). The autonomic nervous system is divided into three parts: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The autonomic nervous system controls smooth muscle of the viscera (internal organs) and glands. Label the three major parts of the nervous system. • Part II: Complete or write ...
Propranolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent (beta blocker) possessing no other autonomic nervous system activity. Specifically competes with beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating agents for available receptor sites. It is used in the treatment of hypertension.
Background:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major public health problem. Most of the acute disturbances of autonomic nervous system activity seen in clinical practice resulting from head injury are due to increased intracranial pressure (IC...
Prätzlich M, Oldenhof H, Steppan M, Ackermann K, Baker R, Batchelor M, Baumann S, Bernhard A, Clanton R, Dikeos D, Dochnal R, Fehlbaum LV, Fernández-Rivas A, González de Artaza-Lavesa M, Gonzalez-Madruga K, Guijarro S, Gundlach M, Herpetz-Dahlmann B, Hervas A, Jansen L, Kerexeta-Lizeaga I, Kerten L, Kirchner M, Kohls G, Konsta A, Lazaratou H, Martinelli A, Menks WM, Puzzo I, Raschle NM, Rogers J, Siklósi R, Smaragdi A, Vriends N, Konrad K, De Brito S, Fairchild G, Kieser M, Freitag CM, Popma A, Stadler C (2018) Resting autonomic nervous system activity is unrelated to antisocial behaviour dimensions in adolescents: Cross-sectional findings from a European multi-centre study. Journal of Criminal Justice. [PDF ...
There has been increasing attention on the therapeutic effects of the forest environment. However, evidence-based research that clarifies the physiological effects of the forest environment on hypertensive individuals is lacking. This study provides scientific evidence suggesting that a brief forest walk affects autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals. Twenty participants (58.0 ± 10.6 years) were instructed to walk predetermined courses in forest and urban environments (as control). Course length (17-min walk), walking speed, and energy expenditure were equal between the forest and urban environments to clarify the effects of each environment. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate were used to quantify physiological responses. The modified semantic differential method and Profile of Mood States were used to determine psychological responses. The natural logarithm of the high-frequency component of HRV was significantly higher and heart rate was significantly
Cardiac autonomic function was studied in 23 alcohol dependent men by standard tests of autonomic function and measurement of 24 hour heart rate variability. In all there was peripheral or central nervous system damage or both. Standard tests of autonomic function showed vagal neuropathy in seven. The remainder had normal autonomic function tests. Twenty four hour heart rate variability was measured as the standard deviation of the successive differences between RR intervals from an ambulatory electrocardiogram recording. Twenty four hour heart rate variability was significantly lower in both alcohol dependent groups than in controls, but the results in the two alcohol dependent groups were not significantly different from each other. The results of standard tests of autonomic function did not distinguish between the alcohol dependent men with normal autonomic function and controls. The differences in heart rate variability between this group and the controls may have been the result of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does fatigue in Parkinsons disease correlate with autonomic nervous system dysfunction?. AU - Olivola, Enrica. AU - Brusa, Livia. AU - Rocchi, Camilla. AU - Schillaci, Orazio. AU - Liguori, Claudio. AU - Cerroni, Rocco. AU - Pierantozzi, Mariangela. AU - Chiaravalloti, Agostino. AU - Stefani, Alessandro. AU - Stocchi, Fabrizio. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Background: Despite its negative impact on quality of life, fatigue in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains an under-recognized issue and the underlying pathology is undetermined. Objective: To contribute at understanding the pathogenesis of fatigue in a naturalistic cohort of cognitively intact PD patients. Methods: In a Caucasian population of PD patients (n = 27), we evaluated to what extent fatigue (quantified as PFS-16 score) is associated with PD duration and with autonomic dysfunction, studied by both MIBG scintigraphy and autonomic nervous system testing. The latter included the head-up tilt test, Valsalva ...
Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and serum levels of neurotoxic and neurotrophic cytokines in patients with cobalamin deficiency / Kobalamin eksikligi olan hastalarda otonom sinir sistemi bozuklugu ve norotoksik, norotropik sitokinlerin serum duzeyleri.
Signsymptom.com publishes evidence-based articles about autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Were committed to being your source for expert health guidance.
There are many different treatments for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, including things as minor as lifestyle changes and...
Behcets disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect many systems in the body. Cardiac involvement increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and occurs in 1%-5% of patients with BD. Ventricular arrythmias are believed to be the cause of this increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and it is also thought to be related with cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a new predictor of cardiac autonomic activity. HRT is an independent and powerful predictor of mortality. In this study, we investigated the cardiac autonomic activity which can be determined by HRT in patients with BD. Forty patients with BD (20 men, mean age: 40 ± 9 years, range: 27-55 years) were diagnosed according to the International Study Group Criteria (ISGC) and gender and age matched healthy volunteers (20 men, mean age: 39 ± 8 years, range: 26-56 years) were included in this study. All of the participants (patients and controls) underwent 24 hours Holter electrocardiogram. HRT
Arterial baroreflex and cardiac autonomic control play important roles in hemodynamic instability after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) are established tools for the assessment of arterial baroreflex and cardiac autonomic activity. Aim of the study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic activity (by means of HRV, BPV and BRS) after CAS and to explore the impact of internal carotid artery stenosis on BRS changes after CAS. 37 patients (68±10.45 years) with internal carotid stenosis underwent CAS. HRV, BPV and BRS were measured in all subjects before and at 1 and 72h after CAS. ANOVA was performed to compare BRS, HRV and BPV parameters before and after CAS. Spearman analysis was performed to determine a possible correlation between carotid stenosis degree (or carotid plaque diameter) and BRS changes (ΔBRS). LF/HF (index of sympatho-vagal balance) decreased during postoperative period, in ...
PubMed journal article: [Effect of Electroacupuncture Stimulation of Heart Meridian on Autonomic Nervous Activities in Acute Myocardial Ischemia Rats]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of posture on heart rate variability spectral measures in children and young adults with heart disease. AU - Vuksanovic, Vesna. AU - Gal, Vera. AU - Kalanj, Jasna. AU - Simeunovic, Slavko. PY - 2005/5/25. Y1 - 2005/5/25. N2 - BACKGROUND: Reduction of heart rate variability as a consequence of heart disease and postural change has been well documented. However, the data on the effect of postural change in pediatric patients are incomplete and the effect is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to investigate effect of postural change on heart rate variability in relation to the extent of severity of heart disease.METHODS: The dependence of heart rate variability on posture in 41 children and young adults (8-20 years) with heart disease has been investigated and compared with control. Short-term electrocardiograms (ECGs) were assessed in supine rest and active standing, and spectral measures of heart rate variability were determined.RESULTS: Two types of response to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methodological comparisons of heart rate variability analysis in patients with type 2 diabetes and angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphism. AU - Marzbanrad, Faezeh. AU - Khandoker, Ahsan H.. AU - Hambly, Brett D.. AU - Ng, Ethan. AU - Tamayo, Michael. AU - Lu, Yaxin. AU - Matthews, Slade. AU - Karmakar, Chandan. AU - Palaniswami, Marimuthu. AU - Jelinek, Herbert F.. AU - McLachlan, Craig. N1 - Imported at 17:05 on 07 Apr 2017 (journal article sample for testing) - DigiTool details were: Journal title (773t) = IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. ISSNs: 2168-2194; PY - 2016/1. Y1 - 2016/1. N2 - Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism has been shown to be important in hypertension progression and also in diabetes complications, especially associated with heart disease. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an established measure for classification of autonomic function regulating heart rate, based on the interbeat interval time series derived from a raw ECG ...
Comprehensive Heart rate variability analysis (hrv) products provide full HRV analysis, health assessment , short-term HRV analysis, physiological monitoring, autonomic balance regulation analysis, stress management
We aimed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system activity in children with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome.Included in the study were 40 children with overactive bladder and 28 healthy controls.
This chapter delivers an overview of autonomic functions, their control and pathophysiology, reviews the most important and specific autonomic system disorders, their causes, management, and assessment, and future directions for neurorehabilitation following autonomic failure. The autonomic nervous system (ANS)regulates responses to exercise, environmental challenges, and emotional responses.The system has two main divisions, sympathetic and parasympathetic, continuously monitoring and controlling the visceral organs. Many brain structures are essential to the ANS.ANS disorders can affect a single organ or whole systems and can result in neuropathies.Alterations in ANS function can impair the ability of the circulatory system to maintain blood flow and pressure, impair gastrointestinal function, lead to metabolic disturbances, and aberrant supraspinal affects can lead to urogenital dysfunction.In acute stroke the pathophysiology is not always immediately clear somanagement has to be guided by sound
We provide easy-to-use software solutions fulfilling highest scientific standards.. Our world famous Kubios HRV software is a scientific tool for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The software is suitable for clinical and public health researchers, professionals working on human or animal wellbeing, or sports enthusiasts; for anybody who want to perform detailed analyses on heart rate variability, e.g. to examine autonomic nervous system function.. ...
Autonomic nervous system plays an integral role in homeostasis. Autonomic modulation can frequently be altered in patients with cardiac disorders as well as in patients with other critical illnesses or injuries. Assessment of heart rate variability is based on analysis of consecutive normal R-R intervals and may provide quantitative information on the modulation of cardiac vagal and sympathetic nerve input. The hypothesis that depressed heart rate variability may occur over a broad range of illness and injury, and may inversely correlated with disease severity and outcome has been tested in various clinical settings over the last decade. This article reviews recent literature concerning the potential clinical implications and limitations of heart rate variability assessment in general medicine. ...
Purpose of the study: the aim of the study was to compare sympathetic and parasympathetic balance in patients after spinal cord injury. Subjects: ten sedentary men after spinal cord injury at the age of 17-34 were examined. Method: the variability of the sinus rhythm (HRV) as well as the heart rate were measured by means of the Polar sport-tester S 810i. The collected data was used to analyse the sinus rhythm's variability in HRV Analysis program. Conclusions: the prevalence of low frequencies may signify/indicate dominance of sympathetic element of the autonomic nervous system. Lower values of the total force may show dysfunctioning of the autonomic nervous system after spinal cord injury ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of Autonomic Nervous System Responsitivity in Children. T2 - A Review of the Literature. AU - Shields, Stephanie A.. PY - 1983/10. Y1 - 1983/10. N2 - This paper reviews the literature on Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) responsiveness in children. Normative developmental changes in cardiovascular activity (heart rate and blood pressure), electrodermal activity, and the dynamic balance between branches of the ANS are summarized. Several issues which appear to have potential for further developmental study are identified. Problems and limitations in the psychophysiological study of children are also discussed.. AB - This paper reviews the literature on Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) responsiveness in children. Normative developmental changes in cardiovascular activity (heart rate and blood pressure), electrodermal activity, and the dynamic balance between branches of the ANS are summarized. Several issues which appear to have potential for further developmental study are ...
Biocom Technologies is a leader in design, development and manufacturing of software and sensors for assessing and improving health, fitness and professional performance. The market potential for our products spans the entire health, educational and fitness industry.. Biocom Technologies was formed by a team of biomedical researchers with expertise in the design and development of new software and sensor technologies for physiological data recording and heart rate variability analysis. The company is focused on developing new proprietary technologies and products for biomedical research, education and consumer health markets. Our core skills are in the development of new cutting edge software and hardware concepts.. Our primary focus is to ally with strategic partners and investors interested in new opportunities provided by booming consumer health and educational markets.. ...
Abstract: The autonomic nervous system reflexively controls many physiological systems, including the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems. Water immersion causes fluid shifts within the body that increase central blood volume and intravascular fluid volume. These increases are thought to cause changes in autonomic activity, however it is not known if sympathetic nerve activity is reduced during water immersion. Because the autonomic nervous system controls the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, it is imperative to understand changes in autonomic activity during water immersion in order to develop countermeasures to protect Navy and recreational divers from potentially adverse physiological responses to the environmental conditions that they are exposed to. This project will examine how changes in both water temperature and breathing gases influence autonomic activity during head out water immersion ...
Background: Impaired cardiac autonomic function may contribute to the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Clinical observations indicate that successful epilepsy surgery is associated with a reduced risk of SUDEP. However, in a previous study we found impaired cardiac control pre-surgically in patients with poor outcome of surgery, indicating an a priori lower risk in responders to epilepsy surgery. We have now examined the effect of surgery on cardiac autonomic control in the same patients.. Methods: We used 24 h EKG recordings to assess heart rate variability (HRV) by spectral analysis in 21 consecutive patients after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. The HRV was compared with healthy controls, with pre-surgical HRV in the same patients, and analyzed in relation to seizure control 1 year after surgery.. Results: The patients with poor outcome after surgery had significantly lower SD of RR-intervals, total power, very low frequency power and low frequency power than matched ...
1. In patients with chronic heart failure, heart rate variability is reduced with relative preservation of very-low-frequency power (, 0.04 Hz). Heart rate variability has been measured without acceptable information on its stability and the optimal recording periods for enhancing this reproducibility.. 2. To this aim and to establish the optimal length of recording for the evaluation of the very-low-frequency power, we analysed 40, 20, 10 and 5 min ECG recordings obtained on two separate occasions in 16 patients with chronic heart failure. The repeatability coefficient and the variation coefficient were calculated for the heart rate variability parameters, in the time-domain (mean RR, SDRR and pNN50), and in the frequency-domain: very low frequency (, 0.04 Hz), low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz), high frequency (0.15-0.40 Hz), total power (0-0.5 Hz).. 3. Mean RR remained virtually identical over time (variation coefficient 8%). The reproducibility of time-domain (variation coefficient 25-139%) and of ...
In utero exposure to opiates may affect autonomic functioning of the fetus and newborn. We investigated heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic stability in prenatal opiate-exposed neonates (n = 14) and in control term infants (n = 10). Electrocardiographic data during both non-nutritive and nutritive sucking were evaluated for RR intervals, heart rate (HR), standard deviation of the consecutive RR intervals (SDRR), standard deviation of the differences of consecutive RR intervals (SDDRR), and the power spectral densities in low and high frequency bands. In controls, mean HR increased significantly, 143-161 per min (p = 0.002), with a trend toward a decrease in RR intervals from non-nutritive to nutritive sucking; these measures did not change significantly among exposed infants. Compared to controls, exposed infants demonstrated significantly greater HRV or greater mean SDRR and SDDRR during non-nutritive period (p | 0.01), greater mean SDDRR during nutritive sucking (p = 0.02), and
Results: No artifact was produced from ECG. With Minicardio, no artifact was produced during supine rest, during exercise there were 2 type 1 (long R-R interval) and 7 type 2 artifacts (short R-R interval). For time domain analysis, Pearson coefficients were 1 for SDNN and mean R-R interval and 0.99 for RMSSD and pNN50. For frequency domain analysis, Pearson coefficients were 0.99 for high frequency and low frequency power, and 0.99 for Poincaré plots SD1 and SD2. Limits of agreement from Bland-Altman analysis showed an excellent agreement between all ...
The purpose of this study was to determine if an exergaming-based dance training protocol can improve heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy older adults. A total of 20 healthy older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to two groups. The intervention group received an exergaming-based dance aerobic training for 6 weeks, while the control group received a 1-hr education on conventional physical exercises. Data obtained from HRV analysis pre- (Week 0) and postintervention (Week 7) consisted of high-frequency power, low- and high-frequency ratio, and root mean square of differences and percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50 ms values. HRV was assessed during rest and during a 6-min walk test. In addition, the YMCA submaximal cycle ergometer test was used to acquire estimated maximal O2 consumption pre- and postintervention. After the training, the intervention group showed significant improvement in HRV high-frequency power, root mean square ...
COVID-19 Hospital Needs and Death Projections: IHME is producing and regularly updating projections of hospital bed use, need for intensive care beds, ventilator use, and deaths due to COVID-19 based on projected deaths for all 50 U.S. states. Access current projections.. ...
It has not hitherto been clarified whether there is an association between dietary behavior and circadian variation in autonomic nervous system activity among shift workers. This study examines diurnal 24-h rhythm in heart rate variability (HRV) and dietary behavior among rotating shift workers, while taking into account the sleep-wake cycle and physical activity. The subjects were 11 female and 2 male nurses or caregivers working in a rotating 2-shift system at a health care facility. All the subjects were asked to undergo 24-h electrocardiograph and step count recordings, and to record the time of each meal and the amounts of each food and beverage consumed. Coarse graining spectral analysis was used for approximately 10-min segments of HRV to derive the total power (TOT: |0.04 Hz) of the periodic components and the integrated power of periodic components in the low-frequency (LF: 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF: |0.15 Hz) ranges. Then the ratio of HF power to TOT (HF nu) and the ratio of LF
All measurements were collected according to standardized protocols common to all ARIC sites.14 Measurements took place in the morning in examination rooms that were maintained at a comfortable temperature (70°F) with dim light. After a 20-minute rest, ECG R waves were recorded from participants in a supine position at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz for 2 minutes, then converted into beat-to-beat heart rate, including a record of the real time of each beat. Variance-preserving imputation software (PREDICT II HRVECG, Arrhythmia Research Technology, Inc) was used to impute data in segments with artifacts.15 Records were excluded if artifacts affected ,20% of intervals, the total record was ,60 seconds, or there were fewer than 30 acceptable intervals. After imputation, heart rate data were converted back into RR intervals for data processing and spectrum analysis.. A fast Fourier transformation was used to calculate the power spectral density curve.16 Area under the curve in the high-frequency ...
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is comprised of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems generally work antagonistically because of dual innervation of many organs in effort to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is controlled centrally by the hypothalamus ...
misc{496be837-0af2-4330-bb0e-4f3bd2b581d2, author = {Hagerman, Inger and Berglund, Margareta and Nielsen, Jörn and Andersson, Ulla B and Assarsson, Eva and Dierschke, Katrin and Gudmundsson, Anders and Isaxon, Christina and Pagels, Joakim and Wierzbicka, Aneta and Bohgard, Mats}, keyword = {aerosol,nano particles,Heart rate variability}, language = {eng}, location = {Helsinki, Finland}, note = {Conference Abstract}, series = {[Publication information missing]}, title = {Effects on heart rate variability of exposure to nano-sized airborne particles}, year = {2010 ...
A new study conducted at the University of Tampere in Finland shows that the physiology of the infant has an impact on how strongly the mothers anxiety during pregnancy predicts the infants temperamental negative emotionality, such as crying, fussiness, and fearfulness. According to the study, the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and infant negative emotionality at eight months was strong in infants with high heart rate variability. No such association was detected among infants with lower heart rate variability.. Heart rate variability reflects the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, and recent research has linked high heart rate variability to greater susceptibility to various environmental influences. Research has also shown that the stress and anxiety experienced by the mother during pregnancy are associated with higher temperamental negative emotionality in infants.. The main contribution of this study is to point out that not all children are similarly ...
Animal shelters can be stressful environments and time in care may affect individual dogs in negative ways, so it is important to try to reduce stress and arousal levels to improve welfare and chance of adoption. A key element of the stress response is the activation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and a non-invasive tool to measure this activity is heart rate variability (HRV). Physiologically, stress and arousal result in the production of corticosteroids, increased heart rate and decreased HRV. Environmental enrichment can help to reduce arousal related behaviours in dogs and this study focused on sensory environmental enrichment using olfactory and auditory stimuli with shelter dogs. The aim was to determine if these stimuli have a physiological effect on dogs and if this could be detected through HRV. Sixty dogs were allocated to one of three stimuli groups: lavender, dog appeasing pheromone and music or a control group, and usable heart rate variability data were obtained from 34 dogs.
Objectives: This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Methods: Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. Results: A signifi cant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; CAP time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. Conclusions: These fi ndings ...
Background. Measurements of heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) have become increasingly useful clinical tools for assessment of autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular health. However, a systematic examination of the genetic component to HR and HRV has not been performed. This study investigated the contribution of genetic background to variation in baseline HR and HRV in a wide range of inbred and recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains by recording electrocardiographic (ECG) data under resting conditions.. Methods and Results. ECG data were recorded from thirty strains of inbred mice and twenty-nine RI strains. Significant differences in mean (± SEM) HR (bpm) were identified between inbred strains (range: 480.5 ± 11.4 (129Svlm) to 776.9 ± 11.5 (CAST); P , 0.001) and RI strains (range: 530.3 ± 38.1 (AXB8) to 719.5 ± 53.2 (BXA4). The mean (± SEM) range in total power (ms2/Hz) for the inbred strains was 1.39 ± 0.2 (PL) to 3.35 ± 0.1 (HeJ) (P , 0.01), and 1.46 ± ...
A growing body of literature has documented that job stress is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism of this association remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationship between job stress, heart rate variability, and metabolic syndrome. The study design was cross-sectional, and a total of 169 industrial workers were recruited. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess the general characteristics and job characteristics (work demand, decision latitude). Heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded using SA-2000 (medi-core), and was assessed by time-domain and by frequency-domain analyses. Time domain analysis was performed using SDNN (Standard Deviation of normal to normal interval), and spectral analysis using low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF), and total frequency power. Metabolic syndrome was defined on the basis of risk factors being clustered when three or more of the following cardiovascular risk
Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a noninvasive tool widely used to assess autonomic nervous system state. The market for wearable devices that measure the heart rate has grown exponentially, as well as their potential use for healthcare and wellbeing applications. Still, there is a lack of validation of these devices. In particular, this work aims to validate the Apple Watch in terms of HRV derived from the RR interval series provided by the device, both in temporal (HRM (mean heart rate), SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50) and frequency (low and high frequency powers, LF and HF) domain. For this purpose, a database of 20 healthy volunteers subjected to relax and a mild cognitive stress was used. First, RR interval series provided by Apple Watch were validated using as reference the RR interval series provided by a Polar H7 using Bland-Altman plots and reliability and agreement coefficients. Then, HRV parameters derived from both RR interval series were compared and their ability to identify autonomic
to take better account of slow respiration rates and/or irregular respiratory patterns in the HRV analysis, a new method for the estimation of the variable boundaries associated with the LF and the HF band of the HRV signal was implemented. This method relies on the frequency contents of both the HRV signal and the respiration signal and uses the cross-spectrum between these two signals to obtain the boundaries related to the HF band of the signal. The boundaries related to the LF band were defined using the HRV signal spectrum alone. The boundary estimation technique was applicable in all the spectral analysis methods that were used in this study.. After the pre-processing steps the clinical data was analysed using frequency and timefrequency analysis methods to obtain the parameters related to the HRV signals. Initially spectral analysis was carried out using the traditional non-parametric (Welchs periodogram) and parametric (Autoregressive modelling) methods. Statistical analysis of the ...
A method and apparatus for non-invasive, real-time monitoring of the autonomic nervous systems using non-stationary spectral analysis of both heart rate and respiratory signals. Continuous wavelet transformation is used in real-time so that the dynamic interactions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system can be independently monitored in the frequency domain. The method in accordance with the present invention allows spectral analysis, formerly limited to the study of stationary data, to be applied to time-varying biological data such as heart rate variability and respiratory activity. In addition, the same techniques are used to monitor other biological or physiological data, including blood pressure.
Luciano Bernardi, Stefano Leuzzi, Felice Value, Luigi Martinelli, Claudio Passino, Mauro Rinaldi, Giammario Spadacini, Mario Vigano, Giorgio Finardi, Peter Sleight; Effect of Different Interventions on Heart Rate Variability after Heart Transplantation: Non-Autonomic Vs Autonomic Factors. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 December 1996; 91 (s1): 22-24. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs0910022supp. Download citation file:. ...
Written by Dr. Georgia Tetlow, MD and Clare Abercrombie, BS We dont directly react to outer circumstances, but to our own thoughts, feelings and sensations that arise from outer phenomena. This means there is a choice, awareness or opportunity of how to respond...and we dont need to control outer circumstances, or be 100% healthy to be in a relaxed state. We can be in a relaxed state as we are now, by being aware of our own feelings and sensations and not reacting to ourselves with fear, but instead with acceptance. -Dr. Georgia Tetlow, MD. Part 1 of our series on the Autonomic Nervous System explored the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS). We learned about the importance of this system when we experience stressful or dangerous situations. But, what about when we are calm? What system is active during relaxation? This post will detail the ins and outs of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), the part of our autonomic nervous system that controls rest and relaxation.. PNS vs SNS. The ...
This study found that heart rate or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might by associated with disrupted sleep in patients with C
Emerging technologies has advanced well being and health assessments for health professionals. One such recent development permits the physical therapist to monitor any subtle changes within the nervous system. The use of Heart Rate Variability captures patterns of brain and nervous system functions and can be a great instrument to test well being. What is Heart Rate Variability? A deviation of the beat-to-beat interval period is a physiological phenomenon. The regulation of the variation is dependent of numerous factors. One important influence is the brain.The brain controls the regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System. The Autonomic Nervous System predominantly consists of the Sympathetic (
0022] Symbolic Analyzer (112) may be a software module configured to perform the symbolic analysis of variables in order to determine overflows. In one or more embodiments of the invention, Symbolic Analyzer (112) may use data dependencies and/or control dependencies to calculate symbolic values. Additionally, the Symbolic Analyzer (112) may determine which control predicates are linearly related to critical variables. A control predicate is a statement that controls the flow of a program. A control predicate is linearly related to the critical variable when the control predicate controls the value flow of the critical variable and is able to be represented as a linear function of the critical variable. It will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art that multiple control predicates may be linearly related to the critical variable and that control dependencies that are transformed into linearly related control dependencies may also be considered. Additionally, it will be apparent to one ...
The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages
The autonomic nervous system is composed of two components: the sympathetic nervous system controls arousal and physical ... Autonomic nervous system[edit]. Emotional pain activates the same regions of the brain as physical pain,[61] so emotional ... Porges Stephen W (2001), "The polyvagal theory: Phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system", International Journal of ... The sympathetic nervous system innervates (e.g., is physically connected to and regulates) many parts of the body involved in ...
Autonomic nervous system - Autonomic arousal[edit]. *Headaches. *Back pains. *Inability to relax ... The fight-or-flight response involves a general sympathetic nervous system discharge in reaction to a perceived stressor and ... By the end of the war, Salmon had set up a complete system of units and procedures that was then the "world's best practice".[ ... No such case should, however, be so labelled on evacuation as to fix the idea of nervous breakdown in the patient's mind.. In ...
... mainly affects the endocrine system and autonomic nervous system, but patients can exhibit a variety of signs. Patients ... Autonomic dysfunction refers to the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for regulating internal processes without ... autonomic nervous system, and endocrine system. Symptoms related to hypothalamic dysfunction may include abnormal sodium ... "autonomic nervous system , Divisions & Functions". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-06. Pontual, Loic De; Trochet, ...
Such bundles are able to send an action potential from the autonomic nervous system to the rest of the body. However, action ... "Autonomic Nervous System". PubMed Health. Lance, J. W. (2005). "Harlequin syndrome". Practical Neurology. 5 (3): 176-177. doi: ... Harlequin syndrome is considered an injury to the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS controls some of the body's natural ... Since Harlequin syndrome is associated with a dysfunction in the autonomic nervous system, main symptoms of this dysfunction ...
The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates heart rate, digestion, ... the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal ... Schmidt, A; Thews, G (1989). "Autonomic Nervous System". In Janig, W (ed.). Human Physiology (2 ed.). New York, NY: Springer- ... This component of the autonomic nervous system utilises and activates the release of norepinephrine in the reaction. The ...
Autonomic nervous systemEdit. See also: Autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts ... Sympathetic nervous systemEdit. See also: Sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal ... Parasympathetic nervous systemEdit. See also: Parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system originates in ... the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.[7]. ...
"Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System". In Robertson D, Biaggioni I, et al. (eds.). Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. ... Kenney MJ, Ganta CK (July 2014). "Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions". Comprehensive Physiology. 4. pp. ... The sympathetic nervous system is the primary path of interaction between the immune system and the brain, and several ... "Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature". Diabetes & ...
The autonomic nervous system. Edited by C. L. Bolis and J. Licinio. World Health Organization. hdl:10665/66029. Organization, ... Who Meeting on Stress and the Nervous System (1998: Athens, Greece) (1998). Stress and the nervous system. Edited by C. L. ... central nervous system cytokines modulate the biological substrate of depressive symptoms, regulate stress-responsive systems, ... and IL-13 gene expression in the central nervous system and anterior pituitary during systemic inflammation: pathophysiological ...
... when it was learned that the autonomic nervous system runs to almost every organ, gland and muscle system in the body. It was ... "The neurochemical organization of the autonomic nervous system". In Appenzeller O, Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds.). The autonomic ... The autonomic nervous system is not anatomically exact and connections might exist which are unpredictably affected when the ... Sympathectomy works by disabling part of the autonomic nervous system (and thereby disrupting its signals from the brain), ...
"The Autonomic Nervous System". Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2008. Streeten, DVH. "The ... the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system increases and the activity of the sympathetic nervous system decreases. This ... The larger the meal, the greater the shift in autonomic tone towards the parasympathetic system, regardless of the composition ... a general state of low energy related to activation of the parasympathetic nervous system in response to mass in the ...
The Autonomic Nervous System, 1963; Our most interesting Diseases, 1964; A Defence of John Balliol, 1970 Bulbring, E.; Walker, ... Burn worked on the internal control of the body by the auto(matic)nomic nervous system, carrying out seminal work on the ... Functions of Autonomic Transmitters, 1956; The Principles of Therapeutics, 1957; Drugs, Medicines and Man, 1962; ...
the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS is divided into subsystems: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the ... The nervous system is composed of a central nervous system (CNS), brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS ... The central nervous system provides control and coordination of all eleven body systems and utilizes the endocrine system to ... The endocrine system is under the direct supervision of the nervous system, using the negative feedback principal of ...
Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 9: Autonomic Nervous System". In Sydor A, Brown RY (eds.). Molecular ... Yoshida T, Sakane N, Umekawa T, Kondo M (January 1994). "Effect of nicotine on sympathetic nervous system activity of mice ... Nicotine also activates the sympathetic nervous system, acting via splanchnic nerves to the adrenal medulla, stimulating the ... Immune cells of both the Innate immune system and adaptive immune systems frequently express the α2, α5, α6, α7, α9, and α10 ...
Nerves of the autonomic nervous system, with splanchnic nerves seen in center. ... carrying fibers of the autonomic nervous system (visceral efferent fibers) as well as sensory fibers from the organs (visceral ... autonomic system[2]. Origin[2]. Targets[2]. Cardiopulmonary nerves. Postsynaptic. sympathetic. cervical and upper thoracic ...
"Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System , Boundless Anatomy and Physiology". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2019-10-28 ... The sympathetic ganglia, or autonomic ganglia, are the ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. Ganglia are 20,000 to 30,000 ... This perception of danger can instigate the fight-or-flight response associated with the sympathetic nervous system. The fight- ... The general rule of interaction of the nerve fibers in the sympathetic nervous system begins at the spinal cord. Here they ...
English, Brett A.; Webster, Andrew A. (2012). "Acetylcholinesterase and its Inhibitors". Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System ... In 2015, the United States Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System database compared rivastigmine to the ...
Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 57 (1-2): 123-7. doi:10.1016/0165-1838(95)00104-2. PMID 8867095. Billman GE (2013). " ... HRV is reported to be an index of the influence of both the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous systems ... is another way to describe the pathways in the autonomic nervous system that mediate HRV. The polyvagal theory highlights three ... heart rate and rhythm are largely under the control of the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic influence on heart ...
Burnstock, Geoffrey (2012). "Cotransmission". Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. pp. 27-33. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386525- ... The nervous system stood as an exception. Although nerve cells had been described in tissue by numerous investigators including ... The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive ... Ramón y Cajal's discovery was the decisive evidence for the discontinuity of nervous system and the presence of large number of ...
Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 36 (1): 75-84. doi:10.1016/0165-1838(91)90132-M. PMID 1721636. Meister B, Arvidsson U ...
Actions on the parasympathetic nervous system, (the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system) may cause ... English, Brett A.; Webster, Andrew A. (2012). "Acetylcholinesterase and its Inhibitors". Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System ... thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of acetylcholine in the central nervous system, autonomic ganglia and ... This is a disease, which is characterized by degeneration of axons in the peripheral and central nervous system. This disease ...
Levenson, R. W. (1992). "Autonomic nervous system differences among emotions". Psychological Science. 3: 23-27. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 75 (1): 16-22. doi:10.1016/S0165-1838(98)00165-9. ISSN 0165-1838. PMID 9935265. Wang, ...
November 2011). Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System. Geoffrey Burnstock, Phillip A. Low, Julian F.R. Paton (3rd ed.). ... blood pressure but also the insulin resistance components of the metabolic syndrome and cardiac autonomic nervous system tone ... More recently, the TM technique has been introduced to prisoners in the Oregon Correctional System and a research study is ... Mishlove, Jeffrey (1988). "Chapter 3". Psi Development Systems. Ballantine. ISBN 978-0-345-35204-0. JOHNSON, CHIP (October 9, ...
EDA is a common measure of autonomic nervous system activity, with a long history of being used in psychological research. Hugo ... If the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is highly aroused, then sweat gland activity also increases, which in ... ISBN 978-0-511-27907-2. OCLC 166506595.CS1 maint: others (link) Mendes, Wendy Berry (2009). "Assessing Autonomic Nervous System ... Sweating is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, and skin conductance is an indication of psychological or ...
doi:10.1016/0165-6147(85)90136-1. Watanabe, August M. (1 May 1985). "Digitalis and the autonomic nervous system". Journal of ... Digitalis also has a vagal effect on the parasympathetic nervous system, and as such is used in re-entrant cardiac arrhythmias ... The dependence on the vagal effect means digitalis is not effective when a patient has a high sympathetic nervous system drive ... "Notes on poisoning:Digitalis purpura". Canadian poisonous plants information system. Canadian Biodiversity Information Facility ...
Daly JW (July 2000). "Alkylxanthines as research tools". Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 81 (1-3): 44-52. doi:10.1016/ ...
Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. 72 (2-3): 98-110. doi:10.1016/S0165-1838(98)00094-0. PMID 9851558. Nagase T, Ishikawa ...
Autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (Dysautonomia). *Operation on the prostate. It is a common complication of transurethral ...
"Dysautonomia , Autonomic Nervous System Disorders , MedlinePlus". NIH. Retrieved 2 January 2018.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m ... The autonomic nervous system is a component of the peripheral nervous system and comprises two branches: the sympathetic ... reflects an older name for the autonomic nervous system: the vegetative nervous system.[citation needed] ... Dysautonomia or autonomic dysfunction is a condition in which the autonomic nervous system (ANS) does not work properly. This ...
Early work done linking emotions to psychophysiology started with research on mapping consistent autonomic nervous system (ANS ... Paul, Ekman; Levenson, Robert; Friesen, Wallace (1983). "Autonomic Nervous System Activity Distinguishes Among Emotions". ... psychophysiologists tended to examine the physiological responses and organ systems innervated by the autonomic nervous system ... "Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by ...
... physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4] ... GENESIS, a general neural simulation system.. Conferences[edit]. *Computational and Systems Neuroscience (COSYNE) - a ... We know from molecular biology that distinct parts of the nervous system release distinct chemical cues, from growth factors to ... Abbott, L. F.; Dayan, Peter (2001). Theoretical neuroscience: computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. ...
... non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system).. InflammationEdit. SP initiates expression of almost all known ... and general autonomic discharge. The actions of aprepitant are said to be entirely central, thus requiring passage of the drug ... into the central nervous system.[74] However, given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema ... In line with its role as a first line defense system, SP is released when toxicants or poisons come into contact with a range ...
Nervous system and senses. The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, ... An autonomic response keeps the octopus's eyes oriented so that the pupil is always horizontal.[22] Octopuses may also use the ... Octopuses have a complex nervous system and excellent sight, and are among the most intelligent and behaviourally diverse of ... Octopus arms can move and sense largely autonomously without intervention from the animal's central nervous system. In 2015 a ...
As with all illegal drugs, operating a motor vehicle with detectable levels of Khat or its metabolites in one's system can also ... In mice, cathinone produces the same types of nervous pacing or repetitive scratching behaviours associated with amphetamines.[ ... Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology. 23 (5-6): 319-26. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2004.00303.x. PMID 15255816.. ...
Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. Brain centers ... The muscles controlling micturition are controlled by the autonomic and somatic nervous systems. During the storage phase the ... The smooth muscle of the bladder, known as the detrusor, is innervated by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar ... as control at higher levels of the central nervous system develops. In the adult, the volume of urine in the bladder that ...
... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... Heim C.; Newport D. J.; Heit S.; Graham Y. P.; Wilcox M.; Bonsall R.; Nemeroff C. B. (2000). "Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic ... At the hypothalamus, fear-signaling impulses activate both the sympathetic nervous system and the modulating systems of the HPA ... Immune system[edit]. There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and immune system. A number of ...
"Disorders of the nervous system: a primer. Dartmouth Medical School. Retrieved 2012-01-06.. ... Presyncope is frequently reported in people with autonomic dysfunctions such as the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome ( ...
Hochman, G.; Yechiam, E. (2011). "Loss aversion in the eye and in the heart: The Autonomic Nervous System's responses to losses ... Hochman, G.; Yechiam, E. (2011). "Loss aversion in the eye and in the heart: The Autonomic Nervous System's responses to losses ... Loss arousal - Individuals were found to display greater Autonomic Nervous System activation following losses than following ... Even when no choice is required, individual differences in the intrinsic responsiveness of this interoceptive system reflect ...
Autonomic testing, including quantitative sweat testing, can reveal involvement of the autonomic nervous system.[7] ... The US Food and Drug Administration's Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee rejected the drug in June ... especially in the peripheral nervous system, causing a progressive sensory and motor polyneuropathy. ... muscular weakness and autonomic dysfunction. In its terminal state, the kidneys and the heart are affected. FAP is ...
Diseases of the nervous system VII H00-H59 Diseases of the eye and adnexa ... F45.3) Somatoform autonomic dysfunction *Cardiac neurosis. *Da Costa's syndrome. *Gastric neurosis. *Neurocirculatory asthenia ... It is actually the official mental health system for the US as well, but even many professionals do not realize this due to the ...
Autonomic nervous system) *সমবেদী স্নায়ুতন্ত্র (Sympathetic nervous system). *পরাসমবেদী স্নায়ুতন্ত্র (Parasympathetic nervous ... Nervous system). *মস্তিষ্ক-সুষুম্না স্নায়ুতন্ত্র (Cerebro-spinal nervous system) *কেন্দ্রীয় স্নায়ুতন্ত্র (Central nervous ...
Peripherally, the autonomic nervous system, especially the sympathetic nervous system, mediates many of the symptoms. Increased ... In the central nervous system (CNS), the major mediators of the symptoms of anxiety disorders appear to be norepinephrine, ... stimulating the HPA Axis and sympathetic nervous system) and hippocampus (which is implicated in emotional memory along with ... Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as ...
... what role does the autonomic nervous system play in the pathophysiology of this complex illness?". Neuroimmunomodulation. 10 (3 ...
Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are generally unaffected, meaning the majority of people with ALS maintain ... Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... C. elegans has a short life-cycle, is easy to manipulate genetically, and has a simple but well-understood nervous system. The ... Of the three, the fruit fly is the most widely used; it has a rapid life-cycle, short lifespan, a sophisticated nervous system ...
These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). These adrenal ... They are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons of the autonomic nervous system that have lost their axons and dendrites, ... and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. The adrenal medulla affects ... As a cluster of neuron cell bodies, the adrenal medulla is considered a modified ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system.[2] ...
自律神經(英语:Template:Autonomic diseases). *先天(英语:Template:Congenital malformations and deformations of nervous system) ... 發育(英语:Template:Development of nervous system) *滋養因子(英语:Template:Neurotrophins) ... 其他(英语:Template:PNS diseases of the nervous system). *症狀 *齊名(英语:Template:Eponymous medical signs for
... the nervous system can be split into two parts, the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and the peripheral nervous ... The study of the nervous system can be done at multiple levels, ranging from the molecular and cellular levels to the systems ... In many species - including all vertebrates - the nervous system is the most complex organ system in the body, with most of the ... Systems neuroscience Systems neuroscience is the study of the function of neural circuits and systems. ...
... complex disorders linked by the degeneration of neurons in either the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. ... The main group of sensory neuron diseases are hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) such as HSAN I, HSAN II, and ... Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ...
Through diffusion tensor imaging results, the anterior commissure was categorized into two fiber systems: 1) the olfactory ... from the left side of the visual field is received by the right visual cortex and then transferred to the word form system in ...
... claim it is caused by overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. Anxiety or excitement can exacerbate the condition for ... Congenital autonomic dysfunction with universal pain loss. *Exposure to cold, notably associated with cold-induced sweating ... A common complaint of patients is they get nervous because they sweat, then sweat more because they are nervous. Other factors ... Reisfeld, Rafael (2006). "Sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis: Should we place the clamps at T2-T3 or T3-T4?". Clinical Autonomic ...
Autonomic nervous system). . ഇത് കേന്ദ്രനാഡീ വ്യൂഹത്തിൽ നിന്നും പൂർണമായും സ്വതന്ത്രമല്ല. ഈ വ്യൂഹത്തിൽ പ്രധാനമായും രണ്ട് ... Earthworm nervous system. Top: side view of the front of the worm. Bottom: nervous system in isolation, viewed from above ... 20: Nervous system". The insects: structure and function. Cambridge University Press. pp. 533-568. ISBN 9780521578905. .. .mw- ... മനുഷ്യനുൾപ്പെടെ, നട്ടെല്ലുള്ള ജീവികളിലെ പ്രധാന അംഗവ്യൂഹങ്ങളിൽ ഒന്നാണു് നാഡീ വ്യൂഹം (Nervous system). ഉദ്ദീപനങ്ങൾക്കനുസൃതമായാണ് ...
Nipple erection is due to the contraction of smooth muscle under the control of the autonomic nervous system, and is a product ...
Dystonia, nystagmus, and problems with the autonomic nervous system suggest damage to the basal ganglia and brain stem ... This causes a chronic lack of energy in the cells, which leads to cell death and in turn, affects the central nervous system ... is an under-recognized inherited neurometabolic disorder that affects the central nervous system. It is named after Archibald ... loss of sensation in extremities caused by damage to the peripheral nervous system.[1] ...
The efferent leg of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for conveying commands to the muscles and glands, and is ... Nerves move muscles in response to voluntary and autonomic (involuntary) signals from the brain. Deep muscles, superficial ... Muscular system. On the anterior and posterior views of the muscular system above, superficial muscles (those at the surface) ... Simplified schema of basic nervous system function. Signals are picked up by sensory receptors and sent to the spinal cord and ...
Westfall Thomas C, Westfall David P, "Chapter 6. Neurotransmission: The Autonomic and Somatic Motor Nervous Systems" (Chapter ...
The medulla oblongata then distributes messages along motor or efferent nerves belonging to the autonomic nervous system to a ... From here motor nerves belonging to the autonomic nervous system are stimulated to influence the activity of chiefly the heart ... Inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system play a homeostatic role in the balance of neuronal activity between excitation ... to which slight changes can cause problems or damage to the nervous system. For example, high glycine concentration disrupts ...
Central nervous system neurons. *Cerebellum. Navigation menu. Personal tools. *Not logged in ...
In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical ... The vast majority of synapses in the mammalian nervous system are classical axo-dendritic synapses (axon synapsing upon a ... This article is about synapses of the nervous system. For other uses, see Synapse (disambiguation). ... "Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans" ...
Although the perception and transmission of pain stimuli in the central nervous system have not been fully elucidated, ... autonomic instability with fluctuating vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to ... drug interactions via cytochrome P450 enzymes is thought to be an attractive feature because many of the central nervous system ... dopamine in the central nervous system. In contrast with several other antidepressant drugs, venlafaxine can induce a rapid ...
自律神經(英語:Template:Autonomic diseases). *先天(英語:Template:Congenital malformations and deformations of nervous system) ... 發育(英語:Template:Development of nervous system) *滋養因子(英語:Template:Neurotrophins) ... Tyramine levels are especially high in the basal ganglia and limbic system, which are thought to be related to individual ... 其他(英語:Template:PNS diseases of the nervous system). *症狀 *齊名(英語:Template:Eponymous medical signs for
Dysautonomia is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system, which controls functions such as breathing and heartbeat. Read more ... Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Autonomic Nervous System Diseases (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Hypotension, ... Some autonomic nervous system disorders get better when an underlying disease is treated. Often, however, there is no cure. In ...
Surgery and Autonomic Nervous System. Br Med J 1951; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4746.1503-a (Published 22 December ...
Autonomic nervous system, in vertebrates, the part of the nervous system that controls and regulates the internal organs ... human nervous system: The autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system ... vegetative nervous system, visceral nervous system. Autonomic nervous system, in vertebrates, the part of the nervous system ... human nervous system: Functions of the autonomic system. The autonomic nervous system is regulated by cell groups in the brain ...
Recent studies in animals and man have highlighted the role of the autonomic nervous system in adaptation and in particular the ... Kanai M, Nishihara F, Shiga T, Shimada H, Saito S (2001) Alterations in autonomic nervous control of heart rate among tourists ... Cornolo J, Mollard P, Brugniaux JV, Robach P, Richalet JP (2004) Autonomic control of the cardiovascular system during ... In the central nervous system α2-adrenergic receptors are known to play an important role in cardiovascular regulation [22]. ...
Autonomic nervous system activation mediates the increase in whole-body glucose uptake in response to electroacupuncture. ... bout of EA increases whole-body glucose uptake by activation of the sympathetic and partly the parasympathetic nervous systems ... and in rats receiving autonomic receptor blockers (experiment 2). GIR was higher after EA in controls and women with PCOS. ...
... , Autonomic System, Autonomic Pathway, Postganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers. ... Autonomic Nervous System, Autonomic Nervous Systems, Nervous Systems, Autonomic, System, Autonomic Nervous, Systems, Autonomic ... Autonomic Nervous System. Autonomic Nervous System Aka: Autonomic Nervous System, Autonomic System, Autonomic Pathway, ... Nervous, Nervous System, Autonomic, Autonomic, Visceral nervous system, autonomic nervous system (ANS), visceral nervous system ...
... our laboratory has carried out a series of studies analyzing the effects of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity on HIV- 1 ... Autonomic Nervous System Long Terminal Repeat Skin Conductance Level Autonomic Nervous System Activity Catecholaminergic Neuron ... Sloan E.K., Collado-Hidalgo A., Cole S.W. (2006) Autonomic Nervous System Influences on HIV Pathogenesis. In: Welsh C.J., ... During the past decade, our laboratory has carried out a series of studies analyzing the effects of autonomic nervous system ( ...
Definition of autonomic part of peripheral nervous system. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... autonomic part of peripheral nervous system. Synonym(s): autonomic (visceral motor) division of nervous system ...
New research indicates massage provides significant influence on the anatomic nervous system. This indicates the amount of rest ... How massage therapy influences the autonomic nervous (ANS) and endocrine systems is what is going to elevate this profession ... Stress Index This sympathetic marker is the accelerator of your autonomic nervous system. Stress Index measures cardiac muscle ... so that a simple wrist device will be able to measure autonomic nervous system function of the body and how it responds to its ...
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that ... The autonomic nervous system has three branches: the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system and the ... The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic ... "autonomic nervous system" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary Schmidt, A; Thews, G (1989). "Autonomic Nervous System". In Janig, W ...
The first is that it is autonomic -- it runs without you having to think about i... ... There are three primary benefits to having an autonomic nervous system. ... There are three primary benefits to having an autonomic nervous system.. The first is that it is autonomic -- it runs without ... The benefits of having an autonomic nervous system. Confirm. Do you really want to send Pandeism Fish a message saying you like ...
... Bo He,1 Benjamin J. Scherlag,2 Hiroshi Nakagawa,2 ... "Long term proarrhythmia after parasympathetic denervation between extrinsic and intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system," ... atrial fibrillation inducibility by electrical stimulation of either the extrinsic or the intrinsic autonomic nervous systems ... "Gross and microscopic anatomy of the human intrinsic cardiac nervous system," The Anatomical Record, vol. 247, no. 2, pp. 289- ...
The Autonomic Nervous System http://www.chiro.org/Subluxation/Reflex_Effects_of_Subluxation.shtml ... The Autonomic Nervous System This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments or additions to: [email protected] ... The term autonomic was first applied to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems around the turn of the century. ... The autonomic nervous system has often been invoked in constructing mechanisms to account for the effects of spinal dysfunction ...
Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Yi-Yuan Tang, Yinghua Ma, Yaxin Fan, ... Central and Autonomic Nervous System Interaction.. Increased EEG frontal midline theta power has been widely reported during ... These changes indicated increased central and autonomic nervous system interaction that may be a result of the brain-body ... Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) ...
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a very complex, multifaceted neural network that maintains internal physiologic ... encoded search term (Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy) and Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy What to Read Next on Medscape. ... The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous ... The central autonomic network is a complex network in the central nervous system (CNS) that integrates and regulates autonomic ...
Cardiac autonomic nervous system activity during slow breathing in the supine position was revealed. ... The purpose of this study is to clarify cardiac autonomic nervous system activity during slow breathing exercises in a supine ... Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Slow Breathing in Supine Position. Satoru Kai. ,1 Koji Nagino. ,1 Takuma Aoki ... Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Slow Breathing in Supine Position,. Rehabilitation Research and Practice,. ...
High NIHSS Values Predict Impairment of Cardiovascular Autonomic Control Max Josef Hilz, Sebastian Moeller, Aynur Akhundova, ...
Enteric Nervous System. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. * Furness, J B (2006b). The organisation of the autonomic nervous system ... The autonomic nervous system. Brain 26: 1-26. * Loewy, A D and Spyer, K M (1990). Central Regulation of Autonomic Function. New ... coined the term autonomic nervous system. Langley noted the absence of sensory (afferent) nerve cell bodies in autonomic ... Jänig, W W (2006). The Integrative Action of the Autonomic Nervous System: Neurobiology of Homeostasis. Cambridge: Cambridge ...
parasympathetic stimulation of the enteric nervous system leads to waht, simply. Definition. aid in the digestion of food and ... what are the 2 plexuses of the enteric nervous system. Definition. myenteric plexus of Auerbach, submucusoal plexus of meissner ... parasympathetic stimulation of the enteric nervous system leads to waht (3). Definition. increased peristalsis, vasodilation, ... sympathetic stimulation of the enteric nervous system leads to what (3). Definition. vasoconstriction, inhibition of ...
Rasmussen AT: The Principal Nervous Pathways, ed 3. New York, Macmillan, pp 39, 140.. Roddie JC: Autonomic nervous system. ... Rasmussen AT: The Principal Nervous Pathways, ed 3. New York, Macmillan, pp 39, 140.. Roddie JC: Autonomic nervous system. ... CLINICAL DISORDERS AND THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM This is Chapter 10 from R. C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICCs best-selling book:. ... Clinical Disorders and the Autonomic Nervous System. This chapter is an overview of the clinical aspects of autonomic ...
... visceral nervous system or involuntary nervous system. The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system. ... The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls the conditions inside the body. It is sometimes called the ... The sympathetic nervous system, which causes the body to become more active as in the "fight or flight" response. ... The parasympathetic nervous system, which is mostly involved in "rest and digest". ...
noun) An example of an autonomic nervous system is someones constant heartbeat and breath... ... The definition of an autonomic nervous system is the bodily process that controls all involuntary actions such as breathing and ... The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. ... autonomic nervous system. the part of the nervous system that is responsible for control and regulation of the involuntary ...
I. The Autonomic Nervous System. A. In General - The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the bodys internal environment. ... 1. Explain the aspects of body function regulated by the autonomic nervous system.. 2. List and characterize the two major ... 1. Anatomical location of the systems: The sympathetic nervous systems neural pathways are through the spinal nerves of the ... The parasympathetic nervous systems neural pathways are through cranial nerves III (originating in the midbrain), VII ( ...
Cardiovascular system is mainly innervated with autonomic nervous system (ANS). Sympathetic/parasympathetic activity may be ... Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Oculocardiac Reflex.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Prediction of Oculocardiac Reflex in Relationship to Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Mesured With the Use of ECG HRV ... oculocardiac reflex occurence in relation to autonomic system activity [ Time Frame: perioperatively - about 2 hours ]. ...
Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Neuromuscular Diseases. Primary Dysautonomias. Autonomic Nervous ... Autonomic Nervous System and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS&ANS). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... All these tests are meant to stimulate the autonomic nervous system to produce changes in blood pressure and heart rate of ... Response to nitric oxide inhibition in the presence and absence of an intact autonomic nervous system will be evaluated. L-NMMA ...
These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of ... Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Mar;23(3): ... the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. Results: The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster ... These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of ...
Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Normal Tension Glaucoma (ANS). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... autonomic nervous system. heart rate variability. blood pressure variability. retrobulbar hemodynamics. vascular dysregulation ... Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Peripheral Microcirculation and Retrobulbar Hemodynamics in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients ... Wierzbowska J, Wierzbowski R, Stankiewicz A, Robaszkiewicz J. [Autonomic nervous system and primary open angle glaucoma-- ...
Abnormal neuronal electrical activity corresponding to a seizure can involve central centers for the regulation of autonomic ... The interaction between seizures and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is very complex. ... AEDs and Autonomic Changes. Antiepileptic medications (AEDs) can have a series of effects on the autonomic nervous system (ANS ... Interictal (Baseline) Autonomic Changes. Many researchers have evaluated the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during the ...
Description of the Autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic activity). Device: Autonomic nervous system activity ... General Anesthesia and Autonomic Nervous System in Children (ANESPEDIA). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... While many studies described the effects of anesthesia on the autonomic nervous system, most data are done in adult subjects. ... Autonomic nervous system activity (parasympathetic activity) will be measured by electrocardiogram (holter) during 24 hours ...
On the endocrine system: Obvious to every chiropractor should be the effects of the sympathetic nervous system on this system. ... The Autonomic Nervous System: Part Two. By Keith Innes. The chiropractic profession has changed dramatically since I entered it ... For the sympathetic nervous system to perform its role, it must receive, directly (segmental afferent input) and indirectly ( ... The Effects of the Sympathetic Nervous System - A Brief Overview *On skeletal muscle: The sympathetic innervation of skeletal ...
  • The collective experience of the chiropractic profession is that aberrant stimulation at a particular level of the spine may elicit a segmentally organized response, which may manifest itself in dysfunction within organs receiving autonomic innervation at that level. (chiro.org)
  • The etiology of autonomic dysfunction can be primary or idiopathic and secondary causes. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, autonomic dysfunction is associated with various medications. (medscape.com)
  • This chapter is an overview of the clinical aspects of autonomic dysfunction that emphasizes the clinical aspects of sympathetic and parasympathetic disorders. (chiro.org)
  • What Are the Treatments for Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction? (wisegeek.com)
  • Treatment for autonomic nervous system dysfunction is aimed at identifying and managing individual symptoms, as each patient is affected differently. (wisegeek.com)
  • Any specific questions or concerns about the most appropriate treatment methods for autonomic nervous system dysfunction in an individual situation should be discussed with a doctor or other medical professional. (wisegeek.com)
  • The various symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction vary widely from one patient to another and may even change periodically for each individual patient. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some men with autonomic nervous system dysfunction may also experience erectile dysfunction. (wisegeek.com)
  • Constipation is a frequently reported problem among those with autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wisegeek.com)
  • Prescription drugs may be needed to treat some cases of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wisegeek.com)
  • A decreased ability to sweat occurs in a large number of patients with autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wisegeek.com)
  • Doctors focus on treating individual symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction because it affects each patient differently. (wisegeek.com)
  • Heart problems may occur as a result of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wisegeek.com)
  • People suffering from autonomic nervous system dysfunction may require surgery. (wisegeek.com)
  • Eye drops may be used to treat dry eyes associated with autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (wisegeek.com)
  • What kinds of food do you eat for Autonomic Dysfunction? (wisegeek.com)
  • Based on the results of previous studies, the hypothesis has been posed that patients with NTG have an impaired diurnal heart rate variability (HRV) or high activity of the sympathetic component of autonomic nervous system (ANS) and endothelial dysfunction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE -We investigated whether autonomic nervous system dysfunction, estimated by slow heart rate recovery (HRR) following cessation of an exercise treadmill test, was associated with increases in insulin and glucose over time and the development of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Autonomic dysfunction, in combination with poor physical fitness, may be a mechanism associated with early glucose dysmetabolism and the development of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • While autonomic dysfunction is an established complication of diabetes ( 1 ), impaired autonomic function is often detected at the time of diabetes diagnosis ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This suggests that autonomic dysfunction may be present after a relatively brief exposure to hyperglycemia or perhaps even in the clinically normal range of glucose. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Previous research suggests that autonomic dysfunction is more strongly associated with plasma insulin levels than with glucose levels ( 1 , 7 , 8 , 10 ), but most of these same studies also report statistically significant associations with plasma glucose ( 5 , 6 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There are a number of problems that can occur with the autonomic nervous system, and many of them can have serious health effects, including heart problems, blood pressure problems, erectile dysfunction, and difficulty breathing, among others. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Autonomic dysfunction occurs when nerves of the autonomic nervous system are damaged. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Multiple System Atrophy - Multiple System Atrophy, or MSA, is a deadly form of autonomic dysfunction. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Autonomic dysfunction is present even in the middle stages of HD and affects both the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the ANS. (bmj.com)
  • Pediatric patients cannot be diagnosed with Autonomic Nervous System dysfunction because there are no available tools. (berkeley.edu)
  • Psychiatric and neurological conditions are recognized to be fundamentally linked to dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) and sensorimotor signalling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Across the board autonomic dysfunction also influence the tolerance of both medication and physiotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Background- Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has been correlated with fasting insulin and glucose, independent of clinically diagnosed diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • There is ample clinical and cross-sectional epidemiological evidence connecting diabetes to subsequent autonomic nervous system dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Yet, there are numerous pathways whereby autonomic dysfunction could in turn affect insulin function and glucose regulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2,3,7,8 This suggests that autonomic dysfunction may not only be the consequence of but also a precursor to hyperglycemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • At a minimum, autonomic dysfunction is a correlate of insulin resistance that could influence glucose dysregulation as seen in new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
  • Alternatively, it is possible that both insulin resistance and autonomic dysfunction have a shared precursor, such as physical inactivity or obesity, both of which are established risk factors for developing diabetes 9 and are correlates of autonomic function. (ahajournals.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that persons with autonomic dysfunction, estimated by low heart rate variability (HRV) and high resting heart rate, were at increased risk for developing diabetes over follow-up in the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. (ahajournals.org)
  • We also evaluated whether any observed relationship between autonomic dysfunction and incident diabetes persisted after accounting for established diabetes risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Despite challenges inherent to studying causal pathways by epidemiological approaches, we also investigated the role of obesity and physical inactivity in the relation between autonomic dysfunction and incident diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • What causes dysautonomia (dysfunction of autonomic nervous system)? (healthtap.com)
  • Dysautonomia is the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. (dinet.org)
  • Autonomic nervous system dysfunction and serum levels of neurotoxic and neurotrophic cytokines in patients with cobalamin deficiency / Kobalamin eksikligi olan hastalarda otonom sinir sistemi bozuklugu ve norotoksik, norotropik sitokinlerin serum duzeyleri. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate autonomic nervous system dysfunction and to look for any relationship between autonomic nervous system disturbances and serum cytokine levels (TNF-[alpha], EGF, IL-6) in patients with Cbl deficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results: With EPS, 29 of 41 Cbl-deficient patients (70.73%) demonstrated neurological dysfunction [3 (7.32%), 19 (46.34%) and 7 (17.07%) patients with sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, parasympathetic, and sympathetic autonomic dysfunction, respectively]. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although there was no significant difference in serum levels of EGF and IL-6 between patients with versus without autonomic dysfunction, levels were significantly lower in Cbl-deficient patients than healthy controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion: Presence of autonomic dysfunction seems to be a frequent neurological finding in patients with Cbl deficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, we could not find any relationship between serum cytokine levels and autonomic dysfunction by EPS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intrinsic autonomic dysfunction arises from diseases that directly affect the autonomic nerves, such as diabetes mellitus and the syndromes of primary autonomic failure. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Extrinsic autonomic dysfunction reflects the changes in autonomic function that are secondarily induced by cardiac or other disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Further efforts are required to develop optimal approaches to delineate cardiac autonomic dysfunction and its adverse effects to develop tools that can be used to guide clinical decision-making. (onlinejacc.org)
  • More pervasive autonomic dysfunction involving any of the following: night sweats or abnormal lack of sweating, urogenital problems (frequent UTIs, incontinence, frequency, urgency), gastrointestinal problems (chronic constipation, chronic constipation alternating with diarrhea, poor gastric motility), or esophageal/respiratory problems (sleep apnea, abnormal breath sounds during sleep or while awake) indicate possible autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy or multiple system atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary differentiating characteristic of Pure autonomic failure is decreased circulation and synthesis of norepinephrine, and dysfunction localized peripherally. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuroanatomy ) In humans and other vertebrates , the part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary activity of the heart , intestines and glands. (wiktionary.org)
  • Autonomic nervous system , in vertebrates , the part of the nervous system that controls and regulates the internal organs without any conscious recognition or effort by the organism. (britannica.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates bodily functions, such as the heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part of the vertebrate nervous system that regulates involuntary action, as of the intestines, heart, and glands, and that is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. (yourdictionary.com)
  • The part of the vertebrate nervous system that regulates involuntary activity in the body by transmitting motor impulses to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and the glands. (yourdictionary.com)
  • A. In General - The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the body's internal environment. (cuny.edu)
  • The autonomic nervous system regulates a variety of organs and bodily functions, ensuring that they work properly. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • The part of the nervous system of a vertebrate animal that regulates involuntary action, as of the intestines, heart, or glands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system regulates certain processes that occur automatically within the body, without a person's conscious effort to make them work. (dinet.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system ("ANS") - the 'behind the scenes' system in the brain - regulates your energy level. (myshrink.com)
  • This system normally regulates the workings of the internal organs without the person's conscious effort or even awareness. (britannica.com)
  • The autonomic system regulates a great variety of bodily functions. (britannica.com)
  • What part of the autonomic nervous system regulates the 'fight-or-flight' response? (healthtap.com)
  • A nocturnal recording is made during three nights in order to verify the possible link between the rest autonomic adaptations and a possible dysautonomia observed with the orthostatic test. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Defects in IKBKAP cause familial dysautonomia, also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 3, or Riley-Day syndrome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A. Dysautonomia is any disease or malfunction of the autonomic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dysautonomia can affect digestive, skeletal, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. (paulding.com)
  • Dysautonomia literally means dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (paulding.com)
  • Further research identified multiple causes for these syndromic findings, now grouped as primary autonomic disorders (also called primary dysautonomia), including Pure Autonomic Failure, Multiple System Atrophy, and Parkinson's. (wikipedia.org)
  • One cell is housed in the spinal cord or brain stem and is connected by nerve fibers to the other cell, which can be found housed in a cluster of nerve cells referred to as an autonomic ganglion. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • 780) are associated with improved exercise tolerance, cardiovascular health, improved autonomic nervous system control,and better emotional regulation. (massagemag.com)
  • Similarly, when brain control of spinal autonomic preganglionic neurons is removed (as in quadriplegia), cardiovascular, bowel and bladder functions are profoundly impaired. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Cardiovascular system is mainly innervated with autonomic nervous system (ANS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators propose to test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system contributes to the cardiovascular and inflammatory abnormalities present in the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and, in particular in the subset of patients characterized by postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The autonomic regulation or cardiovascular function plays the most crucial role of the autonomic functions and has been the most evaluated part of the ANS. (medscape.com)
  • Impaired cardiovascular autonomic nervous system (ANS) function has been reported in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a major regulator of the cardiovascular system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Disturbance of autonomic function is often reported as an early sign of many psychiatric disorders, intrinsic not only to anxiety disorder, but also to depression and schizophrenia In these contexts ANS dysregulation impacts on both physical health (increasing cardiovascular risk) and compromising psychological wellbeing at multiple levels via sleep disturbance, mental fatigue and dissociative symptoms. (frontiersin.org)
  • A Bond Graph Model of the Cardiovascular System. (philpapers.org)
  • This is because circadian rhythms optimize physiology by exposure to factors that our body uses as environmental cues to alter the various systems throughout the body (Endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous, immune, digestive, etc. (hackyourgut.com)
  • Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and a greatly increased cardiovascular risk. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The term autonomic nervous system (ANS) refers to collections of motor neurons (ganglia) situated in the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, and to the axonal connections of these neurons (Figure 1 ). (scholarpedia.org)
  • There are also CNS components of the ANS, including brainstem and spinal autonomic preganglionic neurons that project to the autonomic motor neurons in the peripheral ganglia. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In this respect preganglionic autonomic motor neurons are clearly distinguished from somatic motor neurons that project from the CNS directly to the innervated tissue (skeletal muscle), without any intervening ganglia. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Post-ganglionic axonal processes of motor neurons in the autonomic ganglia innervate organs and tissues throughout the body (eyes, salivary glands, heart, stomach, urinary bladder, blood vessels, etc). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Complex autonomic ganglia in the walls of the stomach and small intestine are separately classified as the enteric nervous system . (scholarpedia.org)
  • Langley noted the absence of sensory (afferent) nerve cell bodies in autonomic ganglia and defined the ANS as a purely motor system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Modern experiments have shown that neurons in autonomic ganglia do not have inbuilt discharge patterns sufficiently integrated to regulate physiological functions, with the possible exception of neurons within the enteric nervous system of the small and large intestines. (scholarpedia.org)
  • A system in the body that is comprised of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia and parts of the receptor organs that receive and interpret stimuli and transmit impulses to effector organs. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • autonomic nervous system - the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions. (academic.ru)
  • In 1924, Monckeberg (12) observed pronounced lesions in the autonomic ganglia and cardiac nerve fibers of experimentally infected dogs. (fac.org.ar)
  • The idea of a neurotoxin was inspired by the work of Vianna (10) and Monckeberg (12), who had described the destruction in canine models of nonparasitized cells subsequent to the rupture of nearby nests, as well as promounced lesions in the autonomic ganglia and cardiac nervous fibers. (fac.org.ar)
  • The sympathetic nervous system connects the internal organs to the brain by spinal nerves. (britannica.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system is regulated by integrated reflexes through the brainstem to the spinal cord and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • And lastly, the third is that it is a system -- not a one off cluster or bundle of nerves, but a group of them running all throughout your body, wherever autonomous nervous control is advisable, and coordinating the autonomous responses of multiple organs to a single stimuli. (everything2.com)
  • To review recent findings from basic physiologic research about the effects of somatic stimulation of spinal structures on autonomic nervous system activity and the function of dependent organs. (chiro.org)
  • This model runs counter to the professed collective experience of chiropractic, which maintains that aberrant stimulation at a particular level of the spine is likely to elicit a segmentally organized response, which in turn may be dysfunctional in organs receiving autonomic innervation at that level. (chiro.org)
  • Thus the ANS is best seen as one of the outflows whereby the CNS controls bodily organs, so that "peripheral autonomic pathways" is a better term, but "autonomic nervous system" is well-established. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In addition to contributing to the clinical presentation, autonomic involvement of organs due to epilepsy can contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). (medscape.com)
  • The regulatory effect of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system on the end organs can be evaluated and quantified. (medscape.com)
  • And each of these arms of the autonomic nervous system cause different changes, oftentimes opposite changes, in different organs of your body. (khanacademy.org)
  • It is equally plausible that autonomic impairment is an underlying causal factor in the development of both hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia in adults without diabetes because of autonomic innervation of major organs, such as the pancreas, liver, and skeletal muscle, each of which play an important role in glucose metabolism ( 11 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that controls muscles of internal organs (such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs, stomach, and intestines) and glands (such as salivary glands and sweat glands). (sharecare.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system acts like the body's autopilot, taking in information it needs to ensure that internal organs run steadily without willful action, such as ensuring the heart beats and eyelids blink at steady intervals. (brightsurf.com)
  • The organs of our body, such as the heart, stomach and intestines, are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • Our discussion of the autonomic nervous system in chapter 2 focused on its associations with breathing, but its main role is helping to regulate functions of internal organs in general, including non-somatic structures such as blood vessels throughout the body and sweat glands in the skin (figs. I0.4a-b). (dahnyoga.net)
  • If authority for management of internal organs is delegated to the autonomic nervous system, internal functions will not annoy us when we tiy to relax, and we'll be able to work with those aspects of mind and body that are more obviously within our grasp. (dahnyoga.net)
  • Systematic counting of ganglionic cells in the intrinsic nervous system of all the organs studied (the bronchi, cerebellum, spinal cord, esophagus, colon, stomach, heart, etc.) showed unequivocal signs of parasympathetic denervation or neuron loss (16,18). (fac.org.ar)
  • The autonomic nervous system comprises two antagonistic sets of nerves, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems . (britannica.com)
  • The nerve fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system are the cranial nerves , primarily the vagus nerve , and the lumbar spinal nerves. (britannica.com)
  • Schematic representation of the autonomic nervous system, showing distribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to the head, trunk, and limbs. (britannica.com)
  • The second is that it is nervous -- not in the sense of being beset with anxiety or on edge about what the future holds, but in that it uses nerves to connect things to the brain (as discussed just above, the parts of your brain which run things without pestering the conscious parts. (everything2.com)
  • This wall decal includes the full system view of the autonomic nervous system from the side (including glands, nerves, eye, aorta, heart, etc. (scriphessco.com)
  • This suggests that hyperinsulinemia, alone or in conjunction with hyperglycemia, can damage the peripheral nerves, leading to autonomic impairment among people without diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Central nervous system - brain & spinal cord Peripheral nervous system - all the nerves that come out from the brain and spinal cord. (healthtap.com)
  • In 1919, Nováes, studying the peripheral nervous system, detected parasitized cells around the cutaneous nerves, near on even inside the perineurium (11). (fac.org.ar)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves that leave the spinal cord and innervate the rest of the body. (healthtap.com)
  • The autonomic is visceral, not on command, like control of heart , respiration, digestive, urinary systems, sexual arousal, etc central is brain and spinal cord--then there is peripheral like nerves control movements of the limbs. (healthtap.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify cardiac autonomic nervous system activity during slow breathing exercises in a supine position. (hindawi.com)
  • Results: The circadian variation of cardiac autonomic nervous system activity was affected when the subjects were on duty. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The study "Sympathetic regulation of vascular function in health and disease," published in Frontiers in Physiology , suggests this persistent sympathetic nervous system stress is a key precipitator of ill health and disease, and may be accurately measured today in real time using sophisticated electro-cardiograms (ECG). (massagemag.com)
  • Figure drawn by the authors, incorporating material from Gray's Anatomy 31st Edition 1954, and from Cannon and Rosenblueth Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System , 1937. (scholarpedia.org)
  • 2. Marieb, EN, and Hoehn, K. Human Anatomy and Physiology (10th ed. (nsca.com)
  • Medical neurosciences: An approach to anatomy, pathology, and physiology by systems and levels (4th ed. (springer.com)
  • Nervous system, part 1: Anatomy and physiology (Ciba collection of medical illustrations, Vol. 1). (springer.com)
  • Physiology) the section of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls the involuntary actions of the smooth muscles, heart, and glands. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • autonomic nervous system - noun Physiology, Anatomy the part of the peripheral nervous system which controls the involuntary functions of the glands, blood vessels, the viscera, and the heart and smooth muscles. (academic.ru)
  • Findings were drawn from a major recent review of the literature on the influences of somatic stimulation on autonomic function and from recent original physiologic studies concerning somatoautonomic and spinovisceral reflexes. (chiro.org)
  • Although autonomic reflexes have both sensory and motor components, the ANS is technically defined as the motor portion of the reflexes that control the internal physiological mechanisms vital for our continued existence. (cuny.edu)
  • Forgotten Aspects of the Autonomic Reflexes was the first part of this series, and this is yet another example you can add to your examination procedures immediately. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Mechanisms like cardiopulmonary reflexes, venoarteriolar reflexes, and vasopressin (AVP) and renin-angiotensin systems contribute to maintenance of postural normotension (Wieling & Van Lieshout, 1993). (brainscape.com)
  • Autonomic functions include control of respiration, cardiac regulation (the cardiac control center), vasomotor activity (the vasomotor center), and certain reflex actions such as coughing, sneezing, swallowing and vomiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only way to end this misperception is to prove massage's medical legitimacy-and this can be done through evidence-based science on how massage can positively influence autonomic nervous system regulation. (massagemag.com)
  • When the sympathetic system is remains stuck in high drive or persistent tone, this is clinically called up-regulation, or stress. (massagemag.com)
  • These results indicate that after 5 days of training, the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain system than does the relaxation group. (pnas.org)
  • Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal neuronal electrical activity corresponding to a seizure can involve central centers for the regulation of autonomic activity. (medscape.com)
  • These influences can alter the physiological autonomic balance sometimes with positive consequences on the Cardiac frequency-breathing control, blood pressure adjustment depending on the position of the individual, on the status of blood volume, but sometimes deleterious with bad regulation of sinus cardiac activity and respiration rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • According to the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995, 1996, 1997), the well-documented phylogenetic shift in the neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system passes through three stages, each with an associated behavioral strategy. (rti.org)
  • Bidirectional augmentation of heart rate regulation by autonomic nervous system in rabbits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Abo, T. (2002) Autonomic nervous regulation of leukocytes. (scirp.org)
  • Abo, T. (1999) Regulation of leukocytes by the autonomic nervous system, new rule on the cooperation of neuro-endocrine-immune systems (on the functions of the autonomic nervous system). (scirp.org)
  • I propose an edition combining empirical and review papers that focuses on how ANS function influences the development maintenance and treatment of neurological and psychiatric conditions, setting out how the peripheral autonomic and central nervous system interact in different brain diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, manipulations of peripheral autonomic state impact on brain systems regulating mental and sensorimotor activity, providing insight into how the states of autonomic arousal accompanying emotional turmoil might trigger of neurological symptoms (eg. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1-3 It is generally accepted that hyperglycemia among persons with diabetes causes degradation of the microvasculature that results in central and peripheral autonomic neuropathy. (ahajournals.org)
  • In many cases, both of these systems have "opposite" actions where one system activates a physiological response and the other inhibits it. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review briefly summarizes renal nerve anatomy, basic insights into neural control of renal function in the physiological state and the involvement of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of AKI chiefly due to sepsis, cardiopulmonary bypass and ischaemia/reperfusion experimental model. (nih.gov)
  • The physiological measures included heart rate, skin conductance response (SCR), and respiratory amplitude and rate, to monitor autonomic nervous system activity. (pnas.org)
  • Some physiological factors such as sport activity or pathological as sepsis, certain chronic diseases or diabetes are known to modulate the overall autonomic activity and the intrinsic capacity of the individual to regulate its sympathovagal balance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For the child who sees intrinsically autonomic physiological changes related to its maturative status, assessment of the impact of anesthesia in the pediatric population in per and postoperative was never realized. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the short-term, undiagnosed Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) disorder correlates to physical limitation and disability, physiological and behavioral worsening, and an inability to navigate society without potential risk of symptomatic flare-ups. (berkeley.edu)
  • There also increasing appreciation of how cognitive, affective and motivational processes (even the representation of self) are grounded on the internal physiological state of the body, regulated neurally through actions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (frontiersin.org)
  • Perini, R. and Veicsteinas, A. (2003) Heart rate variability and autonomic activity at rest and during exercise in various physiological conditions. (scirp.org)
  • Morphology of the waveforms obtained from our system concurs with standard physiological arterial signals. (scirp.org)
  • It is well known that fat-free mass (FFM) accounts for the majority of inter-individual variability in REE [18-21], but other physiological factors also have a role, such as sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity and endocrine status [22-25]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • An array of tests interrogate various aspects of cardiac autonomic control in either resting conditions or with physiological perturbations from resting conditions. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Leptin has been shown to stimulate sympathetic nervous system activity in vitro although the physiological relevance of this remains unclear. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Autonomic nervous system functions were studied in 13 females with migraine without aura during headache-free intervals, using physiological, pharmacological and biochemical methods. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A third subsystem of neurons have been named as non-noradrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters (because they use nitric oxide as a neurotransmitter) and are integral in autonomic function, in particular in the gut and the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Explain how ANS motor neuron pathways compare with somatic nervous system pathways to skeletal muscle in terms of number of motor neurons involved. (cuny.edu)
  • Neurons that are not under conscious control, comprising two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. (academic.ru)
  • He (14-19) along with Alcántara (20), suggested that Chagas' disease is a neuropathy resulting from denervation caused by widespread destruction of parasympathetic neurons and nervous fibers in different areas - a theory that explained the occurrence of cardiopathy and megaviscera. (fac.org.ar)
  • The goal for this article remains focused at step III on the anatomy of the autonomic nervous system, as follows. (medscape.com)
  • Unlike an everyday anatomy poster, this Autonomic Nervous System Lateral chart will assist Chiropractors to educate and personalize the doctor-patient relationship. (scriphessco.com)
  • It will avoid confusion if at the beginning of this symposium we recognize that the sympathetic nervous system as defined in descriptive anatomy is not exactly what the physiologist has in mind when he uses this much abused term. (annals.org)
  • Autonomic pathways, together with somatic motor pathways to skeletal muscle and neuroendocrine pathways, are the means whereby the central nervous system (CNS) sends commands to the rest of the body. (scholarpedia.org)
  • autonomic pathways that allow the CNS to regulate blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). (getbodysmart.com)
  • Compare the somatic and autonomic nervous systems relative to effectors, efferent pathways, and neurotransmitters released. (coursehero.com)
  • A seizure can present with autonomic symptoms initially, during its propagation, or during the aftermath. (medscape.com)
  • However, since the symptoms of rosacea are a direct result of the regulatory actions of the autonomic nervous system, there is a definite connection. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • Unless you understand the natural rhythms and fluctuations of the nervous system, you might interpret the symptoms in the worse possible light. (myshrink.com)
  • Disruption of the normal synchronization of the circadian rhythm with the sleep-wake cycle (as can occur in shift work) or with the day-night cycle (as in jet lag) is known to produce many of the same symptoms that are found in FM and CFS, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, pain in the muscles, problems with the digestive system, and decreased cognitive function. (prohealth.com)
  • The ANS controls involuntary bodily synergies between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous symptoms. (paulding.com)
  • A degenerative disease of the autonomic nervous system, symptoms include dizziness and fainting (caused by orthostatic hypotension), visual disturbances and neck pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, often a patient with pure autonomic failure can mitigate his or her symptoms with far less costly means. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is designed to facilitate short-term survival by creating a cascade of neurophysiological responses throughout the body. (massagemag.com)
  • Recent neuroscience research supports a neurophysiologic rationale for the concept that aberrant stimulation of spinal or paraspinal structures may lead to segmentally organized reflex responses of the autonomic nervous system, which in turn may alter visceral function. (chiro.org)
  • In the present study, we examined autonomic nervous system responses in subjects viewing 2D or 3D displays. (mdpi.com)
  • Autonomic responses were quantified in each subject by heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature. (mdpi.com)
  • We suggest that galvanic skin response and skin temperature can be used to measure and compare autonomic nervous responses in subjects viewing 2D and 3D displays. (mdpi.com)
  • Convergent information regarding the central mechanisms through which normal and abnormal brain systems interact with autonomic responses in humans comes from clinical studies of focal cortical (e.g. in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery) and advanced neuroimaging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuroimaging studies, largely in healthy individuals also implicate supratentorial structures in the generation, representation and integration of autonomic responses during cognitive, affective and motor behaviours. (frontiersin.org)
  • The reduced hormonal and autonomic responses appear to reflect an impairment in the hypothalamic or central nervous system response to stimuli rather than a primary defect at the level of the pituitary gland or the peripheral glands. (prohealth.com)
  • Autonomic Responses of Autistic Children to People and Objects. (philpapers.org)
  • The findings suggest that OMTh influences the autonomic nervous system by increasing parasympathetic activity and decreasing sympathetic activity. (jaoa.org)
  • Recent studies in animals and man have highlighted the role of the autonomic nervous system in adaptation and in particular the importance of sympathetic activation following high altitude exposure. (springer.com)
  • Autonomic failure is seen in multiple system atrophy, pure or progressive autonomic failure, Parkinson and other neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic diseases such as Wernicke and cobalamin deficiency, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, trauma, vascular diseases, neoplastic diseases, and multiple sclerosis . (medscape.com)
  • Besides nerve localization in the peripheral nervous system, it occurs in diseases of the presynaptic neuromuscular junction such as botulism and myasthenic syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • What nervous system diseases cause paralysis? (healthtap.com)
  • Interictal autonomic nervous system function in patients with epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • Restoration of autonomic regulatory function with vagal nerve stimulation resulting in anti-inflammatory effects and modulation of centrally-mediated mechanisms could be of clinical relevance. (nih.gov)
  • Because as technology improves, so will its accuracy and scope, so that a simple wrist device will be able to measure autonomic nervous system function of the body and how it responds to its stimuli. (massagemag.com)
  • We could, therefore, study the effects of nociceptive or mechanical stimulation to investigate a portion of the effects of subluxation on autonomic nervous system function. (chiro.org)
  • In the approximately 15 years since the Sato and Swenson [ 2 ] study, the chiropractic profession has generated just 6 basic scientific papers that specifically investigate the effects of spinal stimulation on autonomic or visceral function. (chiro.org)
  • 1. Explain the aspects of body function regulated by the autonomic nervous system. (cuny.edu)
  • A critical role, and one of the most important, with respect to the function of the sympathetic nervous system, rarely emphasized in textbooks or in classes, is its part in ergotropic function . (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • Using noninvasive estimates of autonomic function such as heart rate variability, heart rate recovery (HRR) from exercise treadmill testing, and baroreflex sensitivity, strong inverse associations have been reported among autonomic function, insulin, and glucose in adults without diabetes ( 4 - 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, only one previous study ( 9 ) has demonstrated that impaired autonomic nervous system function is associated with the development of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We review herein clinical relationships between autonomic function, resistant hypertension, current treatment strategies, and reflect upon the possibility of changes in our approach to resistant hypertension. (dovepress.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that automatically controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, and digestive function. (sharecare.com)
  • This provides a high level of control over autonomic function. (springer.com)
  • Abnormal autonomic function is reported across neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, from neurodegenerative disease (notably those associated with Lewy body pathology) to neurodevelopmental conditions (e.g. (frontiersin.org)
  • This research topic will contribute to provide perspective to enhance understanding of the vital role of autonomic function in 'brain disorders' and will be appreciated by a wide readership of Frontiers Journals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Impaired autonomic function has previously been associated with elevated concentrations of serum insulin and decreased insulin sensitivity (markers of insulin resistance), independent of glucose levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Top Japanese sprinters were evaluated for their physical condition, autonomic function, blood chemistry, differential leukocyte count and blood lactate level before and after short, maximal exercise to explore methods of quantifying their conditioning level. (scirp.org)
  • Goto, K., Matuura, H. and Muramoto, K. (2002) Estimate of autonomic nervous system function by heart rate variability analysis [in Japanese] IEICE technical report. (scirp.org)
  • Abo, T. (2002) Number and function of leukocytes are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. (scirp.org)
  • Infants born preterm have reduced autonomic function compared with their full-term peers and also face possible serious neurodevelopmental impairment later in life. (brightsurf.com)
  • But is there a difference in autonomic nervous system function for full-term babies after undergoing labor compared with infants delivered via cesarean section (C-section)? (brightsurf.com)
  • In a low-risk group of babies born full-term, the autonomic nervous system and cortical systems appear to function well regardless of whether infants were exposed to labor prior to birth," says Sarah B. Mulkey, M.D., Ph.D., a fetal-neonatal neurologist in the Division of Fetal and Transitional Medicine at Children's National and the study's lead author. (brightsurf.com)
  • The initial chiropractic examination revealed increased aberrant autonomic and motor nervous system function detected on the thermography scans and sEMG scans, respectively. (chiro.org)
  • After receiving wellness chiropractic care for the detection and correction of vertebral subluxations, the practice member showed marked improvement in autonomic and motor system function as demonstrated on her sEMG and thermography scans. (chiro.org)
  • Further studies are needed to document the relationship between infertility, autonomic nervous system function, and the response to wellness chiropractic care, including subsequent fertility. (chiro.org)
  • In one of her published papers, Gail and coworkers noted that "Studies suggest that there may be lower activity of a number of hypothalamus-pituitary-peripheral gland axes and altered autonomic nervous system function in patients with FM. (prohealth.com)
  • It is 'autonomic' because it does not require voluntary thought to function. (healthtap.com)
  • Does early time-restricted feeding improve autonomic nervous system function? (hackyourgut.com)
  • Autonomic nervous system function in migraine without aura. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The hypothalamus, just above the brain stem, acts as an integrator for autonomic functions, receiving autonomic regulatory input from the limbic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This activity is then spread through the limbic system with involvement of the amygdala, hypothalamus, and thalamus. (medscape.com)
  • Probable paths of propagation of the epileptic electrical activity to the limbic system and autonomic nuclei. (medscape.com)
  • Small myelinated fibers transmit preganglionic autonomic efferents (B fibers) and somatic afferents (A delta fibers). (medscape.com)
  • Unmyelinated (C) fibers transmit postganglionic autonomic efferents as well as somatic and autonomic afferents. (medscape.com)
  • According to the study, "Autonomic imbalance: prophet of doom or scope for hope? (massagemag.com)
  • 2000) Cardiac autonomic imbalance in an overtrained athlete. (scirp.org)
  • there is an imbalance between your Sympathetic -fight or flight and Parasympathetic-house keeping nervous connections. (healthtap.com)
  • Rosacea And Autonomic Nervous System Imbalance. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • It is known that rosacea and autonomic nervous system imbalance are related. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • Before discussing the relationship between rosacea and autonomic nervous system imbalance, we will explain each in detail. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • The exact relationship between rosacea and autonomic nervous system imbalance is not entirely understood. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • Many believe that by correcting a possible imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, rosacea can be cured. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • We will now discuss the possible cure for rosacea and autonomic nervous system imbalance. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • That heaviness in the body is the sensation of your nervous system correcting an energy imbalance. (myshrink.com)
  • Although the ANS is also known as the visceral nervous system, the ANS is only connected with the motor side. (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE - We aimed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system activity in children with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. (urotoday.com)
  • The central nervous system refers to the brain and the spinal cord. (healthtap.com)
  • With which organ system outside the BRAIN & SPINAL cord do you wish to start? (healthtap.com)
  • The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. (healthtap.com)
  • Patients diagnosed with multiple system atrophy typically have a life expectancy of just five to 10 years from their diagnosis. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Norepinephrine is a major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, or 'fight or flight' branch of the ANS, while acetylcholine is produced by the parasympathetic nervous system, or 'rest and digest' branch. (news-medical.net)
  • The neurotransmitter for the postganglionic sympathetic nervous system (innervating sweat glands) is also acetylcholine, whereas that for the remaining postganglionic sympathetic nervous system is norepinephrine (NE). (medscape.com)
  • The two chemical messengers used by the autonomic nervous system are acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • In addition to the acquired causes, inherited disorders like hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), Tangier disease, and Fabry disease also exist. (medscape.com)
  • Vagal tone refers to the activity of the vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve) which serves as 80 percent of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system, and initiates the bodies healing phase. (massagemag.com)
  • The correlations between all above systems, as well as between them and the structural and functional parameters of the optic nerve, and the retina in both groups will be also analyzed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To maintain cardiac output, the vagal nerve tone is lowered by autonomic centers, so that the heart rate is increased and the cardiac output can remain stable. (medscape.com)
  • Two nerve cells form the primary components of an autonomic nerve pathway. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • A potential method of health promotion using the traditional wooden brass instrument the didgeridoo was examined, especially in terms of mood, stress, and autonomic nerve stabilization. (mdpi.com)
  • Which part of the nervous system is control by 75% of the vagus nerve? (healthtap.com)
  • Baseline autonomic activity and reactivity to a series of physical, psychological, and social stimuli was found to be stable over time. (springer.com)
  • Neurohumoral activation with heightened activity of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a critical role in this scenario. (nih.gov)
  • Diet, smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption that affect autonomic nervous activity were prohibited from 2 hours before the measurement. (hindawi.com)
  • The muscular activity of the heart and of the circulatory, digestive, respiratory, and urogenital systems is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Oculocardiac Reflex. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prediction of Oculocardiac Reflex in Relationship to Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Mesured With the Use of ECG HRV Analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the activity and characteristics of the following systems: the central ANS (through a 24-hour analysis of heart rate variability and blood pressure), peripheral vascular system (through the analysis of the post-occlusive hyperemia reaction within the distal part of left upper limb) and the local retrobulbar circulation as measured by color Doppler imaging (CDI) in patients with NTG and healthy volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Autonomic Nervous System Activity, Peripheral Microcirculation and Retrobulbar Hemodynamics in Normal Tension Glaucoma Patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Yokoi, M. and Yamazaki, K. (1995) Cardiac autonomic nervous activity interaction under mental stress. (scirp.org)
  • Fichera AP, Celander DR. Effect of osteopathic manipulative therapy on autonomic tone as evidenced by blood pressure changes and activity of the fibrinolytic system. (jaoa.org)
  • The low-frequency/high-frequency power ratio (=low-frequency power/high-frequency power: LF/HF), which is a useful parameter that reflects the balance of cardiac autonomic nervous activity, differed significantly between the waking and sleeping times on the off-duty day (P=0.03), while it did not differ between these two states on the on-duty day (P=0.56). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Similarly, the normalized high-frequency power [=high-frequency/(high-frequency+low-frequency) power: HF/(HF+LF)] ratio, which is a useful measure of the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system, differed significantly between these two states on the off-duty day (P=0.04), while there was no significant difference in the ratio between the two states on the on-duty day (P=0.13). (environmental-expert.com)
  • Modifications of activity of autonomic nervous system, and resting energy expenditure in women using hormone-replacement therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Phenomenal Worlds and Nervous System Activity. (philpapers.org)
  • Part of the involuntary nervous system that slows heart rate , increases intestinal & glandular activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles. (healthtap.com)
  • Marked gender differences were also seen in the relationship between leptin and cardiac autonomic activity. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Embryologically, the somatic structures appear late in development as compared to the vegetative nervous system, which serves as the chief integrating and correlating system of the visceral structures. (chiro.org)
  • Most autonomous functions are involuntary but they can often work in conjunction with the somatic nervous system which provides voluntary control. (wikipedia.org)
  • The modern physiologic investigations on the impact of somatosensory input on autonomic functions have been reviewed in a very comprehensive monograph by Sato et al. (chiro.org)
  • To understand the effect of epilepsy on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), the autonomic functions in patients with epilepsy can be evaluated both during seizures and in their baseline state, also known as the interictal state. (medscape.com)
  • One side of the chart provides Parasympathetic N.S. correlations with additional information for a better understanding of the difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and its related functions. (kinginstitute.org)
  • If you lie down to relax and notice that your hands and feet are cold and sweaty or that you are dizzy and headachy or that your heart is beating too fast, autonomic functions are not being optimally managed. (dahnyoga.net)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Autonomic Nervous System. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The term autonomic was first applied to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems around the turn of the century. (chiro.org)
  • This traditional terminology is confusing and we use the term "autonomic motoneurons" or "final motoneurons" for the ganglionic cells. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Langley (1852-1925) coined the term autonomic nervous system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • How massage therapy influences the autonomic nervous (ANS) and endocrine systems is what is going to elevate this profession out of the doldrums of poor perception in the marketplace. (massagemag.com)
  • An outbreak generally involves sebaceous glands and the vascular as well as autonomic nervous systems. (healthy-skin-guide.com)
  • Somatic System ANS Stimulates skeletal muscles Stimulates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands Motor neuron cell body in CNS, one neuron extends to effector organ. (coursehero.com)
  • Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart and the widening or narrowing of your blood vessels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stress Index measures cardiac muscle oxygen demand related to heart work, and reflects the adaptability of the body to internal and external stressors that directly influence autonomic nervous system functioning. (massagemag.com)
  • Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and after training. (pnas.org)
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) is a popular research tool for assessing cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS). (hindawi.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system also makes your heart beat quicker, so you have an increased heart rate. (khanacademy.org)
  • Thanks to the autonomic nervous system , your heart beats, your lungs breathe, and various other body processes occur without your conscious effort. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • Although the characteristics of the static interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in regulating heart rate (HR) have been well established, how the dynamic interaction modulates the HR response remains unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Autonomic tests were performed on all participants, including heart rate interval variation (RRIV), heart rate response to valsalva maneuver, and sympathetic skin response (SSR). (urotoday.com)
  • Induced or ictal discharges from temporal and frontal cortices can result in autonomic disturbances that affect arterial blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, and cardiac neural discharge. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because the research team saw little differences in autonomic tone or other EEG frequencies when the infants were 1 day old, future research will explore these measures at different points in the newborns' early life as well as the role of the sleep-wake cycle on heart rate variability. (brightsurf.com)
  • The relationship between manipulative techniques and heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of autonomic nervous system balance has been reported in the literature. (jaoa.org)
  • The interval between the percussion peaks was used to calculate Heart Rate Varibility (HRV), a useful tool for assessing the status of the autonomic nervous system of the human body non-invasively. (scirp.org)
  • Holger, G. and Adelmann, (1999) Design of a PC-based system for time-domain and spectral analysis of heart rate variability, Computers and Biomedical Research, 32, 77-92. (scirp.org)
  • Autonomic nervous system control of the heart is a dynamic process in both health and disease. (onlinejacc.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system works to keep the body's internal environment in a state of balance called homeostasis-for example, by maintaining a normal body temperature and heart rate. (britannica.com)
  • We investigated if maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and newborn adiposity, were associated with fetal autonomic nervous development as indicated by fetal heart rate variability (HRV) and newborn behavior. (ku.edu)
  • While men showed an inverse relationship between insulin resistance, heart rate and the sympathovagal ratio of cardiac autonomic tone (r = -0.284 p = 0.014) this was not seen in women. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Autonomic dysfunctions and disturbed sleep were often associated to ASD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When the autonomic nervous system doesn't work correctly (dysfunctions) it can affect any body part or process. (dinet.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system is also called the involuntary nervous system. (sharecare.com)
  • The neurotransmitter for preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) as well as postganglionic parasympathetic nervous system is acetylcholine (ACh). (medscape.com)
  • In conclusion, a single bout of EA increases whole-body glucose uptake by activation of the sympathetic and partly the parasympathetic nervous systems, which could have important clinical implications for the treatment of insulin resistance. (gu.se)
  • For the sympathetic nervous system to perform its role, it must receive, directly (segmental afferent input) and indirectly (suprasegmental and higher centers), sensory input from the musculoskeletal system. (dynamicchiropractic.com)
  • The organism communicates with its environment by means of its somatic nervous system: the sensory system receives and processes information from the environment, and the motor system provides the means for getting about in the environment. (springer.com)
  • The voluntary and vegetative nervous systems are intimately connected and brought into reflex connection so that visceral stimulation has skeletal and somatic expression and skeletal muscle messages are expressed in visceral tissues: The body is a whole. (chiro.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system in osteopathic therapy. (jaoa.org)
  • A review of the section titled "The Visceral System" within Chapter 3 will be beneficial to the reader of this chapter. (chiro.org)
  • The definition of an autonomic nervous system is the bodily process that controls all involuntary actions such as breathing and digestion. (yourdictionary.com)
  • One of the better-known bodily processes controlled by the autonomic nervous system is the fight or flight response. (medicaldevicedepot.com)
  • San Francisco acupuncturist Jeremy Rothenberg is helping patients get rid of their migraines by combining traditional acupuncture with a new treatment method that targets the autonomic nervous system. (prweb.com)
  • If I can help patients recognize how their bodies activate this side of the ANS, they can then relearn how to calm their system down by activating the parasympathetic reaction, which can be referred to as 'rest and digest. (prweb.com)
  • In Specific Aim 3, the investigators propose to investigate the importance of nitric oxide in CFS-P patients using an experimental approach developed in our laboratory to eliminate nitric oxide/autonomic interactions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Gail spoke at the NIH CFS Workshop on June 12, 2003, about the HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system in fibromyalgia (FM), and in particular about a study to see if there are differences in the circadian pacemaker (biological clock) operation between FM patients and healthy normal controls. (prohealth.com)
  • Other features in the three patients are a slow, unchanging pulse rate, incapacity to perspire, a lowered basal metabolism and signs of slight and indefinite changes in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • HRV at baseline is mainly related to the response of the parasympathetic nervous system to breathing. (medscape.com)
  • Male control infants demonstrated a significant decline in LF:HF ratio from baseline to the second caregiving epoch, suggesting decreased mobilization of sympathetic nervous system response when exposed to stressors. (massagemag.com)
  • VAR and VAL were measured on 611 normal subjects, age range 9-79, from 63 centers and was analyzed at a single Autonomic Nervous System Reading Center. (nih.gov)