Autonomic Nerve Block
Autonomic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
Sympathetic Nervous System
Dental Pulp Test
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
Heart Conduction System
Spinal Nerve Roots
Nerve Growth Factor
Nerve Growth Factors
Nerve Compression Syndromes
Sympathovagal balance: how should we measure it? (1/148)There are complex interactions between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system inputs to the sinus node. The concept of "sympathovagal balance" reflects the autonomic state resulting from the sympathetic and parasympathetic influences. Despite widespread usage of a variety of heart rate (HR) variability parameters as indexes of sympathovagal balance, no index has been validated as a measure of sympathovagal balance. This study evaluated the utility of HR, HR variability, and a new parameter termed the vagal-sympathetic effect (VSE) as indexes of sympathovagal balance. The ideal parameter had to satisfy the following criteria: 1) the index should vary similarly among subjects in response to different autonomic conditions; 2) the variability in the index among subjects exposed to the same autonomic conditions should be small; and 3) the response of the index to various autonomic conditions should reflect the underlying changes in physiological state and have a meaningful interpretation. Volunteers [8 men, 6 women; mean age 28.5 +/- 4.8 (SD) yr] were evaluated for the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation and blockade on HR and HR variability. VSE was defined as the ratio of the R-R interval to the intrinsic R-R interval. VSE and R-R interval consistently changed in the expected directions with parasympathetic and sympathetic stimulation and blockade. A general linearized model was used to evaluate the response of each parameter. VSE and R-R interval had r2 values of 0.847 and 0.852, respectively. Natural logarithm of the low-frequency power had an r2 value of 0.781 with lower r2 values for all the other HR variability parameters. The coefficient of variation was also lowest for each condition tested for the VSE and the R-R interval. VSE and R-R interval best satisfy the criteria for the ideal index of sympathovagal balance. Because it is impractical under most conditions to measure the VSE as the index of sympathovagal balance, the most suitable index is the R-R interval. (+info)
Lumbar sympathetic blocks speed early and second stage induced labor in nulliparous women. (2/148)BACKGROUND: Rapid cervical dilation reportedly accompanies lumbar sympathetic blockade, whereas epidural analgesia is associated with slow labor. The authors compared the effects of initial lumbar sympathetic block with those of epidural analgesia on labor speed and delivery mode in this pilot study. METHODS: At a hospital not practicing active labor management, full-term nulliparous patients whose labors were induced randomly received initial lumbar sympathetic block or epidural analgesia. The latter patients received 10 ml bupivacaine, 0.125%; 50 microg fentanyl; and 100 microg epinephrine epidurally and sham lumbar sympathetic blocks. Patients to have lumbar sympathetic blocks received 10 ml bupivacaine, 0.5%; 25 microg fentanyl; and 50 microg epinephrine bilaterally and epidural catheters. Subsequently, all patients received epidural analgesia. RESULTS: Cervical dilation occurred more quickly (57 vs. 120 min/cm cervical dilation; P = 0.05) during the first 2 h of analgesia in patients having lumbar sympathetic blocks (n = 17) than in patients having epidurals (n = 19). The second stage of labor was briefer in patients having lumbar sympathetic blocks than in those having epidurals (105 vs. 270 min; P < 0.05). Nine patients having lumbar sympathetic block and seven having epidurals delivered spontaneously, whereas seven patients having lumbar sympathetic block and seven having epidurals had instrument-assisted vaginal deliveries. Cesarean delivery for fetal bradycardia occurred in one patient having lumbar sympathetic block. Cesarean delivery for dystocia occurred in five patients having epidurals compared with no patient having lumbar sympathetic block (P = not significant). Visual analog pain scores differed only at 60 min after block. CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous parturients having induced labor and receiving initial lumbar sympathetic blocks had faster cervical dilation during the first 2 h of analgesia, shorter second-stage labors, and a trend toward a lower dystocia cesarean delivery rate than did patients having epidural analgesia. The effects of lumbar sympathetic block on labor need to be determined in other patient groups. These results may help define the tocodynamic effects of regional labor analgesia. (+info)
Autonomic control of skeletal muscle blood flow at the onset of exercise. (3/148)The purpose of this study was to determine whether the autonomic nervous system is involved in skeletal muscle vasodilation at the onset of exercise. Mongrel dogs (n = 7) were instrumented with flow probes on both external iliac arteries. Before treadmill exercise at 3 miles/h, 0% grade, hexamethonium (10 mg/kg) and atropine (0.2 mg/kg) or saline was infused intravenously. Ganglionic blockade increased resting heart rate from 87 +/- 5 to 145 +/- 8 beats/min (P < 0.01) and reduced mean arterial pressure from 100 +/- 4 to 88 +/- 5 mmHg (P < 0.01). During steady-state exercise, heart rate was unaffected by ganglionic blockade (from 145 +/- 8 to 152 +/- 5 beats/min), whereas mean arterial pressure was reduced (from 115 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 4 mmHg; P < 0.01). Immediate and rapid increases in iliac blood flow and conductance occurred with initiation of exercise with or without ganglionic blockade. Statistical analyses of hindlimb conductance at 5-s intervals over the first 30 s of exercise revealed a statistically significant difference between the control and ganglionic blockade conditions at 20, 25, and 30 s (P < 0.01) but not at 5, 10, and 15 s of exercise. Hindlimb conductance at 1 min of exercise was 9.21 +/- 0.68 and 11.82 +/- 1.32 ml. min(-1). mmHg(-1) for the control and ganglionic blockade conditions, respectively. Because ganglionic blockade did not affect the initial rise in iliac conductance, we concluded that the autonomic nervous system is not essential for the rapid vasodilation in active skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise in dogs. Autonomic control of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise is manifested through vasoconstriction and not vasodilation. (+info)
Effects of unilateral stellate ganglion block on the spectral characteristics of heart rate variability. (4/148)The effect of unilateral stellate ganglion block on cardiovascular regulation remains controversial, so the present study used power spectral analysis of heart rate variability to investigate its effect on the autonomic neural control of the heart. In 20 young healthy volunteers (mean age: 25 years), heart rate variability was determined before and after unilateral stellate ganglion block (right side 11, left side 9) using 8 ml of 1% mepivacaine during supine rest. Using autoregressive spectrum analysis, power spectra were quantified by measuring the area in 3 frequency bands: high-frequency power (lnHF, parasympathetic influence) from 0.15 to 0.40 Hz, low-frequency power (lnLF, predominantly sympathetic influence) from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz, and total-frequency power (lnTF) less than 0.40 Hz. Right stellate ganglion block decreased not only the lnLF component from 6.55+/-0.84 to 5.77+/-0.47 but also the lnHF component from 4.40+/-0.95 to 3.42+/-1.12 (p<0.05). In contrast, left stellate ganglion block changed neither the lnLF nor the lnHF component. The lnTF component was also decreased significantly by right stellate ganglion block from 7.80+/-0.95 to 7.01+/-0.36 (p<0.05), but was unchanged following left stellate ganglion block. Neither right nor left stellate ganglion block induced any significant change in both the RR and corrected QT intervals. However, changes in the RR interval induced by right stellate ganglion block showed significant positive correlation with changes in lnHF (p<0.005) and lnTF (p<0.05). These results suggest that (1) autonomic innervation to the sinus node is mainly through the right-sided stellate ganglion, (2) pharmacological right-sided stellate ganglion block may attenuate not only sympathetic but also parasympathetic activity and (3) following right stellate ganglion block the decrease in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic influence on the sinus node may inconsistently counterbalance and change the RR interval. (+info)
Hepatic and central nervous system cytochrome P450 are down-regulated during lipopolysaccharide-evoked localized inflammation in brain. (5/148)The effect of central nervous system inflammation on the levels and activity of hepatic and brain cytochrome P450 were examined in the rat. Brain ethoxyresorufin dealkylkase (EROD) was depressed during localized inflammatory responses evoked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected into the lateral ventricle. This loss was accompanied by a concomitant loss of EROD activity and cytochrome P450 in liver. Similar losses in hepatic enzyme were observed for benzyloxy-resorufin and pentoxy-resorufin dealkylase (CYP2B) and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation (CYP2E). Protein levels of CYP2D and CYP2E1 but not CYP1A also were depressed. Similar i.p. doses of LPS had no effect on hepatic cytochrome P450, indicating that the hepatic effect was not caused by LPS leakage from the central nervous system. Also in support of this contention is that heat shock protein 27 was expressed throughout the brain by LPS given i.c. v. but was undetectable in the liver. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha given i.c.v. depressed EROD activity in the brain but this was not accompanied by a concomitant loss in the liver. Hepatic EROD did respond to the i.p. injection of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The LPS-evoked loss in hepatic cytochrome P450 could not be prevented by blocking beta-receptor-mediated sympathetic nerve activity. This study demonstrates that localized inflammatory responses in the brain cause a concomitant down-regulation of cytochrome P450 and drug-metabolizing activity in the liver and the brain. The effect on brain cytochrome P450 may be regulated via cytokine-mediated pathways but signaling to the liver does not involve a cytokine-mediated pathway nor a beta-receptor-mediated sympathetic nerve pathway. (+info)
Treating electrical storm : sympathetic blockade versus advanced cardiac life support-guided therapy. (6/148)BACKGROUND: Electrical storm (ES), defined as recurrent multiple ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes, often occurs in patients with recent myocardial infarction. Because treating ES according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines yields a poor outcome, we evaluated the efficacy of sympathetic blockade in treating ES patients and compared their outcome with that of patients treated according to the ACLS guidelines. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (36 men, 13 women, mean age 57+/-10 years) who had ES associated with a recent myocardial infarction were separated into 2 groups. Patients in group 1 (n=27) received sympathetic blockade treatment: 6 left stellate ganglionic blockade, 7 esmolol, and 14 propranolol. Patients in group 2 (n=22) received antiarrhythmic medication as recommended by the ACLS guidelines. Patient characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The 1-week mortality rate was higher in group 2: 18 (82%) of the 22 patients died, all of refractory VF; 6 (22%) of the 27 group 1 patients died, 3 of refractory VF (P<0.0001). Patients who survived the initial ES event did well over the 1-year follow-up period: Overall survival in group 1 was 67%, compared with 5% in group 2 (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Sympathetic blockade is superior to the antiarrhythmic therapy recommended by the ACLS guidelines in treating ES patients. Our study emphasizes the role of increased sympathetic activity in the genesis of ES. Sympathetic blockade-not class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs-should be the treatment of choice for ES. (+info)
Periischemic cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not explain beneficial effects of isoflurane on outcome from near-complete forebrain ischemia in rats. (7/148)BACKGROUND: Isoflurane improves outcome from near-complete forebrain ischemia in rats compared with fentanyl-nitrous oxide (N2O). Sympathetic ganglionic blockade with trimethaphan abolishes this beneficial effect. To evaluate whether anesthesia-related differences in cerebral blood flow (CBF) may explain these findings, this study compared regional CBF before, during, and after near-complete forebrain ischemia in rats anesthetized with either isoflurane (with and without trimethaphan) or fentanyl-nitrous oxide. METHODS: Fasted, normothermic isoflurane anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared for near-complete forebrain ischemia (10 min of bilateral carotid occlusion and mean arterial pressure = 30 mmHg). After surgery, rats were anesthetized with either 1.4% isoflurane (with or without 2.5 mg of trimethaphan intravenously at onset of ischemia) or fentanyl-nitrous oxide (25 microgram. kg-1. h-1. 70% N2O-1). Regional CBF was determined (14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography) before ischemia, 8 min after onset of ischemia, and 30 min after onset of reperfusion. RESULTS: Regional CBF did not differ significantly among groups at any measurement interval. Ischemia caused a marked flow reduction to 5% or less of baseline (P < 0.001) in selectively vulnerable regions, such as the cortex, caudoputamen and hippocampus, whereas flow in the brain stem and cerebellum was preserved. Reperfusion at 30 min was associated with partial restoration of flow to 35-50% of baseline values in ischemic structures. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that improved histologic-behavioral outcome provided by isoflurane anesthesia cannot be explained by differential vasodilative effects of the anesthetic states before, during, or after severe forebrain ischemia. This study also shows severe postischemic delayed hypoperfusion that was not affected by choice of anesthetic or the presence of trimethaphan. Mechanisms other than effects on periischemic CBF must be responsible for beneficial effects of isoflurane in this model. (+info)
Capsaicin increases modulation of sympathetic nerve activity in rats: measurement using power spectral analysis of heart rate fluctuations. (8/148)We assessed the sympatho-vagal activities of the heart after administration of capsaicin by measuring the power spectral analysis in rats. There were major two frequency components of heart rate variability, which we defined as high (1.0 Hz <, HF) and low (LF, < 1.0 Hz) frequency components. Vagal blockade by atropine abolished the high frequency component, and lowered the amplitude of the low frequency component. On the other hand, under conditions of sympathetic blockade by propranolol, the low frequency component was reduced. Combined vagal and sympathetic blockade abolished all heart rate fluctuations. We analyzed the low and high frequency components by integrating the spectrum for the respective band width. The rats administered capsaicin had a higher heart rate and sympathetic nervous system index (LF/HF) than the control group of rats. These results suggest that power spectral analysis is an effective and noninvasive method for detecting subtle changes in autonomic activity in response to the intake of foods or drugs. (+info)
Autonomic nerve block is a medical procedure that involves blocking the transmission of signals from the autonomic nervous system to a specific area of the body. The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. Autonomic nerve blocks are commonly used to treat various conditions such as chronic pain, migraines, and certain types of headaches. The procedure involves injecting a local anesthetic or a combination of local anesthetic and a muscle relaxant into the affected area. This blocks the transmission of signals from the autonomic nerves to the targeted area, which can help to reduce pain and other symptoms. Autonomic nerve blocks are typically performed on an outpatient basis and can be done using various techniques, including ultrasound guidance or electrical stimulation. The procedure is generally safe and well-tolerated, although there is a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or nerve damage.
Autonomic pathways are a network of nerves that control involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. These pathways are part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is responsible for regulating the body's internal environment and maintaining homeostasis. The autonomic pathways can be divided into two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The SNS is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action in response to a perceived threat. The PNS, on the other hand, is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, which helps the body to relax and conserve energy. Autonomic pathways are made up of sensory neurons that carry information from sensory receptors in the body to the central nervous system (CNS), and motor neurons that carry signals from the CNS to the muscles and glands. These pathways are controlled by the brain and spinal cord, which use electrical and chemical signals to regulate the activity of the autonomic nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion, and blood pressure. It is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, or a stable internal environment, in the body. The ANS is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The SNS is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action in response to a perceived threat. The PNS, on the other hand, is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, which helps the body to relax and conserve energy. The ANS communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) and nerves. The ANS is an important part of the body's overall functioning and plays a critical role in maintaining health and wellness.
Anesthetics, Local are medications that are used to numb a specific area of the body, such as a tooth or a surgical site, to reduce pain and discomfort during a procedure. These medications work by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the nerves in the affected area to the brain. Local anesthetics are typically administered by injection, cream, or spray, and their effects can last for several hours. There are several types of local anesthetics, including lidocaine, benzocaine, and novocaine, each with its own specific properties and uses. Local anesthetics are commonly used in dentistry, surgery, and other medical procedures where a patient needs to be numbed for a specific area of the body.
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases (ANSDs) refer to a group of disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. The ANS is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). ANSDs can affect either or both branches of the ANS, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. Some common ANSDs include: 1. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA): a progressive disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty swallowing. 2. Parkinson's Disease: a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the ANS, leading to symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. 3. Autonomic Failure: a group of disorders that affect the ANS, causing symptoms such as low blood pressure, dizziness, and fainting. 4. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): a disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as rapid heart rate, dizziness, and fainting when standing up. 5. Orthostatic Hypotension: a disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and low blood pressure when standing up. Treatment for ANSDs depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms, while in other cases, lifestyle changes or surgery may be necessary.
Autonomic denervation refers to the loss of innervation or function of the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. This can occur due to various medical conditions or injuries, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or certain neurological disorders. Symptoms of autonomic denervation may include dizziness, fainting, rapid or irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, and difficulty regulating body temperature. Treatment for autonomic denervation depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, physical therapy, or other interventions.
Adrenergic fibers are a type of nerve fiber that release the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) at their terminal ends. These fibers are part of the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for the body's "fight or flight" response. Adrenergic fibers are found throughout the body, but are particularly abundant in the heart, blood vessels, and bronchial tubes. They play a key role in regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and bronchodilation (widening of the bronchial tubes), among other functions. When norepinephrine is released from adrenergic fibers, it binds to receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a variety of physiological responses. For example, norepinephrine can cause blood vessels to constrict, increasing blood pressure, or cause the heart to beat faster and harder, preparing the body for physical activity. Overall, adrenergic fibers are an important component of the sympathetic nervous system and play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes in the body.
Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can occur as a complication of diabetes. It is caused by damage to the nerves that control movement, sensation, and other functions in the body. There are several types of diabetic neuropathy, including: 1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy and affects the nerves in the extremities, such as the hands, feet, and legs. It can cause numbness, tingling, pain, and weakness in the affected areas. 2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the nerves that control automatic bodily functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure. It can cause symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and gastrointestinal problems. 3. Proximal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the arms and legs, causing weakness and muscle wasting in the affected areas. 4. Mononeuropathy: This is a type of neuropathy that affects a single nerve, causing symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected area. Diabetic neuropathy can be a serious complication of diabetes and can lead to a range of problems, including foot ulcers, infections, and even amputations. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and to see their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and treatment.
Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used in the medical field for spinal and epidural anesthesia. It is a type of amide local anesthetic that is derived from cocaine and is used to numb a specific area of the body, such as the lower back or limbs, during surgery or other medical procedures. Bupivacaine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and injections, and is typically administered by a healthcare professional. It is a powerful local anesthetic that can provide long-lasting pain relief, but it can also have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.
Lidocaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used to numb a specific area of the body during medical procedures or surgeries. It works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from the nerves to the brain. Lidocaine is available in various forms, including topical creams, gels, ointments, and injections. It is also used to treat certain types of abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation, and to relieve symptoms of neuropathy, a condition in which the nerves are damaged or diseased. Lidocaine is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects such as dizziness, nausea, and allergic reactions in some people.
Mepivacaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used in dentistry and surgery to numb a specific area of the body. It is a type of amide local anesthetic, which means that it works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from nerve endings to the brain. Mepivacaine is available in both injectable and topical forms, and it is typically used to numb the skin, nerves, and muscles in the area being treated. It is a relatively short-acting local anesthetic, with a duration of action of about 2-4 hours, and it is often used in combination with other medications to provide longer-lasting anesthesia. Mepivacaine is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. These may include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and allergic reactions.
The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that arises from the spinal cord in the neck and extends down the arm. It is responsible for controlling movement and sensation in the arm, hand, and shoulder. The brachial plexus is formed by five nerves: the C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 nerves. These nerves exit the spinal cord and join together to form the brachial plexus, which then branches out to innervate the muscles and skin of the arm and shoulder. Damage to the brachial plexus can result in weakness or paralysis of the arm and hand, as well as numbness or tingling in the affected area.
Pain, Postoperative refers to the discomfort or pain experienced by a patient after undergoing surgery. It is a common and expected complication of surgery, and can range from mild to severe. Postoperative pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including tissue damage, inflammation, and nerve stimulation. It is typically managed with a combination of pain medications, such as opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and local anesthetics, as well as other treatments such as physical therapy, ice packs, and relaxation techniques. Proper management of postoperative pain is important for promoting healing, reducing the risk of complications, and improving the patient's overall comfort and quality of life.
Ubiquitin thiolesterase is an enzyme that plays a role in the degradation of proteins in cells. It is responsible for cleaving the bond between ubiquitin, a small protein that is attached to target proteins for degradation, and the target protein. This process is an important part of the cellular machinery that regulates the levels of proteins in the cell and helps to maintain cellular homeostasis. In the medical field, the activity of ubiquitin thiolesterase has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Understanding the function of this enzyme and how it is regulated may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of these diseases and lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Dental anesthesia is a type of anesthesia that is used to numb the mouth and teeth during dental procedures. It is typically administered by a dentist or dental anesthesiologist and can be either local or general anesthesia. Local anesthesia numbs a specific area of the mouth, such as a tooth or a small area around the tooth, and is commonly used for procedures such as fillings, extractions, and root canals. General anesthesia, on the other hand, numbs the entire body and is used for more extensive procedures such as wisdom tooth removal or oral surgery. Dental anesthesia is an important part of dental care, as it helps to ensure that patients are comfortable and pain-free during dental procedures. It is also important to note that dental anesthesia is safe and effective when administered by a qualified healthcare professional.
In the medical field, amides are a class of organic compounds that contain a nitrogen atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They are commonly used as drugs and are often referred to as "amide derivatives." One example of an amide derivative used in medicine is acetaminophen, which is commonly sold under the brand name Tylenol. It is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Another example is aspirin, which is also an amide derivative and is used to relieve pain, reduce fever, and thin the blood. Amides can also be used as local anesthetics, such as lidocaine, which is used to numb the skin and nerves during medical procedures. They can also be used as muscle relaxants, such as succinylcholine, which is used to relax muscles during surgery. Overall, amides play an important role in medicine as they have a wide range of therapeutic applications and are often used to treat various medical conditions.
Anesthesia, conduction is a type of regional anesthesia that involves numbing a specific area of the body by blocking the transmission of pain signals along a nerve pathway. This is achieved by injecting a local anesthetic solution into the tissue surrounding the nerve or by injecting the anesthetic directly into the nerve itself. Conduction anesthesia is commonly used for surgeries or procedures that require only a small area of the body to be numbed, such as dental procedures, certain types of orthopedic surgeries, and some types of gynecological procedures. It is also used for pain management in conditions such as shingles, postoperative pain, and chronic pain. There are several types of conduction anesthesia, including nerve blocks, plexus blocks, and spinal blocks. Each type of block targets a specific nerve or nerve pathway, providing anesthesia to the area supplied by that nerve.
Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the nerves that are located outside of the brain and spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting signals between the central nervous system and the rest of the body, allowing us to feel sensations, move our muscles, and control our organs. Peripheral nerve injuries can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including trauma, compression, infection, or disease. Symptoms of peripheral nerve injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury, but may include numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of sensation in the affected area. Treatment for peripheral nerve injuries depends on the cause and severity of the injury. In some cases, conservative treatments such as physical therapy or medication may be sufficient to manage symptoms and promote healing. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged nerve tissue.
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that is primarily produced by the C cells of the thyroid gland and by certain sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. It is also found in high concentrations in the trigeminal ganglion, which is the main sensory ganglion of the face. CGRP plays a role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including vasodilation, pain perception, and inflammation. It is also involved in the pathophysiology of migraine headaches, where it is thought to contribute to the dilation of blood vessels in the brain and the release of other inflammatory molecules. In the medical field, CGRP is used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions, such as medullary thyroid cancer, and as a target for the development of new treatments for migraine headaches and other conditions. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for a variety of other conditions, including chronic pain, osteoporosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Atropine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including bradycardia (slow heart rate), poisoning by certain drugs or toxins, and certain types of eye surgery. It is also used to treat symptoms of certain medical conditions, such as motion sickness and irritable bowel syndrome. Atropine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in many bodily functions, including muscle contractions, heart rate, and digestion. This can cause a number of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, and difficulty urinating. Atropine is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking atropine, as the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific condition being treated.
Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient procedures, are surgical procedures that are performed on patients who are not admitted to the hospital overnight. These procedures are typically less invasive and have a lower risk of complications compared to inpatient procedures. Ambulatory surgical procedures can be performed in a variety of settings, including ambulatory surgery centers, hospital outpatient departments, and physician offices. They are often used for procedures that do not require a prolonged recovery period, such as hernia repair, cataract surgery, and certain types of orthopedic procedures. Before undergoing an ambulatory surgical procedure, patients will typically undergo a pre-operative evaluation to assess their overall health and determine if they are suitable candidates for the procedure. They will also be given instructions on how to prepare for the procedure, including fasting and taking any necessary medications. After the procedure, patients will typically be monitored for a short period of time in a recovery area before being discharged. They will be given instructions on how to care for their incision and any other post-operative instructions.
In the medical field, analgesia refers to the relief of pain without loss of consciousness. It is a common medical intervention used to manage pain caused by various conditions, such as surgery, injury, illness, or chronic conditions. There are different types of analgesia, including: 1. Local analgesia: This type of analgesia involves the use of numbing agents to block pain signals in a specific area of the body, such as during a dental procedure or surgery. 2. Systemic analgesia: This type of analgesia involves the use of medications that are absorbed into the bloodstream and affect the entire body to relieve pain. Examples include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and acetaminophen. 3. Neuromodulation: This type of analgesia involves the use of electrical or magnetic stimulation to alter the way the nervous system processes pain signals. Analgesia is an important part of pain management and can help improve a patient's quality of life by reducing pain and discomfort. However, it is important to use analgesia appropriately and with caution, as it can also have side effects and risks, such as addiction, respiratory depression, and constipation.
Prilocaine is a local anesthetic medication that is commonly used to numb the skin and nerves during medical procedures such as dental work, minor surgeries, and dermatological procedures. It is a member of the amide class of local anesthetics and is available in both injectable and topical forms. Prilocaine works by blocking the transmission of pain signals from nerve endings to the brain. It is usually administered in combination with epinephrine, which helps to constrict blood vessels and reduce bleeding during procedures. Prilocaine is generally considered safe when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects. Common side effects of prilocaine include itching, redness, and swelling at the site of injection. More serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, seizures, and changes in heart rate or blood pressure. Overall, prilocaine is a useful medication for numbing the skin and nerves during medical procedures, but it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
Adjuvants, anesthesia are substances that are used to enhance the effectiveness of an anesthetic agent. They are typically used in conjunction with the anesthetic to provide a more complete and effective block of pain and other sensations during surgery or other medical procedures. There are several different types of adjuvants that can be used with anesthesia, including opioids, non-opioid analgesics, and local anesthetics. Opioids, such as morphine or fentanyl, are used to provide pain relief and sedation during surgery. Non-opioid analgesics, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can also be used to provide pain relief. Local anesthetics, such as lidocaine or bupivacaine, are used to numb a specific area of the body before surgery or other procedures. Adjuvants can be administered in a variety of ways, including intravenously, orally, or topically. They are typically used in combination with an anesthetic agent to provide a more complete and effective block of pain and other sensations during surgery or other medical procedures.
Anesthesia, Local is a type of anesthesia that numbs a specific area of the body, such as a hand, arm, leg, or foot, without causing general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental procedures, and other medical procedures that require only a small area of the body to be numbed. Local anesthesia is typically administered by injecting a numbing medication, such as lidocaine or bupivacaine, into the affected area. The medication blocks the transmission of pain signals to the brain, resulting in numbness and a loss of sensation in the treated area. Local anesthesia can be administered in different ways, including topical anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia, and nerve block anesthesia. Topical anesthesia involves applying a numbing cream or gel to the skin, while infiltration anesthesia involves injecting the numbing medication directly into the tissue. Nerve block anesthesia involves injecting the numbing medication into a nerve, which can result in numbness in a larger area of the body. Overall, local anesthesia is a safe and effective way to provide pain relief during minor medical procedures, and it has a lower risk of complications compared to general anesthesia.
Femoral neuropathy is a medical condition that affects the femoral nerve, which is the largest nerve in the human body. The femoral nerve runs from the lower back down through the pelvis and into the thigh, providing sensation and movement to the muscles in the leg and hip. Femoral neuropathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, compression, or disease. Symptoms of femoral neuropathy may include weakness or numbness in the leg, difficulty walking or standing, and pain or tingling in the thigh or groin. Diagnosis of femoral neuropathy typically involves a physical examination and imaging tests such as an MRI or CT scan. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.
Heart block is a condition in which the electrical signals that regulate the heartbeat are slowed or blocked as they travel through the heart's conduction system. This can cause the heart to beat too slowly (bradycardia) or irregularly, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and shortness of breath. There are three main types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree. First-degree heart block is the mildest form and usually does not cause any symptoms. Second-degree heart block is more serious and can cause symptoms, especially if it is caused by an underlying heart condition. Third-degree heart block is the most serious form and can lead to life-threatening complications if not treated promptly. Heart block can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the heart muscle, certain medications, and inherited conditions. Treatment options depend on the severity of the heart block and the underlying cause. In some cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heartbeat.
Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a type of arrhythmia, or abnormal heart rhythm, that occurs when the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) beat irregularly and rapidly, often out of sync with the lower chambers (the ventricles). This can cause the heart to pump inefficiently and can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. AFib is a common condition, affecting an estimated 2.7 to 6.1 million people in the United States. It is more common in older adults and can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for AFib may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures to restore a normal heart rhythm.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Analgesia, Patient-Controlled (PCA) is a type of pain management technique used in the medical field to provide relief from moderate to severe pain. PCA involves the use of a device that allows the patient to self-administer pain medication as needed, usually through an intravenous (IV) catheter. The device typically consists of a pump that delivers a predetermined amount of pain medication, such as morphine or fentanyl, at regular intervals or on demand. The patient can control the dosage of medication by pressing a button on the device, which releases a predetermined amount of medication into the bloodstream. PCA is often used in patients who are recovering from surgery or who have chronic pain conditions such as cancer or fibromyalgia. It allows patients to have more control over their pain management and can help reduce the risk of opioid-related side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression. However, PCA can also be associated with risks such as medication overdose, device malfunction, and infection. Therefore, it is typically used under the supervision of a healthcare provider and with careful monitoring of the patient's pain levels and medication use.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mmHg, while high blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. It is produced by various cells, including neurons, glial cells, and some immune cells. NGF is involved in the survival, growth, and differentiation of neurons, particularly sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. It also plays a role in the development of the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. In addition to its role in the nervous system, NGF has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. NGF is also involved in the development and progression of cancer, and it has been shown to promote the growth and survival of some cancer cells. As a result, it has been targeted as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treatment.
Nerve growth factors (NGFs) are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of the nervous system. They are primarily produced by neurons and Schwann cells, which are glial cells that wrap around and support neurons. NGFs are involved in a variety of processes related to the nervous system, including the growth and survival of neurons, the regulation of synaptic plasticity, and the modulation of pain perception. They also play a role in the development of the peripheral nervous system, including the formation of sensory and motor neurons. In the medical field, NGFs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic brain injury. They have also been investigated as a potential treatment for peripheral neuropathy, a condition characterized by damage to the nerves that carry sensory and motor signals to and from the body's extremities.
Anesthesia, spinal, also known as spinal anesthesia, is a type of regional anesthesia that numbs the lower half of the body, including the legs and lower abdomen. It is commonly used for surgeries on the lower half of the body, such as cesarean sections, hip replacements, and knee replacements. During spinal anesthesia, a small amount of anesthetic medication is injected into the spinal fluid, which surrounds the spinal cord. The medication numbs the nerves in the lower half of the body, causing a loss of sensation and pain relief. The patient is awake and able to communicate during the procedure, but they will not feel any pain or discomfort in their lower body. Spinal anesthesia is typically performed by an anesthesiologist or a trained nurse anesthetist. The procedure is usually done in a hospital setting and takes about 10-15 minutes to perform. The patient will need to lie on their back with their legs bent and feet flat on the table. The anesthetic medication is injected into the lower back, and the patient may feel a brief prick or pressure as the medication is injected. After spinal anesthesia, the patient may experience some side effects, such as headache, nausea, and low blood pressure. However, these side effects are usually temporary and can be managed with medication. Spinal anesthesia is a safe and effective method of anesthesia for many types of surgeries on the lower half of the body.
Cranial nerves are a group of twelve pairs of nerves that emerge from the brainstem and are responsible for controlling various functions of the head and neck. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information, such as touch, taste, and smell, as well as controlling movement and regulating vital functions such as heart rate and blood pressure. The cranial nerves are numbered and named according to their location and function. Some of the most well-known cranial nerves include the optic nerve (which carries visual information), the olfactory nerve (which carries information about smell), and the trigeminal nerve (which controls sensation in the face and head).
Nerve compression syndromes are a group of conditions that occur when a nerve is compressed or pinched, leading to pain, numbness, weakness, or other symptoms. These conditions can affect any nerve in the body, but are most commonly seen in the neck, back, and extremities. There are several types of nerve compression syndromes, including carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, and sciatica. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including repetitive motions, poor posture, injury, or underlying medical conditions such as arthritis or diabetes. Treatment for nerve compression syndromes typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the compression, such as through physical therapy, medication, or surgery. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as improving posture or modifying work habits may also be recommended to prevent further compression of the affected nerve.
Inguinal hernia is a medical condition in which a part of an organ or tissue, such as the intestines or bladder, pushes through a weak spot in the abdominal wall and into the inguinal canal, which is a passage in the groin area. This can cause a bulge or swelling in the groin, which may be painful or uncomfortable. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than in women and are often caused by straining during bowel movements or lifting heavy objects. Treatment for inguinal hernias may include surgery to repair the weakened abdominal wall and prevent the hernia from recurring.
Shoulder pain is a common condition that affects the shoulder joint, which is located at the point where the upper arm bone (humerus) meets the shoulder blade (scapula). Shoulder pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, overuse, or underlying medical conditions. In the medical field, shoulder pain is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, which may include assessing the range of motion of the shoulder, checking for tenderness or swelling, and testing for specific movements that may cause pain. In some cases, imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI, or ultrasound may be ordered to help diagnose the underlying cause of the shoulder pain. Treatment for shoulder pain depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections, or surgery in severe cases. It is important to seek medical attention if shoulder pain is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty moving the arm.
List of MeSH codes (E03)
Nerve conduction velocity
Matthew N. Levy
List of MeSH codes (E04)
Peripheral nerve injury classification
Adrenergic nerve fibre
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MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2012 MeSH. August 19, 2011
- In addition to affecting the voluntary muscles, it can also cause disruptions in the autonomic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Underarm sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which explains why sweating increases with exercise as well as with emotional stress and anxiety. (dubaichronicle.com)
- Scopolamine affects the autonomic nervous system and is used as a sedative, to prevent motion sickness, to treat eye lens muscle paralysis (cycloplegic), and to dilate the pupil (mydriatic). (espionageinfo.com)
- Autonomic dysreflexia of the spinal cord is an overreaction of the autonomic nervous system that occurs in people with a spinal cord injury, causing life-threatening high blood pressure (hypertension). (msdmanuals.com)
- When the spinal cord is injured, certain nerves in the autonomic nervous system may overreact to the injury or to some other problem, causing blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to increase. (msdmanuals.com)
- Norepinephrine and epinephrine are involved in the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body processes such as the regulation of blood pressure and body temperature. (medlineplus.gov)
- Certain common TH variations (polymorphisms) modify catecholamine production, which affects the risk of developing conditions associated with regulation of the autonomic nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
- The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a very complex, multifaceted neural network that maintains internal physiologic homeostasis. (medscape.com)
- The goal for this article remains focused at step III on the anatomy of the autonomic nervous system, as follows. (medscape.com)
- Because the autonomic nervous system maintains internal physiologic homeostasis, disorders of this system can be present with both central as well as peripheral nervous system localization. (medscape.com)
- Besides nerve localization in the peripheral nervous system, it occurs in diseases of the presynaptic neuromuscular junction such as botulism and myasthenic syndrome. (medscape.com)
- The sympathetic nerves are found along the front side of the spinal column and are part of your autonomic nervous system. (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- This blocks these nerves so that the sympathetic nervous system can no longer mediate the pain. (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- These nerves are part of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system that control involuntary functions such as sweating, blood pressure, digestion and heart rate. (yourpainreliefcenters.com)
- Most electrophysiologists are fully aware of the complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiac arrhythmias. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- The question is: how can we manipulate the autonomic nervous system to negate these pro-arrhythmic effects? (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- There are various treatments in use to target the autonomic nervous system including beta-blockers, which limit the effects of the end product of the sympathetic nerves, and ganglionated plexus ablation, which attempts to eliminate the influence of the intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system to treat atrial fibrillation. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- Sphenopalatine (Pterygopalatine, Nasal) Ganglion Blocks and Neuromodulation of the Sphenopalatine Ganglion are rapidly becoming the Holy Grail of treatment of headaches and migraines of the Trigeminal Nervous System. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- By manipulating the spine and the myofascial layers of the body, he works to adjust the autonomic nervous system and release pain over time. (stanfordchildrens.org)
- The sympathetic nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system, which basically controls functions such as blood flow and temperature regulation to the arms and legs, sweating, heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure. (spine-medicine.com)
- The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling bodily functions that you do not think about or have direct control over. (spine-medicine.com)
- However, there is a connection between the central nervous system (that you have control over) and the autonomic nervous system. (spine-medicine.com)
- Sympathetic blocks are injections of local anesthetic and/or steroid onto a portion of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system called the sympathetic nerves. (marylandpainspecialists.com)
- The bladder and urethra are innervated by 3 sets of peripheral nerves arising from the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and somatic nervous system. (medscape.com)
- All drugs and techniques that induce the anesthetic state act in some way in the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). (bvsalud.org)
- These methods can be categorized into neuraxial local analgesics and opioids, peripheral nerve blocks, and wound infiltration. (medscape.com)
- Botulinum neurotoxins are metalloproteases that block peripheral motor and autonomic nerves, leading to death when respiratory muscles are affected. (biomedcentral.com)
- Optic nerve damage can range from a slight reduction in upper nasal peripheral visual field to total blindness. (pharmacology2000.com)
Plexus of nerves2
- Pertaining to a small pyramidal space between the upper lateral part of the chest and the medial side of the arm, and including, in addition to the armpit, axillary vessels, the bronchial plexus of nerves, a large number of lymph nodes, and fat and loose alveolar tissue. (wildliferesearch.com)
- The physician will use x-ray guidance to direct a needle to the sympathetic plexus of nerves. (spine-medicine.com)
- It is used as a general anesthetic for procedures of short duration, for induction of anesthesia given before other anesthetic drugs, as a supplement to regional anesthesia (such as a spinal block), as an anticonvulsive, and for narcoanalysis. (espionageinfo.com)
- A sympathetic nerve block is an injection of a local anesthetic into the area in which these nerves coalesce, called the Sympathetic Ganglion. (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- A Stellate Ganglion Nerve Block involves injecting anesthetic around the ganglion nerves in an attempt to block pain signals from reaching the brain. (yourpainreliefcenters.com)
- Ultrasound guidance, compared with anatomical landmark and paresthesia techniques, can provide direct visualization of the target nerve, surrounding tissue, and injectate spread, and may lead to improvement in patient safety for decreased nerve injury or other serious complications including local anesthetic systemic toxicity and pneumothorax [ 5 , 7 , 8 - 11 ]. (anesth-pain-med.org)
- Technical skills, such as needle manipulation during ISB using a nerve stimulator, as well as anatomical landmarks and the types of local anesthetic drug used for ISB, are important neurological risk factors [ 1 ]. (anesth-pain-med.org)
- Administration of local anesthetics into the intrathecal space blocks sensory, motor and sympathetic nerve conduction. (bvsalud.org)
- They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions. (centralx.com)
- Cardiac sympathetic denervation generally refers to interrupting the sympathetic input to the heart by removing or blocking the extrinsic sympathetic nerves (outside the pericardium), typically in or around the stellate ganglion. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- Cardiac sympathetic denervation can also more broadly refer to procedures which attempt to block the effect of the sympathetic nerves by a percutaneous injection of a local anaesthetic and thus temporarily denervate the heart. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- 5 With the obvious autonomic involvement, it is intuitive that cardiac sympathetic denervation would be a beneficial treatment in these patients. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- 6 Furthermore, many case reports and small series suggest that some patients with recurrent VT and VT storm may be successfully treated by cardiac sympathetic denervation in the form of surgery and stellate ganglion block with anaesthetic injection. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- Anecdotally, stellate ganglion block with an injected anaesthetic as the method of cardiac sympathetic denervation is expeditious and potentially effective in this group. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- To assess cardiac autonomic modulation during perioperative hypotension caused by subarachnoid anesthesia. (bvsalud.org)
- The stellate ganglion level is chosen because it seems to create an adequate sympathetic block to the heart and denervation above this level can cause side effects, such as Horner's syndrome. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- Yet, whether stellate ganglion block is the same as surgical denervation is not clear. (cardiacrhythmnews.com)
- SHINGLES RELIEF: Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) Blocks Offers Fast Relief for Herpes Zoster as does Stellate Ganglion Blocks. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- Autonomic Blocks: Sphenopalatyine Ganglion Blocks and Stellate Ganglion Blocks can give amazing relief from the pain of a Herpes Zoster Episode. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- If the sympathetic nerves in the neck are injected (stellate ganglion), you will also notice a slight drooping of the eyelid and redness of the eye for several hours. (spine-medicine.com)
- The muscle weakness of botulism characteristically starts in the muscles supplied by the cranial nerves-a group of twelve nerves that control eye movements, the facial muscles and the muscles controlling chewing and swallowing. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients with this form present with cranial nerve (CN) palsies. (medscape.com)
- Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. (centralx.com)
- In women, stress relaxation in the urethra relies significantly on the pudendal nerve-innervated striated muscles. (nih.gov)
- Although the mechanism is not entirely known as yet, neurologists believe that Botox® blocks pain signals and also relaxes the muscles in the head. (dubaichronicle.com)
- Women's migraines may be due, in part, to hormonal fluctuations of the menstrual cycle, to endocrine disruptors in personal care products, 2 and to vitamin and mineral deficiencies that impact their nerves and muscles. (nwhn.org)
- used as an anticholinergic for relaxation of smooth muscles in various organs, to increase heart rate by blocking the vagus nerve, and as a local application to the eye to dilate the pupil and to paralyze ciliary muscle for accommodation. (wildliferesearch.com)
- Traditional Alaska Native foods, especially fermented nerve palsies, followed by descending flaccid muscle foods like fish and fish eggs, seal, beaver, and whale, also paralysis, which can involve the muscles of respiration. (cdc.gov)
Release of acetylcholine2
- The growth of the spores releases botulinum toxin, which is then absorbed into the bloodstream and taken throughout the body, causing paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
- Turns out that Botox® blocks the release of acetylcholine, the chemical messenger that signals the sweat glands to activate. (dubaichronicle.com)
- Given the complex nature of this system, a stepwise approach to autonomic disorders is required for proper understanding. (medscape.com)
- The pain is usually regional (not in a specific nerve territory or dermatome) and has a distal predominance of abnormal sensory, motor, sudomotor, vasomotor, and/or trophic findings with variable progression over time. (bmj.com)
- In addition to the acquired causes, inherited disorders like hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), Tangier disease, and Fabry disease also exist. (medscape.com)
- Sympathetic blockage affects 2 to 6 dermatomes above the sensory block. (bvsalud.org)
- Autonomic dysreflexia occurs 1 month to 1 year later in 20% to 70% of people who have had a spinal cord injury. (msdmanuals.com)
- Normally, other autonomic nerves send signals down the spinal cord to widen blood vessels, allowing the blood vessels to carry more blood and thus lower blood pressure. (msdmanuals.com)
- However, when the spinal cord is injured, nerve signals cannot always travel down the spinal cord to widen blood vessels, and blood pressure may remain high. (msdmanuals.com)
- Dopamine is also known as a neurotransmitter because it transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain to help control physical movement and emotional behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
- We can also use longer-term options like radiofrequency ablation, in which a small area of nerve tissue is heated with electrical current to keep it from sending pain signals. (stanfordchildrens.org)
- You may or may not obtain improvement in the first few hours after the injection depending upon if the sympathetic nerves are carrying your pain signals. (spine-medicine.com)
- They also check for possible triggers of autonomic dysreflexia, such as a distended bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
- What is a sympathetic block and why is it helpful? (spine-medicine.com)
- The administration of local anesthetics in the subarachnoid space produces motor, sensitive and sympathetic block, with latencies and variable and independent block levels. (bvsalud.org)
- In the literature we find data evaluating the installation of sympathetic block through HRV using linear methods however, there is a lack of studies using methods based on the domain of chaos. (bvsalud.org)
- If you experiences pain relief, it confirms that those are the specific nerves causing the pain and more injections will be scheduled. (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- To examine the influence of autonomic receptor stimulation and blockade (noradrenaline, prazosin, terbutaline, propranolol, carbachol and atropine), and of pudendal nerve blockade on urethral stress relaxation. (nih.gov)
- Botulinum neurotoxins induce block- of botulism in the continental United States (1,7). (cdc.gov)
- The sympathetic nerves run on the front surface of the spinal column and not in the spinal canal with the nerves that provide sensation and strength to your legs. (spine-medicine.com)
- Clinical Autonomic Research. (tmu.edu.tw)
- CRPS type II presents with the same clinical features as CRPS type I except for typical clinical signs and history consistent with a nerve injury. (medicinenet.com)
- The researchers conducted a randomized clinical trial protocol to assess autonomic function at motor recovery in patients receiving spinal anesthesia with isobaric bupivacaine alone or clonidine-associated isobaric bupivacaine. (bvsalud.org)
- Note: The actual clinical manifestations of an exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate pesticide may be more variable than the syndrome described in this document. (cdc.gov)
- Sometimes this group of nerves cause pain and can lead to a condition known as Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- In several literatures, the use of ultrasound significantly enables low volumes of brachial plexus block to reduce the incidence and intensity of hemidiaphragmatic paresis (HDP), but has still no significant effect on the incidence of postoperative neurologic symptoms (PONS) [ 12 , 13 ]. (anesth-pain-med.org)
- For example, inhalation of a nerve agent or an OP pesticide leads to a quicker onset of poisoning with more severe symptoms when compared to with dermal exposure s, given the same amount of agent. (cdc.gov)
- The following is a more comprehensive list of signs and symptoms that may be encountered in a person exposed to a nerve agent or OP pesticide. (cdc.gov)
- Sympathetic blocks are performed in a monitored setting since changes in blood pressure and heart rate can occur with the injection. (marylandpainspecialists.com)
- 30 million people in the US) may acquire an autonomic disorder requiring medical attention. (medscape.com)
- Excess acetylcholine produces a predictable cholinergic syndrome consisting of copious respiratory and oral secretions, diarrhea and vomiting, sweating, altered mental status, autonomic instability, and generalized weakness that can progress to paralysis and respiratory arrest. (cdc.gov)
- Anticholinergic drugs block the impulses that pass through certain nerves. (espionageinfo.com)
- or when a flexible tube used to drain urine (urinary catheter) is blocked. (msdmanuals.com)
- A sympathetic nerve block involves injecting numbing medicine around the sympathetic nerves in the low back or neck. (spine-medicine.com)
- It took some inspired research to apply the nerve signal blocking ability of Botox® to intervene in this process. (dubaichronicle.com)
- Many patients and surgeons tend to choose general anesthesia instead of a block or a block combination with general anesthesia, because they lack understanding of the possible complications and because of anxiety related to inserting a needle in the neck during ISB. (anesth-pain-med.org)
- The motor block is the first to install, followed by the sympathetic and the sensitive. (bvsalud.org)
- The pain-sensitive dura is supplied by the trigeminal nerve that controls constriction and vasodilation of the brain's blood vessels - the hallmark of true migraine. (nwhn.org)
- Sympathetic nerve blocks can be effective in relieving some chronic pain conditions, but not all. (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- If you experience pain relief from a sympathetic nerve block, it also gives you a "window of opportunity" to more fully participate in other therapies that can contribute to your pain relief, such as physical therapy. (hutchinsonsurgery.com)
- SASPGB: Self-Administered SPG Blocks offer exceptional patient controlled pain relief especially for Trigeminal Nerve Pain of Herpes Zoster including Eye Pain! (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- Sphenopalatine Ganglion Blocks can give almost immediate relief of sinus pain. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- If the initial block is successful, then additional blocks may be repeated if the pain continues to sequentially diminish. (spine-medicine.com)
- These nerves may play a role in certain painful neurological conditions, such as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (A.K.A. RSD). (marylandpainspecialists.com)
- Sympathetic nerve blocks are often repeated to provide sufficient pain relief. (marylandpainspecialists.com)
- The procedure is a Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block which is delivered with a cotton tipped trans-nasal swab. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- In addition to supporting an endeavor that provides a sustainable alternative to a worldwide beloved toy, Mokulock utilizes the soft feel of wood to help enhance creativity, stabilize the autonomic nerves by lowering the blood pressure, regulate an otherwise abnormal pulse, and generally calm the nerves. (yankodesign.com)
- Doctors suspect autonomic dysreflexia when people have a spinal cord injury in the upper back and very high blood pressure, especially if they also have a distended bladder or intestine. (msdmanuals.com)
- An article in the Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology "Sphenopalatine ganglion block - a new treatment for burning mouth syndrome? (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- Throughout the duration of the block, patients should receive constant monitoring. (bvsalud.org)
- In the medical literature, this nerve has been linked to migraine for over 40 years. (nwhn.org)
- A new article in August 2020 in Womens Midlife Health "Cortical and subcortical changes following sphenopalatine ganglion blocks in chronic migraine with medication overuse headache: a preliminary longitudinal study. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- looks at how Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) Blocks offer significant improvement in chronic migraine related to medication overuse headache. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
- Regarding rabies, antibodies aim to neutralize viral particles, block their entry into uninfected cells, and also to promote antibody-directed cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of infected cells by natural killer cells [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- It acts as a stimulant in small doses, but in larger amounts blocks the action of autonomic nerve and skeletal muscle cells. (bcoonlaw.com)
- Any of a group of amines that act upon nerve cells as neurotransrnitters or hormones. (wildliferesearch.com)
- The purpose of this document is to enable health care workers and public health officials to recognize an unknown or suspected exposure to a nerve agent or an organophosphate (OP) pesticide. (cdc.gov)
- The amount and route of exposure to the nerve agent or OP pesticide, the type of nerve agent or pesticide, and the premorbid condition of the person exposed person will contribute to the time of onset and the severity of illness. (cdc.gov)
- Plasma or RBC cholinesterase may be disproportionately inhibited depending on the particular nerve agent, amount of exposure and time interval since exposure. (cdc.gov)