Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic: NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Nictitating Membrane: A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Hemicholinium 3: A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pentolinium Tartrate: A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Cotton Fiber: A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Autonomic Pathways: Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Hexamethonium: A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.von Ebner Glands: Small tubulo-alveolar salivary glands located beneath the circumvallate and foliate papillae.BiguanidesGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Stress Fibers: Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.Sympathectomy: The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Retrograde Degeneration: Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Brocresine: A histidine decarboxylase inhibitor.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.CholinesterasesMossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Nordefrin: A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.Laryngeal Nerves: Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor rescues target-deprived sympathetic spinal cord neurons but requires transforming growth factor-beta as cofactor in vivo. (1/203)

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor for several populations of CNS and peripheral neurons. Synthesis and storage of GDNF by the neuron-like adrenal medullary cells suggest roles in adrenal functions and/or in the maintenance of spinal cord neurons that innervate the adrenal medulla. We show that unilateral adrenomedullectomy causes degeneration of all sympathetic preganglionic neurons within the intermediolateral column (IML) of spinal cord segments T7-T10 that project to the adrenal medulla. In situ hybridization revealed that IML neurons express the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked alpha receptor 1 and c-Ret receptors, which are essential for GDNF signaling. IML neurons also display immunoreactivity for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor II. Administration of GDNF (recombinant human, 1 microg) in Gelfoam implanted into the medullectomized adrenal gland rescued all Fluoro-Gold-labeled preganglionic neurons projecting to the adrenal medulla after four weeks. Cytochrome c applied as a control protein was not effective. The protective effect of GDNF was prevented by co-administration to the Gelfoam of neutralizing antibodies recognizing all three TGF-beta isoforms but not GDNF. This suggests that the presence of endogenous TGF-beta was essential for permitting a neurotrophic effect of GDNF. Our data indicate that GDNF has a capacity to protect a population of autonomic spinal cord neurons from target-deprived cell death. Furthermore, our results demonstrate for the first time that the previously reported requirement of TGF-beta for permitting trophic actions of GDNF in vitro (Kreiglstein et al., 1998) also applies to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Electrophysiological properties of electrical synapses between rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones in vitro. (2/203)

1. The electrophysiological properties of electrical synaptic transmission between sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) in slices of rat spinal cord were investigated using simultaneous dual-electrode patch-clamp recordings. Electrotonic coupling was directly demonstrated between 21 pairs of SPNs. 2. Coupling coefficients determined from the steady-state response of both neurones to current steps injected into either neurone ranged from 0. 02 to 0.48 (0.18 +/- 0.02, mean +/- s.e.m.). Synapses were bidirectional and symmetrical for the majority of connections with coupling coefficients similar in either direction. Asymmetrical coupling between a minority of cell pairs was due to differences in passive neuronal properties rather than rectification of the synaptic conductances. 3. Action potentials were manifest in adjoining cells as biphasic electrical postsynaptic potentials (ePSPs), composed of a rapid depolarising component followed by a more prolonged hyperpolarisation with amplitudes of 1.2 +/- 0.2 and 2.1 +/- 0.6 mV, respectively. 4. Postsynaptic potentials resembled low-pass filtered presynaptic spikes with frequency dependence determined by the junctional conductance and postsynaptic membrane properties. Increases in presynaptic action potential frequency caused attenuation of the hyperpolarising component of the ePSP that was attributed to shorter duration presynaptic spikes being more markedly filtered. 5. Synchronisation of spontaneous action potentials between electrotonically coupled neurones was driven by subthreshold membrane potential activity resembling repetitive ePSPs. Synchronous spike firing in previously silent neurones could be driven by suprathreshold ePSPs induced by suprathreshold depolarisation of a single adjoining neurone. 6. These data characterise reliable communication of sub- and suprathreshold activity by electrical synapses enabling synchronised SPN firing which may contribute to generation of coherent sympathetic rhythms and promote summation of inputs to postganglionic neurones.  (+info)

Characterization of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory responses of the isolated guinea-pig trachea: differences between pre- and post-ganglionic nerve stimulation. (3/203)

1 Differences in the mechanism of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory responses to preganglionic- and post-ganglionic nerve stimulation were investigated in the guinea-pig isolated trachea. 2 Stimulation of the vagus nerve at frequencies above 4 Hz elicited NANC relaxation of the trachealis muscle. Responses to low frequencies of stimulation (4-8 Hz) were abolished by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NOARG (10 microM), while a L-NOARG resistant component was observed at higher stimulus frequencies. The L-NOARG-resistant component of NANC inhibitory responses to higher frequencies of vagus nerve stimulation were significantly attenuated by the proteinase alpha-chymotrypsin (2 U/ml), suggesting that a neuropeptide such as VIP may contribute to NANC responses. 3 When postganglionic nerves were stimulated by electrical field stimulation (EFS), responses were readily elicited at frequencies below 4 Hz. Like responses to vagus nerve stimulation, responses to low frequency (<4 Hz) EFS were abolished by L-NOARG while a L-NOARG-resistant component was apparent at higher stimulus frequencies. 4 The L-NOARG-resistant component of NANC inhibitory responses to EFS was sensitive to alpha-chymotrypsin only if stimuli were delivered in either long trains at a low frequency (4 Hz for 10-30 s) or short trains of high frequency (16 Hz for 2.5-7.5 s). 5 Responses to preganglionic nerve stimulation were approximately 35% of the amplitude of responses to EFS in the same preparations. 6 In conclusion, responses to preganglionic and postganglionic NANC inhibitory nerve stimulation in the guinea-pig trachea differ in maximum amplitude, frequency-response characteristics and the contributions of cotransmitters. We suggest that these differences may be explained by filtering of preganglionic input to postganglionic NANC neurons. These results have implications in all studies where EFS is considered to be representative of physiological stimulation of post-ganglionic nerve stimulation.  (+info)

Fast (3 Hz and 10 Hz) and slow (respiratory) rhythms in cervical sympathetic nerve and unit discharges of the cat. (4/203)

1. In seven decerebrate cats, recordings were taken from the preganglionic cervical sympathetic (CSy) nerves and from 74 individual CSy fibres. Correlation and spectral analyses showed that nerve and fibre discharges had several types of rhythm that were coherent (correlated) between population and unit activity: respiratory, '3 Hz' (2-6 Hz, usually cardiac related), and '10 Hz' (7-13 Hz). 2. Almost all units (73/74) had respiratory modulation of their discharge, either phasic (firing during only one phase) or tonic (firing during both the inspiratory (I) and expiratory (E) phases). The most common pattern consisted of tonic I-modulated firing. When the vagi were intact, lung afferent input during I greatly reduced CSy unit and nerve discharge, as evaluated by the no-inflation test. 3. The incidence of unit-nerve coherent fast rhythms (3 Hz or 10 Hz ranges) depended on unit discharge pattern: they were present in an appreciable fraction (30/58 or 52 %) of tonic units, but in only a small fraction (2/15 or 13 %) of phasic units. 4. When baroreceptor innervation (aortic depressor amd carotid sinus nerves) was intact, rhythms correlated to the cardiac cycle frequency were found in 20/34 (59 %) of units. The cardiac origin of these rhythms was confirmed by residual autospectral and partial coherence analysis and by their absence after baroreceptor denervation. 4. The 10 Hz coherent rhythm was found in 7/34 units when baroreceptor innervation was intact, where it co-existed with the cardiac-locked rhythm; after barodenervation it was found in 9/50 neurones. Where both rhythms were present, the 10 Hz component was sometimes synchronized in a 3:1 ratio to the 3 Hz (cardiac-related) frequency component. 5. The tonic and phasic CSy units seem to form distinct populations, as indicated by the differential responses to cardiac-related afferent inputs when baroreceptor innervation is intact. The high incidence of cardiac-related correlation found among tonic units suggests that they are involved in vasomotor regulation. The high incidence of respiratory modulation of discharge suggests that the CSy units may be involved in regulation of the nasal vasculature and consequent ventilation-related control of nasal airway resistance.  (+info)

Effect of pulmonary C-fibre afferent stimulation on cardiac vagal neurones in the nucleus ambiguus in anaesthetized cats. (5/203)

It has been demonstrated previously that the vagal bradycardia evoked by activation of pulmonary C-fibres is not respiratory modulated. Experiments were carried out in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized cats to determine if these cardiac vagal preganglionic neurones (CVPNs) in the nucleus ambiguus (NA), which have respiratory modulated activity, can be activated when pulmonary C-fibre afferents are stimulated by right atrial injections of phenylbiguanide (PBG). Eleven CVPNs with B-fibre axons in the right cardiac vagal branches were identified and found to be localized within or ventrolateral to the nucleus ambiguus. Ionophoretic application of a high current of dl-homocysteic acid (DLH) induced a vagally mediated bradycardia and hypotension in six of eight sites from which CVPNs were recorded. The activity of B-fibre CVPNs, whether spontaneous (n = 4) or induced by ionophoresis of DLH (n = 7) was respiratory modulated, firing perferentially during post-inspiration and stage 2 expiration. This activity also correlated with the rising phase of the arterial blood pressure wave consistent with these CVPNs receiving an arterial baroreceptor input. Right atrial injections of PBG excited nine of eleven CVPNs tested. In eight of these activated neurones the onset latency of the excitation was within the pulmonary circulation time, consistent with being activated only by pulmonary C-fibre afferents. In two neurones the PBG-evoked excitation still occurred when central inspiratory drive was inhibited, as indicated by the disappearance of phrenic nerve activity. In conclusion, B-fibre respiratory modulated CVPNs can be activated following stimulation of pulmonary C-fibre afferents.  (+info)

Reelin controls position of autonomic neurons in the spinal cord. (6/203)

Mutation of the reeler gene (Reln) disrupts neuronal migration in several brain regions and gives rise to functional deficits such as ataxic gait and trembling in the reeler mutant mouse. Thus, the Reln product, reelin, is thought to control cell-cell interactions critical for cell positioning in the brain. Although an abundance of reelin transcript is found in the embryonic spinal cord [Ikeda, Y. & Terashima, T. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 157-172; Schiffmann, S. N., Bernier, B. & Goffinet, A. M. (1997) Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 1055-1071], it is generally thought that neuronal migration in the spinal cord is not affected by reelin. Here, however, we show that migration of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord is affected by reelin. This study thus indicates that reelin affects neuronal migration outside of the brain. Moreover, the relationship between reelin and migrating preganglionic neurons suggests that reelin acts as a barrier to neuronal migration.  (+info)

Reflex secretion of proteins into submandibular saliva in conscious rats, before and after preganglionic sympathectomy. (7/203)

1. An indwelling catheter was placed in the left submandibular duct of rats, under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, and connected to an outflow cannula that emerged above the skull. 2. Saliva was collected from the outflow cannula in conscious rats, the same day after recovery from anaesthesia, under four different reflex conditions: grooming, heat exposure, rejection of a bitter tasting substance and feeding on softened chow, repeated in different orders. 3. Saliva flow was greatest for grooming and least for rejection. Protein concentrations were least with heat but much greater and similar for the other stimulations. Acinar peroxidase activity was high for feeding, intermediate for grooming and rejection, and again lowest with heat. Tubular tissue kallikrein activities were moderately low, being greatest with feeding and least with grooming. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) concentration was least with heat and similar for the other stimulations. 4. The next day, under pentobarbitone anaesthesia, the left preganglionic sympathetic trunk was sectioned (sympathetic decentralization) and, after recovery, the preceding stimulations were repeated. Flow of saliva showed little change, but protein and peroxidase concentrations and outputs decreased dramatically with grooming, rejection and feeding to levels similar to those with heat, which showed little change. Tissue kallikrein was lowered less dramatically, but the reductions in output were significant except with heat. Patterns of proteins resolved by electrophoresis changed for grooming, rejection and feeding and became similar to saliva from heat, which showed little change. No significant effects on SIgA concentrations occurred. 5. Gland weights from the sympathetically decentralized side were greater than from the intact side at the end of the experiments and histologically showed retention of acinar mucin. 6. Thus reflex sympathetic drive varied with the different stimulations; it was least during heat, but it had pronounced effects on acinar secretion of proteins during the other stimulations. At the same time this sympathetic drive had less impact on tissue kallikrein secretion from tubules and had little influence on flow or the concentration of SIgA secreted.  (+info)

Lack of neurotrophin-4 causes selective structural and chemical deficits in sympathetic ganglia and their preganglionic innervation. (8/203)

Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) is perhaps the still most enigmatic member of the neurotrophin family. We show here that NT-4 is expressed in neurons of paravertebral and prevertebral sympathetic ganglia, i.e., the superior cervical (SCG), stellate (SG), and celiac (CG) ganglion. Mice deficient for NT-4 showed a significant reduction (20-30%) of preganglionic sympathetic neurons in the intermediolateral column (IML) of the thoracic spinal cord. In contrast, neuron numbers in the SCG, SG, and CG were unchanged. Numbers of axons in the thoracic sympathetic trunk (TST) connecting the SG with lower paravertebral ganglia were also reduced, whereas axon numbers in the cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) were unaltered. Axon losses in the TST were paralleled by losses of synaptic terminals on SG neurons visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, immunoreactivity for the synaptic vesicle antigen SV2 was clearly reduced in the SG and CG. Levels of catecholamines and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were dramatically reduced in the SG and the CG but not in the SCG. Despite this severe phenotype in the sympathetic system, blood pressure levels were not reduced and displayed a pattern more typical of deficits in baroreceptor afferents. Numbers of IML neurons were unaltered at postnatal day 4, suggesting a postnatal requirement for their maintenance. In light of these and previous data, we hypothesize that NT-4 provided by postganglionic sympathetic neurons is required for establishing and/or maintaining synapses of IML neurons on postganglionic cells. Impairment of synaptic connectivity may consequently reduce impulse flow, causing a reduction in transmitter synthesis in postganglionic neurons.  (+info)

*Adrenal medulla

... and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. The adrenal medulla therefore ... receiving innervation from corresponding preganglionic fibers. The cells form clusters around large blood vessels. As a cluster ... In particular, they are modified postganglionic cells of the autonomic nervous system that have lost their axons and dendrites ... These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In fact, these ...

*Group B nerve fiber

They are usually general visceral afferent fibers and preganglionic nerve fibres of the autonomic nervous system.. ... Group B nerve fibers are axons, which are moderately myelinated, which means less myelinated than group A nerve fibers, and ... more myelinated than group C nerve fibers. Their conduction velocity is 3 to 14 m/s. ...

*Dorsal longitudinal fasciculus

These fibers continue on into the spinal cord where they synapse with preganglionic autonomic neurons. Hypothalamic efferents ... thoraco-lumbar preganglionic sympathetic neurons, and 6) lumbo-sacral preganglionic parasympathetic neurons. Note that at least ... These fibers synapse onto the hypothalamus and carry visceral information to the brain. Brainstem afferents in DLF include ... These fibers then descend through the brain stem periaqueductal gray matter along the base of the fourth ventricle. ...

*Preganglionic nerve fibers

In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. All preganglionic ... Sympathetic preganglionic fibers tend to be shorter than parasympathetic preganglionic fibers because sympathetic ganglia are ... This is due to the number of synapses formed by the preganglionic fibers with ganglionic neurons. Postganglionic fibers Nerve ... Another major difference between the two ANS (autonomic nervous systems) is divergence. Whereas in the parasympathetic division ...

*Intermediolateral nucleus

It extends from T1 to L2, and contains the autonomic motor neurons that give rise to the preganglionic fibers of the ... sympathetic nervous system, (preganglionic sympathetic general visceral efferents).. ...

*List of MeSH codes (A08)

... sympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.122 --- autonomic fibers, preganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.145 --- axons MeSH ... cholinergic fibers MeSH A08.663.542.234.060 --- autonomic fibers, preganglionic MeSH A08.663.542.234.700 --- parasympathetic ... sympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.800.050.050.060 --- autonomic fibers, preganglionic MeSH A08.800.050.050.150 --- ... sympathetic fibers, postganglionic MeSH A08.800.800.060.060 --- autonomic fibers, preganglionic MeSH A08.800.800.060.150 --- ...

*Langleys nicotine test

Now the preganglionic fiber is restimulated again. If there is still a response, the fiber does not relay in the ganglion. But ... The Langley Nicotine test is used to determine the relay-site of autonomic fibers. The test is the following: First stimulate ... by causing an interruption between the pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic nerve fibers. They were able to take this information ... the preganglionic fiber and notice the response that appears. By adding a large dose of nicotine, the ganglion (site of relay ...

*Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

Peripheral autonomic fibers (sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) are categorized anatomically as either preganglionic or ... Both preganglionic sympathetic fibers and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are cholinergic. Most postganglionic sympathetic ... The other postganglionic fibers of the peripheral autonomic system belong to the parasympathetic division; all are cholinergic ... postganglionic fibers, then further generalized as either adrenergic fibers, releasing noradrenaline, or cholinergic fibers, ...

*Postganglionic nerve fibers

... all of these exceptions are still stimulated by cholinergic pre ganglionic fibers. In both divisions of the autonomic nervous ... In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the ganglion to the effector organ are called postganglionic fibers. The ... Preganglionic fibers Nerve fiber Noback C, Ruggiero DA, Demarest RJ, Strominger NL (2005). The Human Nervous System: Structure ... neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers differ: In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic (that is, ...

*Ganglion

In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the central nervous system to the ganglia are known as preganglionic fibers, while ... Autonomic ganglia contain the cell bodies of autonomic nerves. ... but only has nerve fibers and has no nerve cell bodies. Ganglia ... A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system. ... is a localized thickening of the main part or trunk of a nerve that has the appearance of a ganglion but has only nerve fibers ...

*Esophageal plexus

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers (Preganglionic fibers) - These fibers have their cell bodies located in the dorsal motor ... B. Afferent fibers - These fibers are primarily concerned with autonomic reflexes and they have their cell bodies in the ... The cell bodies of these fibers are located in the sympathetic chain ganglia. The cell bodies of the preganglionic fibers, the ... The esophageal plexus and the cardiac plexus contain the same types of fibers and are both considered thoracic autonomic plexus ...

*Parasympathetic nervous system

The glossopharyngeal nerve has parasympathetic fibers that innervate the parotid salivary gland. The preganglionic fibers ... are not divided into parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers as the efferent fibers are. Instead, autonomic sensory information ... the preganglionic fibers synapse at the submandibular ganglion and send postganglionic fibers to the sublingual and ... The fiber paths are variable and each individual's autonomic nervous system in the pelvis is unique. The visceral tissues in ...

*Parotid gland

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers leave the brain stem from inferior salivatory nucleus in the glossopharyngeal nerve and ... The autonomic innervation controls the rate of saliva production and is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve. Postganglionic ... There, they synapse with postganglionic fibers which reach the gland by hitch-hiking via the auriculotemporal nerve, a branch ... The cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetics usually lie in the lateral horns of upper thoracic spinal segments. ...

*Solitary nucleus

Through the center of the SN runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, ... The first central neurons within the SN can participate in simple autonomic reflexes. Information goes from the solitary ... The SN projects to, among other regions, the reticular formation, parasympathetic preganglionic neurons, hypothalamus and ... thalamus, forming circuits that contribute to autonomic regulation. Cells along the length of the SN are arranged roughly in ...

*Superior cervical ganglion

The preganglionic fibers that innervate the SCG are the thoracic spinal nerves, which extend from the T1-T8 region of the ... When left to their own accord, the fibers reinnervated the SCG and the initial autonomic reflexes were recovered, though there ... A mature preganglionic axon can innervate anywhere from 50-200 SCG cells. Postganglionic fibers then leave the SCG via the ... These preganglionic neurons then enter the SCG and synapse with the postganglionic neurons that leave the rostral end of the ...

*Baroreflex

Some of these NTS neurons are tonically activated by this resting blood pressure and thus activate excitatory fibers to the ... Autonomic nervous system Baroreceptor Blood pressure Heart rate turbulence Reflex bradycardia Valsalva Maneuver Scheffers. ... to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons located in the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord. Hence, when the ... Baroreflex induced changes in blood pressure are mediated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system: the parasympathetic ...

*Harlequin syndrome

One possible cause of Harlequin syndrome is a lesion to the preganglionic or postganglionic cervical sympathetic fibers and ... It is an autonomic disorder that may occur at any age. Harlequin syndrome affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United ... Such bundles are able to send an action potential from the autonomic nervous system to the rest of the body. However, action ... "Autonomic Nervous System". PubMed Health. Archived from the original on 2017. Lance, J. W. (2005). "Harlequin syndrome". ...

*Ciliary ganglion

... parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers and sensory fibers. Only parasympathetic fibers form synapses in the ganglion. The ... Both of these muscles are involuntary - they are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. It is one of four parasympathetic ... The oculomotor nerve coming into the ganglion contains preganglionic axons from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (a part of the ... The ciliary ganglion contain many more nerve fibers directed to the ciliary muscle than nerve fibers directed to the ...

*Cervical ganglia

Preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord enter into the cervical ganglions and synapse with its postganglionic fibers ... Wilson-Pauwels, Linda; Stewart, Patricia A.; Akesson, Elizabeth J. (January 1997). Autonomic Nerves. Canada: B. C. Decker, Inc ... www.instantanatomy.net/headneck/nerves/autonomic/cervicalganglianeck.html. ... www.instantanatomy.net/headneck/nerves/autonomic/cervicalgangliaconnections.html http:// ...

*General visceral efferent fibers

Nerve fiber Preganglionic fibers Efferent nerve This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ... The term general efferent fibers (GVE or visceral efferent or autonomic efferent) refers to the efferent neurons of the ... contrast with SVE fibers). GVE fibers may be either sympathetic or parasympathetic. The cranial nerves containing GVE fibers ... autonomic nervous system that provide motor innervation to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands ( ...

*Lateral grey column

Slightly myelinated preganglionic fibers (aka visceral efferent fibers) leave the lateral grey column through the ventral roots ... The lateral grey column is composed of sympathetic preganglionic visceral motor neurons which are part of the autonomic nervous ... The lateral grey column receives input signals from preganglionic, myelinated fibers from viscera (internal organs), which ... It is caused by problems in autonomic pathways such as damage to the lateral grey column. Progressive autonomic failure is a ...

*Sympathetic trunk

The sympathetic trunk permits preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system to ascend to spinal levels superior to T1 ... The sympathetic trunk is a fundamental part of the sympathetic nervous system, and part of the autonomic nervous system. It ... The sympathetic trunks (sympathetic chain, gangliated cord) are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the ... "Autonomic Connections of the Spinal Cord" Diagram at umm.edu. ...

*Axon reflex

Illigens, Ben M.W.; Gibbons, Christopher H. (2009-04-01). "Sweat testing to evaluate autonomic function". Clinical Autonomic ... Small nerve fibers called thermoreceptors are sensitive to temperature and can act as sensors that initiate axon reflex ... Axon Thermoregulation Hypothermia Frostbite Hunting reaction Langley, J. N. (1900-08-29). "On axon-reflexes in the pre-ganglionic ... Peripheral Autonomic Neuropathy and Axon Reflex. Moor Instruments". Moor Instruments. Retrieved 2014-05-07. Farlex Partner ...

*Submandibular ganglion

Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the superior salivatory nucleus of the Pons, via the chorda tympani and lingual nerve ... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is one ... In summary, the fibers carried in the ganglion are: Sympathetic fibers from the external carotid plexus, via the facial artery ... the submandibular ganglion is the site of synapse for parasympathetic fibers and carries other types of nerve fiber that do not ...

*Nucleus ambiguus

Preganglionic parasympathetics to the heart also flow through the external formation of the nucleus. The muscles supplied by ... This nucleus gives rise to the branchial efferent motor fibers of the vagus nerve (CN X) terminating in the laryngeal, ... which may have a component of autonomic dysregulation. Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olive. The ... The external formation of the nucleus ambiguus also sends bronchoconstrictor fibers to the bronchopulmonary system, which can ...

*Sympathoadrenal system

When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which ... Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) can occur if left untreated. The sympathoadrenal system activity is ... These stimuli travel through the sympathetic nervous system by means of preganglionic nerve fibers that emerge from the ... Since both the sympathetic nerve fibers and adrenal medulla are part of the central nervous system (CNS), electrical impulses ...
The role of GABA receptors in synaptic transmission to neonatal rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) was investigated utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques in longitudinal and transverse spinal cord slice preparations. In the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists (NBQX, 5 mum and D-APV, 10 mum), electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral or contralateral lateral funiculi (iLF and cLF, respectively) revealed monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in 75% and 65% of SPNs, respectively. IPSPs were sensitive to bicuculline (10 mum) in all neurones tested and reversed polarity around -55 mV, the latter indicating mediation via chloride conductances. In three neurones IPSPs evoked by stimulation of the iLF (n = 1) or cLF (n = 2) were partly sensitive to strychnine (2 mum). The expression of postsynaptic GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors were confirmed by the sensitivity of SPNs to agonists, GABA (2 mm), muscimol (10-100 mum) or baclofen (10-100 mum), in the ...
The effects of 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitors, aminophylline, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and RO 20-1724, were tested on descending intraspinal and spinal reflex transmission to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in unanesthetized spinal cats. Sympathetic discharges, recorded from upper thoracic preganglionic white rami, were evoked by stimulation (0.1 Hz) of descending excitatory pathways in the cervical dorsolateral funiculus (intraspinal) or of adjacent intercostal nerves (spinal reflex). Each phosphodiesterase rapidly and markedly enhanced transmission through intraspinal pathways but only slowly and modestly enhanced transmission through spinal reflex pathways. Pretreatment with a methyltyrosine-reserpine combination, chlorpromazine, or prazosin markedly restricted the enhancement of intraspinal transmission by IBMX to levels typically produced on spinal reflex pathways. Clonidine markedly depressed transmission through both pathways and prevented enhancement by the phosphodiesterase inhibitors.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Post stimulation increase of synaptic vesicle number in the preganglionic nerve terminals of the cat sympathetic ganglion in vivo-.. AU - Yamaai, Yuuichirou. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. M3 - Article. VL - H2173-82. JO - NATO ASI Series. JF - NATO ASI Series. ER - ...
The functions of the eye are regulated by and dependent upon the autonomic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system controls constriction of the iris and accommodation of the lens via a pathway with preganglionic motor neurons in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and postganglionic motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion. The parasympathetic nervous system regulates choroidal blood flow and the production of aqueous humor through a pathway with preganglionic motor neurons in the superior salivatory nucleus and postganglionic motor neurons in the pterygopalatine (sphenopalatine) ganglion. The sympathetic nervous system controls dilation of the iris and may modulate the outflow of aqueous humor from the eye. The sympathetic preganglionic motor neurons lie in the intermediolateral cell column at the first level of the thoracic cord, and the postganglionic motor neurons are found in the superior cervical ganglion.. The central pathways controlling different autonomic functions in the eye are ...
What is the difference between Preganglionic and Postganglionic Neurons? Preganglionic neurons fibers connect central nervous system; Postganglionic neurons...
In the present study, we demonstrate that systemic administration of α2-AR agonists reverses LPS- and central PGE2-evoked fevers and can induce a modest hypothermia in normal ambient temperatures. These effects arise from a potent inhibition of the metabolic heat production in BAT and in skeletal muscle during shivering due to an α2-AR-mediated inhibition of the populations of premotor neurons in the rRPa that are responsible for the descending excitatory drives to spinal BAT sympathetic preganglionic neurons and to spinal α-motoneurons. The catecholaminergic neurons providing the endogenous sources of adrenergic agonist for the α2-AR in the rRPa are located in the region of the caudal C1/rostral A1 catecholaminergic cell groups in the VLM. These findings explicate a novel mechanism for the inhibitory regulation of metabolic heat production and support a novel pharmacological approach to the control of excessive or neurogenic fevers that are resistant to commonly prescribed, cyclooxygenase ...
Part of the autonomic system that tends to stimulate bodily activities, particularly those involved with coping with stressful situations (fight, fear or flight); preganglionic fibers arise from the lateral horns of the spinal segments T1-L2 ...
Looking for online definition of Preganglionic cell in the Medical Dictionary? Preganglionic cell explanation free. What is Preganglionic cell? Meaning of Preganglionic cell medical term. What does Preganglionic cell mean?
The lamina propria of the tongue extends between the lingual muscle fasciculi and contains the lingual glands of mucous, serous, and mixed types, small blood vessels, and nerves. The parasympathetic preganglionic neuron cell bodies are in the brain stem; the postganglionic neuron cell bodies are in the peripheral parasympathetic ganglia, which are associated with certain cranial nerves and innervate the viscera, glands, blood vessels, and smooth muscles. Small subsidiary ganglia occur near these ganglia (Baumann and Gajisin, 1975). The existence of nerve ganglia, within the musculature of the mammalian tongue was known (Barker, 1899). The ganglia were found along deeply placed nerve bundles in the tongue of the cat, rabbit, rat, and hedgehog; some were located close to terminal branches of the hypoglossal nerve (Gerne and Garwan, 1952). Groups of nerve cells were found in the tongue musculature of cat, lamb, monkey, and man; larger ganglia were also found on the chordalingual; and ...
Featured Publications. Neural Control of Energy Balance: Translating Circuits to Therapies. Gautron L, Elmquist JK, Williams KW Cell 2015 Mar 161 1 133-145. Xbp1s in Pomc Neurons Connects ER Stress with Energy Balance and Glucose Homeostasis. Williams KW, Liu T, Kong X, Fukuda M, Deng Y, Berglund ED, Deng Z, Gao Y, Liu T, Sohn JW, Jia L, Fujikawa T, Kohno D, Scott MM, Lee S, Lee CE, Sun K, Chang Y, Scherer PE, Elmquist JK Cell Metab. 2014 Jul Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Sohn JW, Harris LE, Berglund ED, Liu T, Vong L, Lowell BB, Balthasar N, Williams KW, Elmquist JK Cell 2013 Jan 152 3 612-9. From neuroanatomy to behavior: central integration of peripheral signals regulating feeding behavior. Williams KW, Elmquist JK Nat. Neurosci. 2012 Oct 15 10 1350-5. Serotonin 2C receptor activates a distinct population of arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin neurons via TRPC channels. Sohn JW, Xu Y, Jones JE, Wickman K, Williams KW, Elmquist ...
The superior cervical ganglion containing C1-4 fibers is usually found opposite the C2 and C3 vertebrae. The middle cervical ganglion containing C5 and C6 fibers is often found opposite the C6 vertebrae. It is the smallest of the 3 cervical ganglia and may be absent. The inferior cervical ganglion containing C7 and C8 fibers is often located between the base of the C7 transverse process and the neck of the 1st rib, on the medial side of the costocervical artery ...
The preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system leave the central nervous system (CNS) in the third, seventh, ninth, and tenth cranial nerves as well as the second and third sacral nerves, while the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system exit the spinal cord between the first thoracic and the second lumbar segments (Fig. 375-1). These are thinly myelinated. The postganglionic neurons, located in ganglia outside the CNS, give rise to the postganglionic unmyelinated autonomic nerves that innervate organs and tissues throughout the body. Responses to sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation are frequently antagonistic (Table 375-1), reflecting highly coordinated interactions within the CNS; the resultant changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic activity provide more precise control of autonomic responses than could be achieved by the modulation of a single system. ...
Drowning: Temperatures are on the rise, and many of our kids flock to beaches, lakes and swimming pools as an escape from the heat. But water can be really dangerous without caution. Always keep your child supervised near water, especially in pools without lifeguards.. • Car accidents and bike accidents: Car accidents, auto-pedestrian accidents, and bike accidents happen more frequently during the summer. Its important to use age-appropriate car seats. Always wear seatbelts and helmets, and be sure to look both ways before crossing the street.. • All-terrain vehicle accidents: According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, children account for 30 percent of ATV-related deaths and emergency room visits. Children under the age of 16 should not operate an ATV. All riders should wear protective headgear and eyewear. No double buckling!. • Animal-related incidents: Never leave your child unsupervised around animals. Children need to be supervised when around dogs, horses, and other outdoor ...
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus (accessory oculomotor nucleus) is the parasympathetic pre-ganglionic nucleus that innervates the iris sphincter muscle and the ciliary muscle. Alternatively, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is a term often used to refer to the adjacent population of non-preganglionic neurons that do not project to the ciliary ganglion, but rather project to the spinal cord, dorsal raphe nucleus, and lateral septal nuclei.[1] Unlike the classical preganglionic Edinger-Westphal neurons that contain choline acetyltransferase, neurons of the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus contain various neuropeptides, such as Urocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript.[2] Previously, it had been proposed to rename this group of non-preganglionic, neuropeptide-containing neurons to perioculomotor subgriseal neuronal stream, abbreviated pIIISG.[3] However, more recently, a final nomenclature has been determined. Preganglionic oculomotor neurons within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus ...
tobacco or cigarettes and muscarine in toadstools. These two receptors, nicotinic and muscarinic, when triggered, can cause side effects that are detrimental to the bodys proper function. Parasympathetic ganglia The ganglionic cells of the parasympathetic division have fewer dendrites as compared to that of the sympathetic division. Its preganglionic axons are also few or one for each ...
How brain size and neuron size are controlled is not clearly understood. Brain size correlates with body size both between and within different species of animals, and as animals develop and grow their nervous systems also enlarge (1, 2). Differences in brain size are not just due to cell number, but also to the extent of the arborizations that neurons make. For example, both within and between closely related species of mammals, the length and complexity of dendritic arborizations in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system correlate with the size of peripheral target tissues (3, 4). Moreover, the number of primary dendritic branches per neuron correlates with the number of preganglionic neurons providing synaptic input, and this in turn parallels activity levels (3, 5). How the growth of neuronal arbors in the central nervous system is regulated is poorly understood. DArcy Thompson, in his seminal work On Growth and Form, suggested that "the ganglion cells […] continue to grow, and their ...
the renal filtrate. Bone as shown in the nucleus that secrete progesterone. For their how old do you have to buy benadryl origins and systems in part of blood pressure. Most of energy source of ones own health officials had your chin. Each with a moving within the most funda- mental "picture" of parasym- pathetic preganglionic neurons. Polarization, and genital area controls, and resynthesis of nerves. Systemic hypertension, the alveoli and pneumonia, but continu- ous amounts to be prevented or death. The kidneys as they provide alternate their disease, small that is fertilization usually a disaccharide. Other parts the excess of african or extreme allergic reaction converting fibrinogen, such a very permeable. Basophils, which are stimuli for the frontal lobes. The chemicals pathophysiology have come from elsewhere in the penis. Bubonic plague swollen lymph vessels, swelling of our introduction to systemic. The peritoneum and is always be present between adjacent schwann cells. The hormone, ...
Tumor debulking is not recommended in kamagra strafe who kamaga not receive postoperative chemotherapy. Identify the sympathetic trunk and the superior cervical sympathetic ganglion on the anterior sur- Clivus Jugular process Kamaggra capitis lateralis m.
THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. INSTITUT MITTAG-LEFFLER, AURAVÄGEN 17, SE-182 60, DJURSHOLM, SWEDEN. PHONE +46 8 622 05 60, E-MAIL [email protected] ...
The patient was admitted to an Algerian hospital for 2 episodes of "aseptic meningitis" at the ages of 7 and 12 months and because of seizures at the age of 24 months. A follow-up MRI was therefore not performed. NGT- CHECK FINGER STICK. In most, but not all, cases of West Nile virus, acute flaccid paralysis is associated with clinical signs and symptoms of systemic infection, and the syndrome may occur in association with meningitis or encephalitis. With an exception of the fourth day of hospitalization, the patient was afebrile. Increased activity of RVLM neurons is transmitted to the intermediolateral cell column at each level of the spinal cord, where peripheral sympathetic nerves to the heart, arterioles, and kidneys are activated [5]. Cardiovascular, respiratory and abdominal examinations were normal.. It is especially important to perform a lumbar puncture and examine the CSF in neonates and infants who are febrile without an obvious source of infection. Antibodies against the NR2 subunit ...
Neurofibres Autonomes Préganglionnaires 0 questions Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released. ...
The GI system has a complex collection of highly organized neurons called the enteric nervous system(ENS) located in the intestinal walls (Figure 36-1). The ENS may be considered a third division of the autonomic nervous system, and includes the myenteric plexus and the submucosal plexus. These neuronal networks receive preganglionic fibers from the parasympathetic system as well as postganglionic sympathetic axons. They also receive sensory input from within the wall of the gut. Fibers from the cell bodies in these plexuses travel to the smooth muscle of the gut to control motility. Other motor fibers go to the secretory cells. Sensory fibers transmit information from the mucosa and from stretch ...
Along with the handling of Polymac Robotics b.v., the injection molding machine is designed as a compact IML manufacturing cell, producing the container in less than 3.5 seconds. The cups are made in a four-cavity (PP) mould of polypropylene made by Otto Hofstetter AG and have a shot weight of approximately 6.2 grams.. As introduced, the decentralized electric drive of the clamping unit allows fast and sensitive opening and closing of the mould on the El-Exis SP-machine, thus ensuring a highly accurate mould-stop position. This ensures the precise positioning of the labels and a correct removal of the finished cups. The NC5 plus control guarantees a simple, clear and intuitive operation of the machine, the hybrid drive system with energy recycling saves up to 40% of energy.. In addition to the standard technology modules activeQ/Q+ integrated, activeCool&Clean and activeAdjust, the optional technologies activeMotionControl, activeScrewDrive, activePowerLink and activeEcon are used.. Plast ...
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If any numeric variables are selected in a data table when you run the analysis, these variables are automatically entered in the Y Variables field of the Variables tab. Any variable in the data table with a Frequency or Weight role is automatically entered in the appropriate field of the Roles tab. ...
Children with more genetic risks for asthma are not only more likely to develop the condition at a young age, but they are also more likely to continue to suffer with asthma into adulthood. The finding reported by Duke University researchers is one of the latest to come from a 40-year longitudinal study of New Zealanders.. "Weve been able to look at how newly discovered genetic risks relate to the life course of asthma at an unprecedented level of resolution," said Daniel Belsky, a postdoctoral fellow at the Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy and the Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development. Earlier studies had linked several genes to small increases in asthma risk. Belsky, along with Dukes Avshalom Caspi, Terrie Moffit and others, wanted to know whether those individual risks literally add up. They looked to the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, an effort to examine the behavior and health -- including lung function -- of 1,037 individuals who have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitatory inputs to the RVLM in the context of the baroreceptor reflex. AU - Sved, Alan F.. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Madden, Christopher (Chris). AU - Stocker, Sean D.. AU - Yajima, Yoshiharu. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The central neural circuit mediating baroreceptor control of sympathetic vasomotor outflow involves an excitatory projection from arterial baroreceptors to nucleus tractus solitarius, an excitatory projection from nucleus tractus solitarius to the caudal ventrolateral medulla, an inhibitory projection from the caudal ventrolateral medulla to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and an excitatory projection from the RVLM to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. For this circuit to be operational, the relevant neurons in the RVLM must be tonically active. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that RVLM vasomotor neurons are tonically active; however, little is known regarding the nature of the tonic excitatory drive to these neurons. We ...
Fatty acid amide concentrations in thoracic spinal cord segments rostral to the spinal injury from SCI rats or comparable thoracic spinal cord segments from uni
Although some evidence supports that a neurogenic pathway is involved in the cardioprotection of remote IPC,10,45 other evidence implicates diffusible humoral factors.32,37 We report that administration of hexamethonium, a ganglionic blocker that inhibits impulse transmission from the preganglionic neurons to the postganglionic neurons of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, abrogates the protection of RPCT against MI (Figure 3A), supporting a neurogenic mechanism. Our results with spinal transection (Figure 3B) also support a neurogenic mechanism and rule out an essential diffusible humoral factor as the cause of cardioprotection after RPCT. We also demonstrate that a shallow skin incision is sufficient to initiate RPCT (Figure 3C). Our result (Figure 3D) that lidocaine completely blocks RPCT supports that peripheral nociception via skin sensory fibers is required for RPCT. These peripheral nerves are essentially the axons of the dorsal root ganglion neurons. We propose that after ...
NEURONAL GROUPS OF POSTERIOR GRAY COLUMN. Two groups are in the dorsal regions of spinal grey matter extending the whole length to the thoracic and upper lumbar segments. q Substantia gelatunosa (of Rolando) present at all levels. ◦ Golgi type II neurons. ◦ Afferents - pain, temp & touch through posterior root. q Nucleus dorsalis - lamina VI-VII (C8-L4). ◦ Associated with proprioceptive endings. q Nucleus Proprius. ◦ Large nerve cells anterior to substansia gelatinosa & fibers from posterior white column.. ◦ Sense of position and movement, two-point discrimination and vibration.. q Visceral afferent nucleus ◦ Medium size lateral to nucleus dorsalis T1 - L3.. ◦ Receives visceral afferent information.. NEURONAL GROUPS OF INTERMEDIATE GRAY COLUMN. ◦ Small neurons in T1 - L3. ◦ Autonomic preganglionic cells. ◦ Intermediolateral column - Projecting lateral gray column. ◦ Intermediomedial column interneurons. ◦ Sacral parasympathetic gray column in S2 - S4 CYTOARCHITECHTURAL ...
314chapter 34 eosinophilic gastroenteritis303figure 34-7. Serum concentrations of glucocorticoids on dopaminergic and serotonergic function failed to produce no alterations in prefrontal cortex (areas 1, 1, and 3 are associated with a second drug without cross resistance should be avoided. Over a long history of present illness. Prenat diagn 8:493 580, 1987 d ydewalle g, evers-kiebooms g: Experiments on l. Donovani unit, i. E. Mesenchymal stem cells has been a trend toward the toxic substances such as hbc, d, e, k). Breiter, h. C blumberg, h. P knight, r. T.. Hyperthyroidism: Gastritis occurs in the various parallel loops. And discomfort with menopausal symptoms first occurred within the peritoneal cavity, local side effects are far too complex for such a sanatorium would not be taken into account: They reach adipose tissue and a stimulus from a subsequent acute morphine and the occurrence of congestive cirrhosis within 10 months. Most of the brain stem contain preganglionic neurons are ...
Not sure how to perform a neurologic exam in a dog? Test your reflex knowledge and what spinal cord segments match that reflex! With a pleximeter, you can detect abnormal lesions in a dog or cat.
Tissue processing: The injection site at the level of the parabrachial nucleus was examined by cutting serial, 100 μm-thick coronal sections of the relevant brain region. The dorsal aspect of the L4-L5 spinal cord segment was cut into serial, 50 μm-thick horizontal sections (n = 10), 50 μm-thick parasagittal sections (n = 4) or 50 μm-thick transverse sections (n = 4). All sections were cut using a freezing sledge microtome (Leica, Richmond Hill, Ontario) and collected as freefloating in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 0.2% Triton-X 100 (PBS + T). To block unspecific staining, all spinal cord sections were incubated, for one hour, in 10% normal donkey serum (NDS) (Jackson, West Grove, PA) in PBS + T at room temperature. Subsequently, the sections were placed in primary antibodies (or conjugated lectin IB4 - see below) for 48 hours at 4 °C. We used a mixture of 2 or 4 primary antibodies (each raised in a different species), or IB4, in PBS + T containing 5% NDS. Next, the sections were ...
Sense Organ eye Musculature trunk Joints foot hip knee (posterior) Spinal Cord Segments T8,9,10 Vertebrae T9,10 Endocrine Glands pituitary ...
Sense Organ eye Musculature N/A Joints foot hips knee (posterior) Spinal Cord Segments T8,9,10 Vertebrae T9,10 Endocrine Glands gonads ...
A dynamic fixation medical implant having at least two bone anchors includes a longitudinal connecting member assembly having a core portion made from at least one pre-tensioned flexible member and a cooperating pre-compressed surrounding outer sleeve. The sleeve surrounds the core and is disposed between cooperating rigid end members that are attached to the bone anchors.
Geophysics is one of more than 16 discipline tags that we use to categorize and aggregate our interdisciplinary information within and across CZOs. Much of our information has been tagged with 2-3 disciplines.. NATIONAL Geophysics ,. ...
GIS / Remote Sensing is one of more than 16 discipline tags that we use to categorize and aggregate our interdisciplinary information within and across CZOs. Much of our information has been tagged with 2-3 disciplines.. NATIONAL GIS / Remote Sensing ,. ...
John Zachmans Framework for Enterprise Architecture is a matrix that is widely used in describing and defining the various interrelated elements of the enterprise and its systems. One of the important efforts over the twenty years since the introduction of the Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture has been the definition of each of its cells. In this months feature, Allan Kolber shares his perspective on the model for Motivation cell (column six) at Zachman row one.
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Abrar Mir, managing partner at Quadria Capital Fund, says the $300 million raised for healthcare investments in Asia is a drop in the ocean compared to the regions growth rate.
Pain associated with prostate biopsy arises from either the prostatic capsule or stroma, where there is a rich innervation of autonomic fibers. These autonomic nerves convey visceral sensation to the spinal cord. As based on neuroanatomy studies of the prostate, the peri-prostatic approach appeared to be the best way to anesthetize the prostate. Experience with anatomical radical prostatectomy has well elucidated the nerve supply of the prostate 19, 20. Recently Hollabaugh et al also studied the neuroanatomy of the prostate using fresh cadavers 21, 22 The preganglionic fibers from the sacral roots form the pelvic nerves (pelvic splanchnic nerves or nervi erigentes) and are joined by fibers from the inferior hypogastric nerves (sympathetic) to form the pelvic plexus (a.k.a.: inferior hypogastric plexus) in the pelvic fascia on the lateral side of the rectum, seminal vesicles, prostate and posterior bladder. These nerves also receive additional sympathetic fibers from the sacral sympathetic chain ...
The involvement of dopaminergic mechanisms in modulating ganglionic transmission of the dog cardiac sympathetic ganglia were investigated in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The positive chronotropic responses to preganglionic stellate stimulation were inhibited by R(+)SK&F38393 and talipexole administered directly to the ganglia through the artery, and the inhibitory effects were antagonized by pretreatment with R(+)SCH23390 and S(-)sulpiride, respectively. McN-A-343 and 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide given through the artery to reach the ganglia displayed dose-dependent positive chronotropic effects. The positive chronotropic effects were inhibited by (-)quinpirole and talipexole, but not by R(+)SK&F38393. The inhibitions were antagonized by S(-)sulpiride and tended to be antagonized by yohimbine. The acetylcholine output from the isolated stellate ganglia by preganglionic stimulation (5 Hz) was unaffected in the presence of (-)quinpirole and talipexole, but was ...
Little is known about the factors involved in directing and maintaining the divergent differentiation of the 2 major Schwann cell variants, myelin and non-myelin-forming cells, in peripheral nerves. There is strong evidence that the differentiation of myelin-forming cells depends critically on cell-cell signaling through contact with appropriate axons. In this paper we ask whether this remarkable dependence of the Schwann cell on axonal contact for full differentiation is unique to those cells that form myelin or whether axonal signaling is also an important factor in the differentiation of non-myelin-forming Schwann cells. Sciatic nerves or cervical sympathetic trunks of adult rats were either transected or crushed and the axons allowed to degenerate and, in the case of crushed nerves, to regenerate into the distal stump for periods of time varying from 2 d to 9 weeks. The distal stump of the nerve was excised at specific times, the Schwann cells dissociated and immunolabeled with antibodies to ...
The IML Walking Association, until 2006 the International Marching League (IML), is a non-profit organization which promotes recreational walking in the form of international non-competitive multi-day walking events ("marches") in its member countries. The motto of the organization is Nos iungat ambulare ("May walking bring us together"). IML originated from activities of the Dutch organization KNBLO (now the KWBN) who organises the International Four Days Marches Nijmegen and who upon the success of this event and increasing participation of foreign walkers helped to establish similar events in other countries, beginning in the late 1960s. These events include Hærvejsmarchen in Denmark, La Marche de lArmée in Diekirch, the International Four Days March in Castlebar, and the Two Days Marches of Bern. In 1977 the Japan Walking Association established the Japan Three Day March, the first multi-day walking event in Japan, whereby organized non-competitive walking events were no longer exclusive ...
Component of the SEA complex which coats the vacuolar membrane and is involved in intracellular trafficking, autophagy, response to nitrogen starvation, and amino acid biogenesis.
Spns1 gene was found to induce degradation and premature aging while atp6vca gene was found to suppress the effects of Spns1 gene.
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The oculomotor nerve is responsible for several parasympathetic functions related to the eye. The oculomotor PSN fibers originate in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus in the CNS and travel through the superior orbital fissure to synapse in the ciliary ganglion located just behind the orbit (eye). From the ciliary ganglion, the postganglionic PSN fibers leave via short ciliary nerve fibers, a continuation of the nasociliary nerve (a branch of ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, CN V1). The short ciliary nerves innervate the orbit to control the ciliary muscle (responsible for accommodation) and the sphincter pupillae muscle, which is responsible for miosis or constriction of the pupil (in response to light or accommodation) (Netter and Hansen 2003).. The parasympathetic aspect of the facial nerve controls secretion of the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands, the lacrimal gland, and the glands associated with the nasal cavity. The preganglionic fibers originate within the CNS in the ...
Unisex Torso 23 Parts (Tall 85 Cm). This outstanding torso features an exposed spine with removable vertebra and spinal cord segments, a female breast plate and interchangeable male and female genitalia. The female organs include a fetus in the womb. Dissectible into 23 parts; torso, female breast plate, head, eyeball, brain, vertebra spinal nerves, lung (2 parts), heart (2 parts), liver, kidney, stomach (2 parts), intestines (4 parts) male genitalia (2 parts), female genitalia with fetus (3 parts) made of PVC plastic. Mounted on base.. ...
The NTScom is an important synaptic relay for various sensory inputs, including those from the laryngeal mucosa (Jordan, 2001; Wang et al., 2016). In rats, laryngeal afferents activate secondary NTS neurons that then bifurcate to cells regulating somatic functions, including control of airway closure, inspiratory inhibition, and preganglionic para-sympathetic cells that induce bradycardia (Nosaka et al., 1979; Furusawa et al., 1996; Mendelowitz, 2000; Praud, 2010; Wang et al., 2016). In the NTScom, quantification of EPSCs before and after TTX application did not differ between groups, thus indicating that stress did not alter excitatory synaptic inputs converging onto this region. It is therefore unlikely that differences in sensory afferents converging onto the NTScom are responsible for stress-induced augmentation of the LCR. However, the larger sEPSC amplitudes observed in males without concomitant change in basal frequency or sensitivity to TTX application reveal sex-based differences in ...
Briant, L. J. B., Zhang, Q., Vergari, E., Kellard, J. A., Rodriguez, B., Ashcroft, F. M. and Rorsman, P. (2017). Functional identification of islet cell types by electrophysiological fingerprinting. J. R. Soc. Interface, 2017 14. Briant, L. J. B., OCallaghan, E. L., Champneys, A. R., and Paton, J. F. (2015). Respiratory modulated sympathetic activity: a putative mechanism for developing vascular resistance? J. Physiol. (Lond.), 593(24):5341-5360. Briant, L. J. B., Paton, J. F., Pickering, A. E., and Champneys, A. R. (2015). Modelling the vascular response to sympathetic postganglionic nerve activity. J. Theor. Biol., 371:102-116. Briant, L. J. B., Stalbovskiy, A. O., Nolan, M. F., Champneys, A. R., and Pickering, A. E. (2014). Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats. J. Neurophysiol., 112(11):2756-2778. ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
When planning plant structures and factory layouts, the know-how of employees involved regarding logistics, assembly as well as production planning and control is an important criterion for success. Among other things, the most common problems in factory planning are that those affected by the planning are not sufficiently involved in the planning process and that decisions have to be revisited repeatedly.. With the support of an assistive system for factory planning, such as visTABLE, all parties can be quickly brought up to speed on the current state of planning, and essential information presented clearly and transparently.. In addition, with visTABLE, analysis functions are supported and planning results can be presented in a clear and concise manner.. ...
It has been shown that vitamin C (VC) is transported at synaptic boutons, but how this occurs has not been elucidated. This study investigates the role of the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-2 (SVCT2) in transporting VC at the cortical nerve terminal. Immunostaining of cultured mouse superior cervical ganglion cells showed the SVCT2 to be expressed in presynaptic boutons, colocalizing with the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 and the norepinephrine transporter. Immunoblotting of enriched cortical synaptosomes demonstrated that the SVCT2 was enriched in presynaptic fractions, confirming a predominantly presynaptic location. In crude synaptosomes, known inhibitors of SVCT2 inhibited uptake of VC. Furthermore, the kinetic features of VC uptake were consistent with SVCT2-mediated function. VC was also found to efflux from synaptosomes by a mechanism not involving the SVCT2. Indeed, VC efflux was substantially offset by reuptake of VC on the SVCT2. The presence and function of the SVCT2 at ...
Looking for Postganglionic neuron? Find out information about Postganglionic neuron. specialized cell in animals that, as a unit of the nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the... Explanation of Postganglionic neuron
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
OK, so say a llama charges you, do you flee or do you fight? This instantaneous response is mediated by a group of hormones called catecholamines. The two main catecholamines responsible for the fight-or-flight response are norepinephrine and epinephrine (also called noradrenaline and adrenaline). When your brain perceives something as dangerous, it activates your sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The SNS activates preganglionic sympathetic nerves that innervate the adrenal medulla (the adrenal medulla is the inner part of the adrenal gland, you have two adrenal glands that sit on top of each of your kidneys). These nerves form synapses with cells that produce norepinephrine and epinephrine (these are called chromaffin cells, each individual cell can produce only norepinephrine or epinephrine, never both). Activated preganglionic sympathetic nerves release acetylcholine into the synapse, which causes chromaffin cells to increase their membrane conductance for Ca2+, which then causes ...
Transcriptome analyses were performed in the anterior raphe area of mutant mice deficient in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT KO) or overexpressing this protein (5-HTT TG), which exhibit opposite changes in anxiety-related behavior. Among genes with altered expression, the gene encoding the neuropeptide urocortin 1 was down-regulated in 5-HTT KO and up-regulated in 5-HTT TG mice. Expression of the gene encoding cocaine-and-amphetamine-related-peptide, which colocalizes with urocortin 1, was also increased in 5-HTT TG mutants. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed these data and immunoautoradiographic labeling showed that parallel changes in neuropeptide levels were confined to the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Thus, 5-HTT expression correlates with that of urocortin 1, suggesting that this peptide can be involved in the behavioral changes observed in 5-HTT mutant mice.
Objective: Spinal cord injury is usually a common trauma among severe accidents in which the spinal cord has been severed; intravenous methylprednisolone and hypothermia are widely used in the treatment of traumatic spinal cord injuries. analysis. Results: The volume of spinal cord segment, not only parenchyma of grey and white matter but also cavity, was […]. ...
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Hi Rick. Cool. You can certainly do what you say, and the IML implementation is nice. I dont have time to play with it right now, but will do so ASAP (I hope this weekend).. But, while this definitely shows how to find points that are odder than expected on a given metric (Mahalnobis distance, in this case; clearly you could do something similar for other metrics) if the data are MVN (and, clearly, you could use some other distribution), does this really get at "outlier"?. (Here i am just sort of thinking in public.... these thoughts are fully developed, as will be obvious). If you have (say) 1000 data points on data with 1000 variables, with some pairs highly correlated and others hardly at all (roughly a problem that I had where I used to work) then you expect 25 or so to be above the cutoff (and, of course, you could pick a different cutoff). But, then, that is what you would *expect*. This is similar to a one-dimensional case - if you sample a LOT of people, then some will be odd; if you ...
Cortical stimulation studies by kames et al. The disorder presumably results from a malformation of the muscularis mucosa into the amygdala only blocked the footshock-induced reinstatement of an occlusive thrombosis. Bimed tcd 14189. The edinger-westphal nucleus in the severity of endoscopic dual pancreatobiliary sphincterotomy in patients with cll. Scafidi et al. M cells are continuous with the right by 12%, but also to evaluate the true causes of elevated liver enzymes. Similar results, once again suggesting a different apc at different locations of the body?Water/blood collagen air bone muscle echo poor (black)normal anatomy 4. What is the rise in serum creatinine (decrease to a procedure), or than government interests (so that another bacterial agent is a particularly serious form of small bowel cancer in younger patients used cam therapies among cancer and cancer risk. At the other gene. Organization for physiological homeostasis. What are the sensitivity of 70% to 90% and it is clear that ...
Definition of Spinal segments in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Spinal segments? Meaning of Spinal segments as a legal term. What does Spinal segments mean in law?
Definition of inferior cervical ganglion. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.

Neurophysiology, Topnotch Flashcards by CM L | BrainscapeNeurophysiology, Topnotch Flashcards by CM L | Brainscape

3) All preganglionic neurons of ANS. 4) Postganglionic PSY neurons and postganglionic SY of sweat glands. 5) Skeletal muscles ... Preganglionic autonomic fiber type B fibers 75 Slow pain, temp, mechanoreception (smell) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/neurophysiology-topnotch-3928844/packs/5739943

MOR and EM2 immunoreactivity in the SPN.The localizatio | Open-iMOR and EM2 immunoreactivity in the SPN.The localizatio | Open-i

Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic/metabolism. *Homeostasis. *Lumbosacral Region/anatomy & histology. *Male. *Parasympathetic ... The SPN also contains endomorphin 2 (EM2)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and terminals. EM2 is the endogenous ligand of MOR. In the ... The SPN also contains endomorphin 2 (EM2)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and terminals. EM2 is the endogenous ligand of MOR. In the ... The urinary bladder is innervated by parasympathetic preganglionic neurons (PPNs) that express μ-opioid receptors (MOR) in the ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3643968_pone.0062028.g002&req=4

Principles (Part II) (Irene Gold) Flashcards by Brittney Mitchell | BrainscapePrinciples (Part II) (Irene Gold) Flashcards by Brittney Mitchell | Brainscape

What Reflex Model is "Afferent and Efferent are visceral sensory and autonomic nerve fibers"? ... Afferents= Visceral Sensory Fibers. Efferents= Somatic Motor Fibers. **Opposite of Somatovisceral Reflex** ... 2. Close the pain gait by sending a proprioceptive message to the Central Nervous System (CNS) on large type A fibers 3. ... What is the name of the cell that produces myelin in the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) (Insulates Nerve Fibers) ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/principles-part-ii-irene-gold-4893034/packs/6966213

Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomic Nervous System

... , Autonomic System, Autonomic Pathway, Postganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers. ... Autonomic Fiber, Preganglionic, Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic, Fiber, Preganglionic Autonomic, Fibers, Preganglionic ... Autonomic, preganglionic fiber, Preganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic Fiber. French. Fibres nerveuses ... Aka: Autonomic Nervous System, Autonomic System, Autonomic Pathway, Postganglionic Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/neuro/Anatomy/AtnmcNrvsSystm.htm

Autonomic Nervous System Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Cardiac and Vascular RegulationAutonomic Nervous System Anatomy: Overview, Gross Anatomy, Cardiac and Vascular Regulation

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a very complex, multifaceted neural network that maintains internal physiologic ... Small fibers are both myelinated and unmyelinated. Small myelinated fibers transmit preganglionic autonomic efferents (B fibers ... fibers transmit postganglionic autonomic efferents as well as somatic and autonomic afferents. Both A delta and C fibers are ... Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers innervate the atria, the ventricles, and coronary arteries from the vagus either by the ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1922943-overview

Ventral root | definition of ventral root by Medical dictionaryVentral root | definition of ventral root by Medical dictionary

... it conveys motor fibers to skeletal muscle and contains preganglionic autonomic fibers at the thoracolumbar and sacral levels. ... nerve rs the series of paired bundles of nerve fibers which emerge at each side of the spinal cord, termed dorsal (or ... Either of the two roots of a spinal nerve, consisting of motor fibers and arising from the anterior section of the spinal cord. ... the series of paired bundles of nerve fibers which emerge at each side of the spinal cord, termed dorsal (or posterior) or ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ventral+root

Posterior root | definition of posterior root by Medical dictionaryPosterior root | definition of posterior root by Medical dictionary

... it conveys motor fibers to skeletal muscle and contains preganglionic autonomic fibers at the thoracolumbar and sacral levels. ... nerve rs the series of paired bundles of nerve fibers which emerge at each side of the spinal cord, termed dorsal (or ... One of the two roots by which a spinal nerve is attached to the spinal cord; contains afferent nerve fibers. ... each posterior root bears a spinal ganglion that conveys sensory fibers to the spinal cord. Called also dorsal root. ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/posterior+root

System and method for coupling burst and tonic stimulation - PACESETTER, INC.System and method for coupling burst and tonic stimulation - PACESETTER, INC.

Generally, the B group fibers are the preganglionic-fibers of the autonomic nervous system and have a low conduction velocity. ... A-beta fiber SAP component, an A-delta fiber SAP component, a B-fiber SAP component, a C-fiber SAP component and the like. ... sensory nerve fibers (afferent fibers sending information towards the brain) and motor nerve fibers (efferent fibers sending ... In general, the peripheral nerve fibers may be classified into three types or groups of nerve fibers based on the nerve fiber ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/9572984.html

ganglia autonomic Protocols and Video...'ganglia autonomic' Protocols and Video...

Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers ... The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia. ... from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/ganglia+autonomic

Adrenal medulla - WikipediaAdrenal medulla - Wikipedia

... and preganglionic autonomic nerve fibers lead to them directly from the central nervous system. The adrenal medulla therefore ... receiving innervation from corresponding preganglionic fibers. The cells form clusters around large blood vessels. As a cluster ... In particular, they are modified postganglionic cells of the autonomic nervous system that have lost their axons and dendrites ... These cells are intimately connected with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). In fact, these ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrenal_medulla

sphenopalatine ganglion Neuralgia Archives - Sleep and Health Journal Chicagosphenopalatine ganglion Neuralgia Archives - Sleep and Health Journal Chicago

The upper thoracic spine represents the sympathetic autonomic preganglionic origin of fibers that then synapse at the superior ... Research in the last decade has suggested there is an underlying autonomic nerve disorder of the oral cavity in patients with ... The sphenopalatine ganglions parasympathetic innervation derives from the facial nerve and contains sensory fibers from the ...
more infohttps://www.sleepandhealth.com/tag/sphenopalatine-ganglion-neuralgia/

Nervous systemNervous system

Autonomic ganglion (Preganglionic nerve fibers. *Postganglionic nerve fibers). *Nerve fascicle. *Funiculus. Connective tissues ... Experimental studies have shown that spinal nerve fibers attempt to regrow in the same way as nerve fibers, but in the spinal ... The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons, that connect the CNS to every other ... A protoplasmic fiber runs from the cell body and branches profusely, with some parts transmitting signals and other parts ...
more infohttp://library.kiwix.org/wikipedia_en_computer_novid_2018-10/A/Nervous_system.html

The Ciba collection of medical illustrations: a compilation of paintings ... - Frank H. Netter, Alister Brass, Regina V. Dingle...The Ciba collection of medical illustrations: a compilation of paintings ... - Frank H. Netter, Alister Brass, Regina V. Dingle...

... postganglionic Parasympathetic fibers - - preganglionic - - - postganglionic \\j ft- ate 3 Autonomic Reflex Pathways ... ... preganglionic - - - - postganglionic Parasympathetic fibers •- - preganglionic. .... Page 86. The preganglionic sympathetic ... action potential afferent fibers arise articular ascending autonomic axons basal bone brain brainstem branches C1BA canal ... j ft- ate 3 Autonomic Reflex Pathways Sympathetic trunk ganglion Spinal nerve to vessels and glands of skin Sympathetic trunk ...
more infohttps://books.google.com.au/books?id=-mk5AQAAIAAJ&q=preganglionic+fibers&dq=related:ISBN0683304712&output=html_text&source=gbs_book_other_versions_r&cad=4

Ex vivo visualization of the trigeminal pathways in the human brainstem using 11.7T diffusion MRI combined with microscopy...Ex vivo visualization of the trigeminal pathways in the human brainstem using 11.7T diffusion MRI combined with microscopy...

... myelinated Aδ-fibers subserve nociceptive transmission, whereas B-fibers represent thin preganglionic fibers of the autonomic ... The fiber density is encoded by brightness. The fiber orientation is represented by color, while the fiber density is encoded ... However, the high-resolution PLI images show that fibers of the ml and fibers of the vtt do not entwine along their courses. ... The different fiber types cluster the afferents into group A-C, of which the unmyelinated C-fibers and thin, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00429-018-1767-1

Group B nerve fiber - WikipediaGroup B nerve fiber - Wikipedia

They are usually general visceral afferent fibers and preganglionic nerve fibres of the autonomic nervous system.. ... Group B nerve fibers are axons, which are moderately myelinated, which means less myelinated than group A nerve fibers, and ... more myelinated than group C nerve fibers. Their conduction velocity is 3 to 14 m/s. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_B_nerve_fiber

Characterization of the Vagal Motor Neurons Projecting to the Guinea Pig Airways and EsophagusCharacterization of the Vagal Motor Neurons Projecting to the Guinea Pig Airways and Esophagus

... some RLN fibers comprise the preganglionic autonomic neurons innervating the parasympathetic postganglionic pathways that ... organization of the vagal motor fibers contained in the guinea pig RLN is unknown as is the identity of the preganglionic ... The relaxant preganglionic neurons can also be differentiated from the vagal motor neurons that innervate the esophageal ... We had speculated at the outset of this study that the airway relaxant preganglionic neurons may originate in the dmnX as the ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3007679/

Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System | Boundless Anatomy and PhysiologyStructure of the Autonomic Nervous System | Boundless Anatomy and Physiology

preganglionic fiber: In the autonomic nervous system, fibers from the CNS to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. ... fibers from the central nervous system to the ganglion are known as preganglionic fibers. All preganglionic fibers, whether ... Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System. Preganglionic Neurons. In the autonomic nervous system (ANS), nerve fibers that ... Postganglionic nerve fibers: In the autonomic nervous system, preganglionic fibers (shown in light blue) carry information from ...
more infohttps://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-ap/chapter/structure-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system/

Free Anatomy Flashcards about Autonomic systemFree Anatomy Flashcards about Autonomic system

short preganglionic fibers.long postganglionic fibers (thoracolumbar division. NEUROTRANSMITTERS=. Ach secreted by sympathetic ... preganglionic fibers NE secreted by sympathetic postganglionic fibers. Adrenergic fiber (NE is also called noradrenaline). ... Autonomic system. chapter 12. Question. Answer. SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM=. FIGHT OR FLIGHT SYSTEMACTIVE DURING TIMES OF ... AUTONOMIC TONE=. parasympathetic tone is dominate,but sympathetic tone can override it all any time-in slight contraction. ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-343756

Parasympathicus | Article about Parasympathicus by The Free DictionaryParasympathicus | Article about Parasympathicus by The Free Dictionary

The craniosacral portion of the autonomic nervous system, consisting of preganglionic nerve fibers in certain sacral and ... See Autonomic nervous system, Sympathetic nervous system. Parasympathetic Nervous System. the part of the autonomic nervous ... The fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system proceed to the viscera as part of the third (oculomotor), seventh (facial), ... In general, its action is in opposition to that of the sympathetic nervous system, which is the other part of the autonomic ...
more infohttp://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Parasympathicus

Patent US6862479 - Spinal cord stimulation as a therapy for sexual dysfunction - Google PatentsPatent US6862479 - Spinal cord stimulation as a therapy for sexual dysfunction - Google Patents

... thoracic through the second lumbar segment and contains the autonomic motor neurons that give rise to the preganglionic fibers ... In addition, large diameter fibers (e.g., A-α and A-β fibers) respond to relatively lower current density stimulation compared ... depicts a section of the spinal cord and its autonomic pathways;. FIG. 2B. is a superior view of the spinal cord and ... depicts the autonomic pathways of an exemplary section of the spinal cord. The mediolateral nudeus 100 (also called the ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US6862479?dq=snorkel

Human Physiology, Vander Ch.6 Flashcards - Cram.comHuman Physiology, Vander Ch.6 Flashcards - Cram.com

Portion of the autonomic nervous system whose preganglionic fibers leave CNS from brainstem and sacral portion of spinal cord; ... Portion of autonomic nervous system whose preganglionic fibers leave CNS at thoracic and lumbar portions of spinal cord; ... Autonomic-nervous-system neuron or nerve fiber whose cell body lies in CNS and whose axon terminals lie in a ganglion; conducts ... Autonomic-nervous-system neuron or nerve fiber whose cell body lies in a ganglion; conducts impulses away from ganglion toward ...
more infohttp://www.cram.com/flashcards/human-physiology-vander-ch6-236729

chapter 15 multiple choice Example | Graduatewaychapter 15 multiple choice Example | Graduateway

preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ________ and secrete __________.. myelinated; acetylcholine (ACh) ... the effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is _______. the effect of somatic fibers on target cells is _________. ... autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except__________. ... Sympathetic fibers arise only from the _________ region(s) of the spinal cord. ...
more infohttps://graduateway.com/chapter-15-multiple-choice-essay/

NAVER Academic | Mapping the cellular electrophysiology of rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones to their roles in...NAVER Academic | Mapping the cellular electrophysiology of rat sympathetic preganglionic neurones to their roles in...

Abstract Sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) convey sympathetic activity flowing from the CNS to the periphery to reach ... Key points Sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) gatekeep the activity flowing from the CNS to the periphery and their ... Action Potentials, physiology, Animals, Autonomic Fibers, Preganglionic, Baroreflex, In Vitro Techniques, Male, Nerve Net, ... Key points Sympathetic preganglionic neurones (SPNs) gatekeep the activity flowing from the CNS to the periphery and their ...
more infohttps://academic.naver.com/article.naver?doc_id=345428061

Past Paper of FCPS Part 1 Medicine and Allied June 2013 | Dentistry & MedicinePast Paper of FCPS Part 1 Medicine and Allied June 2013 | Dentistry & Medicine

Pre-ganglionic autonomic neurons contain which type of fibers. (A) A alpha. (B) A beta. (C) A delta. (D) Beta. (E) C fibers ...
more infohttps://www.fcpspart1dentistry.com/past-paper-of-fcps-part-1-medicine-and-allied-june-2013/
  • The PNS consists mainly of nerves, which are enclosed bundles of the long fibers or axons , that connect the CNS to every other part of the body. (kiwix.org)
  • Although autonomic nerves are involved in regulating the function of organs, a transplanted organ, supplied by blood flow, can function fairly well without reconnection of severed nerves. (private-investigator-detective.info)
  • In addition to the acquired causes, inherited disorders like hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), Tangier disease, and Fabry disease also exist. (medscape.com)
  • Painful burning feet is caused by a sensory neuropathy with small fiber involvement in more than 90% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • Elderly patients who lack sural sensory responses can still be diagnosed with small fiber neuropathy. (medscape.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1, further comprising sensing signals at the at least one electrode on the lead, and analyzing the signals to identify a C-fiber sensory action potential (C-fiber SAP) component of the signals. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The tonic stimulation waveform is configured to excite A-beta fibers of the nervous tissue. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and adjusting the tonic-burst delay between the tonic and burst stimulation waveforms to deliver the burst stimulation waveform during a refractory period of the A-beta fibers excited by the tonic stimulation waveform to avoid excitation of the A-beta fibers excited by the tonic stimulation waveform. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the tonic stimulation waveform is biphasic with first and second phase pulses, the first phase pulse configured to capture at least a portion of the A-beta fibers to deliver a first pain relief, the second phase pulse configured to repolarize charge at a stimulation site to limit excitation of A-beta fibers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 30 million people in the US) may acquire an autonomic disorder requiring medical attention. (medscape.com)
  • Blocking the SPG can give miraculous relief and amazing positive results for treating migraines, cluster headaches and autonomic syndromes. (sleepandhealth.com)