Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Somnambulism: A parasomnia characterized by a partial arousal that occurs during stage IV of non-REM sleep. Affected individuals exhibit semipurposeful behaviors such as ambulation and are difficult to fully awaken. Children are primarily affected, with a peak age range of 4-6 years.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Mentally Disabled Persons: Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Reflex, Babinski: A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Psychoanalytic Interpretation: Utilization of Freudian theories to explain various psychologic aspects of art, literature, biographical material, etc.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.BooksHospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Sin3 Histone Deacetylase and Corepressor Complex: A multisubunit enzyme complex that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by deacetylating the HISTONE residues of NUCLEOSOMES.Sin Nombre virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Kv Channel-Interacting Proteins: A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.MuseumsExhibitionsBelizeExhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.

The automated will: nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. (1/49)

It is proposed that goals can be activated outside of awareness and then operate nonconsciously to guide self-regulation effectively (J. A. Bargh, 1990). Five experiments are reported in which the goal either to perform well or to cooperate was activated, without the awareness of participants, through a priming manipulation. In Experiment 1 priming of the goal to perform well caused participants to perform comparatively better on an intellectual task. In Experiment 2 priming of the goal to cooperate caused participants to replenish a commonly held resource more readily. Experiment 3 used a dissociation paradigm to rule out perceptual-construal alternative explanations. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that action guided by nonconsciously activated goals manifests two classic content-free features of the pursuit of consciously held goals. Nonconsciously activated goals effectively guide action, enabling adaptation to ongoing situational demands.  (+info)

Varying response effort in the treatment of pica maintained by automatic reinforcement. (2/49)

Pica is a life-threatening behavior displayed by many individuals with developmental disabilities. In the current study, automatic reinforcement maintained the pica of 3 participants. Following functional analyses of pica, response-effort manipulations were conducted in which the effort to obtain pica or alternative items was varied systematically. Several general relations emerged as a result of the study. First, levels of pica were reduced relative to baseline when alternative items were available independent of the effort required to obtain alternative items or pica. Second, increasing the effort for alternative items resulted in increases in pica relative to when effort for alternative items was low. Third, increasing response effort for pica produced reductions in pica relative to baseline when alternative items were unavailable. Fourth, the highest levels of pica occurred when the effort to engage in pica was low or medium and no alternative items were available. These findings are discussed in terms of the relative effects of quality of reinforcement and response effort on behavior.  (+info)

Disturbance of motivated behavior in rats by epileptic afterdischarges. (3/49)

Nearly all epileptic seizures in patients are characterized by deranged consciousness. We started to study changes in motivated behavior (drinking in thirsty rats) as a possible analogue of compromised consciousness during and after epileptic seizures. Epileptic afterdischarges (ADs) were elicited by stimulation of the dorsal hippocampus and/or thalamus. Rats with implanted electrodes (deprived of water for 24 hours) were trained to lick water from a narrow tube. After pretraining ADs were elicited eight times in each animal and access to water was allowed during different phases of the AD. Stimulation did not affect licking if no AD was induced. If stimulation was successful, licking was stopped in nearly 70 % of stimulations and modified (biting the tube) in 30 %. Hippocampal ADs (characterized by serrated waves in the EEG and by an arrest of behavior with subsequent automatisms) completely blocked licking, signs of recovery appeared during the interval between the AD and recurrent AD and it progressed during recurrent ADs. Thalamic ADs abolished licking in 82% of cases and immediately after ADs normal licking reappeared in 49 % of these observations. Our results suggest that changes in motivated behavior might serve as an analogue of compromised human consciousness.  (+info)

Automatisms with preserved responsiveness and ictal aphasia: contradictory lateralising signs during a dominant temporal lobe seizure. (4/49)

The 25-year-old right-handed woman suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was referred to our centre for presurgical evaluation. MRI showed a right-sided hippocampal sclerosis. During video-EEG-recorded seizures, abdominal aura was followed by oral automatisms, during which she was completely reactive to external stimuli, although she was unable to speak. Ictal EEG showed right temporal seizure pattern, without contralateral propagation. She had abnormal speech postictally. Speech-activated functional transcranial Doppler sonography revealed right-sided speech dominance. She has become seizure free after a right-sided amygdalo-hippocampectomy. In our patient, contradictory clinical ictal lateralising signs (automatisms with preserved responsiveness vs. ictal and postictal dysphasia) occurred during right-, speech-dominant-sided seizures. This is the first report when automatisms with preserved consciousness occurred during a seizure originating and involving the speech-dominant hemisphere.  (+info)

Lateralising value of ictal features in partial seizures: effect on postsurgical outcome. (5/49)

We reviewed the videotapes of 49 consecutive patients with a history of medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy for the presence and laterality of unilateral hand posturing (UHP), unilateral hand automatism (UHA), non-forced head turning (HT), and post-ictal dysphasia (PID). All of these patients underwent temporal resections with follow-up for more than 2 years after the surgery. We examined the correlation of consistency, frequency, and laterality of each of these signs on the postsurgical outcomes. The distribution of these signs was not significantly different between patients with Engel class 1 versus Engel class 2-4. The consistency and laterality of these signs do not correlate with postsurgical outcomes.  (+info)

Some observations on cardiac automatism in certain animals. (6/49)

Certain aspects of the acetylcholine hypothesis of cardiac automaticity have been tested in vitro with spontaneously beating cardiac tissue from rabbits, rats, dams, and hagfish. The beat of atria from rabbits and rats may be depressed or excited by acetylcholine, depending upon the state of the tissue. Proguanil and cocaine inhibition of the beat in the rat may be antagonized by acetylcholine so that reversal of the depression occurs. The action of acetylcholine on the hearts of clams was found to be strictly inhibitory. Proguanil and cocaine, in contrast to their action on mammalian atria, exert a stimulatory effect on the heart of the molluscs studied. In fact, cocaine stimulated these hearts when they were inhibited by acetylcholine. Studies on the non-innervated hagfish heart revealed that this tissue is completely insensitive to the action of acetylcholine. Extracts prepared from beating hearts of this species will accelerate hypodynamic hearts of the hagfish as well as of the mussel. An extract of the neurogenic lobster heart was without effect on the hagfish heart. Proguanil was likewise ineffective in concentrations which produced inhibition and excitation in rat and clam hearts respectively. It was concluded that acetylcholine does not play a role in the myogenic automatism of all species, and that another mechanism is responsible is suggested on the basis of results obtained in the hagfish hearts.  (+info)


Individuals can carry out complex activity while in a state of impaired consciousness, a condition termed "automatism". Consciousness must be considered from both an organic and a psychological aspect, because impairment of consciousness may occur in both ways. Automatism may be classified as normal (hypnosis), organic (temporal lobe epilepsy), psychogenic (dissociative fugue) or feigned. Often painstaking clinical investigation is necessary to clarify the diagnosis. There is legal precedent for assuming that all crimes must embody both consciousness and will. Jurists are loath to apply this principle without reservation, as this would necessitate acquittal and release of potentially dangerous individuals. However, with the sole exception of the defence of insanity, there is at present no legislation to prohibit release without further investigation of anyone acquitted of a crime on the grounds of "automatism".  (+info)

How self-initiated memorized movements become automatic: a functional MRI study. (8/49)

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dual tasks to investigate the physiology of how movements become automatic. Normal subjects were asked to practice some self-initiated, self-paced, memorized sequential finger movements with different complexity until they could perform the tasks automatically. Automaticity was evaluated by having subjects perform a secondary task simultaneously with the sequential movements. Our secondary task was a letter-counting task where subjects were asked to identify the number of times a target letter from the letter sequences was seen. Only the performances that achieved high accuracy in both single and dual tasks were considered automatic. The fMRI results before and after automaticity was achieved were compared. Our data showed that for both conditions, sequential movements activated similar brain regions. No additional activity was observed in the automatic condition. There was less activity in bilateral cerebellum, presupplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, left caudate nucleus, premotor cortex, parietal cortex, and prefrontal cortex during the automatic stage. These findings suggest that most of the motor network participates in executing automatic movements and that it becomes more efficient as movements become more automatic. Our results do not provide evidence for any area to become more activated for automatic movements.  (+info)

  • By way of contrast with other mental incapacity doctrines, but reflecting the persistence of a broad, moralized notion of incapacity in this part of the mental incapacity terrain, automatism is delimited via a tripartite construction which tracks the lines of non‐culpability, catching a miscellaneous collection of cases in which individuals share little more than an absence of blameworthiness. (
  • Like automatism i t is indeed without intent and also like automatism it does need to be studied after completion to interpret it, but unlike most automatism you will find a very complex realistic shape instead of simple abstract form that you weave into a story. (
  • The use of the term automatism for these situations causes some confusion, as in these cases it is really the lack of intent on the part of the defendant which denies the mens rea of the offence rather than the actus reus (although this distinction is problematic in many instances), better called unconsciousness. (
  • The type of automatism and the nature of it-whether it's complex or so simple that it may be missed-is highly variable. (
  • Very few people intend to crash their vehicles, so clearly something better than intent is required to define automatism. (
  • Automatism (toxicology), when an individual repeatedly takes a medication because the individual forgets previous doses, potentially leading to a drug overdose. (
  • In fact, today autonomy seems to be located anywhere except on the part of human agency, having become post-human-this is autonomy as automatism, usually presented to the populace as an objective Sachzwang , usually in the form of "saving the economy" or "saving the banks" or "saving the euro" because "there are no alternatives. (
  • There are a number of reasons why a person may go into a state of automatism, including dissociation or hypo/hyperglycemia. (
  • Automatism is a state where the muscles act without any control by the mind, or with a lack of consciousness. (
  • Le site est destiné à remettre des produits (automatismes, produits électroniques) sur le marché de la seconde main afin de pérenniser vos intallations existantes et donc de minimiser les couts. (