Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
Controlled operations of analytic or diagnostic processes, or systems by mechanical or electronic devices.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.
'Laboratory animals' are non-human creatures that are intentionally used in scientific research, testing, and education settings to investigate physiological processes, evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs or medical devices, and teach anatomy, surgical techniques, and other healthcare-related skills.
'Catalogs, Library' are systematic listings or databases of an organized collection of library resources, such as books, periodicals, multimedia materials, and digital assets, that provide comprehensive descriptions, locations, and access information to facilitate efficient retrieval and usage.
The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.
Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.
A computer in a medical context is an electronic device that processes, stores, and retrieves data, often used in medical settings for tasks such as maintaining patient records, managing diagnostic images, and supporting clinical decision-making through software applications and tools.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Materials and equipment in stock; includes drugs in pharmacies, blood in blood banks, etc.
Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Techniques used in microbiology.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A technique encompassing morphometry, densitometry, neural networks, and expert systems that has numerous clinical and research applications and is particularly useful in anatomic pathology for the study of malignant lesions. The most common current application of image cytometry is for DNA analysis, followed by quantitation of immunohistochemical staining.
'Medical Libraries' are repositories or digital platforms that accumulate, organize, and provide access to a wide range of biomedical information resources including but not limited to books, journals, electronic databases, multimedia materials, and other evidence-based health data for the purpose of supporting and advancing clinical practice, education, research, and administration in healthcare.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Organized services provided by MEDICAL LABORATORY PERSONNEL for the purpose of carrying out CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES used for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.

Development of an impregnated reagent and automation of solid-phase analytical derivatization for carbonyls: proof of principle. (1/293)

This study undertakes reduction of scale and automation of a solid-phase analytical derivatization of carbonyls with 2,4-dinitrophenylhyrazine on a styrene-divinylbenzene resin (XAD-2). Three processes are tested. In the batch process, an aqueous phase consisting of 50 microL of sample and 150 microL of reagent solution is contacted with 6 mg XAD-2 by shaking. An impregnated reagent consisting of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine hydrochloride (DNPH) deposited on XAD-2 enables two additional processes. In-vial derivatization with an impregnated reagent requires shaking 50 microL of sample with 6 mg of the impregnated reagent and reduced the reaction time from 10 to 5 min. The third process involves packing impregnated reagent a mini-column and flowing 50 microL of sample through under positive pressure supplied by a Harvard Pump. This reduces sample preparation time to 1 min. Studies are conducted with worst-case model analytes: butanone, 2-pentanone, and malonyldialdehyde. The carbonyl of the two ketones is hindered, and, thus, these two compounds react very slowly with DNPH in aqueous solution. Malonyldialdehyde is highly water soluble, and it does not react in aqueous phase but also would not sorb onto XAD-2 for reaction. Nevertheless, derivatization/extraction of all model compounds any of the three procedures result in reproducible and high yields.  (+info)

An automated method for rapid identification of putative gene family members in plants. (2/293)

BACKGROUND: Gene duplication events have played a significant role in genome evolution, particularly in plants. Exhaustive searches for all members of a known gene family as well as the identification of new gene families has become increasingly important. Subfunctionalization via changes in regulatory sequences following duplication (adaptive selection) appears to be a common mechanism of evolution in plants and can be accompanied by purifying selection on the coding region. Such negative selection can be detected by a bias toward synonymous over nonsynonymous substitutions. However, the process of identifying this bias requires many steps usually employing several different software programs. We have simplified the process and significantly shortened the time required by condensing many steps into a few scripts or programs to rapidly identify putative gene family members beginning with a single query sequence. RESULTS: In this report we 1) describe the software tools (SimESTs, PCAT, and SCAT) developed to automate the gene family identification, 2) demonstrate the validity of the method by correctly identifying 3 of 4 PAL gene family members from Arabidopsis using EST data alone, 3) identify 2 to 6 CAD gene family members from Glycine max (previously unidentified), and 4) identify 2 members of a putative Glycine max gene family previously unidentified in any plant species. CONCLUSION: Gene families in plants, particularly that subset where purifying selection has occurred in the coding region, can be identified quickly and easily by integrating our software tools and commonly available contig assembly and ORF identification programs.  (+info)

Early experiences in evolving an enterprise-wide information model for laboratory and clinical observations. (3/293)

As Electronic Healthcare Records become more prevalent, there is an increasing need to ensure unambiguous data capture, interpretation, and exchange within and across heterogeneous applications. To address this need, a common, uniform, and comprehensive approach for representing clinical information is essential. At Partners HealthCare System, we are investigating the development and implementation of enterprise-wide information models to specify the representation of clinical information to support semantic interoperability. This paper summarizes our early experiences in: (1) defining a process for information model development, (2) reviewing and comparing existing healthcare information models, (3) identifying requirements for representation of laboratory and clinical observations, and (4) exploring linkages to existing terminology and data standards. These initial findings provide insight to the various challenges ahead and guidance on next steps for adoption of information models at our organization.  (+info)

Performance of automated slidemakers and stainers in a working laboratory environment - routine operation and quality control. (4/293)


Comparison between automated and manual measurements of carotid intima-media thickness in clinical practice. (5/293)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as a marker of arterial wall disease. Manual measurements have been performed in most epidemiological studies, but, due to the introduction of new technologies, automated software has been increasingly used. This study aimed to compare manual versus automated cIMT measurements in common carotid (CC), bifurcation (BIF), and internal carotid (IC). METHODS: Automated and manual cIMT measurements were performed online in 43 middle-aged females. Carotid segment measurements were compared by Bland-Altman plot and the variation and repeatability coefficients between observers were also determined for comparison. RESULTS: The average timespan for manual measurements (57.30 s) were significantly higher than for automated measurements (2.52 s). There were no systematic errors between methods in any carotid segments. The variation coefficient was 5.54% to 6.34% for CC and BIF, 9.76% for IC, and absolute differences were 85% below 0.1 mm and 70% below 0.05 mm. Interobserver agreement showed no systematic error. The variation and the repeatability coefficients were better for the automated than manual measures. CONCLUSION: Although both methods are reliable for cIMT measurements, the automated technique allows faster evaluation with lesser variability for all carotid segments currently used in atherosclerosis research.  (+info)

Three-dimensional imaging core laboratory of the endovascular aneurysm repair trials: validation of methodology. (6/293)


Arraycount, an algorithm for automatic cell counting in microwell arrays. (7/293)


Manual versus automatic sampling variations of a preliminary alcohol screening device. (8/293)

Utilization of a manual sampling function as an alternative to the automatic sampling function in the Alco-Sensor IV Black Dot Model has been recognized by the manufacturer to potentially underestimate an individual's true breath alcohol content (BrAC). A controlled human subject study was conducted to analyze the possible breath-sampling differences between the standard automatic technique and three manual techniques. Subjects were dosed with vodka and orange juice and then tested during the descending limb of their BrAC curve. Differences between the automatic and the manual techniques were found to be statistically significant with the three manual techniques underestimating the BrAC. The average maximum difference between the automatic BrAC level, as compared to the lowest manual level in each data set, was 27.9% (median 27.7%) with underestimations from 20.8% to 40.0%. In no instance did any of the manual techniques produce higher BrACs than the automatic technique.  (+info)

Automation in the medical context refers to the use of technology and programming to allow machines or devices to operate with minimal human intervention. This can include various types of medical equipment, such as laboratory analyzers, imaging devices, and robotic surgical systems. Automation can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and safety in healthcare settings by reducing the potential for human error and allowing healthcare professionals to focus on higher-level tasks. It is important to note that while automation has many benefits, it is also essential to ensure that appropriate safeguards are in place to prevent accidents and maintain quality of care.

Automation in a laboratory refers to the use of technology and machinery to automatically perform tasks that were previously done manually by lab technicians or scientists. This can include tasks such as mixing and dispensing liquids, tracking and monitoring experiments, and analyzing samples. Automation can help increase efficiency, reduce human error, and allow lab personnel to focus on more complex tasks.

There are various types of automation systems used in laboratory settings, including:

1. Liquid handling systems: These machines automatically dispense precise volumes of liquids into containers or well plates, reducing the potential for human error and increasing throughput.
2. Robotic systems: Robots can be programmed to perform a variety of tasks, such as pipetting, centrifugation, and incubation, freeing up lab personnel for other duties.
3. Tracking and monitoring systems: These systems automatically track and monitor experiments, allowing scientists to remotely monitor their progress and receive alerts when an experiment is complete or if there are any issues.
4. Analysis systems: Automated analysis systems can quickly and accurately analyze samples, such as by measuring the concentration of a particular molecule or identifying specific genetic sequences.

Overall, automation in the laboratory can help improve accuracy, increase efficiency, and reduce costs, making it an essential tool for many scientific research and diagnostic applications.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

To the best of my knowledge, there isn't a specific medical definition for "Library Automation" as it is not a term used in medical contexts. However, I can provide a general definition.

Library automation refers to the use of technology to streamline, manage, and improve various functions within a library, such as cataloging, circulation, acquisitions, and online public access. This can include the use of integrated library systems (ILS), online databases, digital collections, self-checkout machines, and other automated tools to increase efficiency, accuracy, and accessibility of library resources. It is widely used in various types of libraries including medical or healthcare libraries to manage their collections and services effectively.

"Autoanalysis" is not a term that is widely used in the medical field. However, in psychology and psychotherapy, "autoanalysis" refers to the process of self-analysis or self-examination, where an individual analyzes their own thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and experiences to gain insight into their unconscious mind and understand their motivations, conflicts, and emotional patterns.

Self-analysis can involve various techniques such as introspection, journaling, meditation, dream analysis, and reflection on past experiences. While autoanalysis can be a useful tool for personal growth and self-awareness, it is generally considered less reliable and comprehensive than professional psychotherapy or psychoanalysis, which involves a trained therapist or analyst who can provide objective feedback, interpretation, and guidance.

Clinical laboratory techniques are methods and procedures used in medical laboratories to perform various tests and examinations on patient samples. These techniques help in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases by analyzing body fluids, tissues, and other specimens. Some common clinical laboratory techniques include:

1. Clinical chemistry: It involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid to measure the levels of chemicals, hormones, enzymes, and other substances in the body. These measurements can help diagnose various medical conditions, monitor treatment progress, and assess overall health.

2. Hematology: This technique focuses on the study of blood and its components, including red and white blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors. Hematological tests are used to diagnose anemia, infections, bleeding disorders, and other hematologic conditions.

3. Microbiology: It deals with the identification and culture of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Microbiological techniques are essential for detecting infectious diseases, determining appropriate antibiotic therapy, and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

4. Immunology: This technique involves studying the immune system and its response to various antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and allergens. Immunological tests are used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and allergies.

5. Histopathology: It is the microscopic examination of tissue samples to identify any abnormalities or diseases. Histopathological techniques are crucial for diagnosing cancer, inflammatory conditions, and other tissue-related disorders.

6. Molecular biology: This technique deals with the study of DNA, RNA, and proteins at the molecular level. Molecular biology tests can be used to detect genetic mutations, identify infectious agents, and monitor disease progression.

7. Cytogenetics: It involves analyzing chromosomes and genes in cells to diagnose genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Cytogenetic techniques include karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

8. Flow cytometry: This technique measures physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles as they flow through a laser beam. Flow cytometry is used to analyze cell populations, identify specific cell types, and detect abnormalities in cells.

9. Diagnostic radiology: It uses imaging technologies such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to diagnose various medical conditions.

10. Clinical chemistry: This technique involves analyzing body fluids, such as blood and urine, to measure the concentration of various chemicals and substances. Clinical chemistry tests are used to diagnose metabolic disorders, electrolyte imbalances, and other health conditions.

A hospital laboratory is a specialized facility within a healthcare institution that provides diagnostic and research services. It is responsible for performing various tests and examinations on patient samples, such as blood, tissues, and bodily fluids, to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. Hospital laboratories may offer a wide range of services, including clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, toxicology, and blood banking/transfusion medicine. These labs are typically staffed by trained medical professionals, such as laboratory technologists, technicians, and pathologists, who work together to ensure accurate and timely test results, which ultimately contribute to improved patient care.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Automatic Data Processing (ADP) is not a medical term, but a general business term that refers to the use of computers and software to automate and streamline administrative tasks and processes. In a medical context, ADP may be used in healthcare settings to manage electronic health records (EHRs), billing and coding, insurance claims processing, and other data-intensive tasks.

The goal of using ADP in healthcare is to improve efficiency, accuracy, and timeliness of administrative processes, while reducing costs and errors associated with manual data entry and management. By automating these tasks, healthcare providers can focus more on patient care and less on paperwork, ultimately improving the quality of care delivered to patients.

High-throughput screening (HTS) assays are a type of biochemical or cell-based assay that are designed to quickly and efficiently identify potential hits or active compounds from large libraries of chemicals or biological molecules. In HTS, automated equipment is used to perform the assay in a parallel or high-throughput format, allowing for the screening of thousands to millions of compounds in a relatively short period of time.

HTS assays typically involve the use of robotics, liquid handling systems, and detection technologies such as microplate readers, imagers, or flow cytometers. These assays are often used in drug discovery and development to identify lead compounds that modulate specific biological targets, such as enzymes, receptors, or ion channels.

HTS assays can be used to measure a variety of endpoints, including enzyme activity, binding affinity, cell viability, gene expression, and protein-protein interactions. The data generated from HTS assays are typically analyzed using statistical methods and bioinformatics tools to prioritize and optimize hit compounds for further development.

Overall, high-throughput screening assays are a powerful tool in modern drug discovery and development, enabling researchers to rapidly identify and characterize potential therapeutic agents with improved efficiency and accuracy.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

A library catalog is a comprehensive listing of all the resources and materials available in a library. It provides detailed information about each item, such as title, author, publication date, subject headings, and location in the library. The purpose of a library catalog is to help users locate specific items within the library's collection quickly and efficiently.

Traditionally, library catalogs were available in printed form, but with the advent of technology, most libraries now use online public access catalogs (OPACs) that allow users to search the catalog from anywhere with an internet connection. These digital catalogs often include additional features such as the ability to place holds on items, renew checked-out materials, and create personal lists of favorite titles or authors.

In addition to books, library catalogs may also include other types of materials such as audiovisual items (e.g., DVDs, CDs), periodicals (e.g., newspapers, magazines), electronic resources (e.g., e-books, databases), and special collections (e.g., rare books, manuscripts). By providing a detailed and accessible catalog of its holdings, a library can better serve the needs of its users and promote the discovery and use of its resources.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "work simplification" is not a medical term. It is a general term used in various fields such as industrial engineering, ergonomics, and management to refer to the process of redesigning or modifying work methods, processes, or environments to make them more efficient, less strenuous, and easier to perform.

Work simplification can involve various techniques, including task analysis, process mapping, eliminating unnecessary steps, standardizing work procedures, and using appropriate tools and equipment. While not a medical term, work simplification may have applications in occupational therapy, rehabilitation, and disability management to help individuals with injuries or disabilities perform their job tasks more easily and safely.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "minicomputers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "minicomputer" comes from the field of computer engineering and refers to a class of computers that are smaller and less expensive than mainframe computers, but more powerful and capable than microcomputers or personal computers. They were widely used in the 1960s and 1970s in various industries for tasks such as process control, data acquisition, and small-scale scientific calculations.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help!

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Clinical chemistry is a branch of medical laboratory science that deals with the chemical analysis of biological specimens such as blood, urine, and tissue samples to provide information about the health status of a patient. It involves the use of various analytical techniques and instruments to measure different chemicals, enzymes, hormones, and other substances in the body. The results of these tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and monitor diseases, evaluate therapy effectiveness, and make informed decisions about patient care. Clinical chemists work closely with physicians, nurses, and other healthcare providers to ensure accurate and timely test results, which are crucial for proper medical diagnosis and treatment.

Medical Laboratory Personnel are professionals who perform and interpret various laboratory tests to assist physicians in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating diseases and other medical conditions. They work in different areas of the clinical laboratory such as chemistry, hematology, immunology, microbiology, and transfusion medicine.

Their responsibilities may include collecting and processing specimens, operating and maintaining laboratory equipment, performing tests and procedures, analyzing results, conducting quality control, maintaining records, and reporting findings to healthcare providers. Medical Laboratory Personnel play a critical role in ensuring the accuracy and timeliness of diagnostic information, which is essential for providing effective medical care.

Medical Laboratory Personnel may hold various job titles, including Medical Laboratory Technologist (MLT), Medical Laboratory Scientist (MLS), Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS), Medical Technologist (MT), Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT), and Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT). The specific duties and educational requirements for these positions may vary depending on the laboratory setting, state regulations, and professional certification.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Library Technical Services" is not a medical term or concept. It is a term used in the library and information science field to refer to the department or unit within a library responsible for acquiring, cataloging, classifying, and processing library materials. This can include books, journals, electronic resources, and other materials that are part of a library's collection.

The goal of technical services is to make these materials accessible and discoverable for library users through the creation of accurate and consistent records in the library catalog. The specific tasks involved may vary depending on the type and format of the material being processed, but can include activities such as selecting and purchasing materials, creating or applying subject headings and call numbers, adding records to the online catalog, and maintaining the physical condition of the materials.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

A computer is a programmable electronic device that can store, retrieve, and process data. It is composed of several components including:

1. Hardware: The physical components of a computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), storage devices (hard drive or solid-state drive), and input/output devices (monitor, keyboard, and mouse).
2. Software: The programs and instructions that are used to perform specific tasks on a computer. This includes operating systems, applications, and utilities.
3. Input: Devices or methods used to enter data into a computer, such as a keyboard, mouse, scanner, or digital camera.
4. Processing: The function of the CPU in executing instructions and performing calculations on data.
5. Output: The results of processing, which can be displayed on a monitor, printed on paper, or saved to a storage device.

Computers come in various forms and sizes, including desktop computers, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. They are used in a wide range of applications, from personal use for communication, entertainment, and productivity, to professional use in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and education.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Hospital inventories refer to the listing or record-keeping of supplies and equipment that are maintained and used by a hospital. This can include both consumable items, such as medications, syringes, and gauze, as well as durable medical equipment like wheelchairs, beds, and monitors. The purpose of maintaining hospital inventories is to ensure that there is an adequate supply of necessary items for patient care, to assist with tracking the usage and cost of these items, and to aid in the planning and budgeting process for future needs. Regular inventory checks are typically conducted to maintain accuracy and to identify any discrepancies or issues that may need to be addressed.

Analog computers are a type of computer that use continuously variable physical quantities to represent and manipulate information. Unlike digital computers, which represent data using discrete binary digits (0s and 1s), analog computers use physical quantities such as voltage, current, or mechanical position to represent information. This allows them to perform certain types of calculations and simulations more accurately and efficiently than digital computers, particularly for systems that involve continuous change or complex relationships between variables.

Analog computers were widely used in scientific and engineering applications before the advent of digital computers, but they have since been largely replaced by digital technology due to its greater flexibility, reliability, and ease of use. However, analog computers are still used in some specialized applications such as control systems for industrial processes, flight simulators, and musical instruments.

In summary, analog computers are a type of computer that use continuously variable physical quantities to represent and manipulate information, and they are still used in some specialized applications today.

Microfluidic analytical techniques refer to the use of microfluidics, which is the manipulation of fluids in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers, for analytical measurements and applications. These techniques involve the integration of various functional components such as pumps, valves, mixers, and detectors onto a single chip or platform to perform chemical, biochemical, or biological analyses.

Microfluidic analytical techniques offer several advantages over traditional analytical methods, including reduced sample and reagent consumption, faster analysis times, increased sensitivity and throughput, and improved automation and portability. Examples of microfluidic analytical techniques include lab-on-a-chip devices, digital microfluidics, bead-based assays, and micro total analysis systems (μTAS). These techniques have found applications in various fields such as diagnostics, drug discovery, environmental monitoring, and food safety.

"Quality control" is a term that is used in many industries, including healthcare and medicine, to describe the systematic process of ensuring that products or services meet certain standards and regulations. In the context of healthcare, quality control often refers to the measures taken to ensure that the care provided to patients is safe, effective, and consistent. This can include processes such as:

1. Implementing standardized protocols and guidelines for care
2. Training and educating staff to follow these protocols
3. Regularly monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of care
4. Making improvements to processes and systems based on data and feedback
5. Ensuring that equipment and supplies are maintained and functioning properly
6. Implementing systems for reporting and addressing safety concerns or errors.

The goal of quality control in healthcare is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the needs and expectations of patients, while also protecting their safety and well-being.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze charged particles such as proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules based on their size and charge. In CE, the sample is introduced into a narrow capillary tube filled with a buffer solution, and an electric field is applied. The charged particles in the sample migrate through the capillary towards the electrode with the opposite charge, and the different particles become separated as they migrate based on their size and charge.

The separation process in CE is monitored by detecting the changes in the optical properties of the particles as they pass through a detector, typically located at the end of the capillary. The resulting data can be used to identify and quantify the individual components in the sample. Capillary electrophoresis has many applications in research and clinical settings, including the analysis of DNA fragments, protein identification and characterization, and the detection of genetic variations.

The branch of transportation concerned with flying aircraft, including the design, development, production, and operation of airplanes, helicopters, and other flying machines. In a medical context, aviation may refer to the study of the effects of flight on the human body, particularly in relation to pilot health and safety, or to the medical aspects of aviation, such as aeromedical evacuation and transportation of patients by air.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "workflow" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in many fields, including healthcare, to describe a series of steps or tasks that are necessary to complete a process or task. In the context of healthcare, workflows often refer to the processes and procedures involved in delivering care to patients.

A medical definition of "workflow" might be:

The sequence of tasks or activities involved in providing clinical care to patients, including assessment, diagnosis, treatment planning, intervention, monitoring, and follow-up. Workflows may involve multiple healthcare providers, such as physicians, nurses, therapists, and other staff members, and may be supported by technology, such as electronic health records (EHRs) or other clinical information systems. Effective workflow design is critical to ensuring safe, timely, and efficient care delivery.

In the context of healthcare, an Information System (IS) is a set of components that work together to collect, process, store, and distribute health information. This can include hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are used to create, process, and communicate information.

Healthcare IS support various functions within a healthcare organization, such as:

1. Clinical information systems: These systems support clinical workflows and decision-making by providing access to patient records, order entry, results reporting, and medication administration records.
2. Financial information systems: These systems manage financial transactions, including billing, claims processing, and revenue cycle management.
3. Administrative information systems: These systems support administrative functions, such as scheduling appointments, managing patient registration, and tracking patient flow.
4. Public health information systems: These systems collect, analyze, and disseminate public health data to support disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and population health management.

Healthcare IS must comply with various regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which governs the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI). Effective implementation and use of healthcare IS can improve patient care, reduce errors, and increase efficiency within healthcare organizations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Office Automation" is not a medical term. It is an administrative or business concept that refers to the use of technology and software to automate and streamline office tasks and processes, such as word processing, spreadsheets, email, and data management. This can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and productivity in an office or workplace setting.

A Clinical Laboratory Information System (CLIS) is a type of healthcare information system that is designed to automate and manage the workflow, data management, and reporting capabilities of a clinical laboratory. It serves as a centralized repository for all laboratory data and test results, allowing for efficient communication between healthcare providers, laboratorians, and patients.

The CLIS typically includes modules for specimen tracking, order entry, result reporting, data analysis, and quality control. It interfaces with other hospital information systems such as the electronic health record (EHR), radiology information system (RIS), and pharmacy information system (PIS) to provide a comprehensive view of the patient's medical history and test results.

The CLIS is used to manage a wide range of laboratory tests, including clinical chemistry, hematology, microbiology, immunology, molecular diagnostics, and toxicology. It helps laboratories to streamline their operations, reduce errors, improve turnaround times, and enhance the overall quality of patient care.

In summary, a Clinical Laboratory Information System is an essential tool for modern clinical laboratories that enables them to manage large volumes of data, improve efficiency, and provide accurate and timely test results to healthcare providers and patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Systems Integration" is not a medical term per se. It is a term more commonly used in the fields of engineering, computer science, and information technology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Systems Integration refers to the process of combining different sub-systems or components into a single, cohesive system to allow seamless communication and data exchange between them. This integration aims to improve efficiency, performance, and overall functionality by unifying various standalone systems into an interconnected network that behaves as a unified whole.

In the context of healthcare, systems integration can be applied to merge different electronic health record (EHR) systems, medical devices, or other healthcare technologies to create a comprehensive, interoperable healthcare information system. This facilitates better care coordination, data sharing, and decision-making among healthcare providers, ultimately enhancing patient outcomes and satisfaction.

A computer system is a collection of hardware and software components that work together to perform specific tasks. This includes the physical components such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, and input/output devices, as well as the operating system and application software that run on the hardware. Computer systems can range from small, embedded systems found in appliances and devices, to large, complex networks of interconnected computers used for enterprise-level operations.

In a medical context, computer systems are often used for tasks such as storing and retrieving electronic health records (EHRs), managing patient scheduling and billing, performing diagnostic imaging and analysis, and delivering telemedicine services. These systems must adhere to strict regulatory standards, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the United States, to ensure the privacy and security of sensitive medical information.

Computer communication networks (CCN) refer to the interconnected systems or groups of computers that are able to communicate and share resources and information with each other. These networks may be composed of multiple interconnected devices, including computers, servers, switches, routers, and other hardware components. The connections between these devices can be established through various types of media, such as wired Ethernet cables or wireless Wi-Fi signals.

CCNs enable the sharing of data, applications, and services among users and devices, and they are essential for supporting modern digital communication and collaboration. Some common examples of CCNs include local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and the Internet. These networks can be designed and implemented in various topologies, such as star, ring, bus, mesh, and tree configurations, to meet the specific needs and requirements of different organizations and applications.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

"Time and motion studies" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a term commonly used in the field of industrial engineering and ergonomics to describe a systematic analytical approach to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of a particular task or process. This method involves carefully observing and measuring the time and motion required to complete a task, with the goal of identifying unnecessary steps, reducing wasted motion, and optimizing the workflow. While not a medical term per se, time and motion studies can be applied in healthcare settings to improve patient care, staff efficiency, and overall operational performance.

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

In the context of medical libraries and healthcare information management, "cataloging" refers to the process of creating a detailed and structured description of a medical resource or item, such as a book, journal article, video, or digital object. This description includes various elements, such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, subject headings, and other relevant metadata. The purpose of cataloging is to provide accurate and consistent descriptions of resources to facilitate their discovery, organization, management, and retrieval by users.

The American Library Association's (ALA) Committee on Cataloging: Description & Access (CC:DA) has established guidelines for cataloging medical resources using the Resource Description and Access (RDA) standard, which is a comprehensive and flexible framework for describing all types of library resources. The RDA standard provides a set of instructions and rules for creating catalog records that are consistent, interoperable, and accessible to users with different needs and preferences.

Medical cataloging involves several steps, including:

1. Analyzing the resource: This step involves examining the physical or digital object and identifying its essential components, such as the title, author, publisher, publication date, and format.
2. Assigning access points: Access points are the elements that users can search for in a catalog to find relevant resources. These include headings for authors, titles, subjects, and other characteristics of the resource. Medical catalogers use controlled vocabularies, such as the National Library of Medicine's MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) thesaurus, to ensure consistent and accurate subject headings.
3. Creating a bibliographic record: A bibliographic record is a structured description of the resource that includes all the relevant metadata elements. The format and content of the record depend on the cataloging standard used, such as RDA or MARC (Machine-Readable Cataloging).
4. Quality control and review: Before adding the record to the catalog, medical catalogers may perform various quality control checks to ensure accuracy and completeness. This step may involve comparing the record with other sources, checking for consistency with established policies and guidelines, and seeking input from subject matter experts or colleagues.
5. Contributing to shared catalogs: Medical libraries and institutions often contribute their catalog records to shared databases, such as the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central or WorldCat, to increase visibility and accessibility. This step requires adherence to standardized formats and metadata schemes to ensure compatibility and interoperability with other systems.

In summary, medical cataloging is a complex process that involves various steps and standards to create accurate, consistent, and accessible descriptions of resources. By following established best practices and guidelines, medical catalogers can help users find and use the information they need for research, education, and patient care.

I must clarify that there is no specific medical definition for "Software Design." Software design is a term used in the field of software engineering and development, which includes the creation of detailed plans, schemas, and models that describe how a software system or application should be constructed and implemented. This process involves various activities such as defining the architecture, components, modules, interfaces, data structures, and algorithms required to build the software system.

However, in the context of medical software or healthcare applications, software design would still refer to the planning and structuring of the software system but with a focus on addressing specific needs and challenges within the medical domain. This might include considerations for data privacy and security, regulatory compliance (such as HIPAA or GDPR), integration with existing health IT systems, user experience (UX) design for healthcare professionals and patients, and evidence-based decision support features.

Colorimetry is the scientific measurement and quantification of color, typically using a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. In the medical field, colorimetry may be used in various applications such as:

1. Diagnosis and monitoring of skin conditions: Colorimeters can measure changes in skin color to help diagnose or monitor conditions like jaundice, cyanosis, or vitiligo. They can also assess the effectiveness of treatments for these conditions.
2. Vision assessment: Colorimetry is used in vision testing to determine the presence and severity of visual impairments such as color blindness or deficiencies. Special tests called anomaloscopes or color vision charts are used to measure an individual's ability to distinguish between different colors.
3. Environmental monitoring: In healthcare settings, colorimetry can be employed to monitor the cleanliness and sterility of surfaces or equipment by measuring the amount of contamination present. This is often done using ATP (adenosine triphosphate) bioluminescence assays, which emit light when they come into contact with microorganisms.
4. Medical research: Colorimetry has applications in medical research, such as studying the optical properties of tissues or developing new diagnostic tools and techniques based on color measurements.

In summary, colorimetry is a valuable tool in various medical fields for diagnosis, monitoring, and research purposes. It allows healthcare professionals to make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a group of methods used in the field of chemistry to synthesize and optimize large libraries of chemical compounds in a rapid and efficient manner. These techniques involve the systematic combination of different building blocks, or reagents, in various arrangements to generate a diverse array of molecules. This approach allows chemists to quickly explore a wide chemical space and identify potential lead compounds for drug discovery, materials science, and other applications.

There are several common combinatorial chemistry techniques, including:

1. **Split-Pool Synthesis:** In this method, a large collection of starting materials is divided into smaller groups, and each group undergoes a series of chemical reactions with different reagents. The resulting products from each group are then pooled together and redistributed for additional rounds of reactions. This process creates a vast number of unique compounds through the iterative combination of building blocks.
2. **Parallel Synthesis:** In parallel synthesis, multiple reactions are carried out simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. Each vessel contains a distinct set of starting materials and reagents, allowing for the efficient generation of a series of related compounds. This method is particularly useful when exploring structure-activity relationships (SAR) or optimizing lead compounds.
3. **Encoded Libraries:** To facilitate the rapid identification of active compounds within large libraries, encoded library techniques incorporate unique tags or barcodes into each molecule. These tags allow for the simultaneous synthesis and screening of compounds, as the identity of an active compound can be determined by decoding its corresponding tag.
4. **DNA-Encoded Libraries (DELs):** DELs are a specific type of encoded library that uses DNA molecules to encode and track chemical compounds. In this approach, each unique compound is linked to a distinct DNA sequence, enabling the rapid identification of active compounds through DNA sequencing techniques.
5. **Solid-Phase Synthesis:** This technique involves the attachment of starting materials to a solid support, such as beads or resins, allowing for the stepwise addition of reagents and building blocks. The solid support facilitates easy separation, purification, and screening of compounds, making it an ideal method for combinatorial chemistry applications.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques have revolutionized drug discovery and development by enabling the rapid synthesis, screening, and optimization of large libraries of chemical compounds. These methods continue to play a crucial role in modern medicinal chemistry and materials science research.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

"Miniaturization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader context, it refers to the process of creating smaller versions of something, usually with the aim of improving functionality, efficiency, or ease of use. In medicine, this concept can be applied to various fields such as medical devices, surgical techniques, and diagnostic tools.

For instance, in interventional radiology, miniaturization refers to the development of smaller and less invasive catheters, wires, and other devices used during minimally invasive procedures. This allows for improved patient outcomes, reduced recovery time, and lower risks of complications compared to traditional open surgical procedures.

Similarly, in pathology, miniaturization can refer to the use of smaller tissue samples or biopsies for diagnostic testing, which can reduce the need for more invasive procedures while still providing accurate results.

Overall, while "miniaturization" is not a medical term per se, it reflects an ongoing trend in medicine towards developing more efficient and less invasive technologies and techniques to improve patient care.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Laboratory personnel are individuals who work in a laboratory setting and are responsible for conducting various types of tests, experiments, and research activities. They may include, but are not limited to, the following roles:

1. Medical Technologists/Clinical Scientists: These professionals typically have a bachelor's or master's degree in medical technology or a related field and are responsible for performing complex laboratory tests, analyzing specimens, and reporting results. They may specialize in areas such as hematology, microbiology, chemistry, immunology, or molecular biology.

2. Laboratory Technicians: These individuals typically have an associate's degree or a certificate in medical laboratory technology and assist medical technologists in performing routine tests and maintaining laboratory equipment. They may prepare specimens, operate automated instruments, and perform quality control checks.

3. Research Assistants/Associates: These professionals work under the supervision of principal investigators or research scientists and are responsible for conducting experiments, collecting data, and analyzing samples in support of scientific research.

4. Laboratory Managers/Supervisors: These individuals oversee the day-to-day operations of the laboratory, ensuring that all procedures are followed correctly, maintaining quality control, managing staff, and handling administrative tasks such as ordering supplies and maintaining records.

5. Pathologists' Assistants: They work under the direction of pathologists to provide support in autopsy and surgical specimen examination, preparation, and histology.

6. Histotechnicians/Histology Technicians: These professionals prepare tissue samples for microscopic examination by cutting thin sections, staining them with dyes, and mounting them on slides. They work closely with pathologists and laboratory technologists to ensure accurate results.

7. Phlebotomists: Although not strictly laboratory personnel, phlebotomists are essential members of the healthcare team who draw blood samples from patients for laboratory testing. They must follow strict protocols to ensure proper specimen collection and handling.

8. Other Specialist Roles: Depending on the specific laboratory setting, there may be additional specialist roles such as cytogenetic technologists, virologists, or toxicologists who have specialized knowledge and skills in their respective fields.

A Database Management System (DBMS) is a software application that enables users to define, create, maintain, and manipulate databases. It provides a structured way to organize, store, retrieve, and manage data in a digital format. The DBMS serves as an interface between the database and the applications or users that access it, allowing for standardized interactions and data access methods. Common functions of a DBMS include data definition, data manipulation, data security, data recovery, and concurrent data access control. Examples of DBMS include MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, and MongoDB.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

A Hospital Information System (HIS) is a comprehensive, integrated set of software solutions that support the management and operation of a hospital or healthcare facility. It typically includes various modules such as:

1. Electronic Health Record (EHR): A digital version of a patient's paper chart that contains all of their medical history from one or multiple providers.
2. Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE): A system that allows physicians to enter, modify, review, and communicate orders for tests, medications, and other treatments electronically.
3. Pharmacy Information System: A system that manages the medication use process, including ordering, dispensing, administering, and monitoring of medications.
4. Laboratory Information System (LIS): A system that automates and manages the laboratory testing process, from order entry to result reporting.
5. Radiology Information System (RIS): A system that manages medical imaging data, including scheduling, image acquisition, storage, and retrieval.
6. Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS): A system that stores, distributes, and displays medical images from various modalities such as X-ray, CT, MRI, etc.
7. Admission, Discharge, and Transfer (ADT) system: A system that manages patient registration, scheduling, and tracking of their progress through the hospital.
8. Financial Management System: A system that handles billing, coding, and reimbursement processes.
9. Materials Management System: A system that tracks inventory, supply chain, and logistics operations within a healthcare facility.
10. Nursing Documentation System: A system that supports the documentation of nursing care, including assessments, interventions, and outcomes.

These systems are designed to improve the efficiency, quality, and safety of patient care by facilitating communication, coordination, and data sharing among healthcare providers and departments.

Ambulatory care information systems (ACIS) refer to electronic systems used to organize, store, and retrieve patient health information in outpatient or ambulatory care settings. These systems support the management and coordination of patient care outside of hospitals or other inpatient facilities. They may include functions such as scheduling appointments, tracking medications and allergies, documenting medical encounters, ordering laboratory tests, and communicating with other healthcare providers. The goal of ACIS is to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of ambulatory care by providing timely and accurate information to all members of the care team.

'Information Storage and Retrieval' in the context of medical informatics refers to the processes and systems used for the recording, storing, organizing, protecting, and retrieving electronic health information (e.g., patient records, clinical data, medical images) for various purposes such as diagnosis, treatment planning, research, and education. This may involve the use of electronic health record (EHR) systems, databases, data warehouses, and other digital technologies that enable healthcare providers to access and share accurate, up-to-date, and relevant information about a patient's health status, medical history, and care plan. The goal is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and coordination of healthcare delivery by providing timely and evidence-based information to support clinical decision-making and patient engagement.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Blood specimen collection is the process of obtaining a sample of blood from a patient for laboratory testing and analysis. This procedure is performed by trained healthcare professionals, such as nurses or phlebotomists, using sterile equipment to minimize the risk of infection and ensure accurate test results. The collected blood sample may be used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, assess overall health and organ function, and check for the presence of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. Proper handling, storage, and transportation of the specimen are crucial to maintain its integrity and prevent contamination.

I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding. Programming languages are a field of study in computer science and are not related to medicine. They are used to create computer programs, through the composition of symbols and words. Some popular programming languages include Python, Java, C++, and JavaScript. If you have any questions about programming or computer science, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Preclinical drug evaluation refers to a series of laboratory tests and studies conducted to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new drug before it is tested in humans. These studies typically involve experiments on cells and animals to evaluate the pharmacological properties, toxicity, and potential interactions with other substances. The goal of preclinical evaluation is to establish a reasonable level of safety and understanding of how the drug works, which helps inform the design and conduct of subsequent clinical trials in humans. It's important to note that while preclinical studies provide valuable information, they may not always predict how a drug will behave in human subjects.

An Expert System is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) program that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert in a specific field or domain. It is designed to solve complex problems by using a set of rules, heuristics, and knowledge base derived from human expertise. The system can simulate the problem-solving process of a human expert, allowing it to provide advice, make recommendations, or diagnose problems in a similar manner. Expert systems are often used in fields such as medicine, engineering, finance, and law where specialized knowledge and experience are critical for making informed decisions.

The medical definition of 'Expert Systems' refers to AI programs that assist healthcare professionals in diagnosing and treating medical conditions, based on a large database of medical knowledge and clinical expertise. These systems can help doctors and other healthcare providers make more accurate diagnoses, recommend appropriate treatments, and provide patient education. They may also be used for research, training, and quality improvement purposes.

Expert systems in medicine typically use a combination of artificial intelligence techniques such as rule-based reasoning, machine learning, natural language processing, and pattern recognition to analyze medical data and provide expert advice. Examples of medical expert systems include MYCIN, which was developed to diagnose infectious diseases, and Internist-1, which assists in the diagnosis and management of internal medicine cases.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

Laboratory proficiency testing (PT) is a systematic process used to evaluate the performance of a laboratory in accurately and consistently performing specific tests or procedures. It involves the analysis of blinded samples with known or expected values, which are distributed by an independent proficiency testing provider to participating laboratories. The results from each laboratory are then compared to the target value or the range of acceptable values, allowing for the assessment of a laboratory's accuracy, precision, and consistency over time.

Proficiency testing is an essential component of quality assurance programs in clinical, research, and industrial laboratories. It helps laboratories identify and address sources of error, improve their analytical methods, and maintain compliance with regulatory requirements and accreditation standards. Regular participation in proficiency testing programs also promotes confidence in the accuracy and reliability of laboratory test results, ultimately benefiting patient care, research outcomes, and public health.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a specific protein, antibody, or antigen in a sample using the principles of antibody-antigen reactions. It is commonly used in clinical laboratories to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions such as infections, hormonal disorders, allergies, and cancer.

Immunoassays typically involve the use of labeled reagents, such as enzymes, radioisotopes, or fluorescent dyes, that bind specifically to the target molecule. The amount of label detected is proportional to the concentration of the target molecule in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

There are several types of immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay (RIA), fluorescence immunoassay (FIA), and chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). Each type has its own advantages and limitations, depending on the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput required for a particular application.

Laboratory Animal Science (also known as Experimental Animal Science) is a multidisciplinary field that involves the care, use, and breeding of animals for scientific research. It encompasses various disciplines such as veterinary medicine, biology, genetics, nutrition, and ethology to ensure the humane treatment, proper husbandry, and experimental validity when using animals in research.

The primary goal of laboratory animal science is to support and advance biological and medical knowledge by providing well-characterized and healthy animals for research purposes. This field also includes the development and implementation of guidelines, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research to ensure their welfare and minimize any potential distress or harm.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Microcomputers" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Microcomputers are small computers with a microprocessor as the central processing unit. They are widely used in various settings, including healthcare, to perform tasks such as data management, analysis, and patient record keeping. However, the term itself does not have a specific medical connotation. If you have any questions related to technology use in healthcare, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Fluorometry is not a medical term per se, but it is a scientific technique that has applications in the medical field. Fluorometry refers to the measurement of the intensity of fluorescence emitted by a substance when it absorbs light at a specific wavelength. This technique is widely used in various fields such as biochemistry, molecular biology, and clinical chemistry.

In the medical context, fluorometry is often used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure the concentration of certain substances in biological samples such as blood, urine, or tissues. For example, fluorometric assays are commonly used to measure the levels of enzymes, hormones, vitamins, and other biomolecules that exhibit fluorescence.

Fluorometry is also used in research and clinical settings to study various biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. For instance, fluorescent probes can be used to label specific proteins or organelles within cells, allowing researchers to track their movement, localization, and interactions in real-time.

Overall, fluorometry is a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics, providing sensitive and specific measurements of various biological molecules and processes.

In the context of medicine and medical devices, calibration refers to the process of checking, adjusting, or confirming the accuracy of a measurement instrument or system. This is typically done by comparing the measurements taken by the device being calibrated to those taken by a reference standard of known accuracy. The goal of calibration is to ensure that the medical device is providing accurate and reliable measurements, which is critical for making proper diagnoses and delivering effective treatment. Regular calibration is an important part of quality assurance and helps to maintain the overall performance and safety of medical devices.

Image cytometry is a technique that combines imaging and cytometry to analyze individual cells within a population. It involves capturing digital images of cells, followed by the extraction and analysis of quantitative data from those images. This can include measurements of cell size, shape, and fluorescence intensity, which can be used to identify and characterize specific cell types or functional states. Image cytometry has applications in basic research, diagnostics, and drug development, particularly in the fields of oncology and immunology.

The term "image cytometry" is often used interchangeably with "cellular imaging," although some sources distinguish between the two based on the level of automation and quantitative analysis involved. In general, image cytometry involves more automated and standardized methods for acquiring and analyzing large numbers of cell images, while cellular imaging may involve more manual or qualitative assessment of individual cells.

Medical libraries are collections of resources that provide access to information related to the medical and healthcare fields. They serve as a vital tool for medical professionals, students, researchers, and patients seeking reliable and accurate health information. Medical libraries can be physical buildings or digital platforms that contain various types of materials, including:

1. Books: Medical textbooks, reference books, and monographs that cover various topics related to medicine, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology, and clinical specialties.
2. Journals: Print and electronic peer-reviewed journals that publish the latest research findings, clinical trials, and evidence-based practices in medicine.
3. Databases: Online resources that allow users to search for and access information on specific topics, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library.
4. Multimedia resources: Audio and video materials, such as lectures, webinars, podcasts, and instructional videos, that provide visual and auditory learning experiences.
5. Electronic resources: E-books, databases, and other digital materials that can be accessed remotely through computers, tablets, or smartphones.
6. Patient education materials: Brochures, pamphlets, and other resources that help patients understand their health conditions, treatments, and self-care strategies.
7. Archives and special collections: Rare books, historical documents, manuscripts, and artifacts related to the history of medicine and healthcare.

Medical libraries may be found in hospitals, medical schools, research institutions, and other healthcare settings. They are staffed by trained librarians and information specialists who provide assistance with locating, accessing, and evaluating information resources. Medical libraries play a critical role in supporting evidence-based medicine, continuing education, and patient care.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to create and manage designs in a variety of fields, such as architecture, engineering, and manufacturing. It allows designers to visualize their ideas in 2D or 3D, simulate how the design will function, and make changes quickly and easily. This can help to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the design process, and can also facilitate collaboration and communication among team members.

Decision Support Systems (DSS), Clinical are interactive computer-based information systems that help health care professionals and patients make informed clinical decisions. These systems use patient-specific data and clinical knowledge to generate patient-centered recommendations. They are designed to augment the decision-making abilities of clinicians, providing evidence-based suggestions while allowing for the integration of professional expertise, patient preferences, and values. Clinical DSS can support various aspects of healthcare delivery, including diagnosis, treatment planning, resource allocation, and quality improvement. They may incorporate a range of technologies, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analytics, to facilitate the processing and interpretation of complex clinical information.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the medical context refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

In healthcare, AI is increasingly being used to analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, make decisions, and perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. This can include tasks such as diagnosing diseases, recommending treatments, personalizing patient care, and improving clinical workflows.

Examples of AI in medicine include machine learning algorithms that analyze medical images to detect signs of disease, natural language processing tools that extract relevant information from electronic health records, and robot-assisted surgery systems that enable more precise and minimally invasive procedures.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Automated Pattern Recognition in a medical context refers to the use of computer algorithms and artificial intelligence techniques to identify, classify, and analyze specific patterns or trends in medical data. This can include recognizing visual patterns in medical images, such as X-rays or MRIs, or identifying patterns in large datasets of physiological measurements or electronic health records.

The goal of automated pattern recognition is to assist healthcare professionals in making more accurate diagnoses, monitoring disease progression, and developing personalized treatment plans. By automating the process of pattern recognition, it can help reduce human error, increase efficiency, and improve patient outcomes.

Examples of automated pattern recognition in medicine include using machine learning algorithms to identify early signs of diabetic retinopathy in eye scans or detecting abnormal heart rhythms in electrocardiograms (ECGs). These techniques can also be used to predict patient risk based on patterns in their medical history, such as identifying patients who are at high risk for readmission to the hospital.

Medical Laboratory Science, also known as Clinical Laboratory Science, is a healthcare profession that involves the performance and interpretation of laboratory tests to detect, diagnose, monitor, and treat diseases. Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) work in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, research institutions, and diagnostic laboratories. They analyze body fluids, tissues, and cells using sophisticated instruments and techniques to provide accurate and timely results that aid in the clinical decision-making process.

MLS professionals perform a range of laboratory tests including hematology, clinical chemistry, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, urinalysis, and blood banking. They follow standardized procedures and quality control measures to ensure the accuracy and reliability of test results. MLS professionals also evaluate complex data, correlate test findings with clinical symptoms, and communicate their findings to healthcare providers.

MLS education typically requires a bachelor's degree in Medical Laboratory Science or a related field, followed by a clinical internship or residency program. Many MLS professionals are certified or licensed by professional organizations such as the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) and the National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS).

Organizational efficiency is a management concept that refers to the ability of an organization to produce the desired output with minimal waste of resources such as time, money, and labor. It involves optimizing processes, structures, and systems within the organization to achieve its goals in the most effective and efficient manner possible. This can be achieved through various means, including the implementation of best practices, the use of technology to automate and streamline processes, and the continuous improvement of skills and knowledge among employees. Ultimately, organizational efficiency is about creating value for stakeholders while minimizing waste and maximizing returns on investment.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a method used in analytical chemistry and biochemistry to extract, separate, or clean up specific components from a complex matrix, such as a biological sample. It involves the use of a solid phase, typically a packed bed of sorbent material, held within a cartridge or column. The sample mixture is passed through the column, and the components of interest are selectively retained by the sorbent while other components pass through.

The analytes can then be eluted from the sorbent using a small volume of a suitable solvent, resulting in a more concentrated and purified fraction that can be analyzed using various techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), or mass spectrometry.

The solid phase used in SPE can vary depending on the nature of the analytes and the matrix, with different sorbents offering varying degrees of selectivity and capacity for specific compounds. Commonly used sorbents include silica-based materials, polymeric resins, and ion exchange materials.

Overall, solid-phase extraction is a powerful tool in sample preparation, allowing for the isolation and concentration of target analytes from complex matrices, thereby improving the sensitivity and selectivity of downstream analytical techniques.

Clinical laboratory services refer to the tests and examinations performed on samples of patient’s bodily fluids, tissues, and other substances to assist in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating medical conditions. These services are typically provided by specialized laboratories that use various analytical methods and technologies to examine clinical specimens.

The tests conducted by clinical laboratory services can include hematology, chemistry, microbiology, immunology, molecular biology, toxicology, and urinalysis, among others. The results of these tests provide critical information to healthcare providers for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various medical conditions, including infections, genetic disorders, hormonal imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, and cancer.

Clinical laboratory services play a vital role in modern healthcare systems, providing accurate and timely diagnostic information that helps improve patient outcomes, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance the quality of care.

Microscopy is a technical field in medicine that involves the use of microscopes to observe structures and phenomena that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. It allows for the examination of samples such as tissues, cells, and microorganisms at high magnifications, enabling the detection and analysis of various medical conditions, including infections, diseases, and cellular abnormalities.

There are several types of microscopy used in medicine, including:

1. Light Microscopy: This is the most common type of microscopy, which uses visible light to illuminate and magnify samples. It can be used to examine a wide range of biological specimens, such as tissue sections, blood smears, and bacteria.
2. Electron Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a beam of electrons instead of light to produce highly detailed images of samples. It is often used in research settings to study the ultrastructure of cells and tissues.
3. Fluorescence Microscopy: This technique involves labeling specific molecules within a sample with fluorescent dyes, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. It can be used to study protein interactions, gene expression, and cell signaling pathways.
4. Confocal Microscopy: This type of microscopy uses a laser beam to scan a sample point by point, producing high-resolution images with reduced background noise. It is often used in medical research to study the structure and function of cells and tissues.
5. Scanning Probe Microscopy: This technique involves scanning a sample with a physical probe, allowing for the measurement of topography, mechanical properties, and other characteristics at the nanoscale. It can be used in medical research to study the structure and function of individual molecules and cells.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Syphilis serodiagnosis is a laboratory testing method used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It involves detecting specific antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection, rather than directly detecting the bacteria itself.

There are two main types of serological tests used for syphilis serodiagnosis: treponemal and nontreponemal tests.

1. Treponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies that specifically target Treponema pallidum. Examples include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or chemiluminescence immunoassays (CIAs) for Treponema pallidum antibodies. These tests are highly specific but may remain reactive even after successful treatment, indicating past exposure or infection rather than a current active infection.

2. Nontreponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies produced against cardiolipin, a lipid found in the membranes of Treponema pallidum and other bacteria. Examples include the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. These tests are less specific than treponemal tests but can be used to monitor disease progression and treatment response, as their results often correlate with disease activity. Nontreponemal test titers usually decrease or become nonreactive after successful treatment.

Syphilis serodiagnosis typically involves a two-step process, starting with a nontreponemal test followed by a treponemal test for confirmation. This approach helps distinguish between current and past infections while minimizing false positives. It is essential to interpret serological test results in conjunction with the patient's clinical history, physical examination findings, and any additional diagnostic tests.

Microbiology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of microorganisms, which are tiny living organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, algae, and some types of yeasts and molds. These organisms are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye and require the use of a microscope for observation.

Microbiology encompasses various subdisciplines, including bacteriology (the study of bacteria), virology (the study of viruses), mycology (the study of fungi), parasitology (the study of parasites), and protozoology (the study of protozoa).

Microbiologists study the structure, function, ecology, evolution, and classification of microorganisms. They also investigate their role in human health and disease, as well as their impact on the environment, agriculture, and industry. Microbiology has numerous applications in medicine, including the development of vaccines, antibiotics, and other therapeutic agents, as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Drug discovery is the process of identifying new chemical entities or biological agents that have the potential to be used as therapeutic or preventive treatments for diseases. This process involves several stages, including target identification, lead identification, hit-to-lead optimization, lead optimization, preclinical development, and clinical trials.

Target identification is the initial stage of drug discovery, where researchers identify a specific molecular target, such as a protein or gene, that plays a key role in the disease process. Lead identification involves screening large libraries of chemical compounds or natural products to find those that interact with the target molecule and have potential therapeutic activity.

Hit-to-lead optimization is the stage where researchers optimize the chemical structure of the lead compound to improve its potency, selectivity, and safety profile. Lead optimization involves further refinement of the compound's structure to create a preclinical development candidate. Preclinical development includes studies in vitro (in test tubes or petri dishes) and in vivo (in animals) to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of the drug candidate.

Clinical trials are conducted in human volunteers to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of the drug candidate in treating the disease. If the drug is found to be safe and effective in clinical trials, it may be approved by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients.

Overall, drug discovery is a complex and time-consuming process that requires significant resources, expertise, and collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and industry partners.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A Computerized Medical Record System (CMRS) is a digital version of a patient's paper chart. It contains all of the patient's medical history from multiple providers and can be shared securely between healthcare professionals. A CMRS includes a range of data such as demographics, progress notes, problems, medications, vital signs, past medical history, immunizations, laboratory data, and radiology reports. The system facilitates the storage, retrieval, and exchange of this information in an efficient manner, and can also provide decision support, alerts, reminders, and tools for performing data analysis and creating reports. It is designed to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by providing accurate, up-to-date, and comprehensive information about patients at the point of care.

Medical Informatics, also known as Healthcare Informatics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the systematic processing and analysis of data, information, and knowledge in healthcare and biomedicine. It involves the development and application of theories, methods, and tools to create, acquire, store, retrieve, share, use, and reuse health-related data and knowledge for clinical, educational, research, and administrative purposes. Medical Informatics encompasses various areas such as bioinformatics, clinical informatics, consumer health informatics, public health informatics, and translational bioinformatics. It aims to improve healthcare delivery, patient outcomes, and biomedical research through the effective use of information technology and data management strategies.

Genetic techniques refer to a variety of methods and tools used in the field of genetics to study, manipulate, and understand genes and their functions. These techniques can be broadly categorized into those that allow for the identification and analysis of specific genes or genetic variations, and those that enable the manipulation of genes in order to understand their function or to modify them for therapeutic purposes.

Some examples of genetic analysis techniques include:

1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): a method used to amplify specific DNA sequences, allowing researchers to study small amounts of DNA.
2. Genome sequencing: the process of determining the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome.
3. Genotyping: the process of identifying and analyzing genetic variations or mutations in an individual's DNA.
4. Linkage analysis: a method used to identify genetic loci associated with specific traits or diseases by studying patterns of inheritance within families.
5. Expression profiling: the measurement of gene expression levels in cells or tissues, often using microarray technology.

Some examples of genetic manipulation techniques include:

1. Gene editing: the use of tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 to modify specific genes or genetic sequences.
2. Gene therapy: the introduction of functional genes into cells or tissues to replace missing or nonfunctional genes.
3. Transgenic technology: the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by introducing foreign DNA into their genomes.
4. RNA interference (RNAi): the use of small RNA molecules to silence specific genes and study their function.
5. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs): the creation of stem cells from adult cells through genetic reprogramming, allowing for the study of development and disease in vitro.

Proteomics is the large-scale study and analysis of proteins, including their structures, functions, interactions, modifications, and abundance, in a given cell, tissue, or organism. It involves the identification and quantification of all expressed proteins in a biological sample, as well as the characterization of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and functional pathways. Proteomics can provide valuable insights into various biological processes, diseases, and drug responses, and has applications in basic research, biomedicine, and clinical diagnostics. The field combines various techniques from molecular biology, chemistry, physics, and bioinformatics to study proteins at a systems level.

Dental laboratories are specialized facilities where dental technicians create and manufacture various dental restorations and appliances based on the specific measurements, models, and instructions provided by dentists. These custom-made dental products are designed to restore or replace damaged, missing, or decayed teeth, improve oral function, and enhance the overall appearance of a patient's smile.

Some common dental restorations and appliances produced in dental laboratories include:

1. Dental crowns: Artificial caps that cover and protect damaged or weakened teeth, often made from ceramics, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of materials.
2. Dental bridges: Fixed or removable appliances used to replace one or more missing teeth by connecting artificial teeth (pontics) to adjacent natural teeth or dental implants.
3. Dentures: Removable prosthetic devices that replace all or most of the upper and/or lower teeth, providing improved chewing function, speech clarity, and aesthetics.
4. Orthodontic appliances: Devices used to correct malocclusions (improper bites) and misaligned teeth, such as traditional braces, clear aligners, palatal expanders, and retainers.
5. Custom dental implant components: Specialized parts designed for specific implant systems, which are used in conjunction with dental implants to replace missing teeth permanently.
6. Night guards and occlusal splints: Protective devices worn during sleep to prevent or manage bruxism (teeth grinding) and temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD).
7. Anti-snoring devices: Mandibular advancement devices that help reduce snoring by holding the lower jaw in a slightly forward position, preventing airway obstruction during sleep.
8. Dental whitening trays: Custom-fitted trays used to hold bleaching gel against tooth surfaces for professional teeth whitening treatments.
9. Specialty restorations: Including aesthetic veneers, inlays, onlays, and other customized dental solutions designed to meet specific patient needs.

Dental laboratories may be standalone facilities or part of a larger dental practice. They are typically staffed by skilled technicians who specialize in various aspects of dental technology, such as ceramics, orthodontics, implantology, and prosthodontics. Collaboration between dentists, dental specialists, and laboratory technicians ensures the highest quality results for patients undergoing restorative or cosmetic dental treatments.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technique used to identify and quantify specific molecules, such as proteins or metabolites, within complex mixtures. This method uses two or more sequential mass analyzers to first separate ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio and then further fragment the selected ions into smaller pieces for additional analysis. The fragmentation patterns generated in MS/MS experiments can be used to determine the structure and identity of the original molecule, making it a powerful tool in various fields such as proteomics, metabolomics, and forensic science.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Fluorescence is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field, particularly in diagnostic tests, medical devices, and research. Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon where a substance absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then emits light at a longer wavelength. This process, often referred to as fluorescing, results in the emission of visible light that can be detected and measured.

In medical terms, fluorescence is used in various applications such as:

1. In-vivo imaging: Fluorescent dyes or probes are introduced into the body to highlight specific structures, cells, or molecules during imaging procedures. This technique can help doctors detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer, inflammation, or infection.
2. Microscopy: Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing biological samples at the cellular and molecular level. By labeling specific proteins, nucleic acids, or other molecules with fluorescent dyes, researchers can observe their distribution, interactions, and dynamics within cells and tissues.
3. Surgical guidance: Fluorescence-guided surgery is a technique where surgeons use fluorescent markers to identify critical structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or tumors during surgical procedures. This helps ensure precise and safe surgical interventions.
4. Diagnostic tests: Fluorescence-based assays are used in various diagnostic tests to detect and quantify specific biomarkers or analytes. These assays can be performed using techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or flow cytometry.

In summary, fluorescence is a physical process where a substance absorbs and emits light at different wavelengths. In the medical field, this phenomenon is harnessed for various applications such as in-vivo imaging, microscopy, surgical guidance, and diagnostic tests.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis of diseases through the examination of organs, tissues, and bodily fluids, such as blood and urine. It involves the use of laboratory tests to identify abnormalities in the body's cells, chemicals, and functions that may indicate the presence of a specific disease or condition. Clinical pathologists work closely with other healthcare professionals to help manage patient care, provide treatment recommendations, and monitor the effectiveness of treatments. They are responsible for supervising the laboratory testing process, ensuring accurate results, and interpreting the findings in the context of each patient's medical history and symptoms. Overall, clinical pathology plays a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of many different types of diseases and conditions.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

Biosensing techniques refer to the methods and technologies used to detect and measure biological molecules or processes, typically through the use of a physical device or sensor. These techniques often involve the conversion of a biological response into an electrical signal that can be measured and analyzed. Examples of biosensing techniques include electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, and piezoelectric biosensors.

Electrochemical biosensors measure the electrical current or potential generated by a biochemical reaction at an electrode surface. This type of biosensor typically consists of a biological recognition element, such as an enzyme or antibody, that is immobilized on the electrode surface and interacts with the target analyte to produce an electrical signal.

Optical biosensors measure changes in light intensity or wavelength that occur when a biochemical reaction takes place. This type of biosensor can be based on various optical principles, such as absorbance, fluorescence, or surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

Piezoelectric biosensors measure changes in mass or frequency that occur when a biomolecule binds to the surface of a piezoelectric crystal. This type of biosensor is based on the principle that piezoelectric materials generate an electrical charge when subjected to mechanical stress, and this charge can be used to detect changes in mass or frequency that are proportional to the amount of biomolecule bound to the surface.

Biosensing techniques have a wide range of applications in fields such as medicine, environmental monitoring, food safety, and biodefense. They can be used to detect and measure a variety of biological molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, hormones, and small molecules, as well as to monitor biological processes such as cell growth or metabolism.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

Liquid chromatography (LC) is a type of chromatography technique used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture. In this method, the sample mixture is dissolved in a liquid solvent (the mobile phase) and then passed through a stationary phase, which can be a solid or a liquid that is held in place by a solid support.

The components of the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase and the mobile phase, causing them to separate as they move through the system. The separated components are then detected and measured using various detection techniques, such as ultraviolet (UV) absorbance or mass spectrometry.

Liquid chromatography is widely used in many areas of science and medicine, including drug development, environmental analysis, food safety testing, and clinical diagnostics. It can be used to separate and analyze a wide range of compounds, from small molecules like drugs and metabolites to large biomolecules like proteins and nucleic acids.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Fourier Analysis is not a medical term. It is a mathematical concept used in various scientific fields, including physics, engineering, and signal processing.

Fourier Analysis is a method to decompose functions into sinusoidal components (sines and cosines) of different frequencies. This allows for the representation of a function or a signal as a sum of these frequency components. It's particularly useful in analyzing periodic functions, understanding signals, and solving partial differential equations.

If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry that is used to analyze large biomolecules such as proteins and peptides. In this technique, the sample is mixed with a matrix compound, which absorbs laser energy and helps to vaporize and ionize the analyte molecules.

The matrix-analyte mixture is then placed on a target plate and hit with a laser beam, causing the matrix and analyte molecules to desorb from the plate and become ionized. The ions are then accelerated through an electric field and into a mass analyzer, which separates them based on their mass-to-charge ratio.

The separated ions are then detected and recorded as a mass spectrum, which can be used to identify and quantify the analyte molecules present in the sample. MALDI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of complex biological samples, such as tissue extracts or biological fluids, because it allows for the detection and identification of individual components within those mixtures.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

A large obstacle to the implementation of automation in laboratories has been its high cost. Many laboratory instruments are ... The most widely known application of laboratory automation technology is laboratory robotics. More generally, the field of ... Laboratory techniques, Laboratory equipment, Robotics, Laboratory automation). ... optimize and capitalize on technologies in the laboratory that enable new and improved processes. Laboratory automation ...
76.942667 The Laboratory for Automation Psychology (LAP) (also Laboratory for Automation Psychology and Decision Processes or ... UMD Department of Psychology Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory at UMD (Coordinates on Wikidata, University of Maryland, ... College Park research centers, University and college laboratories in the United States). ...
... and relevance of laboratory analysis. Association for Lab Automation web site Journal of Laboratory Automation web site ... and improving the practice of medical and laboratory automation. Its focus is on the benefits and utilization of automation, ... The Association for Laboratory Automation (ALA) was a scientific association, organized as a nonprofit 501(c)(3), for the ... It was the publisher of the peer-reviewed scientific journal, Journal of Laboratory Automation. In 2010, it merged with the ...
... as the Journal of the Association for Laboratory Automation and from 2011-2016 as the Journal of Laboratory Automation (JALA). ... Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening (SLAS) is a scientific and professional society formed in 2010 as a merger ... "SBS and ALA Set to Come Together as New Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening". R&D. May 12, 2010. Retrieved 24 ... In early 2009, the Society for Biomolecular Sciences (SBS) and the Association for Laboratory Automation (ALA) began discussing ...
Therefore, automation has been extensively employed in laboratories. From as early as 1980 fully automated laboratories have ... "Smart & Intelligent Home Automation Solutions". 15 May 2018. Carvalho, Matheus (2017). Practical Laboratory Automation: Made ... Autosamplers are common devices used in laboratory automation. Logistics automation is the application of computer software or ... However, automation has not become widespread in laboratories due to its high cost. This may change with the ability of ...
Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge. pp. 87-98. doi:10.1145/2808117.2808118. ISBN 978-1-4503-3819-6. S2CID 14832327. ... Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home. A home automation system will monitor and/or control home ... pump automation Housing portal Home automation companies List of home automation software and hardware List of home automation ... The phrase smart home refers to home automation devices that have internet access. Home automation, a broader category, ...
Manufacturing Automation Laboratories. Retrieved 17 November 2016. Abukhshim, N.A.; Mativenga, P.T.; Sheikh, M.A. (2006). "Heat ... Virtual Machining, Automation World AMGM Institute, Virtual Machining MACHpro: THE VIRTUAL MACHINING SYSTEM The Virtual Machine ...
Verpoorte was the 2018 President for the Society of Laboratory Automation and Screening. She has also held leadership roles in ... "New SLAS Board of Directors Members Excited to Help Shape Society". Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Retrieved ... From 1990-1996, Verpoorte trained as an automation systems postdoctoral researcher in the Manz group at CIBA in Basel, ...
Robotics and Automation News. Retrieved 5 January 2017. "RoboDK". Malles Automation. Retrieved 5 January 2017. "RoboDK". RoboDK ... "When you need someone from Canada to calibrate your robot in New Zealand". Control and Robotics Laboratory. Retrieved 23 ... "The future of robot off-line programming". Control and Robotics Laboratory. Retrieved 5 January 2017. Montaqim, Abdul. "Offline ...
Kothamachu VB, Zaini S, Muffatto F (October 2020). "Role of Digital Microfluidics in Enabling Access to Laboratory Automation ... Digital microfluidics is often touted as a laboratory automation solution, with a number of advantages over alternative ... Journal of Laboratory Automation. 20 (3): 283-95. doi:10.1177/2211068214562002. PMID 25510471. S2CID 23720265. Ben Yehezkel T, ... Application of an electric potential allows for automation of droplet transfer directly to the hanging cell culture.] This is ...
"SiLA Basic Standards for Rapid Integration in Laboratory Automation". Journal of Laboratory Automation. 17 (2): 86-95. doi: ... Hawker, C. D.; Schlank, M. R. (2000-05-01). "Development of standards for laboratory automation". Clinical Chemistry. 46 (5): ... Cerda, Victor (1990). An Introduction to Laboratory Automation. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-61818-7. Carvalho, Matheus (2020 ... Carvalho, Matheus (2017). Practical Laboratory Automation: Made Easy with AutoIt. Wiley VCH. doi:10.1002/9783527801954. ISBN ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 19 (5): 437-443. doi:10.1177/2211068214529288. PMC 4230958. PMID 24692228. Humpel C (October ... The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the ... Prieto D, Aparicio G, Sotelo-Silveira JR (November 2017). "Cell migration analysis: A low-cost laboratory experiment for cell ... Cell Culture Basics - Introduction to cell culture, covering topics such as laboratory set-up, safety and aseptic technique ...
2013 Journal of Laboratory Automation Ten Award, JALA Ten Tottori, Soichiro; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Famin; Krawczyk, Krzysztof K.; ... Ho, Dean (February 2013). "Introducing the 2013 JALA Ten" (PDF). Journal of Laboratory Automation. 18 (1): 105-110. doi:10.1177 ... Robotics Automation, Hong Kong, China. pp. 4387-4392. - Best Paper Award in medical robotics at ICRA 2014 *Petit, Tristan; ... "IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering Best New Application Paper Award (Sponsored by Googol Technology Ltd) ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 18 (6): 482-93. doi:10.1177/2211068213503156. PMID 24062363. Zhang W, Duan S, Li Y, Xu X, Qu ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 20 (2): 107-26. doi:10.1177/2211068214561025. PMC 4652793. PMID 25586998. Zidarič, Tanja; ...
Graham (2003). "The Coulter Principle: Foundation of an Industry". Journal of Laboratory Automation. 8 (6): 72-81. doi:10.1016/ ... The Coulter counter is a vital constituent of today's hospital laboratory. Its primary function is the quick and accurate ... the Coulter principle has established itself as the most reliable laboratory method for counting a wide variety of cells, ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 16 (1): 90-98. doi:10.1016/j.jala.2009.01.002. PMID 21609689. Schnell, Santiago (2015-09-10 ... A good electronic laboratory notebook should be an "out of the box" solution that, as standard, has fully configurable forms to ... A good electronic laboratory notebook should offer a secure environment to protect the integrity of both data and process, ... The laboratory accreditation criteria found in the ISO 17025 standard needs to be considered for the protection and computer ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 21 (4): 533-547. doi:10.1177/2211068215589580. PMID 26077162. Nelson RW, Krone JR, Bieber AL ... Proteomic analysis is highly amenable to automation and large data sets are created, which are processed by software algorithms ... Naven T, Westermeier R (2002). Proteomics in Practice: A Laboratory Manual of Proteome Analysis. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978- ... Although early large-scale shotgun proteomics analyses showed considerable variability between laboratories, presumably due in ...
Although such robotic arms are mostly marketed as hobby or educational devices, applications in laboratory automation have been ... Journal of Laboratory Automation. 21 (6): 799-805. doi:10.1177/2211068216630742. ISSN 2211-0682. PMID 26882923. Staff (Sandia ... "Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling: Subsystem Design and Test Challenges" (PDF). JPL. ... Billing, Rius; Fleischner, Richard (2011). "Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm" (PDF). 15th European Space Mechanisms and ...
"SiLA Basic Standards for Rapid Integration in Laboratory Automation". Journal of Laboratory Automation. 17 (2): 86-95. doi: ... Cloud laboratory Laboratory automation List of emerging technologies#Medical Mortimer, James A.; Hurst, W. Jeffrey (1987). ... Laboratory processes are suited for robotic automation as the processes are composed of repetitive movements (e.g., pick/place ... Laboratory Automation in the Chemical Industries. CRC Press, 2002. Hardin, J.; Smietana, F., Automating combinatorial chemistry ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 19 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1177/2211068213494388. PMC 4449156. PMID 23813915. Researchers put ... "Startups Can Get Medical Device Prototypes Built through Draper's Sembler Initiative". Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 21 (4): 557-67. doi:10.1177/2211068216630741. PMC 4948133. PMID 26891732. Zheng GX, Terry JM ...
Jones M, Clark V, Clulow S (2003). "The Importance of the Quality Control of Laboratory Automation". SLAS Technology. 8 (2): 55 ... Journal of Laboratory Automation. 17 (3): 169-185. doi:10.1177/2211068211435302. ISSN 2211-0682. PMID 22357568. S2CID 10848149 ... A liquid handling robot is used to automate workflows in life science laboratories. It is a robot that dispenses a selected ... Liquid handling plays a pivotal role in life science laboratories. The sample volumes are usually small, at the micro- or ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 18 (4): 328-33. doi:10.1177/2211068213476288. PMID 23413273. Perkel, J.M. (2017). "The ... Wilkes, R.; Megargle, R. (1994). "Integration of instruments and a laboratory information management system at the information ... They include relatively simple laboratory equipment like scales, rulers, chronometers, thermometers, etc. Other simple tools ... McMahon, G. (2007). Analytical Instrumentation: A Guide to Laboratory, Portable and Miniaturized Instruments. John Wiley & Sons ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 18 (1): 85-98. doi:10.1177/2211068212456978. ISSN 2211-0682. PMC 4380503. PMID 22968419. ... His laboratory's research emphasis was on mitochondrial function and the role of the reactive oxygen species. In addition, he ... and the Director of Purdue University Cytometry Laboratories. Robinson was born in 1953 in Inverell in New South Wales, ...
Journal of Laboratory Automation. 21 (6): 779-793. doi:10.1177/2211068215623209. PMID 26702021. Haythornthwaite A, Stoelzle S, ... Automation seeks to reduce the time, complexity and cost of manual patch clamping. Improving throughput will also be key to ... This automation eliminates the decision-making a technician had to perform, and unlike a technician, the computer can perform ... More common automation systems for suspensions cultures use microchips with tiny (1-2μm) holes in a planar substrate instead of ...
Araz MK, Tentori AM, Herr AE (October 2013). "Microfluidic multiplexing in bioanalyses". Journal of Laboratory Automation. 18 ( ... and processing it in a separate laboratory, which takes hours or sometimes days to complete. In that time frame, the patient ... a-chip is an electronic chip that is usually about 3 square millimeters that has the ability to perform various laboratory like ... needs to be provided with care, which is not favorable to do without the desired information from the laboratory test. As far ...
"Brooks Automation Board of Directors". Retrieved 11 July 2010. "Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Annual Report 2002" (PDF). Archived ... Reddy's Laboratories Annual Report 2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2010. "Signal to all ... Reddy's Laboratories Palepu has a Professional Director Certification from the American College of Corporate Directors.[dead ... Palepu has been a director of a number of companies around the world including Brooks Automation, BTM Corporation, Partners ...
Gibbon, G.A. (1996). "A brief history of LIMS". Laboratory Automation and Information Management. 32 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/1381 ... A laboratory information management system (LIMS), sometimes referred to as a laboratory information system (LIS) or laboratory ... Laboratory Automation and Information Management. 32 (1): 1-5. doi:10.1016/1381-141X(95)00024-K. D. O. Skobelev; T. M. Zaytseva ... "Laboratory information management systems in the work of the analytic laboratory". Measurement Techniques. 53 (10): 1182-1189. ...
It also has 130 laboratories and workshops. La Javeriana is among the leading universities researching the Muisca people and ... the Technological Industrial Automation Center; the Geo-referenced Information Center, GIC; the Javeriana Center of Oncology; ... The School of Engineering Laboratory Building (the tallest building on campus with a total of 15 floors) that opened its doors ...
... and laboratory automation. Instigated by the pharmaceutical industry's need for flexible laboratory automation, the initiative ... Laboratory automation, therefore, has become instrumental to the progress of the life sciences. Industry provides commercial ... Researchgate on SiLA: Basic Standards for Rapid Integration in Laboratory Automation SiLA 2 Hands-on Autonomous Robot running ... It is built to connect systems in a laboratory, such as laboratory information management systems, electronic lab notebooks, ...
This article will look at the increasing use of automation in microbiology and how it is aiding modern laboratory-based ... Laboratory Automation. How Can Automation Help Microbiology?. Workflow. Using Automation for Assays. Special Sample Types. ... Laboratory Automation. Automation has been used in laboratories for decades, and, indeed, any use of machinery in the ... Using Automation for Assays. Laboratory automation can significantly improve the quality and efficiency of traditional assays, ...
In laboratory automation, you can implement tailor-made applications with Festo for preparing samples in the smallest of spaces ... Laboratory automation. Modular solutions for every task. From identifying and checking the sample carriers to opening and ... The extremely compact rotary gripper module EHMD is ideal for applications in laboratory automation such as opening and closing ... We help you expand your toolbox of laboratory automation solutions with an extensive catalogue of perfectly coordinated ...
A large obstacle to the implementation of automation in laboratories has been its high cost. Many laboratory instruments are ... The most widely known application of laboratory automation technology is laboratory robotics. More generally, the field of ... Laboratory techniques, Laboratory equipment, Robotics, Laboratory automation). ... optimize and capitalize on technologies in the laboratory that enable new and improved processes. Laboratory automation ...
Syllabus for Laboratory Automation in Life Sciences. The syllabus is valid from Autumn 2023. ... The course gives an introduction to theory and methods for automation of laboratory protocols, mainly in a biology-related ... Mandatory parts: Laboratory work and group exercises. Written presentation of some laboratory work. The course is given in ... laboratory environment. The course gives an overview of different types of automation within bioscience, instruments, robots ...
Beckman Coulter Life Sciences explore the basics for integrating laboratory automation and the industries, workflows, and ... Additional Automation Information. * Fundamentals of Laboratory Automation * 7 Questions Before Buying a Liquid Handler ... Getting Started with Laboratory Automation. As labs of varying sizes have discovered over the past decades, automating manual ... When purchasing laboratory automation, one of the early decisions to make is how much of the workflow will be automated. ...
Your partner in chemistry automation Skalar is established in 1965 as a producer of analyzers for the laboratory and process ... Every laboratory knows sample splitting and dilution can be a huge time expense for laboratories. To remedy this, we have ... Skalars extensive range of robotic analyzers offers the routine analytical laboratories flexible and tailor-made automation ... We provide multiple analytical automation solutions within a market. On the industry page its easier to find your automation ...
Your partner in chemistry automation Skalar is established in 1965 as a producer of analyzers for the laboratory and process ... Every laboratory knows sample splitting and dilution can be a huge time expense for laboratories. To remedy this, we have ... Skalars extensive range of robotic analyzers offers the routine analytical laboratories flexible and tailor-made automation ... We provide multiple analytical automation solutions within a market. On the industry page its easier to find your automation ...
... we read about the advent of automation in some new field that was previously the exclusive domain of human workers. The desire ... Many laboratory automation vendors, from suppliers of diagnostic laboratory systems to the large track line automation vendors ... Automation throughout the samples life cycle. When addressing laboratory automation, it can be tempting to think entirely in ... Automation. Brooks Automation highlights expanded clinical automation capabilities at 2023 AACC Expo ...
Formulatrixs Rover Laboratory Automation Platform to support sample preparation will be featured at booth #1335 during the ... Formulatrixs Rover Laboratory Automation Platform to support sample preparation will be featured at booth #1335 during the ... Formulatrix will feature its Rover Laboratory Automation Platform to support sample preparation during the SLAS 2018 conference ...
... into our automation solutions. But laboratory automation from Anton Paar is not limited to analytics only. Also the required ... Automated particle characterization for maximum efficiency: Anton Paars solutions for laboratory automation. ... He has many years of experience in laboratory automation and project development. He has a Masters Degree in Mechanical ... Automated particle characterization for maximum efficiency: Anton Paars solutions for laboratory automation. ...
As laboratories become increasingly automated, having the right robots able to select tools and perform precision operations ...
Live Online Conference: Laboratory Optimization and Automation - Part of PharmaLab 2020 10. November 2020. ... 16.00 - 16.30 h - Fusion of a Microbiological with a Chemical / Analytical Laboratory. Dr Franz Tüchler, VelaLabs - A Tentamus ... 14.15 - 14.45 h - Lean Lab Design: Laboratory Planning for new Buildings and Refurbishments. Dr Wolf-Christian Gerstner, Geniu ... 13.45 - 14.15 h - Data Integrity critically examined in the Laboratory - Ubiquitous Traps in a Hybrid Environment. Timo ...
Automation. Metrology Additional industries. Dental medicine Laboratory automation Micro automation Nanotechnology ...
Welcome to the 4th Annual Event in the Laboratory Automation & Informatics Virtual Event Series; a free virtual conference for ... Vice President at Accelerated Technology Laboratories, Inc. a LIMS, laboratory automation and informatics firm. She is an ... Welcome to the 4th Annual Event in the Laboratory Automation & Informatics Virtual Event Series; a free virtual conference for ... Amar serves on the program committees of the Society of Laboratory Automation and Screening (SLAS), IEEE Transducers, and IEEE ...
PR-PR: cross-platform laboratory automation system. Published in:. ACS Synth Biol 3(8) , 515-24 (Aug 15 2014) ... To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have ... JGI is a DOE Office of Science User Facility managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory © 1997-2023 The Regents of the ... the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. ...
... food safety testing and pharmaceutical laboratories. Fully compatible with all available automated specimen processors, the ... Automation-compatible prepared culture media plate technology boosts laboratory efficiency and throughput. By Industry News ... "As clinical, food safety testing and pharmaceutical laboratories embrace the automation of routine analyses, scientists ... Institute of Packaging Professionals Packaging Automation Forum. Our sixth annual Packaging Automation Forum will feature peer- ...
"Understanding Laboratory Automation in Clinical Microbiology." Authored by Dr. Do Young Kim, the article provides a detailed ... overview of the current state of Full Laboratory Automation (FLA), the challenges it faces, and the exciting potential it holds ...
The Latin America laboratory automation market reached a value of US$ 364.7 Million in 2022. On account of these factors, the ... The Latin America laboratory automation market size reached US$ 364.7 Million in 2022. Looking forward, IMARC Group expects the ... Laboratory automation refers to the utilization of a broad range of devices, software, and processes for minimizing human ... The Latin America laboratory automation market is primarily driven by the growing adoption of international medical standards ...
The talk will focus on educating attendees on the role that laboratory automation and LIMS plays in facilitating new and ... ATL will provide a presentation at the 2021 Laboratory Automation Virtual Event on May 19th. This virtual event allows ... Accelerated Technology Laboratories (ATL), headquartered in West End, NC, provides LIMS and laboratory automation solutions to ... along with the role of LIMS and other laboratory automation tools that can be used to help analytical laboratory professionals ...
Laboratory automation companies: We can provide you with an customized platform with lab equipment to your needs, combined with ... Pioneering the future of laboratory automation companies. Are you on a quest for a laboratory solution that promises efficiency ... creating a symbiosis that is set to redefine how you view laboratory operations in the world of laboratory automation companies ... At the heart of this automation journey stands the laboratory robots. These marvels of modern technology are prized for their ...
PhD has been appointed to the board of directors of the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening (SLAS). SLAS is an ... industry and government life sciences researchers and developers and providers of laboratory automation technology. ... With his background, Jan will be a valuable board member, furthering our support of laboratory automation start-ups as well as ... InSphero CEO and Co-Founder Jan Lichtenberg Appointed to Board of Directors of the Society for Laboratory Automation and ...
Automation Laboratory. The automation laboratory is a practical team exercise, supporting the Manufacturing Systems Engineering ... In the laboratory, students apply the principles of planning automation, CAM/CNC, programming logic controllers, robotics, ... IfM Home > Education > Undergraduate - Manufacturing Engineering Tripos > MET IIB (4th year students) > Automation Laboratory ... Automation Laboratory Module on the MET course. ...
Laboratory PAS is your one stop shop for laboratory consumables! Were proud to carry labels compatible with all major ... laboratory information/software systems (including Misys/Sunquest, Meditech, and Cerner), specimen identification labels, ...
Short History of Laboratory Automation. The history of laboratory automation is still quite young. The first attempts can be ... Today, automation solutions are widespread in traditional industry. Laboratory automation is part of automation technology and ... Advantages and Disadvantages of Laboratory Automation. The main goal of the automation of laboratory processes has not changed ... Laboratory Automation - A Definition. The term "automation" first appeared in 1936. Harder used it to describe the transfer of ...
The past, present and future of automation and digitalization in the life sciences laboratory. Klaus Lun and Dr. Chris Mason ... Klaus Lun and Chris Mason about the past, present and future of automation and digitalization in the life sciences laboratory ... Lab Diagnostics and Automation eBook. Compilation of the top interviews, articles, and news in the last year. ... Scientists produce for the first time an infectious form of the hepatitis C virus in laboratory cultures of human cells The ...
... its possible to improve laboratory revenue with coding and billing, optimized A/R, and insurance discovery. Read our blog ... Improve Laboratory Revenue and Reduce Overhead. Using advanced automation solutions allows a laboratory to improve its revenue ... Talk To An Automation Expert * Automation Platform Flexible cloud-based technology platform with minimal setup, configuration ... Revenue Cycle Automation. Leverage robotic process automation to quickly execute simple patient access and revenue cycle ...
This new laboratory robotic platform fits perfectly with your balance automation needs but can also be configured to all other ... This new configurable laboratory robotic platform makes it possible to automate all your logistics operations when preparing ... Finally, the fields of application for our configurable laboratory robotics platform are multiple. It can be used in the ... XpertLogistics is a modular platform concept adaptable to the needs of all laboratories for distribution, solution preparation ...
In this blog we will talk more about the benefits of laboratory automation as well as some of our very own solutions at ... So, what is laboratory automation?. Laboratory automation is the utilisation of technology to automate and simplify laboratory ... Our laboratory automation solutions. We provide a number of solutions for laboratory automation. One of those products is the ... What are the benefits of laboratory automation?. One key benefit of automation in the laboratory is increased efficiency. ...
  • The term 'classic workflow' describes the manual processes currently in use in many microbiology laboratories worldwide. (
  • Laboratory automation is a multi-disciplinary strategy to research, develop, optimize and capitalize on technologies in the laboratory that enable new and improved processes. (
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  • As part of laboratory work, students both consolidate and deepen the PLC programming skills, received within previous courses, and learn how to develop control algorithms of increased complexity, as the Siemens Simatic S7 controllers are used for energy, chemical processes, food, agriculture and utilities automation as in many other equally important industries. (
  • The Cerner laboratory solutions can automate clinical, financial, and managerial processes in the clinical laboratory. (
  • Automation can improve process efficiency and achieve leaner workflows by removing the necessity for human intervention. (
  • Optimize healthcare payment lifecycle workflows and increase reimbursements with a comprehensive technology platform powered by AI, automation, analytics, integrations and intelligent workforce management. (
  • The ThermoFisher Laboratory Automation System (LAS) serves as the cornerstone technology for the facility, enabling execution of automated customized synthetic biology and workflows at >500 samples-per-week. (
  • While the dream of an automated laboratory can be appealing, the actual implementation process - choosing the right robots, integrating the workflows, and managing it all through software - is often daunting. (
  • applied in terms of automation, which would allow better workflows with fewer resources. (
  • Optimise workflows within the laboratory and support the sharing of information across your network. (
  • The most widely known application of laboratory automation technology is laboratory robotics. (
  • Helmut Löscher is a Sales Manager at Anton Paar's Automation & Robotics department. (
  • Laboratory automation today is a complex integration of robotics, computers, liquid handling systems and numerous other technologies. (
  • Finally, the fields of application for our configurable laboratory robotics platform are multiple. (
  • XpertLogistics is therefore the essential laboratory robotics platform to manage your sample logistics! (
  • Machinery and robotics for laboratory use follows a specific design concept wherein its functionality is dependent on what is it programmed and designed for. (
  • From mobile robotics, machine vision, and human-machine collaboration to lights-out automation, voice control, and end-to-end data integration, the Acceleration Lab gives you a preview of how automation can help you get to your goals faster. (
  • IMARC Group provides an analysis of the key trends in each segment of the Latin America laboratory automation market report, along with forecasts at the regional and country levels from 2023-2028. (
  • 2023 Pharmacy Automation Supplies All Rights Reserved. (
  • The report researches and analyzes the influence of the Laboratory Automation industry in the new era of global post-COIVD-19 economy in 2023, and provides in-depth analysis and professional suggestions on the current development. (
  • Accelerated Technology Laboratories, Inc. (ATL), a leader in Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS), is excited to be among the academic and industry leaders presenting at the Fifth Annual Laboratory Automation Virtual Event on Wednesday, May 19, 2021 . (
  • LIMS and Data Integrity in the Age of COVID will focus on the fact that clinical and analytical testing laboratories generate an enormous amount of meta data related to everything from specimen demographics and tracking to laboratory supplies and reagents to testing data generated from instruments. (
  • This presentation will examine the importance of data integrity, along with the role of LIMS and other laboratory automation tools that can be used to help analytical laboratory professionals to produce, manage, analyze, and maintain high quality data. (
  • ATL's LIMS products are installed in over 600 laboratories around the world and supported by a steadfast commitment to excellence in product quality, support and training. (
  • The LAS is equipped with over of over 10 functional instrumental components, including: a state-of-the-art SpinnakerTM microplate robot, automated incubators, reagent dispensers, thermal cyclers, plate sealer, and carousels/racks that are seamlessly integrated through the MOMENTUMTM application programming interface that is fully-compatible with laboratory information management systems (LIMS). (
  • We also use the Acceleration Lab to test integrations with customer-preferred data analysis systems and laboratory information management system (LIMS) software. (
  • Schlieren, Switzerland - March 16, 2021 InSphero AG , the pioneer of 3D cell-based assay technology, today announced that CEO and co-founder Jan Lichtenberg, PhD has been appointed to the board of directors of the Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening (SLAS). (
  • The consultant was supported by the WHO laboratory expert from WHO/AFRO who was in country from 7-18 December 2021 as well as WHO Country Office staff. (
  • The technical support was concluded on 10th December 2021 with a successful debriefing session with the laboratory team at the NHL director's office, followed by a presentation of the main results to the senior management and the Honourable Minister of Health. (
  • An ideal laboratory automation system in microbiological research studies must be able to process different agar plates, broths, slides, and specimen containers, for instance. (
  • Laboratory automation can significantly improve the quality and efficiency of traditional assays, which are a significant element of microbiological studies. (
  • The launch of a robust, easy-to-handle, sustainable plate design for prepared culture media products in the U.S. and Canada supports the latest automated and manual methods for the analysis of microbiological samples for clinical, food safety testing and pharmaceutical laboratories. (
  • Microbiology laboratories are undergoing a rapid transformation, with several changes presenting challenges for researchers. (
  • The objectives of this technical support were to (1) conduct a situation analysis for the current activities at the microbiology laboratory, (2) define minimal requirements for the microbiology national reference laboratory (NRL) to support the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, and (3) develop a road map for the upgrading of the microbiology laboratories at national and zonal level. (
  • More generally, the field of laboratory automation comprises many different automated laboratory instruments, devices (the most common being autosamplers), software algorithms, and methodologies used to enable, expedite and increase the efficiency and effectiveness of scientific research in laboratories. (
  • The result can be big wins in productivity and efficiency, not to mention error-proofing the laboratory, at all stages. (
  • As clinical, food safety testing and pharmaceutical laboratories embrace the automation of routine analyses, scientists increasingly rely on prepared culture media plates to enable greater efficiency, while maintaining the highest levels of accuracy," said Bernd Hofmann, vice president of marketing, microbiology, Thermo Fisher Scientific. (
  • It is primarily used for improving the efficiency of the laboratory through the use of robots, conveyors, software, and machine vision technologies. (
  • Laboratory automation helps in saving time, reducing costs, eliminating human errors and improving the efficiency of experiments. (
  • Are you on a quest for a laboratory solution that promises efficiency, sustainability, and intuitive design all rolled into one? (
  • One key benefit of automation in the laboratory is increased efficiency. (
  • With automation, laboratories can improve the quality of their research while also reducing costs and increasing efficiency. (
  • The present manager of the Clinical Laboratory (CL) has had to examine cost control as well as rationing - meaning that the CL's focus has not been strictly metrological, as if it were purely a system producing results, but instead has had to concentrate on its efficiency and efficacy. (
  • The Rise of Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) Total laboratory automation (TLA) is a significant leap forward, creating substantial opportunities for productivity enhancement and efficiency gains. (
  • Plan now to have your poster included in the 2020 Laboratory Automation & Informatics Virtual Event. (
  • Laboratories devoted to activities such as high-throughput screening, combinatorial chemistry, automated clinical and analytical testing, diagnostics, large-scale biorepositories, and many others, would not exist without advancements in laboratory automation. (
  • In addition, integrating automated systems with multiple widely used laboratory devices helps optimize throughput, improve results quality and further contain/decrease costs. (
  • By championing standardised procedures, our aim is to offer your laboratory the promise of impressive throughput rates, complemented by outcomes that stand out in their accuracy and reproducibility. (
  • In addition to the requirements of clinical laboratories, the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methods in the pharmaceutical industry has been of particular importance for the development of laboratory automation since the 1980s. (
  • Another benefit of automation is increased throughput. (
  • High throughput Laboratory Automation simplifies the process of conducting automated measurements, encompassing a wide range of parameters such as automated Density, Specific Gravity (SG), Optical Rotation (OR), Specific Rotation (SR), Refractive Index (RI), Brix, Color (Reflectance and Transmittance), pH measurements, and more. (
  • The perfect automation solution for your high throughput laboratory allows your staff to start a measurement and go to work on other tasks. (
  • The Modular Sample Processor, a development from the global laboratory equipment manufacturer Anton Paar, is one such solution - and uses electric axes and control systems from Festo. (
  • Anton Paar offers versatile possibilities for custom tailored laboratory automatization. (
  • The options range from the integration of particle characterization instruments, different further analytics from Anton Paar (e.g. rheology, density, viscometry, density), and also instruments from 3rd party suppliers (e.g. pH, titration, etc.) into our automation solutions. (
  • But laboratory automation from Anton Paar is not limited to analytics only. (
  • There are two principal components to laboratory automation: hardware and workflow. (
  • These two principles are intrinsically linked, as adjusting the workflow to realize automation potentials helps realize the automation potential of hardware. (
  • The current discussion amongst microbiologists is achieving 'total lab automation,' where all steps in the diagnostic workflow from inoculation to final results are automated. (
  • When purchasing laboratory automation, one of the early decisions to make is how much of the workflow will be automated. (
  • When considering the adoption of a new laboratory automation solution, whether a new clinical analyzer or an automated laboratory track line, utilizing a workflow analysis can net huge benefits fo a laboratory. (
  • A workflow study provides lab leaders with a clear, data-driven picture of what the laboratory is doing "right now. (
  • Perhaps even more important, a good workflow analysis can capture the attention of all stakeholders in regard to the introduction of a new automation solution. (
  • Many laboratory automation vendors, from suppliers of diagnostic laboratory systems to the large track line automation vendors, offer workflow analyses to their clients. (
  • When auditioning a new automation solution, whether it's a new hematology analyzer, a total workflow solution for infectious disease testing, or a redesign of laboratory space from sample intake to results delivery, lab directors should be thinking in terms of re-creating their lab for tomorrow's testing. (
  • Besides this, laboratory automation solutions are also used for maintaining patient test records, database management tools and integrated workflow management systems. (
  • When we speak of laboratory automation companiesx, we aren't restricting our vision to broad workflow enhancements. (
  • Accelerate maximum claim reimbursements, overcome denials and reduce future denials with AI, automation, intelligent workflow management, advanced analytics and billing specialists. (
  • Cerner remains focused on optimising the workflow of the modern laboratory. (
  • A 2017 study indicates that these commercial-scale, fully integrated automated laboratories can improve reproducibility and transparency in basic biomedical experiments, and that over nine in ten biomedical papers use methods currently available through these groups. (
  • Automation also leads to improved reproducibility of results. (
  • A large obstacle to the implementation of automation in laboratories has been its high cost. (
  • To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. (
  • Enable data automation and reporting , to authorize secure transfer of service delivery data for public health use, minimizing data collection burden, reducing report delay, and accelerating implementation of new or revised public health reporting when needed. (
  • Laboratories in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical and food technology industries are increasingly relying on automation for sample preparation. (
  • Skalar manufactures a range of automated chemistry analyzers i.e. for the environmental, pharmaceutical, agricultural, detergent, food and beverage laboratory with a worldwide sales, support and distribution. (
  • These include a wide variety of laboratories that work in the fields of medical diagnostics, environmental analysis or quality control - e.g. in the pharmaceutical industry, food monitoring or generally in industrial production. (
  • We're proud to carry labels compatible with all major laboratory information/software systems (including Misys/Sunquest, Meditech, and Cerner), specimen identification labels, consecutive bar-codes stickers, and more. (
  • Our solutions are designed to help you manage your laboratory logistical operations, including specimen collection services, client supply distributions and phlebotomy scheduling. (
  • Collecting the appropriate specimen at the right time and transporting it to the laboratory under proper conditions are critical pre-analytic components of the testing process. (
  • The specimen submitted to the microbiology laboratory should represent the infectious process in evolution. (
  • and biopsy specimens of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, muscles, bone, and any other specimen should be promptly transported to the laboratory for rapid Gram staining and culture (or kept refrigerated for the shortest possible period). (
  • Detailed specimen collection and processing instructions are discussed in the NHANES Laboratory/Medical Technologists Procedures Manual (LPM). (
  • The application of technology in today's laboratories is required to achieve timely progress and remain competitive. (
  • Skalar analyzers meet the highest quality standards and have proven to be the most reliable and economical choice in today's modern routine laboratory. (
  • Some labs might be ready to integrate only a few steps of the analytical process, while others aspire to achieve total laboratory automation (TLA). (
  • Formulatrix's Rover Laboratory Automation Platform to support sample preparation will be featured at booth #1335 during the SLAS conference in San Diego, CA, on Feb. 5-8, 2018. (
  • Formulatrix will feature its Rover Laboratory Automation Platform to support sample preparation during the SLAS 2018 conference in San Diego, CA, on Feb. 5-8, 2018, the company announced on Jan. 22, 2018. (
  • SLAS is an international professional society of academic, industry and government life sciences researchers and developers and providers of laboratory automation technology. (
  • We help you expand your toolbox of laboratory automation solutions with an extensive catalogue of perfectly coordinated components for sample handling and liquid control. (
  • We also have the design and engineering capacities to deliver customised automation solutions that are tailored to your customers' needs. (
  • Exciting options exist to provide cutting-edge automation and testing solutions to patient samples. (
  • The need for flexibility and adaptability in the laboratory is guiding more and more laboratorians to look for solutions that continue to grow their panel selections in diagnostic systems, as well as the ability to offer flexibility to third-party providers when talking about track line solutions. (
  • In Latin America, various organizations are adopting laboratory automation solutions to improve productivity and mitigate the rise in costs associated with wastage. (
  • Given the ever-evolving landscape of research laboratories, there's a pressing need for software solutions that are as dynamic as the challenges they aim to address. (
  • With our curated lab platforms and trailblazing software solutions, we stand ready to guide your organisation into a futuristic vision of lab automation companies . (
  • With the beginning of World War II, there was a further boost in the development of automation solutions in process control. (
  • In this blog we will talk more about the benefits of laboratory automation as well as some of our very own solutions. (
  • We provide a number of solutions for laboratory automation. (
  • The Acceleration Lab is a development and demonstration environment for advanced life science automation and software systems where we invite customers to come in and see how these solutions work. (
  • Our goal is to establish innovative partnerships that allow our customers to implement their automation solutions quickly so they can concentrate on the science. (
  • Built on robust scalable technology, our laboratory solutions are used worldwide in all conceivable configurations from single site limited disciplines to multi-site full service labs. (
  • How do Cerner's laboratory solutions create efficiencies? (
  • What does Cerner's laboratory suite of solutions include? (
  • Cerner offers a suite of solutions targeted toward the key segments of the complex laboratory: blood sciences, microbiology, cellular pathology, molecular diagnostics, and laboratory logistical services. (
  • Does my facility have to use the Millennium electronic health record (EHR) to use Cerner's laboratory solutions? (
  • No. Although many of Cerner's laboratory solutions are built on the Millennium platform, Cerner's laboratory solutions are EHR agnostic. (
  • There were several factors identified as causes for this delay and all of these have now been addressed except for an identified need for automation of some high-volume assays (currently being negotiated). (
  • With these present concepts in mind, automation and virological treatment, along with serology in general, follow the same criteria as the rest of the operating methodology in the Clinical Laboratory. (
  • The NHANES quality control and quality assurance protocols (QA/QC) meet the 1988 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act mandates. (
  • The course gives an overview of different types of automation within bioscience, instruments, robots and associated biological applications. (
  • At the heart of this automation journey stands the laboratory robots . (
  • The beginning of the 1970s saw the introduction of robots into clinical laboratories and thus the era of total automation. (
  • This re-engineering has been based on the concepts of consolidating and integrating the analytical platforms, while differentiating the production areas (CORE Laboratory) from the information areas. (
  • These first devices were mostly built by scientists themselves in order to solve problems in the laboratory. (
  • The Laboratory automation and technology field is comprised of various instrumentation and devices that utilize basic medical methodologies and software algorithms to perform scientific tasks involving testing and diagnostics to garner an efficient and effective output. (
  • Portable diagnostic instruments meant for POC testing are witnessing growing adoption in the veterinary diagnostics space, mainly due to the challenges encountered in conventional testing, such as the collection and transportation of samples to a high-quality veterinary reference laboratory. (
  • Laboratory automation is fundamentally altering the world of diagnostics, as well as changing how the careers of life science professionals unfold. (
  • Automation steadily spread in laboratories through the 20th century, but then a revolution took place: in the early 1980s, the first fully automated laboratory was opened by Dr. Masahide Sasaki. (
  • A revolution in this field occurred in the 1980s when Dr. Masahide Sasaki opened the first fully automated laboratory [8]. (
  • The technology present in laboratories is imperative to timely research and data output. (
  • The innovative SmartPlate technology offers a sustainable assay plate design that reduces the resin materials used to manufacture each plate, as well as minimizing laboratory waste thanks to its advanced durability. (
  • Our sixth annual Packaging Automation Forum will feature peer-to-peer education about how to increase productivity, flexibility and performance using state-of-the-art packaging controls and information technology. (
  • As a microfluidics engineer and entrepreneur, he saw a critical need for the combination of 3D cell technology and automation to deliver more physiologically relevant insights for drug discovery and development. (
  • Laboratory automation is part of automation technology and pursues the goal of developing and optimizing technologies for automating classic laboratories. (
  • Laboratory Automation is the application of various forms of technology, utilized to achieve a more efficient, accurate and convenient output. (
  • With that, laboratory automation makes use of laboratory informatics, a specific field in the information technology industry which is specific to the optimization of laboratory devices and operations. (
  • It is because of the growing need of specific tools to perform various laboratory requirements that make this type of automation technology a continually innovative and constantly developing industry. (
  • Despite the success of Dr. Sasaki laboratory and others of the kind, the multi-million dollar cost of such laboratories has prevented adoption by smaller groups. (
  • The Latin America laboratory automation market is primarily driven by the growing adoption of international medical standards for disease diagnosis. (
  • The main driving factors are increasing adoption of latest and technologically advanced instruments and consumable in veterinary reference laboratory across the globe. (
  • Support digital enablement and business transformation for electronic laboratory and case reporting, and the adoption of computable specifications and SMART guidelines. (
  • The Impact of COVID-19 on Cancer (IMCOCA), a Projet Structurant funded by Cancéropôle Lyon Auvergne Rhône-Alpes ( CLARA ), aims to: (i) describe the experiences of health-care providers and researchers on the adaptability of laboratory guidelines and recommendations published during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (ii) characterize the dependence of the adaptability of such guidelines on the local context. (
  • XpertLogistics is a modular platform concept adaptable to the needs of all laboratories for distribution, solution preparation and sample logistics management. (
  • Parallel sample processing was increasingly used in the automation of bioscreening. (
  • Automation in the laboratory is becoming increasingly popular as it offers many benefits over traditional manual methods. (
  • However, there are devices employed in the laboratory that are not highly technological but still are very expensive. (
  • For the early diagnosis of diseases caused by microorganisms such as the one just mentioned, laboratory tests are performed, including inoculation in culture media for the proliferation of said microorganisms, however, the techniques used are manual, delaying technological progress. (
  • Cell culture isolation of SARS-CoV-2 is possible, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that clinical laboratories not attempt this unless it is performed in a biosafety level 3 (BSL-3)-certified laboratory. (
  • In summary, the main recommendations for the scale-up of the microbiology laboratory at the national and zonal levels included ensuring (1) urgent training of staff on sample analysis, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, biosafety and quality assurance, (2) improving of bacterial identification through introduction of bacteria identification kits (such as API kits), (3) purchasing international standards, and (4) renovating the NHL microbiology laboratory to meet the biosafety standards. (
  • For example, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis offers a graduate program devoted to Laboratory Informatics. (
  • The Ministry of Health Eritrea requested the technical support of WHO to assess the capacities needed to upgrade the microbiology laboratory which is part of the National Health Laboratory (NHL) and to develop the roadmap for the upgrading of the laboratory. (
  • Strong laboratory capacities are essential for detecting and responding to emerging and re-emerging global health threats. (
  • Automation is a trend that is affecting all areas of scientific research. (
  • This article will look at the increasing use of automation in microbiology and how it is aiding modern laboratory-based research. (
  • Laboratory automation professionals are academic, commercial and government researchers, scientists and engineers who conduct research and develop new technologies to increase productivity, elevate experimental data quality, reduce lab process cycle times, or enable experimentation that otherwise would be impossible. (
  • BCNet research, in collaboration with BCNet partners and members, focuses on three axes: (i) the development of validated, harmonized protocols customized for LMICs (including innovations, for example in automation and digital health), (ii) research on ethical, legal, and social aspects of biobanking, and (iii) research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on biobanking and overall support of research activities. (
  • The research methods range from experimental analysis of laboratory-scale systems to computer simulations of detailed dynamic models of national power systems. (
  • Automation quantitatively increased the sample analyses per day, from but a few, to hundreds, or thousands per day, while maintaining a high degree of accuracy. (
  • Leverage robotic process automation to quickly execute simple patient access and revenue cycle activities, data entry and process large amounts of data in multiple, disparate systems. (
  • This new configurable laboratory robotic platform makes it possible to automate all your logistics operations when preparing and analysing samples. (
  • XpertLogistics is an ergonomic robotic platform, perfectly suited to daily logistics operations in laboratories. (
  • In 1993, Dr. Rod Markin at the University of Nebraska Medical Center created one of the world's first clinical automated laboratory management systems. (
  • Furthermore, the utilization of automation systems has increased the productivity of the drug discovery process as it operates for long hours with minimal monitoring and instruction. (
  • Our speciality lies in moulding automated systems, for the developing of lab automation companies, that resonate with the unique needs of diverse sectors, including pharmaceuticals, crop science, and CROs. (
  • The automation laboratory is a practical team exercise, supporting the Manufacturing Systems Engineering module. (
  • The first true automated systems appeared in medical laboratories in the mid-1950s. (
  • Perfect complementarity with the other Xpert Automation systems (XpertDose® and the Plate Labelling Machine). (
  • Teachers and students have created the laboratory training stands that let the possibility to develop automation systems for different complexity levels objects. (
  • The subject areas covered cover but are not limited to power systems analysis, electrical machines, power electronics, signal processing and power system automation. (
  • Getting buy-in early, with clear, objective data, can save headaches throughout a laboratory automation journey. (
  • The need for high quality data is always important but is especially critical during a pandemic where poor decisions and delays in laboratory analysis can cost billions of dollars, and more importantly, loss of life. (
  • Used by laboratories to monitor the ambient and storage areas such as fridges and freezers, alarms can be set to automatically notify the laboratory of any excursions and data is automatically sent to the cloud portal. (
  • This field involves scientific data management, data reporting, data acquisition, data processing and the utilization of various laboratory devices and equipment. (
  • Some of the fastest data from a laboratory automation system in the industry. (
  • Visit our Gen 3 Imperium-MOCVD™ Control Software and Automation page to view current information, as we offer a brochure and data sheet for customer inspection. (
  • The analysis of NHANES 2003-2004 laboratory data must be conducted with the key survey design and basic demographic variables. (
  • This can significantly increase the productivity of a laboratory and help to meet tight deadlines. (
  • Using the SIEMENS controllers within the learning process gives the practical experience of real automation problems solving, which can significantly increase the value of specialists graduated by the department for the labor market. (
  • the delay in returning laboratory test results increased significantly. (
  • Some startups such as Emerald Cloud Lab and Strateos provide on-demand and remote laboratory access on a commercial scale. (
  • The Laboratory Automation report equips organizations with a comprehensive understanding of market dynamics, facilitating the formulation of strategic plans based on opportunities and informed decisions. (
  • making it the first diagnostic laboratory to be certified in Nigeria. (
  • The Irish HSE signed a contract in September 2015 with Cerner for the introduction of an integrated nationwide hospital laboratory information system over the next four years. (
  • [314 Pages Report] The global veterinary reference laboratory market is projected to reach USD 6.4 billion by 2027 from USD 4.1 billion in 2022, at a CAGR of 9.3% during the forecast period. (
  • Automation of some sample analysis and introduction of molecular testing methods for the reference laboratory were also be considered. (
  • So far, using such low-cost devices together with laboratory equipment was considered to be very difficult. (
  • Here, we have married state-of-the-art bespoke laboratory equipment with our cutting-edge proprietary software, PlateButler®, creating a symbiosis that is set to redefine how you view laboratory operations in the world of laboratory automation companies . (
  • Withnell Sensors are a UKAS ISO17025 Accredited Laboratory, specialising in temperature and humidity calibration, we also supply temperature monitoring and storage equipment for laboratory automation. (
  • When dealing with the manufacture of laboratory equipment, the initial phase begins with an assessment of what type of machinery is necessary. (
  • Automation has been used in laboratories for decades, and, indeed, any use of machinery in the laboratory can be considered automation. (
  • The course gives an introduction to theory and methods for automation of laboratory protocols, mainly in a biology-related laboratory environment. (
  • Pre-planning can make the transition to laboratory automation more robust and effective, and also turn possible resistance by some staff and stakeholders into support. (
  • With his background, Jan will be a valuable board member, furthering our support of laboratory automation start-ups as well as our leading-edge educational programming. (
  • New technologies that can ensure rapid result generation and real-time convenience of diagnosis will reduce the number of samples shared with reference laboratories by hospitals, clinics, and farms, which is expected to hamper the growth of this market. (
  • Your plans will invariably include evaluating new products and technologies, which provides the opportunity to identify vendors/partners with the science and laboratory automation expertise to help you successfully implement your automation and integration plans. (
  • We continuously broaden functionality and usability within the laboratory through regular software releases and ongoing strategic partnership development. (
  • Artificial intelligence in the pediatric echocardiography laboratory: Automation, physiology, and outcomes. (
  • A first major push for laboratory automation came from the coal and power generation industries. (
  • In addition, automation can improve safety in the laboratory. (
  • The automation design revolves around acquiring the necessary healthcare delivery and laboratory output with less profitability that is geared to improve the laboratory services provided for at decreased cost. (
  • The extremely compact rotary gripper module EHMD is ideal for applications in laboratory automation such as opening and closing a wide variety of small sample vials. (
  • Every laboratory knows sample splitting and dilution can be a huge time expense for laboratories. (
  • Lab automation continues to transform the testing experience, moving into the areas of formerly labor-intensive testing such as mass spectrometry and immunofluorescence, not to mention the mechanization of both pre- and post-sample processing. (
  • When addressing laboratory automation, it can be tempting to think entirely in terms of the transformation of the pure sample testing process. (
  • In order to ease the logistics aspects of sample management, Xpert Automation developed XpertLogistics. (