Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)

The heat-stable antigen determines pathogenicity of self-reactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (1/107)

Induction of myelin-specific CD4 T cells is a pivotal event in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Other checkpoints in EAE pathogenesis have not been clearly defined, although multiple genetic loci are known to influence EAE development. We report here that targeted mutation of the heat-stable antigen (HSA) abrogates development of EAE despite a complete lack of effect on induction of autoimmune T cells. To test whether T-cell expression of HSA is sufficient, we created transgenic mice in which HSA is expressed exclusively in the T-cell lineage. We found that these mice remain resistant to EAE induction. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that both T cells and non-T cells must express HSA in order for the pathogenic T cells to execute their effector function. Moreover, HSAIg, a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the HSA and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, drastically ameliorates the clinical sign of EAE even when administrated after self-reactive T cells had been expanded. Thus, identification of HSA as a novel checkpoint, even after activation and expansion of self-reactive T cells, provides a novel approach for immunotherapy of autoimmune neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Oligoclonal T cell repertoire in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. (2/107)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the T cell receptor beta chain variable region (TCRBV) gene usage ex vivo in CSF cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. METHODS: A novel sensitive seminestedpolymerase chain reaction coupled with heteroduplex analysis was developed. RESULTS: Under these experimental conditions, the minimal number of cells required for the analysis of the whole T cell repertoire was established at 2.5x10(4)-sufficient to evaluate most of the samples collected during diagnostic lumbar punctures. In the 21 patients examined, restrictions in TCRBV gene family usage were not seen. However, using heteroduplex analysis, oligoclonal T cell expansions were found in the CSF of 13 patients and monoclonal expansions in five patients. The T cell abnormalities found did not correlate with intrathecal IgG production or with any clinical variable considered. CONCLUSION: T cell clonal expansions, useful for further characterisation of pathogenetic T cells, can be found during the course of nervous system inflammations, but this abnormality is probably not disease specific.  (+info)

Paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy associated with anti-Hu antibodies. A clinical and electrophysiological study of 20 patients. (3/107)

Although paraneoplastic subacute sensory neuronopathy is the most frequent presentation of peripheral neuropathy in patients with anti-Hu antibodies, other neuropathies have been reported. In order to investigate the clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of neuropathies associated with anti-Hu antibodies, we conducted a retrospective study of 20 patients. For the electrophysiological study, each nerve was classified as normal, demyelinating, axonal/neuronal or axonal/demyelinating. Peripheral neuropathy was the presenting symptom in 95% of patients. CNS and autonomic neuropathy were present in 40% and 30% of patients, respectively. The course of the neuropathy was acute, mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome in one patient (5%), and subacute (55%) or progressive (40%) in the others. Clinically, the neuropathy was sensory (70%), sensorimotor (25%) or motor (5%). At onset, symptoms were symmetrical (65%), asymmetrical (25%) or multifocal (10%). Pain was a predominant manifestation (80%). Amyotrophia and fasciculations were rare. The median Rankin's score was 2, three patients having an indolent form. Electrophysiology showed the axonal/neuronal pattern to be the most frequent (46.9% of studied nerves); an axonal/demyelinating or demyelinating pattern being seen in 18.3% and 4.9% of nerves, respectively. The axonal/neuronal pattern was more frequent in sensory nerves and the mixed axonal/demyelinating pattern more frequent in motor nerves (P < 0.01). A higher proportion of abnormal nerves correlated with a progressive course (P < 0.05) or a Rankin's score between 3 and 5 (P < 0.01). In patients with sensory neuropathy, 88.5% of sensory nerves were abnormal, mostly with an axonal/neuronal pattern. In addition, 47% of motor nerves were abnormal so that only four out of 14 patients with a clinically pure sensory neuropathy (28.6%) had an electrophysiological pattern typical of sensory neuronopathy. In patients with a sensorimotor neuropathy, 96.6% of sensory and 71% of motor nerves were abnormal. The only statistical difference between sensory and sensorimotor neuropathies was that patients with sensorimotor neuropathy had more frequent motor nerve involvement (P < 0.05) without differences concerning the distribution of the abnormal patterns. Needle neuromyography showed only limited evidence of motor neurone degeneration in both sensory and sensorimotor neuropathy. The present work shows that the typical clinical and electrophysiological pattern of subacute sensory neuronopathy is rarely encountered in patients with anti-Hu antibody and that motor nerve involvement is frequently seen, even in the absence of a motor deficit. In addition to their potential pathophysiological involvement in the mechanism of the paraneoplastic neuropathy, these findings have practical consequences for the diagnosis of the disorder.  (+info)

Myelin protein P0-specific IgM producing monoclonal B cell lines were established from polyneuropathy patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). (4/107)

Monoclonal expansion of B cells and plasma cells, producing antibodies against 'self' molecules, can be found not only in different autoimmune diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy (PN), but also in malignancies, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), as well as in precancerous conditions including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). About 50% of patients with PN-MGUS have serum antibodies against peripheral nerve myelin, but the specific role of these antibodies remains uncertain. The aims of the study were to establish, and characterize, myelin-specific B cell clones from peripheral blood of patients with PN-MGUS, by selection of cells bearing specific membrane Ig-receptors for myelin protein P0, using beads coated with P0. P0-coated magnetic beads were used for selection of cells, which subsequently were transformed by Epstein--Barr virus. The specificity of secreted antibodies was tested by ELISA. Two of the clones producing anti-P0 antibodies were selected and expanded. The magnetic selection procedure was repeated and new clones established. The cells were CD5+ positive, although the expression declined in vitro over time. The anti-P0 antibodies were of IgM-lambda type. The antibodies belonged to the VH3 gene family with presence of somatic mutations. The IgM reacted with P0 and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and showed no evidence for polyreactivity, in contrast to other IgM CD5+ clones included in the study as controls. The expanded clones expressed CD80 and HLA-DR, which is compatible with properties of antigen-presenting cells. The immunomagnetic selection technique was successfully used for isolation of antimyelin protein P0-specific clones. The cell lines may provide useful tools in studies of monoclonal gammopathies, leukaemia, and autoimmune diseases, including aspects of antigen-presentation by these cells followed by T cell activation.  (+info)

Autoimmunity and the basal ganglia: new insights into old diseases. (5/107)

Sydenham's chorea (SC) occurs weeks or months after Group A streptococcal infection, and is characterized by involuntary, purposeless movements of the limbs, in addition to behavioural alteration. There is a body of evidence which suggests that SC is an immune-mediated brain disorder with regional localization to the basal ganglia. Recent reports have suggested that the spectrum of post-streptococcal CNS disease is broader than chorea alone, and includes other hyperkinetic movement disorders (tics, dystonia and myoclonus). In addition, there are high rates of behavioural sequelae, particularly emotional disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. These findings have lead to the hypothesis that similar immune-mediated basal ganglia processes may be operating in common neuropsychiatric disease such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This review analyses the historical aspects of post-streptococcal CNS disease, and the recent immunological studies which have addressed the hypothesis that common neuropsychiatric disorders may be secondary to basal ganglia autoimmunity.  (+info)

Immunization with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces neurological autoimmune disease. (6/107)

Neuronal nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders and in the regulation of small-cell lung carcinoma growth. Twelve subunits have been identified in vertebrates, and mutations of one are recognized in a rare form of human epilepsy. Mice with genetically manipulated neuronal nAChR subunits exhibit behavioral or autonomic phenotypes. Here, we report the first model of an acquired neuronal nAChR disorder and evidence for its pertinence to paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity. Rabbits immunized once with recombinant alpha3 subunit (residues 1-205) develop profound gastrointestinal hypomotility, dilated pupils with impaired light response, and grossly distended bladders. As in patients with idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, the severity parallels serum levels of ganglionic nAChR autoantibody. Failure of neurotransmission through abdominal sympathetic ganglia, with retention of neuronal viability, confirms that the disorder is a postsynaptic channelopathy. In addition, we found ganglionic nAChR protein in small-cell carcinoma lines, identifying this cancer as a potential initiator of ganglionic nAChR autoimmunity. The data support our hypothesis that immune responses driven by distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes expressed in small-cell carcinomas account for several lung cancer-related paraneoplastic disorders affecting cholinergic systems, including autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, seizures, dementia, and movement disorders.  (+info)

Thyrotoxic autoimmune encephalopathy: a repeat positron emission tomography study. (7/107)

Thyroid related autoantibodies have been related to the development of encephalopathy, known as Hashimoto's encephalopathy. However, their relation with the encephalopathy occurring in patients with Graves' disease has not been well established. The case is reported of a 51 year old woman presenting with subacute progressive dementia with evidence of hyperthyroidism. She had Graves' disease associated with high titres of thyroid related autoantibodies. Her encephalopathy was not improved by antithyroid drugs, but promptly responded to corticosteroid treatment, and stabilised with a gradual reduction of thyroid related autoantibody titres. Brain positron emission tomography initially showed a diffuse and multifocal cerebral hypometabolism with subsequent normalisation on her clinical recovery, which was consistent with the acute and reversible cerebral inflammation probably mediated by autoimmune mechanisms.  (+info)

Tourette's syndrome: a cross sectional study to examine the PANDAS hypothesis. (8/107)

BACKGROUND: The classical neurological disorder after group A beta haemolytic streptococcal infection is Sydenham's chorea. Recently a tic disorder occurring after group A streptococcal infection has been described and termed PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection). It is proposed that antibodies induced after group A streptococcal infection react with basal ganglia neurones in Sydenham's chorea and PANDAS. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) are present in most cases of acute Sydenham's chorea, but rarely in controls. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that Tourette's syndrome may be associated with group A streptococcal infection and ABGA. METHODS: 100 patients with Tourette's syndrome (DSM-IV-TR) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Children with neurological disease (n = 50) and recent uncomplicated streptococcal infection (n = 40), adults with neurological disease (n = 50), and healthy adults (n = 50) were studied as controls. Recent group A streptococcal infection was defined using antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT). ABGA were detected using western immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: ASOT was raised in 64% of children with Tourette's syndrome compared with 15% of paediatric neurological disease controls (p < 0.0001), and in 68% of adults with Tourette's syndrome compared with 12% of adult neurological controls and 8% of adult healthy controls (p < 0.05). Western immunoblotting showed positive binding in 20% of children and 27% of adults with Tourette's syndrome, compared with 2-4% of control groups (p < 0.05). The most common basal ganglia binding was to a 60 kDa antigen, similar to the proposed antigen in Sydenham's chorea. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed autoantibody binding to basal ganglia neurones. Serological evidence of recent group A streptococcal infection, assessed by a raised ASOT, was detected in 91% (21/23) of Tourette's syndrome patients with positive ABGA compared with 57% (44/77) with negative ABGA (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results support a role of group A streptococcal infection and basal ganglia autoimmunity in a subgroup of patients with Tourette's syndrome and suggest a pathogenic similarity between Sydenham's chorea and some patients with Tourette's syndrome.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. T2 - A possible postganglionic neuropathy. AU - Manganelli, Fiore. AU - Dubbioso, Raffaele. AU - Nolano, Maria. AU - Iodice, Rosa. AU - Pisciotta, Chiara. AU - Provitera, Vincenzo. AU - Ruggiero, Lucia. AU - Serlenga, Luigi. AU - Barbieri, Fabrizio. AU - Santoro, Lucio. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Objective: To evaluate postganglionic autonomic and somatic nerve fiber involvement in a patient with chronic autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy. Design: Case report. Setting: Department of Neurological Sciences, University Federico II of Naples. Patient: A patient with a 16-year history of severe autonomic failure and a high nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antibody titer underwent an extensive laboratory evaluation. Main Outcome Measures: Evaluation of sympathetic and parasympathetic functions and sural nerve and skin biopsies. Results: Clinical and laboratory evaluations showed the involvement of cardiovascular, pupillary, sudomotor, ...
Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare disease that results in severe dysautonomia (disorder of autonomic nervous system function). Many patients are unable to carry out activities of daily living due to autonomic symptoms that do not respond well to therapy (such as drops in blood pressure while standing). The recent discovery of antibodies that cause AAG has stimulated interest in immunomodulatory therapy (therapies that modify the functioning of the immune system). Studies in which a positive clinical response to these therapies have been reported in patients with AAG using immunomodulatory therapy as a treatment.. The investigators plan to carry out a blinded, randomized trial using IVIG. There have been no reported randomized clinical trials with any immunosuppressive agent in AAG. The proposed studies, if successful, will provide the first reliable clinical evidence, that therapy with IVIG is an effective treatment of AAG.. Treatment for the symptoms of autonomic failure is ...
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1 information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD30 ligand is a new therapeutic target for central nervous system autoimmunity. AU - Shinoda, Koji. AU - Sun, Xun. AU - Oyamada, Akiko. AU - Yamada, Hisakata. AU - Muta, Hiromi. AU - Podack, Eckhard R.. AU - Kira, Jun ichi. AU - Yoshikai, Yasunobu. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and grants from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (Grant number 25670213 , 26293098 ) (Y.Y.), Yakult Bioscience Foundation (Y.Y.) and Takeda Science Foundation (Y.Y.). We thank Kanako Motomura in the Laboratory for Technical Support, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, and Sachiko Koyama in the Department of Neuropathology, Neurological Institute, Kyushu University for their technical support for the histopathological analysis. We also thank Akiko Yano, Miki Kijima and Mihoko Ohkubo for their technical assistance. Publisher Copyright: © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. N2 - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD30 ligand could be a new therapeutic target for central nervous system autoimmunity. AU - Shinoda, Koji. AU - Yoshikai, Yasunobu. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84928952597&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84928952597&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1111/cen3.12204. DO - 10.1111/cen3.12204. M3 - Comment/debate. AN - SCOPUS:84928952597. VL - 6. SP - 111. EP - 112. JO - Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. JF - Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology. SN - 1759-1961. IS - 2. ER - ...
Ribonuclease H2 subunit A, also known as RNase H2 subunit A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASEH2A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the heterotrimeric type II ribonuclease H enzyme (RNaseH2). The other two subunits are the non-catalytic RNASEH2B and RNASEH2C. RNaseH2 is the major source of ribonuclease H activity in mammalian cells and endonucleolytically cleaves ribonucleotides. It is predicted to remove Okazaki fragment RNA primers during lagging strand DNA synthesis and to excise single ribonucleotides from DNA-DNA duplexes. Mutations in this gene cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly and psychomotor retardation, intracranial calcifications, elevated levels of interferon-alpha and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000104889 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000052926 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human ...
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Our study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that B7-H1 nearly abolishes TH17 lineage differentiation of murine and human CD4+ T cells and hence controls T cell-mediated CNS autoimmunity.. Several lines of evidence point to a novel PD-1-independent effect of B7-H1-Ig during TH17 differentiation. First, we blocked interaction of B7-H1-Ig with murine or human PD-1 using a PD-1 binding Ab and found no interference with the anti-TH17 effect. Second, the completely preserved effect of B7-H1-Ig on TH17 differentiation using PD-1KO T cells provides unequivocal evidence that, at least in the murine system, this effect is not mediated via PD-1. Although the presence of a non-PD receptor for B7-H1 based on molecular modeling and functional mapping has been suggested before (12, 39), our study now provides clear experimental evidence of non-PD-1-mediated effects by B7-H1. Recently, B7.1 was identified as another receptor for B7-H1 on T cells (40), but in our setup, involvement of B7.1 could ...
An appropriate balance between inflammatory and regulatory T cells is critical to maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases, including m...
An autoimmune response to a strep infection causes PANDAS. Symptoms mimic those of OCD and ADHD and include motor and verbal tics. Get information about PANDAS treatment and prognosis.
NEW YORK, NY (December 14, 2015)-Researchers have discovered how immune cells triggered by recurrent Strep A infections enter the brain, causing inflammation that may lead to autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders in children. The study, performed in mice, found that immune cells reach the brain by traveling along odor-sensing neurons that emerge from the nasal cavity, not by breaching the blood-brain barrier directly. The findings could lead to improved methods for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating these disorders.. The study, led by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, was published today in the online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.. Recurrent Group A streptococcus (S. pyogenes) infections, which cause strep throat, have been linked to autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, notably Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infections, or PANDAS. Children with PANDAS ...
Pre Diabetes Questionnaire For Program Ketones In Urine Not Diabetic ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ Orthostatic hypotension (OH) especially autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy; diabetic neuropathy; Manage your diabetes for a healthy life Exercise Get moving! Work up to at least 30 minutes a day most days of the week. Glass Of Red Wine A Day Diabetes meals For Gestational Diabetes Gestational Diabetic Put these basics of type 2 diabetes management into action to get started. Again according to the CDC You can build a new website with OurChurch.Coms WP-EZ Online Website Builder - Its WordPress made easy! WebMD Symptom Checker helps you find the most common calories in flat white coffee with milk medical conditions indicated by the symptoms Dry eyes and Scaley skin on eyelids and including Eczema (child Zumo de naranja natural. The sugar industry and soda companies are following the same playbook as the tobacco industry did trying to defend ...
On this work, we modeled a rare neurological auto-immune disease called Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS), caused by mutations in the TREX1 gene. AGS is characterized by a dramatic neuronal loss, leading to a life-long disability condition. The lack of robust animal models has blocked the understanding of the pathology and potential treatments. Using pluripotent stem cells, we create the first human model of AGS. When these cells were differentiated into neurons, we observed a massive cell death. On the other hand, astrocytes derived from the same donor cells survived, but displayed a clear inflammatory reactivity response by releasing interferon. We showed that the interferon response from astrocytes was affecting neuronal survival. When investigating the causes of the inflammatory response, we focused on the accumulation of nucleic acid on the cytoplast of astrocytes. The identity of these nucleic acid was LINE-1 retrotransposons. LINE-1 or L1s are repetitive sequences on the human genome that ...
At the time of this writing, healthcare systems are facing worldwide the pandemic of the coronavirus severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) and its associated disease, named cronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This virus is a new human pathogen, and currently, there are no specific treatment options.1 COVID-19 mostly affects the respiratory system, ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia, but extrarespiratory multisystemic involvement has also been reported.2 Li et al.3 recently described the neuroinvasive potential of COVID-19, but, to our knowledge, no case of acute dysimmune neuropathy has been described so far. Here, the authors report the case of an acute and severe peripheral nervous system disorder possibly related to COVID-19 infection.. A 71-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department for subacute onset of paresthesia at limb extremities, followed by distal weakness rapidly evolving to a severe, flaccid tetraparesis over the previous 3 days. ...
1. PANDAS: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections. 2. Common in the West but quite rare in our practice. Reasons: (i) acute condition, most acute cases are referred, treated and discharged. A week or 2 later patients developed neuropsychiatric disorders, waxing and waning with subsequent reinfection (ii) diagnosis is controversial; not classified in DSM/ICD…
PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections) . Consider this. Lyme is an autoimmune disease. Consider this. Other mystery diseases such as Psychiatric, CFS, MS, FM and a dozen or so others have anecdotally responded to antibiotics, while some M.D.s have accidentally discovered in their own practice that most of these are actually misdiagnosed tick born infections. Those same infections can also come, less frequently, from mice in the house, rats, cat scratches or bites, mosquitoes and fleas. Consider this. Lyme affects different people in different ways. It is the great deceiver. It usually looks like a different disease and is frequently misdiagnosed. Estimates are that for each 1 person correctly diagnosed and treated, there are 9 others not. And the most common symptoms include anxiety and psych symptoms that do not respond well to conventional medicines. PANDAS and Lyme and CFS and MS and FM all have one thing in common - they are ...
For support and discussion of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders, strep, Lyme disease and related other infections For helpful articles and resources visit our PANDAS / PANS Page Learn about our helpful book: Your Child Has Change; Should You Consider PANDAS? Lets Talk
Ever heard of PANDAS? No, not the bumbling, black and white bears. PANDAS stands for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with strept
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, infections can cause nerve damage by provoking conditions referred to as autoimmune disorders, in which specialized cells and antibodies of the immune system attack the bodys own tissues. In its 2006 conference report, the institute said that ganglionopathies are more likely to be caused by autoimmune disorders. ...
Three prime repair exonuclease 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TREX1 gene. This gene encodes the major 3->5 DNA exonuclease in human cells. The protein is a non-processive exonuclease that may serve a proofreading function for a human DNA polymerase. It is also a component of the SET complex, and acts to rapidly degrade 3 ends of nicked DNA during granzyme A-mediated cell death. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, RVCL (Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukodystrophy), and Cree encephalitis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. TREX1 helps HIV‑1 to evade cytosolic sensing by degrading viral cDNA in the cytoplasm GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000213689 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000049734 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Mazur DJ, Perrino FW (Aug 1999). Identification and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 ...
Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies Blood - View Normal Values, Test Results, Procedure to conduct & Prices for Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies Blood | Practo
When children suddenly develop full-blown OCD and these associated symptoms, it may be whats called PANS - pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome. Its called acute onset because the behavior changes come on suddenly, reaching full-scale intensity within 24 to 48 hours. Its a syndrome because there are quite a few other symptoms that appear alongside the intense anxiety.. If the onset of these symptoms is linked to a strep infection, its called PANDAS - pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections - which is a subgroup of PANS. Some 86 percent of acute onset OCD cases are linked to strep. Children especially at risk are those who have what doctors call occult or hidden strep infections - that is, children who can be carriers of the infection but dont get symptoms themselves, and hence dont get treatment.. PANS cases have also been linked to other infections, including Lyme disease, mononucleosis, mycoplasma (walking pneumonia) and ...
Lets start with PANDAS. Every day, I get emails and phone calls from all over the country from people saying, the cause of the tics must be PANDAS. PANDAS stands for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections. Some people who contact us claim that PANDAS should now be called PANS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neurological Syndrome).
This study examines the speculation of whether tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy might improve the severity of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group A streptococcus.
I am slowly getting hit with the reality that I may never be able to have children. I have both Endometriosis and PCOS. It was always something that I shut out...
Paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections syndrome (PANDAS) identifies patients with acute onset of obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate serum NOX2 levels, as well as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of PANDAS patients. In this study we wanted to compare serum levels of soluble NOX2-dp (sNOX-2-dp), iso-PGF2α and LPS in 60 consecutive subjects, including 30 children affected by PANDAS and 30 controls (CT) matched for age and gender. Serum zonulin was used as intestinal permeability assay. Compared with CT, PANDAS children had increased serum levels of sNOX-2-dp, 8-iso-PGF2α and LPS. Bivariate analysis showed that serum sNOX2-dp was significantly correlated with LPS (Rs = 0.359; p = 0.005), zonulin (Rs = 0.444; p | 0.001) and 8-iso-PGF2α (Rs = 0.704; p | 0.001). Serum LPS significantly correlated with zonulin (Rs = 0.610; p | 0.001), and 8-iso-PGF2α (Rs = 0.591; p = 0.001)
There is a health condition recognized in the biomedical field for autism and related disorders called PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). This is a condition caused by an immune reaction triggered by the presence of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal infection. Various strep bacteria produce toxins as part of their infectious nature. The immune system responds in an attempt to neutralize and eradicate the toxins. However, this immune-toxin (aka: antibody-antigen complex) reaction creates immune complexes which are deposited in various tissues of the body. If these immune complexes land in the kidneys there is an immune reaction called post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, in the heart it is called rheumatic fever, and in the brain PANDAS can ensue.. This autoimmune reaction (self-directed immune reaction to body tissue) in PANDAS is directed to the Basal Ganglia area in the brain. This area has been associated with disorders such ...
Sensory ganglionopathies (SG) may occur in association with different diseases and are characterized by the degeneration of the primary sensory neurons located in the dor..
Протеин кодиран овим геном је компонента хетеротримерне рибонуклеазе Х типа II (RNAseH2). RNAseH2 је главни извор рибонуклеазне Х активности у ћелијама сисара. Она ендонуклеолитички пресеца рибонуклеотид е Сматра се да уклања Оказакијев фрагмент РНК прајмера током синтезе заостајућег ланца ДНК и да исеца појединачне рибонуклеотиди из ДНК-ДНК дуплекса[1]. ...
Therapeutic plasma exchange (or TPE), is a patient treatment during which a large volume of the patients plasma is separated from the cellular components of the blood, removed, and replaced with appropriate fluids. TPE is performed to remove antibodies, immune complexes or other toxic substances circulating in the plasma.. Therapeutic plasma exchange is considered a non-specific therapy since it removes all plasma constituents, not just those causing symptoms.. In order for TPE to be a successful therapy, a disease or disorder must be caused by a disease mediator that can be efficiently removed with the plasma to an extent that reduces symptoms. Many of the diseases for which TPE is considered fall under the specialty areas of renal and metabolic diseases, hematologic diseases and neurologic disorders.. The most common use of TPE is for the treatment of autoimmune or immune mediated diseases or disorders. TPE is used to remove monoclonal immunoglobulins, paraproteins, autoimmune antibodies and ...
The U.S. therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) market by indication is broadly segmented into neurological disorders, hematology disorders, renal disorders, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic disorders.
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal therapy treatment, which has been used successfully for limited scleroderma.
PANDAS stands for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Strep, and refers to a syndrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms that results from a disordered immune response triggered by Group A Strep infection. It is essentially rheumatic fever of the brain. Since its discovery, it has been found that actually pretty much any pathogen can trigger this syndrome, so the broader term for this disorder- PANS- is now often used instead (although the two tend to be used interchangeably). PANS stands for Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. From the PANDAS network site PANS (Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) is when an infectious trigger, environmental factors, and other possible triggers create a misdirected immune response (which) results in inflammation on a childs brain. In turn, the child quickly begins to exhibit life changing symptoms such as OCD, severe restrictive eating, anxiety, tics, personality changes, decline in math and handwriting ...
Cunningham earned an undergraduate degree at Mississippi State College for Women and a Ph.D. in both microbiology and immunology from the University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences.. Today, she is a George Lynn Cross Research Professor and Presbyterian Health Foundation Presidential Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, where she has taught and conducted research into infection and autoimmune diseases for 33 years.. My training was in Group A streptococcal disease, but I also love immunology, which is our bodys response to infections, she said.. After researching rheumatic fever, myocarditis and other heart-related diseases for 15 years, Cunningham received a call from the National Institutes of Mental Health. They wanted her to investigate a puzzling condition affecting children known as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep, commonly known as PANDAS.. Cunningham became a ...
Read about plasma exchange, also called therapeutic plasma exchange, which treats aHUS by clearing blood of antibodies and damaging complement factors.
Acetylation has been reported to be involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of SAMHD1 expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, can increase the mRNA and protein expression of SAMHD1 in Jurkat and Sup-T1 cells (23). Lee et al (16) reported that SAMHD1 is acetylated at the K405 site via arrest defective protein 1 (ARD1), which leads to enhanced dNTPase activity (16). Furthermore, SAMHD1 and ARD1 protein expression has been found to be upregulated in hepatoma tissues compared with non-tumor tissues, which indicates that SAMHD1 acetylated by ARD1 may participate in tumorigenesis (16). However, the K580 residue of SAMHD1, which is another acetylated site, could not be acetylated by ARD1 in vitro (16). In particular, 5-AzadC and TSA were found to notably increase the mRNA expression of SAMHD1; however, only a slight increase in SAMHD1 protein expression was observed in Jurkat and Sup-T1 cells (23). Subsequently, besides methylation and acetylation, another regulatory ...
Plasmapheresis, also known as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), is a nonsurgical therapy that removes and replaces a patients blood plasma.
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism for the initiation of autoimmunity by interferon-stimulatory nucleic acid. Here we describe mutations in SAMHD1 as the cause of AGS at the AGS5 locus and present data to show that SAMHD1 may act as a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic antiviral response. © 2009 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved ...
Human RNASEH2A full-length ORF ( AAH11748, 1 a.a. - 299 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00010535-P01) - Products - Abnova
Rnaseh1: | | | Ribonuclease H1 | | | | |||| ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Human RNASEH2B full-length ORF ( AAH36744.1, 1 a.a. - 331 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00079621-P01) - Products - Abnova
Motor neuropathies and multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block are treatable causes of neuropathy that present with the clinical syndrome of
A 45-year-old man presented with 3 months of progressive right hand weakness. Examination showed mild atrophy and weakness of the right hand, and absent tendon reflexes. Cerebrospinal fluid contained 0.42 g/l protein (normal ,0.45) and 1 lymphocyte/mm3. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed a multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with partial conduction blocks and severe denervation in the muscles of the right hand (figure 1). Sensory nerve conduction studies were normal. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, distal demyelinating polyneuropathy associated … ...
Multifocal motor neuropathy is a rare progressive muscle disorder that causes a person to experience a progressive weakening of...
Baxter International Inc. today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved GAMMAGARD LIQUID 10% [Immune Globulin Infusion (Human)] as a treatment for multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). This is the first immunoglobulin treatment approved for MMN patients in the United States, and it was approved for use with MMN patients in Europe in 2011.
Clinical trials in multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) have often used ordinal-based measures that may not accurately capture changes. We aimed to construct a disability interval outcome measure specifically for MMN using the Rasch model and to examine its clinimetric properties. A total of 146 prelim …
|i|Purpose|/i|. To evaluate the impact of a combination of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryosupernatant plasma (CP) as a replacement fluid in therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on early therapeutic response and long-term survival of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).|i| Materials and Methods|/i|. A total of 44 patients with suspected TTP were screened by Bentley and PLASMIC scores. Twenty-seven patients treated with TPE using the FFP and CP combination as the replacement fluid were enrolled and divided into two groups: 11 patients who received TPE with CP-dominant replacement fluid (FFP/CP<1) and 16 patients who received TPE with FFP-dominant replacement fluid (FFP/CP>1).|i| Results|/i|. There were no significant differences in the demographic and clinicopathological characteristics between the two groups except for the international normalized ratio (INR). The number of TPE procedures was lower, and time to achieve complete response was shorter in the CP-dominant group
Patients with sudomotor dysfunction have significantly higher foot temperature than those without sudomotor dysfunction. Foot temperature is positively correlated with severity of sudomotor dysfunction, as evaluated by the time to complete Neuropad color change.
Investigators at Universities of Barcelona, Pennsylvania, Oviedo, and Valencia, and the Spanish NMDAR Encephalitis Work Group report the clinical features of 20 pediatric patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen in a single center in Spain in the last 4 years. Median patient age was 13 years (range, 8 months-18 years); 70% were female. Initial symptoms were neurologic (dyskinesias or seizures) in 12 (60%) and psychiatric in 40%. By one month after disease onset, all had involuntary movements and changes in behavior and speech. All patients received steroids, IV immunoglobulin or plasma exchange, and 7 rituximab or cyclophosphamide. At a median follow-up of 17.5 months, 85% had substantially recovered, 10% had moderate or severe deficits, and 1 had died. Three patients had previous episodes compatible with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and 2 had additional relapses. Ovarian teratoma was identified in 2 patients (10%), 1 at disease onset and the other one-year later. A ...
Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described life-threatening autoimmune disorder associated with a characteristic multi-stage neuropsychiatric syndrome. Although it is known that the majority of patients experience neuropsychological disturbance post-treatment, some aspects of the cognitive profile remain unclear. Methods: This study sought to investigate patterns of cognitive functioning in a sample of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Seven (6F:1M; mean age, 26.4 years; range, 16-37 years) treated patients completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive and social functioning measures. Performance was analyzed using normative data (where available), and comparison with matched controls (10F:4M; mean age, 25.8 years; range, 16-38 years). Results: Individual cognitive profiles ranged from within normal limits to extensive dysfunction. Relative to controls, the patient groups performance was affected in the domains of verbal/ visual memory, working ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2012 Sep 20;37(3):89-93. Aoki H, Morita S, Miura N, Tsuji T, Ohnuki Y, Nakagawa Y, Yamamoto I, Takahashi H, Inokuchi S. Source Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan. [email protected] Abstract A previously healthy 21-year-old woman, transported to our…
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-resolution ultrasound is a valuable tool in supporting the diagnosis of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) but longitudinal data under therapy are lacking. METHODS: The change in peripheral nerve ultrasound pattern in patients with MMN was assessed over time. Patients with MMN received a thorough initial examination and follow-up over a period of 6-12 months using high-resolution ultrasound of the cervical roots and the nerves of the arms and legs, nerve conduction studies, Medical Research Council Sum Score (MRCSS) and Rotterdam Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Group (INCAT) score to evaluate changes under treatment ...
Hello, Since about 15 years my father was diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction blocks, for which he receives regularly IVIg treatment. This has always worked very well for him and could minimize the main complaints, which were in his case always loss of strength/feeling in his lower limbs (so not that much the hands). Recently he also has been diagnoses with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis (so stage IV unfortunately). He first got chemo treatment
Hello, Since about 15 years my father was diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction blocks, for which he receives regularly IVIg treatment. This has always worked very well for him and could minimize the main complaints, which were in his case always loss of strength/feeling in his lower limbs (so not that much the hands). Recently he also has been diagnoses with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis (so stage IV unfortunately). He first got chemo treatment
The COBE Spectra system uses centrifugal technology to separate whole blood into its major components. The system draws whole blood from a donor or patient, adds anticoagulant, separates the blood components, collects or removes specific components and returns uncollected components to the donor or patient. In therapeutic plasma exchange and red blood cell exchange procedures, appropriate replacement fluid is continuously returned. ...
Traditionally, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE, plasmapheresis) was performed with centrifugation devices used in blood blanking procedures. (See.)These devices permit selective cell removal (cytapheresis) but have been associated with posttreatment
Most children with Tourettes have different patterns of tics. The tics may not be obvious. They can be bursts of movement or sounds that last for seconds or minutes.
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Researchers identify areas in the brains of children with Tourettes syndrome that appear markedly different from same areas in other children
Autoimmune diseases. *Syndromes affecting the nervous system. *Peripheral nervous system disorders. *Cytomegalovirus-associated ... is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.[2] The initial symptoms ... Rinaldi, Simon (June 2013). "Update on Guillain-Barré syndrome". Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System. 18 (2): 99-112. doi: ... The cause is unknown.[2] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly ...
Jones CT (November 2003). "Childhood autoimmune neurologic diseases of the central nervous system". Neurol Clin. 21 (4): 745-64 ... "Anti-Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody-Associated Central Nervous System Demyelination-A Novel Disease Entity?". ... As well as causing the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed, ADEM also attacks the nerves of the central nervous system and ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a ...
Mayte has multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. The symptoms began in 2010 and ...
... is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The immune system attacks the CNS which leads to demyelination. ... Apparently, when the nAChr receptors in the central nervous system gets activated it provokes anti-nociceptive effects . ... The cause of this disease is still unknown but there is a possible chance that the disease is induced or worsened by viral ... but it is unclear how effectively the long neurotoxin can reach the central nervous system (CNS). Indications for the bite of a ...
... is an autoimmune disease causing demyelination within the central nervous system. In the central nervous system, there are many ... These two brain structures are responsible for motor functions and linking the nervous system to the endocrine system, ... Vitamin D and the central nervous system. Pharmacol Rep 65(2):271-8. Aivo J, Hanninen A, Ilonen J, Soilu-Hanninen M. 2015. ... Vitamin D, the autonomic nervous system, and cardiovascular risk. Physiol Rep 3(4):10.14814/phy2.12349. Picchioni, M. M., & ...
One form of an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system is multiple sclerosis. In this disease the body ... One form of a degenerative disease that can occur in the brain as well as throughout the body is an autoimmune disease. ... Autoimmune diseases cause the body to "attack" its own cells and therefore destroys those cells as well as whatever functional ... This causes the nervous system to essentially "short circuit" and pass information very slowly. Stem cells therapy has been ...
... understanding of how immunoglobulin may affect inflammation of the central nervous system in autoimmune inflammatory diseases.[ ... chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). In this rare disease, the immune system (the body's defence system) ... some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease), some neurological diseases (multifocal motor ... October 2003). "Mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases". Neurol. Sci. 24 ...
"Repetitive Pertussis Toxin Promotes Development of Regulatory T Cells and Prevents Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease". ... of Pertussis toxin can promote the development of regulatory T cells and prevent central nervous system autoimmune disease, ... The appearance of pertussis is quite recent, compared with other epidemic infectious diseases. The earliest mention of ...
Trichloroethylene can cause scleroderma which is a systemic autoimmune disease that causes joint pain, skin stiffness, and ... In animals, exposure to trichloroethylene can impact the liver, nervous system, kidneys, and blood. Trichloroethylene at 24 ppb ... K&M was also given a discharge permit from the National pollution discharge elimination system that allowed them to relocate ... According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, trichloroethylene can be harmless in very small quantities ...
Maternal inflammatory and autoimmune diseases may damage fetal tissues, aggravating a genetic problem or damaging the nervous ... Neural connections and the immune system are a pathway that may allow diseases originated in the intestine to spread to the ... A 2016 review concludes that enteric nervous system abnormalities might play a role in neurological disorders such as autism. ... Rao M, Gershon MD (September 2016). "The bowel and beyond: the enteric nervous system in neurological disorders". Nat Rev ...
... a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 27 June 2019 ... NMOSD is caused by an autoimmune attack on the nervous system. In more than 80% of cases, IgG autoantibodies against aquaporin- ... at least in part because of the presence of autoimmune downregulators outside of the central nervous system. In NMOSD, areas of ... but it should not be confused with an AQP4-negative form of inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system ...
80% of these affect the nervous system.[citation needed] Acquired alterations: In this second group the main disorders are ... infectious diseases, autoimmune illnesses or cancer. In these cases, the changes in glycosylation are the cause of certain ... In this group the illnesses that stand out are Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. All these diseases are difficult to diagnose ... Having elevated levels of AGEs in the body has a direct impact on the development of many diseases. It has a direct implication ...
... a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system". FDA. FDA. Retrieved 28 June 2019. Russell P Rother, Scott A Rollins, ... By inhibiting the complement cascade at this point, the normal, disease-preventing functions of proximal complement system are ... This medicine was only provided by the government's health system (SUS) and now it can be produced by other companies in that ... The cost of clinical trials for orphan drugs is substantially lower than for other diseases -trial sizes are naturally much ...
... and caused by circulatory and nervous system disorders.. *Autoimmune system diseases. *Bites - animal and human ... D. Lymphatic system of the nose[edit]. The pertinent nasal lymphatic system arises from the superficial mucosa, and drains ... The GSP nerve joins the deep petrosal nerve (of the sympathetic nervous system), derived from the carotid plexus, to form the ... diseases intrinsic and diseases extrinsic to the nose); (ii) an unsatisfactory aesthetic appearance (disproportion); (iii) a ...
GHB accumulates in the nervous system and can cause ataxia as well as other neurological dysfunction. Wilson's disease is an ... Play media Gluten ataxia is an autoimmune disease triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Early diagnosis and treatment with a ... Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory [such as ... Copper accumulates in the nervous system and liver and can cause ataxia as well as other neurological and organ impairments. ...
NMOSD is a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. In ... a rare autoimmune disease. The drug is being developed by Chugai Pharmaceutical, a subsidiary of Roche. The most common side ... causing inflammation and damage to the central nervous system. Vaccination with live-attenuated or live vaccines is not ... Patients with NMO and NMOSD have elevated levels of IL-6 in cerebro-spinal fluid and serum during periods of active disease. ...
... has a therapeutic focus on chronic central nervous system and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and ... a chronic degenerative disease characterized by demyelination of nerve fibers leading to severe nerve damage and increasing ... enable the creation of novel therapeutics that address unmet medical need associated with these diseases. The names of the two ... Crohn's disease. Their two platforms, Caesar and Vigenère, ...
Interactions between the immune system and the nervous system begin early during embryogenesis, and successful neurodevelopment ... Maternal inflammatory and autoimmune diseases can damage embryonic and fetal tissues, aggravating a genetic problem or damaging ... Neural connections and the immune system are a pathway that may allow diseases originated in the intestine to spread to the ... Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Is autism an autoimmune disease? Autoimmun Rev. 2004;3(7-8):557-562. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2004.07. ...
The stiff-man syndrome (SMS, also known as stiff-person syndrome) is a rare central nervous system autoimmune disease, but is ... The rarity of the disease complicates efforts to establish guidelines.[30] GABAA agonists,[2] usually diazepam but sometimes ... It is not known why GAD autoimmunity occurs in SPS patients,[25] and whether SPS qualifies as a neuro-autoimmune disorder has ... These patients tend not to have GAD antibodies.[2] Passive transfer of the disease by plasma injection has been shown in ...
The stiff-man syndrome (SMS, also known as stiff-person syndrome) is a rare central nervous system autoimmune disease, but is ... As the disease progresses, patients sometimes become unable to walk or bend. Chronic pain is common and worsens over time but ... It is not known why GAD autoimmunity occurs in SPS patients, and whether SPS qualifies as a neuro-autoimmune disorder has been ... It takes an average of six years after the onset of symptoms before the disease is diagnosed. There is no evidence-based ...
... understanding of how immunoglobulin may affect inflammation of the central nervous system in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. ... In this rare disease, the immune system (the body's defence system) works abnormally and destroys the protective covering over ... some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease), some neurological diseases (multifocal motor ... October 2003). "Mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases". Neurol. Sci. 24 ...
... α motor neurons are also considered part of the somatic nervous system-a branch of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)-because ... For example, myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that prevents signaling across the neuromuscular junction, which ... As with most types of neurons in the nervous system, α-MNs are more numerous in early development than in adulthood. Muscle ... Oligodendrocytes myelinate the part of the α-MN axon that lies in the central nervous system (CNS), while Schwann cells ...
... a broad term describing any disease process which affects the peripheral nervous system. However, neuropathies may be due to ... Common causes include autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis; infection, either bacterial, such as leprosy, or viral, ... 20 (5 Peripheral Nervous System Disorders): 1274-92. doi:10.1212/01.CON.0000455881.83803.a9. PMID 25299282. "Chapter 88: ... Varicella zoster virus, the cause of chickenpox, can be found dormant throughout the nervous system after an initial infection ...
Clefyd, Designated intractable/rare diseases Math. Demyelinating disease, autoimmune disease of central nervous system ... Mae pob efedyn nerf yn y brif system nerfol wedi'i amgylchynu gan sylwedd a elwir yn fyelin. Mae myelin yn helpu negeseuon o'r ...
... nervous system, and endocrine system. Childhood trauma is often associated with adverse health outcomes including depression, ... autoimmune diseases, lung cancer, and premature mortality. Effects of childhood trauma on brain development includes a negative ... The Narrative-Emotion Process Coding System (NEPCS) is a behavioral coding system that identifies eight client markers: ... The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 201 (12): 1007-20. doi:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000049. PMID 24284634. S2CID 205878806 ...
... and the astrocyte intermediate filament system in diseases of the central nervous system". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 32 ... Other demyelinating diseases are usually not congenital and have a toxic or autoimmune cause. When damage occurs to white ... Krabbe disease, Canavan disease, and Alexander disease. The one exception to this is any type of leukodystrophy carried on a ... As myelin is produced by oligodendrocytes (a type of glial cell) in the central nervous system, an easy place to look for the ...
... a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system). However, it is not known exactly which cells produce IL-1β. ... The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to ... It has been shown that IL-1 family plays important role in inflammation in many degenerative diseases, such as age-related ... Lin CC, Edelson BT (June 2017). "New Insights into the Role of IL-1β in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Multiple ...
1999). "Autoimmune T cells protect neurons from secondary degeneration after central nervous system axotomy". Nature Medicine. ... the activity of autoimmune cells, is generally considered in the context of an autoimmune disease-a pathological condition ... autoimmune diseases can be induced experimentally by the adaptive transfer of autoimmune cells or antibodies from an animal ... List of autoimmune diseases Cancer immunotherapy Moalem, G.; et al. ( ...
In at least 2 diseases, the risk of autoimmune disease extends beyond the class II region of the haplotype. The "HL-A1,8 ... renal and central nervous system involvement) in Caucasian patients. Two-point haplotype analysis between TNFB(B*01 allele) and ... Among these were coeliac disease, autoimmune active chronic hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, Adrenocortical hyperfunction- ... the role of factors affecting disease are still not clear. A1-B8 serotype was associated with a number of diseases as "HL-A"' ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is the most frequent heritable disorder of the peripheral nervous system (a neuronal disease) and is ... Certain diseases' causation (such as neuronal pathologies, cancer, disturbed metabolic conditions, and autoimmune disorders) ... These correlations between aaRSs and certain diseases have opened up a new door to synthesizing therapeutics.[17] ... Francklyn C, Musier-Forsyth K, Martinis SA (September 1997). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in biology and disease: new evidence ...
Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ... 2014). The Autoimmune Diseases. Academic Press. p. 575. ISBN 978-0-123-84929-8. . OCLC 965646175.. ... and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system.[10] However, not all people with insulin resistance ... nervous system activity, or hormonal factors that may lead to diabetes.[34] ...
... peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.[61][84] Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence ... Crohn's disease, HIV, or other autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases. As all people with later-stage infection will have a ... Halperin JJ (June 2008). "Nervous system Lyme disease". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 22 (2): 261-74, vi. doi: ... Lyme disease can affect multiple body systems and produce a broad range of symptoms. Not everyone with Lyme disease has all of ...
Mixed connective tissue disease - a disease of the autoimmune system, also undifferentiated connective tissue disease. ... including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) - a major autoimmune disease of connective tissue. *Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of ... "Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 17 (2): 125-139. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2006.10.005. PMC 4426988. PMID ...
DQ2 are believed to also contribute to autoimmune disease.[3] Also a dozen inflammatory diseases of the immune system can ... renal and central nervous system involvement) in Caucasian patients.[31] Two-point haplotype analysis between TNFB(B*01 allele ... Some disease like coeliac disease primarily associate with certain genes. While other diseases, like type 1 diabetes may have ... "Celiac disease autoantibodies in severe autoimmune liver disease and the effect of liver transplantation". Liver Int. 28 (4): ...
Wilson, John Eastman (1909). Diseases of the nervous system. Boericke & Runyon. p. 296. Retrieved 5 December 2017. Infantile ... Autoimmune. *Inflammatory. *Multiple sclerosis. *For more detailed coverage, see Template:Demyelinating diseases of CNS ... The disease exists in both rapid and slow onsets, and involves inflammation of the gray matter of the bulb.[1] Infantile PBP is ... a disease that manifests itself in two forms: Fazio Londe syndrome (FL) and Brown-Vialetto-Van-Laere syndrome (BVVL).[2] ...
... including the metabolic system, cardiovascular system, immune system, reproductive system and central nervous system. The HPA ... autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.[7][8][11] ... At the hypothalamus, fear-signaling impulses activate both the sympathetic nervous system and the modulating systems of the HPA ... Immune system[edit]. There is bi-directional communication and feedback between the HPA axis and immune system. A number of ...
... systemic diseases, organ-specific autoimmune processes, cancer or trauma.[45] That is, uveitis refers to a complex category of ... Malignant neoplasms of the brain and nervous system (1.5%). *Retinal detachment (1.4%) ... Stargardt's disease. *Uveitis: is a group of 30 intraocular inflammatory diseases[44] caused by infections, ... a b c Morello, C. M. "Etiology and Natural History of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview." American Journal of Health-System ...
... and disease of the spleen and central nervous system. They are rare in the blood, but numerous in the mucous membranes of the ... Some are autoimmune, but many are neoplastic. Another way to categorize disorders of white blood cells is qualitatively. There ... Chronic inflammation - especially juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease, Crohn's disease, ... are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign ...
Autoimmune diseases. *Neurological disorders. *Obstetrics. *Syndromes affecting blood. *Syndromes affecting the nervous system ... Like many autoimmune diseases, it is more common in women than in men. The exact cause is not known, but activation of the ... Secondary antiphospholipid syndrome occurs with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In rare ... Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease, in which "antiphospholipid antibodies" (anticardiolipin antibodies and ...
Nervous system: occasionally sensory neuropathy (10%) and rarely mononeuritis multiplex. *Heart, gastrointestinal tract, brain ... Limited diseaseEdit. In generalised non-organ-threatening disease, remission can be achieved with a combination of methotrexate ... all of which feature an autoimmune attack by an abnormal type of circulating antibody termed ANCAs (antineutrophil cytoplasmic ... An early name for the disease was pathergic granulomatosis.[28] The disease is still sometimes confused with lethal midline ...
Diseases of the digestive system (primarily K20-K93, 530-579). Upper GI tract. ... Bell's stage 1 (suspected disease): *Mild systemic disease (apnea, lethargy,[7] slowed heart rate, temperature instability) ... Nervous system. *Perinatal asphyxia. *Periventricular leukomalacia. Musculoskeletal. *Gray baby syndrome. *muscle tone * ... Where the disease is not halted through medical treatment alone, or when the bowel perforates, immediate emergency surgery to ...
Mineral: Menkes disease/Occipital horn syndrome. Nervous system. *X-linked intellectual disability: Coffin-Lowry syndrome ... TNFRSF6 (Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome 1A). Lipid receptor. *LRP: LRP2 (Donnai-Barrow syndrome) ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 6 (Jun 17): 41. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-6-41. PMC 3143089. PMID 21682876.. ... "Rare Diseases. National Organisation for Rare Disorders (NORD). 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2017.. ...
Sontheimer, Harald (2015). Diseases of the Nervous System. Academic Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-12-800403-6. . Archived from the ... a treatable autoimmune disease sometimes mistaken for ALS.[86][87] Benign fasciculation syndrome is another condition that ... Disease Primers. 3 (17071): 17071. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2017.71. PMID 28980624.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v van ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a specific disease ...
Granados S, Hwang ST (Jun 2004). "Roles for CD30 in the biology and treatment of CD30 lymphoproliferative diseases". The ... "Signalling through CD30 protects against autoimmune diabetes mediated by CD8 T cells". Nature. 398 (6725): 341-4. doi:10.1038/ ... Nervous system. Brain tumor. *PCNA. Astrocytoma. *Glial fibrillary acidic protein. NC/Melanoma. *S100 protein ... cloning and expression of a new member of the nerve growth factor receptor family that is characteristic for Hodgkin's disease ...
Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04-G47, 323-349). Inflammation. ... "Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease. 179 (4): 181-241.. *^ Owens, Laurence J; France, Karyn G; Wiggs, Luci (1999). "REVIEW ... It is neither a disease nor a specific condition. (from p. 322). CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ... Idiopathic hypersomnia: a chronic neurological disease similar to narcolepsy in which there is an increased amount of fatigue ...
It can also arise as a result of other gastrointestinal diseases such as coeliac disease. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune ... "The Enteric Nervous System". Retrieved 2008-11-29.. *^ Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 194: Sensory Nerves, Brendan ... Mouth diseases include tongue diseases and salivary gland diseases. A common gum disease in the mouth is gingivitis which is ... "Digestive system" and "alimentary system" redirect here. For digestive systems of non-human animals, see Digestion. ...
... and differences in central nervous system function.[17][18] Androgen insensitivity syndrome[edit]. Main article: Androgen ... "What have we learned about GPER function in physiology and disease from knockout mice?". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 153: ... ERKO mice show development of the respective female or male reproductive systems, and male and female αERKO mice are infertile ...
Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04-G47, 323-349). Inflammation. ... US: The Foundation for PSP, CBD and Related Brain Diseases[47]. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Golbe LI (April 2014). " ... PSP may be mistaken for other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. The cause of the ... Others consider them separate diseases.[16][17][18] PSP has been shown occasionally to co-exist with Pick's disease.[19] ...
20 September 2016). "Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease: A ... Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an ... Celiac disease. While it is caused by a permanent intolerance to gluten (present in wheat, rye, barley and oats), is not an ... "Celiac Disease". NIDDKD. June 2015. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.. ...
Diseases relating to the peripheral nervous system. Mononeuropathy. Arm. median nerve. *Carpal tunnel syndrome ... Autoimmune and demyelinating disease. *Guillain-Barré syndrome. *Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. ... Diagnosis is most often made by the elimination of other conditions, disorders or diseases. Onset usually occurs in adulthood, ...
Ballestar E (2010). "Epigenetics lessons from twins: prospects for autoimmune disease". Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 39 (1): 30-41 ... Chapter: "Nervous System Development" in "Epigenetics," by Benedikt Hallgrimsson and Brian Hall ... "Molecular systems biology. 4 (1): 182. PMC 2387233 . PMID 18414483. doi:10.1038/msb.2008.21. Retrieved 5 May 2014.. ... Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.[117]. Medicine[edit]. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ...
They are associated with central nervous system involvement, kidney disease, lung fibrosis and pericarditis in SLE, but they ... "Presence of systemic autoimmune disorders in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 63 ( ... coeliac disease, autoimmune rheumatic diseases, cardiac neonatal lupus erythematosus and polymyositis.[18][19] During pregnancy ... "Guidelines for the laboratory use of autoantibody tests in the diagnosis and monitoring of autoimmune rheumatic diseases". ...
Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04-G47, 323-349). Inflammation. ... As the disease progresses, the muscular system is debilitated throughout the body, as the brain cannot control the contraction ... This causes a chronic lack of energy in the cells, which leads to cell death and in turn, affects the central nervous system ... Dystonia, nystagmus, and problems with the autonomic nervous system suggest damage to the basal ganglia and brain stem ...
"Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease". The ... and is essential for the normal development of the nervous system.[3][17] ... Rates of vitamin D deficiency are higher among people with untreated celiac disease,[39][40] inflammatory bowel disease, ... Some types of liver diseases and kidney diseases can decrease vitamin D production leading to a deficiency.[1] The liver is ...
A preliminary report". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 168 (8): 498-500. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 7400803. de Leon, Jose ... Primary polydipsia may have physiological causes, such as autoimmune hepatitis. Since primary polydipsia is a diagnosis of ... and urinary system functioning. Progressive steps might include redirection, room restriction, and increasing levels of ... The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 168 (4): 246-248. doi:10.1097/00005053-198004000-00011. ISSN 0022-3018. PMID 7365485 ...
... and central nervous system (as well as gynecological tumors and myosarcomas). The following diseases manifest by means of ... Graus, F; Saiz, A; Dalmau, J (2010). "Antibodies and neuronal autoimmune disorders of the CNS". J. Neurol. 257: 509-517. ... one of the underlying causes in inflammatory central nervous system diseases (CNS). The central idea around such research ... Nervous system paraneoplastic syndromes at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Blaes, Franz (3 ...
... in cases where there is a disease of the conduction system, wide complexes may be present in A-fib with rapid ventricular ... Alcohol consumption does this by repeatedly stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, increasing inflammation in the atria, ... This is typically due to sarcoidosis but may also be due to autoimmune disorders that create autoantibodies against myosin ... High blood pressure, valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, COPD, obesity, ...
Role in the Nervous System[edit]. Both GAD67 and GAD65 are present in all types of synapses within the human nervous system. ... "Modulating autoimmune responses to GAD inhibits disease progression and prolongs islet graft survival in diabetes-prone mice". ... are increasingly found in patients with other symptoms indicative of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, such as ataxia, ... Parkinson disease[edit]. The bilateral delivery of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) by an adeno-associated viral vector into ...
... finding suggests that encounter of the immune system with microbial products may not only be part of CNS autoimmune disease ... these data suggest a scenario in which repetitive PTx treatment protects mice from development of CNS autoimmune disease ... unspecific activation and facilitated migration of immune cells across the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system ... Incidence and severity of its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be enhanced by concomitant ...
... dc.contributor.advisor. Lovett ... The Neuroprotective Role Of Vitamin D On Neurons In A Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease. en_US. ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Childhood vitamin D ... To study how vitamin D signaling in childhood influences the risk of developing disease in vivo, we generated a transgenic ...
NMOSD is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. ... a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system * Jun 27, 2019. ... approves-first-treatment-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-rare-autoimmune-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system- ... causing inflammation and damage to the central nervous system.. The effectiveness of Soliris for the treatment of NMOSD was ...
Histamine in Immune Regulation: Possible Roles in Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease of the Central Nervous System. Author(s): ... From Cannabis to Endocannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis: A Paradigm of Central Nervous System Autoimmune Diseases. Current Drug ... Title: Histamine in Immune Regulation: Possible Roles in Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease of the Central Nervous System ... The Blood-Central Nervous System Barriers Actively Control Immune Cell Entry into the Central Nervous System. Current ...
The Th17-ELR+ CXC chemokine pathway is essential for the development of central nervous system autoimmune disease Thaddeus ... CXC chemokine pathway is essential for the development of central nervous system autoimmune disease . J Exp Med 14 April 2008; ... Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune disease that shares clinical and ... central nervous system; EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; MS, multiple sclerosis; NP, influenza nucleoprotein; ...
Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental*Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental. *Disease Models, Autoimmune, ... "Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nervous System Autoimmune ... Nervous System Diseases [C10]. *Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System [C10.114]. *Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, ... Autoimmune Diseases [C20.111]. *Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System [C20.111.258]. *Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, ...
... is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Demyelination affects white and... ... is an autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System, which interferes with the communication between the Central Nervous ... The Nervous System and Diseases Essay. 1255 Words , 6 Pages. Nervous System and Diseases Within the human anatomy, an intricate ... This disease involves two main systems in the body, the Central Nervous System and the Immune System. The Central Nervous ...
Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal of ... Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal of ... Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal of ... T1 - Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal ...
... you would know how terrible the disease is. Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory disease in... ... An Autoimmune Disease. 2007 Words , 9 Pages. *. Multiple Sclerosis : An Autoimmune Disease Of The Central Nervous System. 883 ... Autoimmune Diseases Pertain To The Immune System. 297 Words , 2 Pages. Autoimmune diseases pertain to the immune system, and ... is an autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System, which interferes with the communication between the Central Nervous ...
Detection of Central Nervous System Involvement in Individuals with Rheumatic Autoimmune Diseases. Frittoli and colleagues ( ... Detection of central nervous system involvement in individuals with rheumatic autoimmune diseases ... Alzheimers disease and other degenerative diseases of nervous system, not elsewhere classified. ... Malignant neoplasm of central nervous system, unspecified [Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma]. ...
Research Coordinator, Autoimmune and Central Nervous System Diseases - Teva Pharmaceuticals Ltd.. - Provided by Masa Israel ... Blog / Internships / Bio-tech & medical / Research Coordinator, Autoimmune and Central Nervous System Diseases - Teva ... Promoting Teva Pharmaceuticals research in the fields of autoimmune and central nervous system diseases. -Identifying and ... Coordinator will work with Teva Pharmaceuticals researchers in the areas of autoimmune and central nervous system diseases. ...
... up to eight percent of the population are affected by autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are a family of more than 100 ... According to the Autoimmune Diseases Coordinating Committee (ADCC), between 14.7 and 23.5 million people in the USA - ... Central Nervous System Vasculitis. Pages 435-440. Zandman-Goddard, Gisele (et al.) ... of more than 100 autoimmune diseases, divided into two main groups, namely systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. A ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases. Demyelinating Diseases. Immune System Diseases. ... Autoimmune Diseases. Sclerosis. Pathologic Processes. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS. ... Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Autoimmune Disease: Multiple Sclerosis (RELOAD-MS). The safety and scientific validity of ... DMD-treated with stable disease People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who are treated with DMD who have had stable disease ...
Nervous System Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Pathologic Processes. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System Multiple Sclerosis Secondary ... Demyelinating Diseases. Immune System Diseases. Neoplastic Processes. Neoplasms. Pathological Conditions, Anatomical. Disease ... Disease Progression. Autoimmune Diseases. Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive. ...
However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and ... Here we review the current stage of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune diseases. ... Mast cells are important in innate immune system. They have been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reaction. ... M. Z. M. Ibrahim, M. E. Al-Wirr, and N. Bahuth, "The mast cells of the mammalian central nervous system. III. Ultrastructural ...
Autoimmune Diseases. *Bells Palsy. *Brachial Plexus Palsy. *Brain Disorders. *Central Nervous System Lymphoma ...
Autoimmune Diseases. *Brain Disorders. *Cancer. *Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. *Central Nervous System Lymphoma ...
... and may help manage multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. We describe here the role of the sympathetic nervous ... 26] S. Sriram, C.W. Stratton, S. Yao, A. Tharp and L. Ding: "Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in ... 99] F. Lechin, B. van der Dijs, B. Orozco, G. Hernandez-Adrian, S. Rodriguez and S. Baez: "Similar autonomic nervous system ... Sympathetic nervous system and neurotransmitters: their possible role in neuroimmunomodulation of multiple sclerosis and some ...
4. Autoimmune diseases (eg systemic lupus erythematosus). 5. Other malignancies. 6. Central nervous system metastases ... including recurrent disease after standard cancer therapy, Stage IV disease, and no prior therapy. ... Once the immune system is able to recognise the identifying features of the cancer cells, it will retain the information for ... Dendritic cells are a critical link in the immune system. Acting as sentinels, these cells "patrol" the body seeking out ...
... autoimmune diseases account for an important part in neuroimmunology. Early studies mainly focused on paraneoplastic onconeural ... myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease, and autoimmune glial fibillary acidic protein astrocytopathy. ... such as autoimmune encephalitis represented by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, aquaporin 4 antibody-positive ... Keywords: Antibody; Autoimmune diseases; Central nervous system; Neuroimmunology Important Note: All contributions to this ...
Brain & Nervous System / Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Support Group Autoimmune Diseases. deleted_user 05/06/2008. Hi Everyone!. Im ... I know MS is an autoimmune disease, and it seems like many people not only have MS, but also other AI diseases (like arthritis ...
Glutamate Receptor Antibodies in Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease: Basic Mechanisms, Clinical Features, and Antibody ... Glutamate Receptor Antibodies in Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease: Basic Mechanisms, Clinical Features, and Antibody ... Over the last two decades, several pathogenic antibodies against neuronal surface antigens have been described in autoimmune ...
Localization of neurological disease: The nature and pattern of the symptoms and physical signs of neurological disease allow ... One symptom indicating muscular disease is weakness, usually symmetrical (that is, affecting both sides of the body) and mainly ... Autoimmune disorders. It is uncertain whether any diseases of the nervous system can properly be regarded as representing an ... human nervous system. Human nervous system. , system that conducts stimuli from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord ...
We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. ... We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. ... and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The distorted expression of DARs ... and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The distorted expression of DARs ...
... of anti-neuronal antibodies in central nervous system involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases ... and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other rheumatic diseases using a flow ... The frequency of CSF anti-NA in CNS-SLE was significantly higher than in other rheumatic diseases with CNS involvement or in ... other rheumatic diseases (n=64 for serum, n=21 for CSF) and from healthy controls (n=65 for serum, n=18 for CSF). Serum anti-NA ...
Autoimmune Diseases. *Bells Palsy. *Brain Disorders. *Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. Gliomas, Astrocytoma, Schwannoma ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases. Demyelinating Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System ... Evidence of inflammatory activity of the disease defined as clinical evidence of a relapse during the year before inclusion or ... Any general chronic handicapping disease other than MS. *Intensive physical therapy program within the 3 months prior to ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases. Demyelinating Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System ... Patients with an active chronic disease of the immune system other than MS ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Drug: Ofatumumab subcutaneous injection Drug: ... Disease duration of more than 10 years in patients with an EDSS score of 2 or less ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases. Demyelinating Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System ... Previous history of clinically significant disease.. *Plans to undergo elective major procedures/surgeries at any time during ... RRMS and SPMS subjects must have evidence of ongoing disease activity within 12 months of enrollment. ... Diseases. Interferons. Interferon-beta. Interferon beta-1a. Antineoplastic Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. *Neurology - Child Neurology. Academic Appointments. * Assistant Professor - Med ... Both the disease course and its response to treatment may be highly dependent on the immune system. In this review, we compare ... Vanishing white matter disease (VWM) is a progressive cavitating disease of central white matter due to a deficiency of the ... Additional laboratory testing for infectious diseases conducted at the CDPH Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory did not ...
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). (osu.edu)
  • By understanding the mechanism by which vitamin D levels influence multiple sclerosis susceptibility, vitamin supplements could be administered to prevent high risk populations from developing this incurable disease. (osu.edu)
  • In multiple sclerosis (MS), and its animal model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), there are several steps in the autoimmune attack against myelin of the central nervous system where histamine might play an important role. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The ELR + CXC chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2 are up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) during multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (rupress.org)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4 + T cell-driven autoimmune disease that shares clinical and histological similarities with multiple sclerosis (MS). In EAE, CD4 + T cells specific for antigens expressed in central nervous system (CNS) myelin initiate a localized inflammatory process that results in demyelination, axonal transection, and clinical deficits. (rupress.org)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). (bartleby.com)
  • Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the Central nervous system that progresses over a period time ("NINDS," 2015). (bartleby.com)
  • Multiple Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System, which interferes with the communication between the Central Nervous System (brain and spinal cord) and other parts of the body. (bartleby.com)
  • In multiple sclerosis, the immune system of the body attacks the myelin sheath. (bartleby.com)
  • Professor Mirzatoni March 8, 2016 Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is autoimmune, inflammatory disease involving the central nervous system (CNS). (bartleby.com)
  • If you know anyone with Multiple Sclerosis or MS, you would know how terrible the disease is. (bartleby.com)
  • Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which your immune system attacks the nerve cell covers in the brain and spine are damaged. (bartleby.com)
  • There is not a cure at the moment for Multiple Sclerosis, but there are treatments that can speed recovery when attacked by the disease (Mayo Clinic). (bartleby.com)
  • They say that when they discover the exact cause of Multiple Sclerosis it will be easier to find a way to treat the disease or maybe even stop it from happening at all. (bartleby.com)
  • National Multiple Sclerosis Society) In Multiple Sclerosis, an abnormal immune mediated response attacks the myelin coating around the nerves in the nervous system in the body. (bartleby.com)
  • Multiple Sclerosis is not a contagious disease at all. (bartleby.com)
  • MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 2 Abstract Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. (bartleby.com)
  • No one really knows what causes the disease and there is no cure and there is not one specific test that can diagnose Multiple Sclerosis. (bartleby.com)
  • 22 November 2014 Psych 147 Project #1 Living with Multiple Sclerosis The Condition Multiple sclerosis (also known as MS) is an autoimmune disease which affects the spinal cord and brain (central nervous system). (bartleby.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis is a complex, autoimmune disease caused by damage of the fatty myelin sheaths around axons of the brain and spinal cord which leads to demyelination, lesions (scaring) and inflammation1, 2, 3. (bartleby.com)
  • Name: Mason Arbogast Title: Multiple Sclerosis I. Introduction: A. Attention: According to Michael J. Olek, the writer of "Multiple Sclerosis -Etiology, Diagnosis, and New Treatment Strategies" multiple sclerosis (MS) afflicts approximately 250,000 to 350,000 individuals in the United States and is the most common autoimmune disease involving the nervous system. (bartleby.com)
  • Inflammatory or degenerative diseases of the brain and spinal cord, such as multiple sclerosis, may be related to problems with an individual s immune system. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Newly presenting Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) or Relapsing and Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients not treated before with Disease Modifying Drugs (DMD) Additional analysis of CSF and CSF cells will be performed in this cohort on a voluntary basis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis is still a disease without a cure. (edu.pl)
  • At the same time it is becoming apparent that some remedies usually used to treat somatic and psychic disorders also have immunomodulating properties, and may help manage multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. (edu.pl)
  • We describe here the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the neuro-immune interaction in multiple sclerosis and other immune diseases with increased cellular immunity as well as neurochemical disturbances that take place in these disorders. (edu.pl)
  • Indeed, dopamine levels are altered in the brain of mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lupus, and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by self-reactive, myelin-specific T cells. (washington.edu)
  • Multiple sclerosis is a serious demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with treatments generally restricted to immunosuppression to reduce attack rate and for symptom management. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis is disease believed to be due to immune cells, cells which normally protect the body, but are now attacking the tissue in the brain and possibly the spinal cord. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To develop a test to characterize and monitor Multiple Sclerosis (MS) disease status and therapy response from a participant's home by analyzing the gene expression from participant self-c. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to assess effects of B cell depletion on the immune system in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with ocrelizumab. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which ultimately leads to myelin damage and axonal loss. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Our specialty pharmacy's extensive experience with autoimmune conditions, including multiple sclerosis, makes us a perfect partner for supporting patients prescribed this new medication. (prweb.com)
  • In the relapsing form of multiple sclerosis, there are periods of more disease activity followed by times of remission. (prweb.com)
  • This review examines the role of Treg cells in the context of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity, and how they contribute to both relatively common and more rare diseases involving demyelination or degeneration of the CNS, including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and narcolepsy with cataplexy. (springer.com)
  • Duffy SS, Lees JG, Moalem-Taylor G. The contribution of immune and glial cell types in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis is a disorder of the immune system, so it is important to eat a diet that supports a healthy immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society , the disease affects over 2.3 million people worldwide. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In multiple sclerosis (MS) and autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), there are increased T cell and autoantibody reactivities that are directed at myelin lipids [ 10 , 12 , 14 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the CNS characterized by disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (jimmunol.org)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease that affects your nervous system. (familydoctor.org)
  • Understanding pathogenesis and therapy of multiple sclerosis via animal models: 70 years of merits and culprits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis research. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Their study not only identifies an important targeting mechanism in transplanted stem cells but also provides a blueprint for engineering stem cell-based therapies for multiple sclerosis and other chronic neurological diseases in which inflammation occurs. (healthcanal.com)
  • Investigators will use real-time fluorescent multi-photon microscopy imaging in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis to define the routes that autoimmune T cells use to enter the brain and spinal cord and attack the myelin sheaths that insulate nerve cell axons (communication cables). (dana.org)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by immune cell infiltration and damage to the central nervous system (CNS). (dana.org)
  • ADEM's symptoms resemble the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), so the disease itself is sorted into the classification of the multiple sclerosis borderline diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mayte has multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of the anti-AQP4 antibody appears to activate other components of the immune system, causing inflammation and damage to the central nervous system. (phillytrib.com)
  • Autoimmune brain diseases occur when the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues in the brain or spinal cord, which results in inflammation. (dukehealth.org)
  • Treatments may include medications that suppress the immune system to decrease inflammation, as well as treatments to reduce seizures, psychiatric symptoms, and sleep disturbances. (dukehealth.org)
  • This study could have important implications for the treatment of a variety of conditions associated with excessive or persistent inflammation, especially autoimmune diseases in which therapies that antagonize proinflammatory cytokines have shown great benefit. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, the gut and gut-associated lymphoid system are probable sites for functional maturation of autoimmune pathogenic T cells and regulatory T cells capable of suppressing autoimmune inflammation outside the gut. (nature.com)
  • Researchers believe inflammation might explain the link between stress-related disorders and diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. (sharecare.com)
  • Most of these autoimmune diseases are thought to be related to inflammation that stems from the inappropriate immune response. (sharecare.com)
  • Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a rare form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized clinically by acute or subacute proximal muscle weakness, and histopathologically by myocyte necrosis and regeneration without significant inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • In these diseases, infection leads to inflammation - and unresolved inflammation can lead to chronic disease. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • This is inflammation affecting a region of the brain known as the limbic system, which controls emotions, behaviors and certain memory functions. (drugs.com)
  • Depletion of regulatory T (T Reg ) cells in otherwise healthy individuals leads to multi-organ autoimmune disease and inflammation. (nature.com)
  • Proof-of-concept clinical trials, now supported by robust mechanistic studies, have shown that low-dose interleukin-2 specifically expands and activates T Reg cell populations and thus can control autoimmune diseases and inflammation. (nature.com)
  • You have a solid understanding of nutrition, but desire an education on inflammation, autoimmune conditions and other advanced topics to work with clients one on one. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although MRI is largely considered the gold-standard imaging technique for the detection of Central Nervous System [CNS] involvement in these disorders. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, David S. Goldstein, M.D., of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has reported that Parkinson's disease also damages sympathetic nerves to the heart. (livestrong.com)
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, is a non-invasive analytical technique that has been used to study metabolic changes in brain tumors, strokes, seizure disorders, Alzheimer's disease, depression and other diseases affecting the brain. (aetna.com)
  • Objective: The goal of this study is to define the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of disability in immune-mediated disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) and to distinguish these from physiological (and often beneficial) responses of the human immune system to CNS injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The past decade has witnessed a surge of discovery of novel neural antibodies, along with a series of new CNS disorders mediated by those antibodies, such as autoimmune encephalitis represented by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, aquaporin 4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease, and autoimmune glial fibillary acidic protein astrocytopathy. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are particularly focused on genetic and autoimmune disorders that cause damage to the myelin (the fatty insulation around the nerves) of the brain and spinal cord. (stanford.edu)
  • These findings reveal a stepwise progression of autoimmune disease in Trex1-deficient mice, with implications for the treatment of AGS and related disorders. (nih.gov)
  • TNF-α antagonists provide benefit to patients with inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. (cdc.gov)
  • To evaluate the relationship between NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), including NMO, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis, and autoimmune disease. (nih.gov)
  • Although the role of Treg cells in some of these conditions is still very much in the preliminary stages, it is a feasible notion that with more research, harnessing the innate suppressive abilities of these potent immune cells will contribute to the development of novel therapeutics in autoimmune disorders of the CNS. (springer.com)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells as a therapeutic tool to induce tolerance were first applied to human autoimmune disorders in 1996. (routledge.com)
  • This is different from other immune system malfunctions, such as acquired immunodeficiency disorders, like AIDS, in which the immune system is weakened or ineffective, and allergic disorders, in which the immune system overreacts to things like pollen or nuts. (childrenshospital.org)
  • People who have stress-related disorders tied to traumatic life events have an increased risk for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, according to findings from a large Swedish study published in June 2018 in the Journal of the American Medical Association ( JAMA) . (sharecare.com)
  • To evaluate a potential link between stress-related and autoimmune disorders, Dr. Song and her colleagues used Swedish registry information for 106,464 people diagnosed with a stress-related disorder between 1981 and 2013. (sharecare.com)
  • The results showed a 30 to 40 percent increase in autoimmune disease risk in the population with stress-related disorders. (sharecare.com)
  • In contrast, the unaffected siblings and those in the comparison group without a stress-related disorder both had about the same rate of autoimmune disorders. (sharecare.com)
  • PTSD also stood out among the stress-related disorders for its association with having more than one autoimmune disease. (sharecare.com)
  • Another aspect worth noting: The association detected in the study does not prove that stress-related disorders necessarily cause autoimmune disease, or vice versa. (sharecare.com)
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system are a group of uncommon disorders that develop in some people who have cancer. (drugs.com)
  • 4. Autoimmune Profiles for nervous system disorders. (ciin.org)
  • 4. Conditions and disorders associated with specific chemical exposures such as aplastic anemia, pulmonary function tests, heart monitoring, detailed and sensitive testing for various organ and/or system damage, etc. (ciin.org)
  • These mice showed that low levels of vitamin D during development caused increased disease severity through inducing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (osu.edu)
  • Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • NMO-like disease has been induced with passive transfer of human anti-AQP4 antibodies to the plasma of mice with pre-established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or by intrathecal administration to naive mice. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
  • B cells from mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) secreted elevated levels of IL-6 compared with B cells from naive controls, and mice with a B cell-specific IL-6 deficiency showed less severe disease than mice with wild-type B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Here we show that the gut epithelium of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(35-55)-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice contains environmental stimuli-induced intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis on transfer. (nature.com)
  • Alt C, Laschinger M, Engelhardt B (2002) Functional expression of the lymphoid chemokines CCL19 (ELC) and CCL 21 (SLC) at the blood-brain barrier suggests their involvement in G-protein-dependent lymphocyte recruitment into the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (springer.com)
  • The potential of this technology is illustrated by its use in revealing a broad-spectrum of pre-existing anti-lipid antibodies in blood circulation and monitoring the epitope spreading of autoantibody reactivities among protein, carbohydrate, and lipid antigens in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). (mdpi.com)
  • We are a hybrid lab with strong quantitative and experimental skills and we cycle between hypotheses generated by rigorous analysis and confirmation and discovery in experimental systems. (yale.edu)
  • Using an actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, a T cell-mediated autoimmune condition, we demonstrate that IVIg inhibits the differentiation of naive CD4 T cells into encephalitogenic subsets (Th1 and Th17 cells) and concomitantly induces an expansion of Foxp3 + regulatory T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the rodent model of MS, we demonstrate that IL-1β mediates pathologic relocation of CXCL12 during the induction phase of the disease, before the development of BBB disruption. (jimmunol.org)
  • Finally, we show that the level of CNS IL-1R determines the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mechanical hypernociception in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the nociceptive response in MOG35-55 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)-induced mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Behavioral and pathological outcomes in MOG 35-55 experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A critical role of LFA-1 in the development of Th17 cells and induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelytis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our findings reveal that a Th17-ELR + CXC chemokine pathway is critical for granulocyte mobilization, BBB compromise, and the clinical manifestation of autoimmune demyelination in myelin peptide-sensitized mice, and suggest new therapeutic targets for diseases such as MS. (rupress.org)
  • This disease is a result of the immune system attacking myelin proteins. (bartleby.com)
  • Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see myelin sheath ) in the brain , spinal cord , or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • The biochemical hallmark of the disease is an accumulation of very-long chain fatty acids in several tissues, including myelin and blood. (stanford.edu)
  • [2] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nerves and damages their myelin insulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate that TNFR2 deficiency results in female-biased spontaneous autoimmune CNS demyelination in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific 2D2 TCR transgenic mice. (cdc.gov)
  • Disease in TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice was associated with CNS infiltration of T and B cells as well as increased production of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific IL-17, IFN-γ, and IgG2b. (cdc.gov)
  • An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • MS is an autoimmune disease that causes myelin destruction in the central nervous system (CNS). (nature.com)
  • It triggers your immune system to destroy myelin. (familydoctor.org)
  • The researchers used adult neural stem cells to treat mice with a disease similar to MS that destroys myelin, the protective tissue coating on nerves, causing chronic pain and loss of motor function. (healthcanal.com)
  • Autoimmune T cells manage to travel through the bloodstream, cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to enter the central nervous system (CNS), and attack the myelin sheath that insulates brain cell axons and helps the axons conduct electrochemical messages from one cell to another. (dana.org)
  • As well as causing the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed, ADEM also attacks the nerves of the central nervous system and damages their myelin insulation, which, as a result, destroys the white matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are you referring to autoimmune types of connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis ? (healthtap.com)
  • Can untreated rheumatoid arthritis cause nervous system damage or problems with the nervous system? (healthtap.com)
  • Examples of autoimmune diseases include lupus and rheumatoid arthritis . (healthline.com)
  • A person is more likely to have the condition if a close family member has it or another autoimmune disease (such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, or lupus ). (kidshealth.org)
  • Neurological involvement is a distinct feature of various systemic autoimmune diseases, i.e. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus [SLE] or Behcet's disease [BD]. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The aim of this review is to explore the state-of-the-art for the role of PET imaging in CNS involvement in systemic rheumatic diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition, we explore the potential role of emerging radiopharmaceutical and their possible application in aiding the diagnosis of CNS involvement in systemic autoimmune diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It is usually caused by some drugs, certain diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sarcoidosis), and some types of cancers. (steadyhealth.com)
  • In Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Disease , the editors have gathered in a comprehensive handbook a critical review, by renowned experts, of more than 100 autoimmune diseases, divided into two main groups, namely systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. (springer.com)
  • Flow cytometric assessment of anti-neuronal antibodies in central nervous system involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune d. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between anti-neuronal antibody (anti-NA) and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other rheumatic diseases using a flow cytometric method. (nih.gov)
  • Over the last two decades, several pathogenic antibodies against neuronal surface antigens have been described in autoimmune encephalitis, which are amenable to immunotherapy. (uhblibrary.co.uk)
  • Autoimmune brain diseases, including autoimmune encephalitis and central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis, can cause rapid changes in your child's physical and mental health. (dukehealth.org)
  • Here, we discuss the involvement of the dopaminergic system in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once activated, they create diseases such as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), Chronic Lyme disease, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), numerous cancers, and a wide range of other autoimmune, neuroimmune, and central nervous system diseases. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • When a person has more than one demyelinating episode of ADEM, the disease is then called recurrent disseminated encephalomyelitis or multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). (wikipedia.org)
  • NMOSD is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. (phillytrib.com)
  • In patients with NMOSD, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and proteins in the body, most often in the optic nerves and spinal cord. (phillytrib.com)
  • The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. (bartleby.com)
  • This is a complex network responsible for sending information from your brain and spinal cord - which make up your central nervous system - to the rest of your body. (healthline.com)
  • It occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the healthy nerves of the brain and spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system occur when cancer-fighting agents of the immune system also attack parts of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or muscle. (drugs.com)
  • Despite an increasing use of high-dose therapy of i.v. gammaglobulin (IVIg) in the treatment of various T cell- and Ab-mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, comprehension of the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic benefit has remained a major challenge. (jimmunol.org)
  • I know MS is an autoimmune disease, and it seems like many people not only have MS, but also other AI diseases (like arthritis, diabetes, etc. (dailystrength.org)
  • The overexpression of Rab4A gene product of HRES-1, which is detectable in T cells of SLE patients and in all lupus-prone strains prior to disease onset, also contributes to oxidative stress and mTOR activation by inhibiting mitochondrial turnover via autophagy, also called mitophagy (5). (upstate.edu)
  • Our work has been widely cited, credited, inspired a recent explosion of research on the role of metabolic pathways in the pathogenesis of lupus (6-9) and other rheumatic diseases (10,11). (upstate.edu)
  • other diseases besides lupus and the related autoimmune diseases can cause your ana to be elevated. (healingwell.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system is divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves. (livestrong.com)
  • MayoClinic.com explains that erectile dysfunction, constipation and bladder problems continue the roster of misfortunes visited upon those who live with diabetic neuropathy of the autonomic nervous system. (livestrong.com)
  • [1] Some are affected by changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system , which can lead to dangerous abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • It can affect the feeling of your hands and feet and less often after very prolonged diabetes can affect your autonomic nervous system and lead to stomach problems or syncopal issues. (healthtap.com)
  • Hitherto, both the autonomic nervous system and innate immune system were regarded as systems that cannot be voluntarily influenced. (pnas.org)
  • Herein, we evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system and innate immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Autonomic nervous system problems can include dry mouth and impotence. (drugs.com)
  • Mast cells are important in innate immune system. (hindawi.com)
  • There are also conserved lipid moieties among microbes, such as lipid A components of LPS, which are ligands of the Toll-like receptors of the innate immune system [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • When a foreign invader (antigen) like bacteria, a virus or pollen, enters the body, it encounters the innate immune system. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation and Innate Immune System . (genecards.org)
  • Antibody-associated central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases account for an important part in neuroimmunology. (frontiersin.org)
  • 4) lack of robust evidence endorsing treatment strategies for antibody-associated CNS autoimmune diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Research Topic aims to provide novel scientific data and gain further understanding of clinical presentation, neuroimaging, antibody analysis and other relevant investigations of antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases of the CNS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glutamate Receptor Antibodies in Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease: Basic Mechanisms, Clinical Features, and Antibody Detection. (uhblibrary.co.uk)
  • Pathogenesis may be antibody independent, as B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) leads to amelioration of disease irrespective of autoantibody ablation. (rupress.org)
  • These observations concur to indicate that B cells propagate this autoimmune disease via antibody-independent mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • Roferon-A (interferon alfa-2a, recombinant) is indicated for use in patients with chronic hepatitis C diagnosed by HCV antibody and/or a history of exposure to hepatitis C who have compensated liver disease and are 18 years of age or older. (globalrph.com)
  • The type I interferon (IFN) response initiated by detection of nucleic acids is important for antiviral defense but is also associated with specific autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Such people include people who have not been vaccinated, who have a genetic tendency to inherit the disease, and who are travelling to areas where meningitis is common. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Are most nervous system diseases genetic? (healthtap.com)
  • Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a progressive, neurodegenerative, genetic disease, which has no cure and treated only symptomatically. (medindia.net)
  • Genetic Diseases 4. (fishpond.com.au)
  • We look for genetic factors that predispose to disease and try to understand the biology they perturb. (yale.edu)
  • Among the key players in the adaptive system are special white blood cells called B cells, which produce antibodies, and T cells which coordinate and carry out the attack - and, importantly, also signal when the attack should stop. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Instead of fighting germs, the immune system makes antibodies that attack a muscle's nerve receptors. (kidshealth.org)
  • My false positive to hep c antibodies has helped me and my family get treated for our mild autoimmune liver disease. (healingwell.com)
  • Therefore, the Chemical Injury Information Network endorses Dr. Gunnar Heuser's proposal that persons having damage in at least 4 of 7 areas (central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, T-cell subsets, pulmonary, nasal/ sinuses, chemical antibodies, and autoimmune antibodies) are more probably than not, disabled by MCS. (ciin.org)
  • Soliris provides the first FDA-approved treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, a debilitating disease that profoundly impacts patients' lives," said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (phillytrib.com)
  • Taking these data together, we conclude that IL-6 secretion is a major mechanism of B cell-driven pathogenesis in T cell-mediated autoimmune disease such as EAE and MS. (rupress.org)
  • Particularly, the effect of IVIg in T cell-mediated autoimmune conditions remains unexplored. (jimmunol.org)
  • Some are specific for a given pathogen and thereby serve as immunological targets for pathogen identification and diagnosis of infectious diseases, and as vaccines for the induction of anti-infection immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Lipid-based antigenic cross-reactivities or molecular mimicry between cellular components and specific microbial antigens may contribute to either pathogenesis of infectious diseases or clearance of cellular lipid products [ 7 , 8 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • IL-2 initially entered clinical development based on this activity, in settings such as cancer and infectious diseases. (nature.com)
  • As part of trying to solve this, you might make sure they ran a screen for common infectious diseases. (healingwell.com)
  • Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Anti-NA was measured by flow cytometry in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with SLE (n=44 for serum, n=17 for CSF), other rheumatic diseases (n=64 for serum, n=21 for CSF) and from healthy controls (n=65 for serum, n=18 for CSF). (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, serum anti-NA was more frequently found in CNS-SLE than in non CNS-SLE, other rheumatic diseases or in healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • The frequency of CSF anti-NA in CNS-SLE was significantly higher than in other rheumatic diseases with CNS involvement or in healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • The nature and pattern of the symptoms and physical signs of neurological disease allow inferences to be drawn about the sites of the lesions causing them. (britannica.com)
  • The term allodynia was originally introduced to separate from hyperalgesia and hyperesthesia, the conditions seen in patients with lesions of the nervous system where touch, light pressure, or moderate cold or warmth evoke pain when applied to apparently normal skin. (rsdhope.org)
  • Acute activation of the sympathetic nervous system attenuates the innate immune response. (pnas.org)
  • A study published in Clinical & Translational Immunology notes that gut health appears to play a role in many diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases affect an estimated 23 million Americans, yet the study of the immune system (immunology) is still an evolving field. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The sympathetic nervous system regulates blood flow and perspiration. (livestrong.com)
  • The present study demonstrates that, through practicing techniques learned in a short-term training program, the sympathetic nervous system and immune system can indeed be voluntarily influenced. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • It develops when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own central nervous system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tom Lane and Kevin Carbajal of the Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center found the answer with the body's immune system. (healthcanal.com)
  • It is accepted that the cells of the adaptive immune system are the directors of autoimmune responses [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the last years, studies of the neuroendocrine and immune systems have indicated that neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, hormones, and cytokines, as well as their respective receptors, can be used as common mediators in a neuro-endocrine-immune network, allowing the body to mount proper responses to changes of the internal environment and external insults ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Using expression profiles from purified human microglia, we observed enrichment for MS genes in these brain-resident immune cells, suggesting that these may have a role in targeting an autoimmune process to the central nervous system, although MS is most likely initially triggered by perturbation of peripheral immune responses. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It is currently accepted that misdirected immune responses may target self-antigens and generate severe inflammatory responses, a typical signature of autoimmune diseases. (oatext.com)
  • In addition to numerous components in immune responses, chaperone proteins are also detected in the extracellular fluids and have been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases acting as pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. (oatext.com)
  • These autoimmune responses may be responsible for demyelination in central and/or peripheral neural tissues [ 12 , 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β has recently been shown to contribute not only to BBB permeability but also to the development of IL-17-driven autoimmune responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Viruses have long been held to be of pathogenetic importance in the evolution of autoimmune connective tissue disease. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases can affect almost any part of the body, though they often target connective tissues (skin, muscle and joints). (childrenshospital.org)
  • The disease is thought to be related to an immune response possibly triggered by drug therapy (statins), connective tissue diseases , or cancer . (nih.gov)
  • After "capturing" the invaders, dendritic cells "cut" them into smaller pieces and display the antigenic fragments on their cell surfaces, converting these antigens into complexes that can be recognised by other cells of the immune system to mount a response and destroy them. (thestar.com.my)
  • The innate system is our inborn, nonspecific response to antigens. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The adaptive system is the continually evolving, specific response to antigens. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The idea that MCs are involved in the initiation and sustaining events of autoimmunity is based on abundant data from studies of both human disease and animal models [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We demonstrate that BCDT alleviates central nervous system autoimmunity through ablation of IL-6-secreting pathogenic B cells. (rupress.org)
  • In this article we review the basics of the stress response, summarize current controversies over the role of extracellular chaperones in inflammatory reactions and autoimmunity, and discuss the cytoprotective and immunoregulatory roles of heat-shock proteins, a challenging subject that may open a new avenue for the drug discovery and treatment of diseases related to autoimmune disturbs. (oatext.com)
  • in such patients the diagnosis relies mainly on clinical examination and often the role of the disease process versus iatrogenic or reactive forms is doubtful. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Having an approved therapy for this condition is the culmination of extensive work we have engaged in with drug companies to expedite the development and approval of safe and effective treatments for patients with NMOSD, and we remain committed to these efforts for other rare diseases. (phillytrib.com)
  • Patients may suffer from seizures at later stages of disease. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Experiments will be performed on the blood samples and the results correlated with the clinical and disease features of patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients were grouped according to both the number and size of tumours and clinical parameters at treatment initiation, including recurrent disease after standard cancer therapy, Stage IV disease, and no prior therapy. (thestar.com.my)
  • Polymorphic haplotypes of the HRES-1 endogenous retrovirus are associated with development and disease manifestations of in patients with SLE (4). (upstate.edu)
  • My laboratory has opened up the field of metabolic control of T-cell activation and lineage specification which underlie disease development both in murine models and patients with SLE (12,13). (upstate.edu)
  • This suggests that BCDT improved disease progression, at least partly, by eliminating IL-6-producing B cells in MS patients. (rupress.org)
  • In most patients, the disease usually runs a benign , self-limiting course. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • There are many variables of MS disease that hinder a patients ability to exercise. (wikibooks.org)
  • Most confer that MS patients respond to exercise in a similar way to disease free individuals. (wikibooks.org)
  • Interestingly, patients with PTSD who took a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for a year after being diagnosed had a decreased autoimmune disease risk compared to those with PTSD who didn't take SSRIs. (sharecare.com)
  • Figure 3: Effects of interleukin-2 in patients with autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. (nature.com)
  • Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Removing it can make the immune system less active and ease myasthenia gravis symptoms. (kidshealth.org)
  • In this symposium, we will review the most recent advances in extracellular vesicles (EV) research and their increasing impact on diagnostics and drug development for cancer, neurodegenerative disease, metabolic disease, and cardiovascular disease. (nyas.org)
  • The long-term objective of the study is to acquire knowledge that would allow us to therapeutically inhibit the pathogenic mechanisms and enhance repair mechanisms in immune-mediated CNS diseases, thereby minimizing the extent of CNS tissue damage and promoting recovery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, the source of the type I IFN response and the precise mechanisms of disease in AGS remain unknown. (nih.gov)
  • Immune cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) in many neurological diseases, with a primary or secondary inflammatory component. (springer.com)
  • The book's authors provide insight into the current understanding of CSF changes in these various conditions and what it tells us about the nature of neurological diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • The nervous system consists of three main nerve types. (livestrong.com)
  • Mayoclinic.com notes that Parkinson's disease is primarily associated with motor nerve disruptions that cause symptoms such as tremors, loss of balance control and slowed movement. (livestrong.com)
  • Where fatigue and weakness are the symptoms, the underlying cause of disease may be a failure of motor nerve impulses to cross to the muscle end plate at the neuromuscular junction . (britannica.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases involve your immune system attacking your body's own cell, which can lead to nerve damage. (healthline.com)
  • Categories of people who are at an increased risk of getting the disease are children under the age of five, teenagers and college students living in dormitories, people who are older than 55, people living in crowded places like camps and hostels, people with certain chronic illnesses such as chronic heart, renal or lung disease, diabetes, cancer, and immune deficient syndromes. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Autoimmune diseases are a family of more than 100 chronic, and often disabling, illnesses that develop when underlying defects in the immune system lead the body to attack its own organs, tissues, and cells. (springer.com)
  • RR-MS is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with an accumulation of immune cells at lesion sites. (rupress.org)
  • The list of diseases stretches from autism to cancer and from Chronic Fatigue Syndrome to Alzheimer's. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • If some or all of these conditions occur together, then the immune system will be weakened to the point where the perfect storm occurs, and people become ill with some type of modern chronic disease. (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Interactions between the nervous and immune systems occur through the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and through sympathetic/parasympathetic innervations of primary and secondary lymphoid organs. (frontiersin.org)
  • the most common, which can occur any time is carpal tunnel disease! (healthtap.com)
  • They occur in different kinds of autoimmune diseases as well as other types of illnesses, like infection and cancer. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Autoimmune diseases occur most often in females by a 3-to-1 margin over males. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Focus was on migraine management- referral to partner for Botox injections which I declined, and Zofran and Zonegran prescribed- (felt too foggy and headaches worsened so I stopped med), tested for Anderson-Fabry's disease-negative. (medhelp.org)
  • Which autpimmune disease affects the nervous system? (healthtap.com)
  • It affects 1 in 3 American adults , according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (healthline.com)
  • It is a disease of the CNS, mainly affects young adults. (brainscape.com)
  • Damage or an injury to your nervous system affects these messages. (familydoctor.org)
  • The disease affects males and females almost equally. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protocol also serves as a screening tool for NDU clinical trials and enables development of clinically-useful tools such as diagnostic tests and new, sensitive scales of neurological disability, disease severity and CNS tissue destruction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Blood stem cells for tolerance and tissue regeneration are a rapidly developing research and clinical field that is being applied to autoimmune diseases. (routledge.com)
  • Ongoing early clinical trials on tissue regeneration from blood stem cells are described in the chapter on stem cell therapy for cardiac and peripheral vascular disease. (routledge.com)
  • Clinical Trials of Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Cardiac and Peripheral Vascular Diseases, 10. (routledge.com)
  • This indicates that in a normal immune system, there are self-specific effector T cells that are ready to attack normal tissue if they are not restrained by T Reg cells. (nature.com)
  • The data imply that there is a balance between effector T cells and T Reg cells in health and suggest a therapeutic potential of T Reg cells in diseases in which this balance is altered. (nature.com)
  • Duke specialists are committed to diagnosing these diseases early and beginning treatment rapidly, to minimize symptoms and maximize your child's recovery. (dukehealth.org)
  • Treatments for pediatric autoimmune brain diseases vary depending on the specific disease your child has and the type and severity of their symptoms. (dukehealth.org)
  • Symptoms will not necessarily get worse over time, however flare-up periods may increase in length as the disease progresses. (wikibooks.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system can develop relatively quickly, often over days to weeks. (drugs.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system often begin even before a cancer is diagnosed. (drugs.com)
  • A perfect storm of events need to come together to create acquired immune system deficiency (non-HIV AIDS). (healthimpactnews.com)
  • Once the immune system is able to recognise the identifying features of the cancer cells, it will retain the information for life and prevent future recurrences. (thestar.com.my)
  • Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. (healthgrades.com)
  • Sometimes the injury to the nervous system is reversible with therapy directed toward the cancer and the immune system. (drugs.com)
  • However, more information is needed on the ways in which the cells of the immune system interact with the central nervous system (CNS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Immune cells work via a complex system of signals that start on the outside layer of the cell (the plasma membrane), these signals are transmitted inside the cell where they trigger immune cell activation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here we review the current stage of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • If the immune system fails to recognize self- from non-self-molecules, self-reactive lymphocytes can be activated by innate immune cells and lead to an autoimmune response [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dendritic cells are a critical link in the immune system. (thestar.com.my)
  • Several studies have shown that immune system cells can be regulated by dopamine acting on immune cells expressing dopamine receptors (DARs) present on the surface of T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), B cells, NK cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, several studies show that certain immune cells can synthesize and store dopamine in intracellular vesicles and, upon specific stimuli, release it ( 6 ), suggesting that dopamine operates as a bidirectional mediator between nervous cells and immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • We used an in vivo reporter of IFN activity in Trex1-deficient mice to localize the initiation of disease to nonhematopoietic cells. (nih.gov)
  • It is therefore clear that B cells participate in this disease. (rupress.org)
  • Cytomegalovirus is probably spread through the body in lymphocytes or mononuclear cells to the lungs, liver, and central nervous system where it often produces inflammatory reactions. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that like peripheral immune cells, microglia patrol the brain in health and disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These cells express surface markers phenotypical of 'induced' IELs, have a T H 17-like profile and infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS). (nature.com)
  • Whether autologous hematopoietic stem cells, through the process of mobilization and reinfusion, may be manipulated to contribute to tissue repair in autoimmune diseases is a future area for translational research. (routledge.com)
  • Since then, the door has opened on trials involving numerous autoimmune diseases and allogeneic as well as autologous hematopoietic stem cells. (routledge.com)
  • 2. Embryonic Stem Cells: Unique Potential to Treat Autoimmune Diseases, 3. (routledge.com)
  • Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitors in the Central Nervous System, 4. (routledge.com)
  • The innate system also includes white blood cells called phagocytes (literally, eating cells), designed to devour any antigen that gets through the outer defenses. (childrenshospital.org)
  • In autoimmune disease, the immune system mistakenly begins attacking healthy cells and tissues - and fails to shut off the attack. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Autoimmune diseases arise when the body's immune cells mistake other body cells for invaders and attack them. (sharecare.com)
  • Irvine, Calif - By discovering how adult neural stem cells navigate to injury sites in the central nervous system, UC Irvine researchers have helped solve a puzzle in the creation of stem cell-based treatments: How do these cells know where to go? (healthcanal.com)
  • As the stem cells migrated through the central nervous system, they began to transform into the precursor cells for oligodendrocytes. (healthcanal.com)
  • Autoimmune T cells cross the BBB, most likely by a process called "transcellular extravasation. (dana.org)
  • Exploiting microglial and peripheral immune cell crosstalk to treat Alzheimer's disease. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Neuroinflammation is considered one of the cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The central nervous system (CNS) is an immune-privileged compartment that is separated from the circulating blood and the peripheral organs by the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barriers. (mdpi.com)
  • Diffuse disease affecting the peripheral nerves may have a greater impact on either motor or sensory fibres, or it may affect both to an equal degree. (britannica.com)
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome ( GBS ) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral artery disease. (healthline.com)
  • Peripheral artery disease happens when your arteries narrow, reducing blood flow to your arms and legs. (healthline.com)
  • Peripheral neuropathy happens when there's damage to the peripheral nervous system. (healthline.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system requires proper nutrition. (healthline.com)
  • Certain medications, including several chemotherapy drugs , can damage the peripheral nervous system. (healthline.com)
  • PD is a multisystem disease where both central and peripheral nervous systems are affected. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Diseases of the Peripheral Nervous System 31. (fishpond.com.au)
  • Diseases associated with SIGLEC7 include Congenital Disorder Of Glycosylation, Type Iic and Autoimmune Disease Of Peripheral Nervous System . (genecards.org)