Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLMultiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Mice, Inbred MRL lpr: A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Oophoritis: Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.Mice, Inbred NZBSelf Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental: Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Rats, Inbred LewRheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Mice, Inbred BALB CSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Central Nervous System Viral Diseases: Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Myelin Proteolipid Protein: A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Lupus Vulgaris: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.Alopecia Areata: Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).Central Nervous System Agents: A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune: Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.ArthritisGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Mice, Inbred DBAImmunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Central Nervous System Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Neuroimmunomodulation: The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Lupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System: Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

The heat-stable antigen determines pathogenicity of self-reactive T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (1/107)

Induction of myelin-specific CD4 T cells is a pivotal event in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Other checkpoints in EAE pathogenesis have not been clearly defined, although multiple genetic loci are known to influence EAE development. We report here that targeted mutation of the heat-stable antigen (HSA) abrogates development of EAE despite a complete lack of effect on induction of autoimmune T cells. To test whether T-cell expression of HSA is sufficient, we created transgenic mice in which HSA is expressed exclusively in the T-cell lineage. We found that these mice remain resistant to EAE induction. Adoptive transfer studies demonstrate that both T cells and non-T cells must express HSA in order for the pathogenic T cells to execute their effector function. Moreover, HSAIg, a fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of the HSA and the Fc portion of immunoglobulin, drastically ameliorates the clinical sign of EAE even when administrated after self-reactive T cells had been expanded. Thus, identification of HSA as a novel checkpoint, even after activation and expansion of self-reactive T cells, provides a novel approach for immunotherapy of autoimmune neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Oligoclonal T cell repertoire in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. (2/107)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the T cell receptor beta chain variable region (TCRBV) gene usage ex vivo in CSF cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the nervous system. METHODS: A novel sensitive seminestedpolymerase chain reaction coupled with heteroduplex analysis was developed. RESULTS: Under these experimental conditions, the minimal number of cells required for the analysis of the whole T cell repertoire was established at 2.5x10(4)-sufficient to evaluate most of the samples collected during diagnostic lumbar punctures. In the 21 patients examined, restrictions in TCRBV gene family usage were not seen. However, using heteroduplex analysis, oligoclonal T cell expansions were found in the CSF of 13 patients and monoclonal expansions in five patients. The T cell abnormalities found did not correlate with intrathecal IgG production or with any clinical variable considered. CONCLUSION: T cell clonal expansions, useful for further characterisation of pathogenetic T cells, can be found during the course of nervous system inflammations, but this abnormality is probably not disease specific.  (+info)

Paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy associated with anti-Hu antibodies. A clinical and electrophysiological study of 20 patients. (3/107)

Although paraneoplastic subacute sensory neuronopathy is the most frequent presentation of peripheral neuropathy in patients with anti-Hu antibodies, other neuropathies have been reported. In order to investigate the clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of neuropathies associated with anti-Hu antibodies, we conducted a retrospective study of 20 patients. For the electrophysiological study, each nerve was classified as normal, demyelinating, axonal/neuronal or axonal/demyelinating. Peripheral neuropathy was the presenting symptom in 95% of patients. CNS and autonomic neuropathy were present in 40% and 30% of patients, respectively. The course of the neuropathy was acute, mimicking Guillain-Barre syndrome in one patient (5%), and subacute (55%) or progressive (40%) in the others. Clinically, the neuropathy was sensory (70%), sensorimotor (25%) or motor (5%). At onset, symptoms were symmetrical (65%), asymmetrical (25%) or multifocal (10%). Pain was a predominant manifestation (80%). Amyotrophia and fasciculations were rare. The median Rankin's score was 2, three patients having an indolent form. Electrophysiology showed the axonal/neuronal pattern to be the most frequent (46.9% of studied nerves); an axonal/demyelinating or demyelinating pattern being seen in 18.3% and 4.9% of nerves, respectively. The axonal/neuronal pattern was more frequent in sensory nerves and the mixed axonal/demyelinating pattern more frequent in motor nerves (P < 0.01). A higher proportion of abnormal nerves correlated with a progressive course (P < 0.05) or a Rankin's score between 3 and 5 (P < 0.01). In patients with sensory neuropathy, 88.5% of sensory nerves were abnormal, mostly with an axonal/neuronal pattern. In addition, 47% of motor nerves were abnormal so that only four out of 14 patients with a clinically pure sensory neuropathy (28.6%) had an electrophysiological pattern typical of sensory neuronopathy. In patients with a sensorimotor neuropathy, 96.6% of sensory and 71% of motor nerves were abnormal. The only statistical difference between sensory and sensorimotor neuropathies was that patients with sensorimotor neuropathy had more frequent motor nerve involvement (P < 0.05) without differences concerning the distribution of the abnormal patterns. Needle neuromyography showed only limited evidence of motor neurone degeneration in both sensory and sensorimotor neuropathy. The present work shows that the typical clinical and electrophysiological pattern of subacute sensory neuronopathy is rarely encountered in patients with anti-Hu antibody and that motor nerve involvement is frequently seen, even in the absence of a motor deficit. In addition to their potential pathophysiological involvement in the mechanism of the paraneoplastic neuropathy, these findings have practical consequences for the diagnosis of the disorder.  (+info)

Myelin protein P0-specific IgM producing monoclonal B cell lines were established from polyneuropathy patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). (4/107)

Monoclonal expansion of B cells and plasma cells, producing antibodies against 'self' molecules, can be found not only in different autoimmune diseases, such as peripheral neuropathy (PN), but also in malignancies, such as Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia and B-type of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL), as well as in precancerous conditions including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). About 50% of patients with PN-MGUS have serum antibodies against peripheral nerve myelin, but the specific role of these antibodies remains uncertain. The aims of the study were to establish, and characterize, myelin-specific B cell clones from peripheral blood of patients with PN-MGUS, by selection of cells bearing specific membrane Ig-receptors for myelin protein P0, using beads coated with P0. P0-coated magnetic beads were used for selection of cells, which subsequently were transformed by Epstein--Barr virus. The specificity of secreted antibodies was tested by ELISA. Two of the clones producing anti-P0 antibodies were selected and expanded. The magnetic selection procedure was repeated and new clones established. The cells were CD5+ positive, although the expression declined in vitro over time. The anti-P0 antibodies were of IgM-lambda type. The antibodies belonged to the VH3 gene family with presence of somatic mutations. The IgM reacted with P0 and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), and showed no evidence for polyreactivity, in contrast to other IgM CD5+ clones included in the study as controls. The expanded clones expressed CD80 and HLA-DR, which is compatible with properties of antigen-presenting cells. The immunomagnetic selection technique was successfully used for isolation of antimyelin protein P0-specific clones. The cell lines may provide useful tools in studies of monoclonal gammopathies, leukaemia, and autoimmune diseases, including aspects of antigen-presentation by these cells followed by T cell activation.  (+info)

Autoimmunity and the basal ganglia: new insights into old diseases. (5/107)

Sydenham's chorea (SC) occurs weeks or months after Group A streptococcal infection, and is characterized by involuntary, purposeless movements of the limbs, in addition to behavioural alteration. There is a body of evidence which suggests that SC is an immune-mediated brain disorder with regional localization to the basal ganglia. Recent reports have suggested that the spectrum of post-streptococcal CNS disease is broader than chorea alone, and includes other hyperkinetic movement disorders (tics, dystonia and myoclonus). In addition, there are high rates of behavioural sequelae, particularly emotional disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. These findings have lead to the hypothesis that similar immune-mediated basal ganglia processes may be operating in common neuropsychiatric disease such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This review analyses the historical aspects of post-streptococcal CNS disease, and the recent immunological studies which have addressed the hypothesis that common neuropsychiatric disorders may be secondary to basal ganglia autoimmunity.  (+info)

Immunization with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces neurological autoimmune disease. (6/107)

Neuronal nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders and in the regulation of small-cell lung carcinoma growth. Twelve subunits have been identified in vertebrates, and mutations of one are recognized in a rare form of human epilepsy. Mice with genetically manipulated neuronal nAChR subunits exhibit behavioral or autonomic phenotypes. Here, we report the first model of an acquired neuronal nAChR disorder and evidence for its pertinence to paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity. Rabbits immunized once with recombinant alpha3 subunit (residues 1-205) develop profound gastrointestinal hypomotility, dilated pupils with impaired light response, and grossly distended bladders. As in patients with idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, the severity parallels serum levels of ganglionic nAChR autoantibody. Failure of neurotransmission through abdominal sympathetic ganglia, with retention of neuronal viability, confirms that the disorder is a postsynaptic channelopathy. In addition, we found ganglionic nAChR protein in small-cell carcinoma lines, identifying this cancer as a potential initiator of ganglionic nAChR autoimmunity. The data support our hypothesis that immune responses driven by distinct neuronal nAChR subtypes expressed in small-cell carcinomas account for several lung cancer-related paraneoplastic disorders affecting cholinergic systems, including autoimmune autonomic neuropathy, seizures, dementia, and movement disorders.  (+info)

Thyrotoxic autoimmune encephalopathy: a repeat positron emission tomography study. (7/107)

Thyroid related autoantibodies have been related to the development of encephalopathy, known as Hashimoto's encephalopathy. However, their relation with the encephalopathy occurring in patients with Graves' disease has not been well established. The case is reported of a 51 year old woman presenting with subacute progressive dementia with evidence of hyperthyroidism. She had Graves' disease associated with high titres of thyroid related autoantibodies. Her encephalopathy was not improved by antithyroid drugs, but promptly responded to corticosteroid treatment, and stabilised with a gradual reduction of thyroid related autoantibody titres. Brain positron emission tomography initially showed a diffuse and multifocal cerebral hypometabolism with subsequent normalisation on her clinical recovery, which was consistent with the acute and reversible cerebral inflammation probably mediated by autoimmune mechanisms.  (+info)

Tourette's syndrome: a cross sectional study to examine the PANDAS hypothesis. (8/107)

BACKGROUND: The classical neurological disorder after group A beta haemolytic streptococcal infection is Sydenham's chorea. Recently a tic disorder occurring after group A streptococcal infection has been described and termed PANDAS (paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection). It is proposed that antibodies induced after group A streptococcal infection react with basal ganglia neurones in Sydenham's chorea and PANDAS. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) are present in most cases of acute Sydenham's chorea, but rarely in controls. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that Tourette's syndrome may be associated with group A streptococcal infection and ABGA. METHODS: 100 patients with Tourette's syndrome (DSM-IV-TR) were enrolled in a cross sectional study. Children with neurological disease (n = 50) and recent uncomplicated streptococcal infection (n = 40), adults with neurological disease (n = 50), and healthy adults (n = 50) were studied as controls. Recent group A streptococcal infection was defined using antistreptolysin O titre (ASOT). ABGA were detected using western immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: ASOT was raised in 64% of children with Tourette's syndrome compared with 15% of paediatric neurological disease controls (p < 0.0001), and in 68% of adults with Tourette's syndrome compared with 12% of adult neurological controls and 8% of adult healthy controls (p < 0.05). Western immunoblotting showed positive binding in 20% of children and 27% of adults with Tourette's syndrome, compared with 2-4% of control groups (p < 0.05). The most common basal ganglia binding was to a 60 kDa antigen, similar to the proposed antigen in Sydenham's chorea. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed autoantibody binding to basal ganglia neurones. Serological evidence of recent group A streptococcal infection, assessed by a raised ASOT, was detected in 91% (21/23) of Tourette's syndrome patients with positive ABGA compared with 57% (44/77) with negative ABGA (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The results support a role of group A streptococcal infection and basal ganglia autoimmunity in a subgroup of patients with Tourette's syndrome and suggest a pathogenic similarity between Sydenham's chorea and some patients with Tourette's syndrome.  (+info)

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a rare disease that results in severe dysautonomia (disorder of autonomic nervous system function). Many patients are unable to carry out activities of daily living due to autonomic symptoms that do not respond well to therapy (such as drops in blood pressure while standing). The recent discovery of antibodies that cause AAG has stimulated interest in immunomodulatory therapy (therapies that modify the functioning of the immune system). Studies in which a positive clinical response to these therapies have been reported in patients with AAG using immunomodulatory therapy as a treatment.. The investigators plan to carry out a blinded, randomized trial using IVIG. There have been no reported randomized clinical trials with any immunosuppressive agent in AAG. The proposed studies, if successful, will provide the first reliable clinical evidence, that therapy with IVIG is an effective treatment of AAG.. Treatment for the symptoms of autonomic failure is ...
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1 information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Ribonuclease H2 subunit A, also known as RNase H2 subunit A, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASEH2A gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the heterotrimeric type II ribonuclease H enzyme (RNaseH2). The other two subunits are the non-catalytic RNASEH2B and RNASEH2C. RNaseH2 is the major source of ribonuclease H activity in mammalian cells and endonucleolytically cleaves ribonucleotides. It is predicted to remove Okazaki fragment RNA primers during lagging strand DNA synthesis and to excise single ribonucleotides from DNA-DNA duplexes. Mutations in this gene cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS), an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly and psychomotor retardation, intracranial calcifications, elevated levels of interferon-alpha and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000104889 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000052926 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human ...
Our study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that B7-H1 nearly abolishes TH17 lineage differentiation of murine and human CD4+ T cells and hence controls T cell-mediated CNS autoimmunity.. Several lines of evidence point to a novel PD-1-independent effect of B7-H1-Ig during TH17 differentiation. First, we blocked interaction of B7-H1-Ig with murine or human PD-1 using a PD-1 binding Ab and found no interference with the anti-TH17 effect. Second, the completely preserved effect of B7-H1-Ig on TH17 differentiation using PD-1KO T cells provides unequivocal evidence that, at least in the murine system, this effect is not mediated via PD-1. Although the presence of a non-PD receptor for B7-H1 based on molecular modeling and functional mapping has been suggested before (12, 39), our study now provides clear experimental evidence of non-PD-1-mediated effects by B7-H1. Recently, B7.1 was identified as another receptor for B7-H1 on T cells (40), but in our setup, involvement of B7.1 could ...
An appropriate balance between inflammatory and regulatory T cells is critical to maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases, including m...
NEW YORK, NY (December 14, 2015)-Researchers have discovered how immune cells triggered by recurrent Strep A infections enter the brain, causing inflammation that may lead to autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders in children. The study, performed in mice, found that immune cells reach the brain by traveling along odor-sensing neurons that emerge from the nasal cavity, not by breaching the blood-brain barrier directly. The findings could lead to improved methods for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating these disorders.. The study, led by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, was published today in the online edition of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.. Recurrent Group A streptococcus (S. pyogenes) infections, which cause "strep throat," have been linked to autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders, notably Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infections, or PANDAS. Children with PANDAS ...
Pre Diabetes Questionnaire For Program Ketones In Urine Not Diabetic ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ Orthostatic hypotension (OH) especially autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy; diabetic neuropathy; Manage your diabetes for a healthy life Exercise Get moving! Work up to at least 30 minutes a day most days of the week. Glass Of Red Wine A Day Diabetes meals For Gestational Diabetes Gestational Diabetic Put these basics of type 2 diabetes management into action to get started. Again according to the CDC You can build a new website with OurChurch.Coms WP-EZ Online Website Builder - Its WordPress made easy! WebMD Symptom Checker helps you find the most common calories in flat white coffee with milk medical conditions indicated by the symptoms Dry eyes and Scaley skin on eyelids and including Eczema (child Zumo de naranja natural. "The sugar industry and soda companies are following the same playbook as the tobacco industry did trying to defend ...
On this work, we modeled a rare neurological auto-immune disease called Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS), caused by mutations in the TREX1 gene. AGS is characterized by a dramatic neuronal loss, leading to a life-long disability condition. The lack of robust animal models has blocked the understanding of the pathology and potential treatments. Using pluripotent stem cells, we create the first human model of AGS. When these cells were differentiated into neurons, we observed a massive cell death. On the other hand, astrocytes derived from the same donor cells survived, but displayed a clear inflammatory reactivity response by releasing interferon. We showed that the interferon response from astrocytes was affecting neuronal survival. When investigating the causes of the inflammatory response, we focused on the accumulation of nucleic acid on the cytoplast of astrocytes. The identity of these nucleic acid was LINE-1 retrotransposons. LINE-1 or L1s are repetitive sequences on the human genome that ...
At the time of this writing, healthcare systems are facing worldwide the pandemic of the coronavirus severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) and its associated disease, named cronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This virus is a new human pathogen, and currently, there are no specific treatment options.1 COVID-19 mostly affects the respiratory system, ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to severe pneumonia, but extrarespiratory multisystemic involvement has also been reported.2 Li et al.3 recently described the neuroinvasive potential of COVID-19, but, to our knowledge, no case of acute dysimmune neuropathy has been described so far. Here, the authors report the case of an acute and severe peripheral nervous system disorder possibly related to COVID-19 infection.. A 71-year-old male patient was referred to the emergency department for subacute onset of paresthesia at limb extremities, followed by distal weakness rapidly evolving to a severe, flaccid tetraparesis over the previous 3 days. ...
1. PANDAS: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections. 2. Common in the West but quite rare in our practice. Reasons: (i) acute condition, most acute cases are referred, treated and discharged. A week or 2 later patients developed neuropsychiatric disorders, waxing and waning with subsequent reinfection (ii) diagnosis is controversial; not classified in DSM/ICD…
PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections) . Consider this. Lyme is an autoimmune disease. Consider this. Other mystery diseases such as Psychiatric, CFS, MS, FM and a dozen or so others have anecdotally responded to antibiotics, while some M.D.s have accidentally discovered in their own practice that most of these are actually misdiagnosed tick born infections. Those same infections can also come, less frequently, from mice in the house, rats, cat scratches or bites, mosquitoes and fleas. Consider this. Lyme affects different people in different ways. It is the great deceiver. It usually looks like a different disease and is frequently misdiagnosed. Estimates are that for each 1 person correctly diagnosed and treated, there are 9 others not. And the most common symptoms include anxiety and psych symptoms that do not respond well to conventional medicines. PANDAS and Lyme and CFS and MS and FM all have one thing in common - they are ...
For support and discussion of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders, strep, Lyme disease and related other infections For helpful articles and resources visit our PANDAS / PANS Page Learn about our helpful book: Your Child Has Change; Should You Consider PANDAS? Lets Talk
Ever heard of PANDAS? No, not the bumbling, black and white bears. PANDAS stands for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with strept
Three prime repair exonuclease 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TREX1 gene. This gene encodes the major 3->5 DNA exonuclease in human cells. The protein is a non-processive exonuclease that may serve a proofreading function for a human DNA polymerase. It is also a component of the SET complex, and acts to rapidly degrade 3 ends of nicked DNA during granzyme A-mediated cell death. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, RVCL (Retinal Vasculopathy with Cerebral Leukodystrophy), and Cree encephalitis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. TREX1 helps HIV‑1 to evade cytosolic sensing by degrading viral cDNA in the cytoplasm GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000213689 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000049734 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Mazur DJ, Perrino FW (Aug 1999). "Identification and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 ...
Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies Blood - View Normal Values, Test Results, Procedure to conduct & Prices for Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies Blood | Practo
When children suddenly develop full-blown OCD and these associated symptoms, it may be whats called PANS - pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome. Its called "acute onset" because the behavior changes come on suddenly, reaching full-scale intensity within 24 to 48 hours. Its a syndrome because there are quite a few other symptoms that appear alongside the intense anxiety.. If the onset of these symptoms is linked to a strep infection, its called PANDAS - pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections - which is a subgroup of PANS. Some 86 percent of acute onset OCD cases are linked to strep. Children especially at risk are those who have what doctors call "occult" or hidden strep infections - that is, children who can be "carriers" of the infection but dont get symptoms themselves, and hence dont get treatment.. PANS cases have also been linked to other infections, including Lyme disease, mononucleosis, mycoplasma (walking pneumonia) and ...
I am slowly getting hit with the reality that I may never be able to have children. I have both Endometriosis and PCOS. It was always something that I shut out...
There is a health condition recognized in the biomedical field for autism and related disorders called PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections). This is a condition caused by an immune reaction triggered by the presence of Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcal infection. Various strep bacteria produce toxins as part of their infectious nature. The immune system responds in an attempt to neutralize and eradicate the toxins. However, this immune-toxin (aka: antibody-antigen complex) reaction creates immune complexes which are deposited in various tissues of the body. If these immune complexes land in the kidneys there is an immune reaction called post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, in the heart it is called rheumatic fever, and in the brain PANDAS can ensue.. This autoimmune reaction (self-directed immune reaction to body tissue) in PANDAS is directed to the Basal Ganglia area in the brain. This area has been associated with disorders such ...
... (or TPE), is a patient treatment during which a large volume of the patients plasma is separated from the cellular components of the blood, removed, and replaced with appropriate fluids. TPE is performed to remove antibodies, immune complexes or other toxic substances circulating in the plasma.. Therapeutic plasma exchange is considered a non-specific therapy since it removes all plasma constituents, not just those causing symptoms.. In order for TPE to be a successful therapy, a disease or disorder must be caused by a disease mediator that can be efficiently removed with the plasma to an extent that reduces symptoms. Many of the diseases for which TPE is considered fall under the specialty areas of renal and metabolic diseases, hematologic diseases and neurologic disorders.. The most common use of TPE is for the treatment of autoimmune or immune mediated diseases or disorders. TPE is used to remove monoclonal immunoglobulins, paraproteins, autoimmune antibodies and ...
The U.S. therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) market by indication is broadly segmented into neurological disorders, hematology disorders, renal disorders, autoimmune disorders, and metabolic disorders.
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal therapy treatment, which has been used successfully for limited scleroderma.
PANDAS stands for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Strep, and refers to a syndrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms that results from a disordered immune response triggered by Group A Strep infection. It is essentially "rheumatic fever" of the brain. Since its discovery, it has been found that actually pretty much any pathogen can trigger this syndrome, so the broader term for this disorder- PANS- is now often used instead (although the two tend to be used interchangeably). PANS stands for Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome. From the PANDAS network site "PANS (Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome) is when an infectious trigger, environmental factors, and other possible triggers create a misdirected immune response (which) results in inflammation on a childs brain. In turn, the child quickly begins to exhibit life changing symptoms such as OCD, severe restrictive eating, anxiety, tics, personality changes, decline in math and handwriting ...
Cunningham earned an undergraduate degree at Mississippi State College for Women and a Ph.D. in both microbiology and immunology from the University of Tennessee Center for Health Sciences.. Today, she is a George Lynn Cross Research Professor and Presbyterian Health Foundation Presidential Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, where she has taught and conducted research into infection and autoimmune diseases for 33 years.. "My training was in Group A streptococcal disease, but I also love immunology, which is our bodys response to infections," she said.. After researching rheumatic fever, myocarditis and other heart-related diseases for 15 years, Cunningham received a call from the National Institutes of Mental Health. They wanted her to investigate a puzzling condition affecting children known as pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep, commonly known as PANDAS.. Cunningham became a ...
Read about plasma exchange, also called therapeutic plasma exchange, which treats aHUS by clearing blood of antibodies and damaging complement factors.
Plasmapheresis, also known as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), is a nonsurgical therapy that removes and replaces a patients blood plasma.
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a mendelian mimic of congenital infection and also shows overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus at both a clinical and biochemical level. The recent identification of mutations in TREX1 and genes encoding the RNASEH2 complex and studies of the function of TREX1 in DNA metabolism have defined a previously unknown mechanism for the initiation of autoimmunity by interferon-stimulatory nucleic acid. Here we describe mutations in SAMHD1 as the cause of AGS at the AGS5 locus and present data to show that SAMHD1 may act as a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic antiviral response. © 2009 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved ...
Human RNASEH2B full-length ORF ( AAH36744.1, 1 a.a. - 331 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00079621-P01) - Products - Abnova
Human RNASEH2A full-length ORF ( AAH11748, 1 a.a. - 299 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00010535-P01) - Products - Abnova
Rnaseh1: | | | Ribonuclease H1 | | | | |||| ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Motor neuropathies and multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block are treatable causes of neuropathy that present with the clinical syndrome of
A 45-year-old man presented with 3 months of progressive right hand weakness. Examination showed mild atrophy and weakness of the right hand, and absent tendon reflexes. Cerebrospinal fluid contained 0.42 g/l protein (normal ,0.45) and 1 lymphocyte/mm3. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed a multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with partial conduction blocks and severe denervation in the muscles of the right hand (figure 1). Sensory nerve conduction studies were normal. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, distal demyelinating polyneuropathy associated … ...
Investigators at Universities of Barcelona, Pennsylvania, Oviedo, and Valencia, and the Spanish NMDAR Encephalitis Work Group report the clinical features of 20 pediatric patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis seen in a single center in Spain in the last 4 years. Median patient age was 13 years (range, 8 months-18 years); 70% were female. Initial symptoms were neurologic (dyskinesias or seizures) in 12 (60%) and psychiatric in 40%. By one month after disease onset, all had involuntary movements and changes in behavior and speech. All patients received steroids, IV immunoglobulin or plasma exchange, and 7 rituximab or cyclophosphamide. At a median follow-up of 17.5 months, 85% had substantially recovered, 10% had moderate or severe deficits, and 1 had died. Three patients had previous episodes compatible with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and 2 had additional relapses. Ovarian teratoma was identified in 2 patients (10%), 1 at disease onset and the other one-year later. A ...
Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently described life-threatening autoimmune disorder associated with a characteristic multi-stage neuropsychiatric syndrome. Although it is known that the majority of patients experience neuropsychological disturbance post-treatment, some aspects of the cognitive profile remain unclear. Methods: This study sought to investigate patterns of cognitive functioning in a sample of anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. Seven (6F:1M; mean age, 26.4 years; range, 16-37 years) treated patients completed a comprehensive set of neurocognitive and social functioning measures. Performance was analyzed using normative data (where available), and comparison with matched controls (10F:4M; mean age, 25.8 years; range, 16-38 years). Results: Individual cognitive profiles ranged from within normal limits to extensive dysfunction. Relative to controls, the patient groups performance was affected in the domains of verbal/ visual memory, working ...
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Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2012 Sep 20;37(3):89-93. Aoki H, Morita S, Miura N, Tsuji T, Ohnuki Y, Nakagawa Y, Yamamoto I, Takahashi H, Inokuchi S. Source Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan. [email protected] Abstract A previously healthy 21-year-old woman, transported to our…
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-resolution ultrasound is a valuable tool in supporting the diagnosis of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) but longitudinal data under therapy are lacking. METHODS: The change in peripheral nerve ultrasound pattern in patients with MMN was assessed over time. Patients with MMN received a thorough initial examination and follow-up over a period of 6-12 months using high-resolution ultrasound of the cervical roots and the nerves of the arms and legs, nerve conduction studies, Medical Research Council Sum Score (MRCSS) and Rotterdam Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Group (INCAT) score to evaluate changes under treatment ...
Hello, Since about 15 years my father was diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction blocks, for which he receives regularly IVIg treatment. This has always worked very well for him and could minimize the main complaints, which were in his case always loss of strength/feeling in his lower limbs (so not that much the hands). Recently he also has been diagnoses with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis (so stage IV unfortunately). He first got chemo treatment
Hello, Since about 15 years my father was diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction blocks, for which he receives regularly IVIg treatment. This has always worked very well for him and could minimize the main complaints, which were in his case always loss of strength/feeling in his lower limbs (so not that much the hands). Recently he also has been diagnoses with non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastasis (so stage IV unfortunately). He first got chemo treatment
The COBE Spectra system uses centrifugal technology to separate whole blood into its major components. The system draws whole blood from a donor or patient, adds anticoagulant, separates the blood components, collects or removes specific components and returns uncollected components to the donor or patient. In therapeutic plasma exchange and red blood cell exchange procedures, appropriate replacement fluid is continuously returned. ...
Traditionally, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE, plasmapheresis) was performed with centrifugation devices used in blood blanking procedures. (See.)These devices permit selective cell removal (cytapheresis) but have been associated with posttreatment
Most children with Tourettes have different patterns of tics. The tics may not be obvious. They can be bursts of movement or sounds that last for seconds or minutes.
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Researchers identify areas in the brains of children with Tourettes syndrome that appear markedly different from same areas in other children
Introduction: Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare, treatable, immune-mediated neuropathy often associated with multifocal conduction block (CB). The hallmark electrodiagnostic feature is the presence of CB occurring at non-entrapment sites. However, MMN without CB has also been described and can be diagnosed, even in the absence of CB. Therefore, it is crucial to diagnose and identify MMN cases without CB, as it is a treatable disorder. Case presentation: We present a case with progressive symptoms of asymmetric distal upper and lower extremity weakness with no sensory deficits. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy was initiated, as the patient fulfilled the criteria for probable MMN, despite the absence of CB. The patients symptoms demonstrated a relative plateau phase in response to IVIG. Although the patient lost follow-up visits, repeated electrodiagnostic study, conducted 11 years after initial presentation, revealed new CB in nerve segments that previously did not show any ...
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Strep infections are often self-limited, and if left untreated, symptoms will disappear after about five days. However, it is very important to treat group A strep. Treatment with antibiotics will reduce the duration and severity of symptoms. Untreated strep is contagious, but 48 hours after antibiotics are started, a child can return to school because the risk of spreading strep is greatly reduced. A final reason to treat strep with antibiotics is that there are complications from a group A strep infection that can be avoided. Although greatly reduced since antibiotics became widely available in the 1950s, strep complications still crop up, and the results can be devastating. Scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute glomerulonephritis, seen mostly in kids and adolescents, can result from an untreated or incompletely treated strep infection. There has even been an association noted between strep infection and an autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder in children.. The first step to diagnosing ...
The cause is not known. There are various theories which include the following:. Genetic. It is generally believed that abnormalities in genes are responsible for most cases of Tourettes syndrome. Genes are passed on to a child from each parent and determine what we look like, how our body functions and even what diseases we may get. A child is more likely to develop Tourettes syndrome if they have a father, mother, brother or sister with it.. Neurological. Some studies have shown that there are some minor defects in the structure and working of the brain in children with Tourettes syndrome. Studies also suggest that there may be a problem with one of the brains chemicals called dopamine. There is not a lot of information available about the detail or significance of these changes.. Environmental. Although it has not been proven, there is some evidence that problems during pregnancy or childbirth may increase the risk of a child developing Tourettes syndrome. This may include problems such ...
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated RNASEH2B primer pair, for the Human genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
Chorea is associated with a number of causes, some temporary and some chronic. Here are some common causes of chorea you should know of.
When installing Trex decking, customers should paint the top of the joists black to minimize their appearance and avoid sanding the planks. Trex also recommends that customers avoid routing balusters...
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Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) facilitates the unselective removal of pathogenic substances from the patients plasma. Such pathogens include paraproteins, autoantibodies, immune complexes, protein-bound toxins, and mediators of inflammation. During TPE the plasma is separated from cellular blood components by the LIFE 18™ - disk separator. The plasma is discarded and replaced by substitution solutions. Usually, 1-1.5 times the patients plasma volume is exchanged in a session. - Belgique
Previous work has shown that Tourettes syndrome and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of these two disorders. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring Tourettes syndrome/chronic …
This anti-TSH receptor (TRAb) ELISA kit is a reliable quantitative procedure for measuring TSH (thyrotropin) receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) in human serum.
For the maintenance of smooth function at the periphery, the co-ordination which takes place at the various levels of the central nervous system as well as the processes that go on in the autonomic...
The exact meaning of the medical terminology,Multifocal motor neuropathy - Rare immune mediated condition characterized by muscle wastag, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of medical terms
Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) with conduction block is an acquired immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathy with slowly progressive weakness, fasciculations, and cramping, without significant sensory involvement. Clinically, it may resemble amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with predominant lower motor neuron involvement, but muscle at...
Product name: Pamelor Category: Generic pharmacy Is used to: Generic Pamelor is in a group of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. It is used for ... Read story
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Do you have the repetitive and uncontrollable urge to move a body part, make a sound, or close your eyes? These actions are known as tics and you may have Tourettes syndrome. Named after the French neurologist who first described the condition in 1885, it is considered a neurological disorder.Symptoms of TS typically first appear in childhood, often between the ages of three and nine. It occurs in all ethnic groups, although males are affected far more often than females. Although TS can have symptoms that last a lifetime, for most the worst tics are experienced in the early teens, with improvement starting in the late teens and continuing into adulthood. Other conditions can look like TS. Transient tic disorders begin during the early school years and affect perhaps 18% of children. Common tics include eye blinking, nose puckering, grimacing and squinting. Transient vocalizations are less common and include various throat sounds or humming. Transient tics may last only a few weeks or months ...
As you are reading this, perhaps its starting to become obvious what is actually happening with tourettes sufferers. Teenagers and adults who believe they have this disease arent afraid to post videos, blogs and insightful information of their idiocy online, and it is thanks to their attention-whoring behavior that we can see how the whole thing is only becoming more and more suspicious. These crybabies are clearly faking it. And they often say that making certain movements feels right, so obviously they do it a lot. If you are a bored teenager or kid youve probably developed a habit or tic that involved making certain movements or weird sounds, and sooner or later it may actually feel good. Soon youll be repeating the tic so often, youll start to miss it when you arent doing it, and your brain tells you to do it again, similar to an addiction. As you keep repeating your lame habits more, your withdrawal symptoms become worse and before you know it you dont have the strength of ...
Diabetes is a complex condition that often causes a variety of complications, one of them being autonomic neuropathy (or autonomic dysfunction). From the digestive system to heart and blood vessels, autonomic neuropathy affects numerous body systems all at once. Its important your practice is prepared to diagnose and treat the wide range of symptoms that patients with this condition can experience.. Sudomotor dysfunction refers to the symptom of diabetic autonomic neuropathy that affects a persons sweat glands. Patients experiencing sudomotor dysfunction might sweat excessively, especially after eating even non-spicy foods and at night. Sudomotor dysfunction also causes patients to not sweat at all, even when its extremely hot outside. Sweat, of course, is needed to keep the body cool.. To diagnose sudomotor dysfuntion, along with other common features of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, your practice should invest in equipment that provides a precise evaluation of sweat gland function. The ...
inappropriate activation of the motor pathway or due to increased peripheral motor effort leading to functional assessment of axonal membrane function in peripheral nerve, and the technique has potential for use in longitudinal studies. imaging of the blood oxygentation response (BOLD-fMRI) during a calibrated handgrip task reliability of nerve excitability in a healthy cohort. of 5-30% maximum grip strength was performed in 12 healthy controls, 12 MND subjects and 12 motor excitability studies performed by the same subjects with multifocal motor neuropathy operator on three occasions (twice on the same (MMN), under placebo (i.v. saline) or midazolam day, and once after one week). ANOVA was conditions and images analysed with statistical used to analyse and compare the within-subject and between-subject variances for different fMRI signal increases were seen in all groups in contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex and testing had excellent reproducibility. The ipsilateral cerebellum, and ...
U.S., March 3 -- ClinicalTrials.gov registry received information related to the study (NCT03065751) titled Plasmaexchange in Early Septic Shock on Feb. 23. Brief Summary: Sepsis is defined by the occurrence of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the context of infection. Unfortunately, its incidence appears to be rising, and the mortality of septic shock remains extraordinary high (, 60%). Death in sepsis arises from shock and multi organ dysfunction that are - at least in part - triggered by an inadequate response of the hosts immune system to the infection. Given the injurious role of 1) this overwhelming immune response and 2) the consumption of protective plasmatic factors (e.g. vWF cleaving proteases, hemostatic factors etc.) while the disease is progressing we hypothesize that early therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in the most severely ill individuals might improve hemodynamics, oxygenation and ultimately survival. This therapeutic strategy combines 2 major aspects in ...
Learn about the different Apheresis procedures available at Inova including Extracorporeal Photopheresis (ECP), Leukapheresis (White Blood Cell Depletion), Plasmapheresis (Therapeutic Plasma Exchange), Plateletpheresis (Platelet Depletion), Red Blood Cell (RBC) Exchange and Therapeutic Phlebotomy.
Myc-DDK-tagged ORF clone of Homo sapiens ribonuclease H2, subunit B (RNASEH2B), transcript variant 2 as transfection-ready DNA - 10 µg - OriGene - cdna clones
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible involvement of human peripheral blood monocytes in the pathology of hypertensive disease. We determined the in vitro expression patterns of adhesion molecules on isolated peripheral blood monocytes from normal controls and from hypertensive patients. We investigated and compared the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), angiotensin II (Ang II) and Agonistic AT1 receptor autoantibodies (AT1-AA) to stimulate monocytes and the influence of preincubation with an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (losartan) or Glykoprotein IIb/IIIa rezeptor-antibody Abciximab. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 18 patients with essential hypertension and from 20 normotensive healthy individuals used as a control group. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated by negative Dyna Bead Isolation. Adhesion molecules were measured using immunofluorescence of monocytes labelled with antibody against CD11a and b, CD29, CD31, CD44, CD49d, CD54 and ...
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There is uncertainty about the best treatments for two important diseases causing peripheral neuropathy: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Consequently, there is a wide treatment variation in practice. Under the leadership of Richard Hughes (London), Eduardo Nobile-Orazio (Milan), and Ivo van Schaik (Amsterdam), 12 experts from 6 European countries assembled at Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam on October 27th to decide on the design of trials to demonstrate the efficacy of drugs in suppressing the immune response and treating these diseases. The group considered all the candidate drugs and chose two for further consideration. Negotiations with pharmaceutical companies will now take place before making the final choice.. The essential elements of the protocols for two randomised trials were debated and agreed upon. The trials will use change in disability as their primary outcome measures. The scales to be used will include a simple ...
Definition of Tourettes syndrome - a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary tics and vocalizations and often the compulsive utterance of obscenities.
People with Tourettes syndrome often have other problems as well, the most common of which is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Researchers at the universities of Calgary and Toronto studied 400 children with Tourettes some of whom had ADHD and some of whom did not. They found that children with low birth weights, who had been born prematurely and whose mothers had smoked during their pregnancy were two-or-three times more likely to have ADHD, replicating results in the general population ...
Macrophages make an antiviral protein called SAMHD1, which prevents HIV from replicating in these cells - except for when the protein is switched off, as part of a natural process discovered by the UCL-led team.. "We knew that SAMHD1 is switched off when cells multiply, but macrophages do not multiply so it seemed unlikely that SAMHD1 would be switched off in these cells," said Professor Ravindra Gupta (UCL Infection & Immunity), the senior author of the paper. "And yet we found theres a window of opportunity when SAMHD1 is disabled as part of a regularly-occurring process in macrophages.". Lead author of the EMBO Journal study, Dr Petra Mlcochova (UCL Infection & Immunity) said: "Other viruses can disable SAMHD1, but HIV cannot. Our work explains how HIV can still infect macrophages, which are disabling SAMHD1 by themselves.". The reason why SAMHD1 gets switched off remains to be determined, but the authors suggest it might be done in order to repair damaged DNA, part of the normal functioning ...
Tourettes is a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics. It is named for Dr. Georges Gilles de
Learn about steps you can take to make looking after yourself a daily priority. The first step when caring for someone with HD chorea is caring for yourself. Find additional resources where you can connect with fellow caregivers online.
Quitting sugar has had the biggest impact on my autoimmune disease, more so than my medication or any other medical fix. Reversed the damage
Autoimmune diseases. *Syndromes affecting the nervous system. *Peripheral nervous system disorders. *Cytomegalovirus-associated ... is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.[2] The initial symptoms ... Rinaldi, Simon (June 2013). "Update on Guillain-Barré syndrome". Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System. 18 (2): 99-112. doi: ... The cause is unknown.[2] The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly ...
Jones CT (November 2003). "Childhood autoimmune neurologic diseases of the central nervous system". Neurol Clin. 21 (4): 745-64 ... As well as causing the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed, ADEM also attacks the nerves of the central nervous system and ... Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a ... This disease has been occasionally associated with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, malaria, septicemia associated with ...
... is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The immune system attacks the CNS which leads to demyelination. ... 2007), but it is unclear how effectively the long neurotoxin can reach the central nervous system (CNS). Indications for the ... Apparently, when the nAChr receptors in the central nervous system gets activated it provokes anti-nociceptive effects . ... The cause of this disease is still unknown but there is a possible chance that the disease is induced or worsened by viral ...
... is an autoimmune disease causing demyelination within the central nervous system. In the central nervous system, there are many ... These two brain structures are responsible for motor functions and linking the nervous system to the endocrine system, ... Vitamin D and the central nervous system. Pharmacol Rep 65(2):271-8. Aivo J, Hanninen A, Ilonen J, Soilu-Hanninen M. 2015. ... Vitamin D, the autonomic nervous system, and cardiovascular risk. Physiol Rep 3(4):10.14814/phy2.12349. Picchioni, M. M., & ...
The stiff-man syndrome (SMS, also known as stiff-person syndrome) is a rare central nervous system autoimmune disease, but is ... The rarity of the disease complicates efforts to establish guidelines.[30] GABAA agonists,[2] usually diazepam but sometimes ... It is not known why GAD autoimmunity occurs in SPS patients,[25] and whether SPS qualifies as a neuro-autoimmune disorder has ... These patients tend not to have GAD antibodies.[2] Passive transfer of the disease by plasma injection has been shown in ...
The stiff-man syndrome (SMS, also known as stiff-person syndrome) is a rare central nervous system autoimmune disease, but is ... As the disease progresses, patients sometimes become unable to walk or bend. Chronic pain is common and worsens over time but ... It is not known why GAD autoimmunity occurs in SPS patients, and whether SPS qualifies as a neuro-autoimmune disorder has been ... It takes an average of six years after the onset of symptoms before the disease is diagnosed. There is no evidence-based ...
One form of an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system is multiple sclerosis. In this disease the body ... One form of a degenerative disease that can occur in the brain as well as throughout the body is an autoimmune disease. ... Autoimmune diseases cause the body to "attack" its own cells and therefore destroys those cells as well as whatever functional ... This causes the nervous system to essentially "short circuit" and pass information very slowly. Stem cells therapy has been ...
"Repetitive Pertussis Toxin Promotes Development of Regulatory T Cells and Prevents Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease". ... of Pertussis toxin can promote the development of regulatory T cells and prevent central nervous system autoimmune disease, ... The appearance of pertussis is quite recent, compared with other epidemic infectious diseases. The earliest mention of ... and autoimmune inhibition. PT clearly plays a central role in the pathogenesis of pertussis although this was discovered only ...
Clefyd, Designated intractable/rare diseases Math. Demyelinating disease, autoimmune disease of central nervous system ... Mae pob efedyn nerf yn y brif system nerfol wedi'i amgylchynu gan sylwedd a elwir yn fyelin. Mae myelin yn helpu negeseuon o'r ...
... has a therapeutic focus on chronic central nervous system and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and ... a chronic degenerative disease characterized by demyelination of nerve fibers leading to severe nerve damage and increasing ... enable the creation of novel therapeutics that address unmet medical need associated with these diseases. The names of the two ... Crohn's disease. Their two platforms, Caesar and Vigenère, ...
"Merck and Lycera to Develop Oral Autoimmune Disease Drugs Targeting Th17 Cells". Mar 2011. Benoit G, Cooney A, Giguere V, ... the RORC gene is not expressed in the central nervous system. The tissue distribution of the second isoform, RORγt, appears to ... RORγt inhibitors are under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. The ... Agonists may allow the immune system to combat cancer. LYC-55716 is an oral, selective RORγ (RORgamma) agonist in clinical ...
... understanding of how immunoglobulin may affect inflammation of the central nervous system in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. ... some autoimmune disorders (such as immune thrombocytopenia and Kawasaki disease), some neurological diseases (multifocal motor ... October 2003). "Mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases". Neurol. Sci. 24 ... on dendritic cells which then mediate anti-inflammatory effects helping to reduce the severity of the autoimmune disease or ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) is the most frequent heritable disorder of the peripheral nervous system (a neuronal disease) and is ... Certain diseases' causation (such as neuronal pathologies, cancer, disturbed metabolic conditions, and autoimmune disorders) ... These correlations between aaRSs and certain diseases have opened up a new door to synthesizing therapeutics.[17] ... Francklyn C, Musier-Forsyth K, Martinis SA (September 1997). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in biology and disease: new evidence ...
Trichloroethylene can cause scleroderma which is a systemic autoimmune disease that causes joint pain, skin stiffness, and ... In animals, exposure to trichloroethylene can impact the liver, nervous system, kidneys, and blood. Trichloroethylene at 24 ppb ... K&M was also given a discharge permit from the National pollution discharge elimination system that allowed them to relocate ... According to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, trichloroethylene can be harmless in very small quantities ...
... and caused by circulatory and nervous system disorders.. *Autoimmune system diseases. *Bites - animal and human ... The GSP nerve joins the deep petrosal nerve (of the sympathetic nervous system), derived from the carotid plexus, to form the ... D. Lymphatic system of the noseEdit. The pertinent nasal lymphatic system arises from the superficial mucosa, and drains ... diseases intrinsic and diseases extrinsic to the nose); (ii) an unsatisfactory aesthetic appearance (disproportion); (iii) a ...
March 1994). "Autoimmune disease and collagen dermal implants". Annals of Internal Medicine. American College of Physicians. ... Lewy, RI (1995). "Antinuclear Antibodies, Lipid Disturbances and Central Nervous System Imaging Abnormalities in Silicone ... "Autoimmune disease and collagen dermal implants". Annals of Internal Medicine. 120 (6): 524-525. 1994. doi:10.7326/0003-4819- ... Robert Ira Lewy (born October 16, 1943) is an American doctor who has conducted research on aspirin therapy in heart disease ...
Insults to neurons in the central nervous system caused by infection, trauma, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, or other ... autoimmune responses, and neurodegenerative disease. In healthy neural tissue, astrocytes play critical roles in energy ... Reactive astrogliosis is a spectrum of changes in astrocytes that occur in response to all forms of central nervous system (CNS ... Fawcett, James W; Asher, Richard.A (1999). "The glial scar and central nervous system repair". Brain Research Bulletin. 49 (6 ...
1999). "Autoimmune T cells protect neurons from secondary degeneration after central nervous system axotomy". Nature Medicine. ... the activity of autoimmune cells, is generally considered in the context of an autoimmune disease-a pathological condition ... autoimmune diseases can be induced experimentally by the adaptive transfer of autoimmune cells or antibodies from an animal ... List of autoimmune diseases Cancer immunotherapy Moalem, G.; et al. ( ...
In at least 2 diseases, the risk of autoimmune disease extends beyond the class II region of the haplotype. The "HL-A1,8 ... renal and central nervous system involvement) in Caucasian patients. Two-point haplotype analysis between TNFB(B*01 allele) and ... Among these were coeliac disease, autoimmune active chronic hepatitis, myasthenia gravis, Adrenocortical hyperfunction- ... the role of factors affecting disease are still not clear. A1-B8 serotype was associated with a number of diseases as "HL-A"' ...
... may experience paresthesia from damage to the central nervous system. The Varicella zoster virus disease (shingles) can attack ... or autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis or lupus erythematosus.[citation needed] Exposure to fluoroquinolones can ... A CT scan is sometimes used to rule out some causes from the central nervous system. Medications offered can include the ... Intravenous administering of strong pharmaceutical drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS), mainly opioids, opiates, ...
... is involved in the neuroinflammatory processes that takes place in the various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS ... CCL2 expression in glial cells is increased in epilepsy, brain ischemia Alzheimer's disease experimental autoimmune ... Gerard C, Rollins BJ (Feb 2001). "Chemokines and disease". Nature Immunology. 2 (2): 108-15. doi:10.1038/84209. PMID 11175802. ... CCL2 is implicated in pathogeneses of several diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid ...
... produces NO in nervous tissue in both the central and peripheral nervous system. The gene coding for nNOS is located on ... It is also the cause of septic shock and may play a role in many diseases with an autoimmune etiology. NOS signaling is ... It is the proximate cause of septic shock and may function in autoimmune disease. NOS catalyzes the reaction: 2 L-arginine + 3 ... The neuronal isoform is involved in the development of nervous system. It functions as a retrograde neurotransmitter important ...
... most of which involve the nervous system. Many "blockbuster" therapeutic proteins in the market are antibodies, which are N- ... which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of various autoimmune diseases. Changes in N-linked glycosylation has been ... Crohn's disease, and cancers. Mutations in eighteen genes involved in N-linked glycosylation result in a variety of diseases, ... Within the immune system the N-linked glycans on an immune cell's surface will help dictate that migration pattern of the cell ...
... contribute to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the CNS due to their role in connecting the immune and nervous systems. ... that the meningeal lymphatics play in diseases of the nervous system is an area of active research - particularly with regard ... 2015). "Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels". Nature. 523: 337-41. doi:10.1038/ ... "Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels". Nature. 523 (7560): 337-341. doi:10.1038/ ...
Birds have both innate and adaptive immune systems. Birds are susceptible to tumours, immune deficiency and autoimmune diseases ... Nervous system[edit]. See also: Bird vision and Avian pallium. Birds have acute eyesight-raptors (birds of prey) have vision ... Immune system[edit]. Main article: Avian immune system. The immune system of birds resembles that of other animals. ... Muscular system[edit]. The supracoracoideus works using a pulley like system to lift the wing while the pectorals provide the ...
Anti-CASPR2 nervous system manifestations: Patients with anti-CASPIR2 antibodies develop symptoms from the CNS and/or the ... Some patients have other coexisting autoimmune diseases. anti-LGI-1 encephalitis: Patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis have ... peripheral nervous system. The classic presentation is with Morvan's syndrome, a disease with the features of neuromyotonia (i. ... The diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis is based on the exclusion of differential diagnosis. The first step is a clinical ...
Mixed connective tissue disease - a disease of the autoimmune system, also undifferentiated connective tissue disease. ... including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) - a major autoimmune disease of connective tissue. *Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of ... "Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 17 (2): 125-139. doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2006.10.005. PMC 4426988. PMID ...
Disorders of the immune system can result in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Immunodeficiency occurs ... The immune system interacts intimately with other systems, such as the endocrine and the nervous systems. The immune system ... This system does not confer long-lasting immunity against a pathogen. The innate immune system is the dominant system of host ... "Understanding the Immune System: How it Works" (PDF). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Archived ...
Central nervous system vasculitis: This condition is inflammation of blood vessel walls in the brain or spine, which make up ... It can be triggered by another infection, an autoimmune disease like lupus, or blood cancers like leukemia. ... Buergers disease: This disease can cause inflammation and clots in the blood vessels that supply your hands and feet. It can ... Kawasaki disease: This disease affects young children and is associated with high abrupt fevers, redness in the eyes, rashes, ...
... finding suggests that encounter of the immune system with microbial products may not only be part of CNS autoimmune disease ... these data suggest a scenario in which repetitive PTx treatment protects mice from development of CNS autoimmune disease ... unspecific activation and facilitated migration of immune cells across the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system ... Incidence and severity of its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be enhanced by concomitant ...
Title:Role of Positron Emission Tomography for Central Nervous System Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: Status and ... Role of Positron Emission Tomography for Central Nervous System Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: Status and ... "Role of Positron Emission Tomography for Central Nervous System Involvement in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases: Status and ... central nervous system, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, Behcet`s disease. ...
NMOSD is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. ... a rare autoimmune disease of the central nervous system * Jun 27, 2019. ... approves-first-treatment-for-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-a-rare-autoimmune-disease-of-the-central-nervous-system- ... causing inflammation and damage to the central nervous system.. The effectiveness of Soliris for the treatment of NMOSD was ...
Histamine in Immune Regulation: Possible Roles in Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease of the Central Nervous System. Author(s): ... From Cannabis to Endocannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis: A Paradigm of Central Nervous System Autoimmune Diseases. Current Drug ... Title: Histamine in Immune Regulation: Possible Roles in Autoimmune Demyelinating Disease of the Central Nervous System ... The Blood-Central Nervous System Barriers Actively Control Immune Cell Entry into the Central Nervous System. Current ...
The Th17-ELR+ CXC chemokine pathway is essential for the development of central nervous system autoimmune disease Thaddeus ... CXC chemokine pathway is essential for the development of central nervous system autoimmune disease . J Exp Med 14 April 2008; ... Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-driven autoimmune disease that shares clinical and ... central nervous system; EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; MS, multiple sclerosis; NP, influenza nucleoprotein; ...
The nervous system consists of three main nerve types. Sensory nerves supply humans with the ability to see, hear, smell, taste ... Parkinsons Disease. Parkinsons disease is a nervous system disorder whose origins remain unclear. In Parkinsons disease, the ... The nervous system consists of three main nerve types. Sensory nerves supply humans with the ability to see, hear, smell, taste ... The sympathetic nervous system regulates blood flow and perspiration. When the sympathetic nerves of the hand and arm are ...
Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal of ... Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal of ... Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal of ... T1 - Metformin attenuated the autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in animal models of multiple sclerosis (Journal ...
Autoimmune Demyelinating Diseases, Central Nervous System; Spinal Cord Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases. On-line free medical ... Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms ... Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS (Autoimmune Demyelinating Diseases, Central Nervous System; Spinal Cord Demyelinating ... "Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS"Drugs, active principles and "Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS"Medicinal plants ...
Research Coordinator, Autoimmune and Central Nervous System Diseases - Teva Pharmaceuticals Ltd.. - Provided by Masa Israel ... Blog / Internships / Bio-tech & medical / Research Coordinator, Autoimmune and Central Nervous System Diseases - Teva ... Promoting Teva Pharmaceuticals research in the fields of autoimmune and central nervous system diseases. -Identifying and ... Coordinator will work with Teva Pharmaceuticals researchers in the areas of autoimmune and central nervous system diseases. ...
Meningitis is a potentially fatal disease that can be bacterial or viral. This set of slides will discuss the signs, symptoms, ... The Most Common Autoimmune Diseases. Sjogrens Syndrome: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. What Your Feet Say About Your Health. ... Thyroid disease is especially common in older people and especially women. According to the Centers for Disease Control and ... Awareness of the signs and symptoms of the disease is extremely important as is helps in the prevention of the disease. ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Demyelinating Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System Diseases. ... Nervous System Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Pathologic Processes. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS. ... Comprehensive Multimodal Analysis of Neuroimmunological Diseases of the Central Nervous System. The safety and scientific ... more information is needed on the ways in which the cells of the immune system interact with the central nervous system (CNS). ...
... alphabetical listing of diseases, illnesses, health conditions and wellness issues. ... Autoimmune Diseases * Autoinflammatory Disorders see Autoimmune Diseases * Automated External Defibrillators see Cardiac Arrest ... Autonomic Nervous System Disorders * Avascular Necrosis see Osteonecrosis * Avian Influenza see Bird Flu ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases. Demyelinating Diseases. Immune System Diseases. ... Autoimmune Diseases. Sclerosis. Pathologic Processes. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS. ... Regulation of Lipid Metabolism in Autoimmune Disease: Multiple Sclerosis (RELOAD-MS). The safety and scientific validity of ... DMD-treated with stable disease People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) who are treated with DMD who have had stable disease ...
an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x Abstract: Asgari N, Owens T, ... Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600- ... NMO may be characterized as a channelopathy of the central nervous system with autoimmune characteristics. Type: Journal ... NMO-like disease has been induced with passive transfer of human anti-AQP4 antibodies to the plasma of mice with pre- ...
Autoimmune Diseases. *Bells Palsy. *Brachial Plexus Palsy. *Brain Disorders. *Central Nervous System Lymphoma ...
Autoimmune Diseases. *Brain Disorders. *Cancer. *Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. *Central Nervous System Lymphoma ...
Autoimmune Diseases. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ... Nervous System. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Cognition Disorders. Immune System Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous ... Dementia Parkinson Altered Behavior in Alzheimer Disease Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS Demyelinating Sensorimotor ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Familial Alzheimer Disease Huntington Disease Corticobasal Degeneration ...
... and may help manage multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. We describe here the role of the sympathetic nervous ... 26] S. Sriram, C.W. Stratton, S. Yao, A. Tharp and L. Ding: "Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in ... 99] F. Lechin, B. van der Dijs, B. Orozco, G. Hernandez-Adrian, S. Rodriguez and S. Baez: "Similar autonomic nervous system ... Sympathetic nervous system and neurotransmitters: their possible role in neuroimmunomodulation of multiple sclerosis and some ...
Brain & Nervous System / Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Support Group Autoimmune Diseases. deleted_user 05/06/2008. Hi Everyone!. Im ... I know MS is an autoimmune disease, and it seems like many people not only have MS, but also other AI diseases (like arthritis ...
Localization of neurological disease: The nature and pattern of the symptoms and physical signs of neurological disease allow ... One symptom indicating muscular disease is weakness, usually symmetrical (that is, affecting both sides of the body) and mainly ... Autoimmune disorders. It is uncertain whether any diseases of the nervous system can properly be regarded as representing an ... human nervous system. Human nervous system. , system that conducts stimuli from sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord ...
We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. ... We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. ... and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The distorted expression of DARs ... and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The distorted expression of DARs ...
... of anti-neuronal antibodies in central nervous system involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases ... and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and other rheumatic diseases using a flow ... The frequency of CSF anti-NA in CNS-SLE was significantly higher than in other rheumatic diseases with CNS involvement or in ... other rheumatic diseases (n=64 for serum, n=21 for CSF) and from healthy controls (n=65 for serum, n=18 for CSF). Serum anti-NA ...
Autoimmune Diseases. *Bells Palsy. *Brain Disorders. *Brain and Nervous System Cancer (incl. Gliomas, Astrocytoma, Schwannoma ...
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. Nervous System Diseases. Demyelinating Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases. Immune System ... Evidence of inflammatory activity of the disease defined as clinical evidence of a relapse during the year before inclusion or ... Any general chronic handicapping disease other than MS. *Intensive physical therapy program within the 3 months prior to ...
  • This disease affects young children and is associated with high abrupt fevers, redness in the eyes, rashes, swelling of the hands and feet, swollen glands in the neck, and redness/cracking of the tongue and lips. (northwestern.edu)
  • With generous support from the Vasculitis Foundation, the program can develop into a strong research and training program that will drive advancements in the treatment of these diseases. (northwestern.edu)
  • This can cause serious complications, depending upon the severity of the disease, where it occurs in your body and the type of vasculitis. (northwestern.edu)
  • Soliris provides the first FDA-approved treatment for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, a debilitating disease that profoundly impacts patients' lives," said Billy Dunn, M.D., director of the Division of Neurology Products in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (phillytrib.com)
  • Some are specific for a given pathogen and thereby serve as immunological targets for pathogen identification and diagnosis of infectious diseases, and as vaccines for the induction of anti-infection immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • Lipid moieties of cellular components may also be molecular targets of autoimmune diseases [ 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The final aim is to consider the role of adenosinergic ectoenzymes and ADO receptors as novel therapeutic targets for selected diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system regulates blood flow and perspiration. (livestrong.com)
  • The present study demonstrates that, through practicing techniques learned in a short-term training program, the sympathetic nervous system and immune system can indeed be voluntarily influenced. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, we demonstrate that voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in epinephrine release and subsequent suppression of the innate immune response in humans in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • This review examines a panel of reports focused on the functions of ADO in the context of human autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and the selected animal models. (hindawi.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms and locus amplification link the NF-κB transcription factor c-Rel to human autoimmune diseases and B cell lymphomas, respectively. (jci.org)
  • The disease is thought to be related to an immune response possibly triggered by drug therapy (statins), connective tissue diseases , or cancer . (nih.gov)
  • The book's authors provide insight into the current understanding of CSF changes in these various conditions and what it tells us about the nature of neurological diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • There are also conserved lipid moieties among microbes, such as lipid A components of LPS, which are ligands of the Toll-like receptors of the innate immune system [ 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Among its related pathways are Class I MHC mediated antigen processing and presentation and Innate Immune System . (genecards.org)
  • Focus was on migraine management- referral to partner for Botox injections which I declined, and Zofran and Zonegran prescribed- (felt too foggy and headaches worsened so I stopped med), tested for Anderson-Fabry's disease-negative. (medhelp.org)
  • The nature and pattern of the symptoms and physical signs of neurological disease allow inferences to be drawn about the sites of the lesions causing them. (britannica.com)
  • The term allodynia was originally introduced to separate from hyperalgesia and hyperesthesia, the conditions seen in patients with lesions of the nervous system where touch, light pressure, or moderate cold or warmth evoke pain when applied to apparently normal skin. (rsdhope.org)
  • The goal of treatment is to heal and control the skin lesions caused by the disease. (petcarerx.com)
  • Pathogenesis may be antibody independent, as B cell depletion therapy (BCDT) leads to amelioration of disease irrespective of autoantibody ablation. (rupress.org)
  • Guillain-Barré syndrome ( GBS ) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sera and CSF of 320 patients suspected of suffering from an autoimmune neurological syndrome were comprehensively investigated for the presence of anti-neural IgG autoantibodies by IFA using mosaics of biochips with brain tissue cryosections and established cell-based recombinant antigen substrates as well as immunoblots. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is a conservative procedure for patients suffering with bulging or herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, posterior facet syndrome, sciatica, failed back surgery syndrome, and non-specified mechanical low back or neck pain . (selfgrowth.com)
  • Anti-NA was measured by flow cytometry in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with SLE (n=44 for serum, n=17 for CSF), other rheumatic diseases (n=64 for serum, n=21 for CSF) and from healthy controls (n=65 for serum, n=18 for CSF). (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, serum anti-NA was more frequently found in CNS-SLE than in non CNS-SLE, other rheumatic diseases or in healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • The frequency of CSF anti-NA in CNS-SLE was significantly higher than in other rheumatic diseases with CNS involvement or in healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • In other cases, individual nerves are affected as a result of compression or vascular disease. (britannica.com)