Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System: Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred MRL lpr: A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Thyroiditis, Autoimmune: Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Mice, Inbred C57BLOophoritis: Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.Mice, Inbred NZBSelf Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental: Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).Scleroderma, Systemic: A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Hashimoto Disease: Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS: Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Rats, Inbred LewLupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Pemphigus: Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Lupus Vulgaris: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.Alopecia Areata: Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Myelin Proteolipid Protein: A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune: Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.ArthritisDisease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.B-Cell Activating Factor: A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mice, Inbred DBAImmunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Myasthenia Gravis, Autoimmune, Experimental: Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group F, Member 3: An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).B-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: B-cells that have a role in regulating the immune response including the production of CYTOKINES. This function is in addition to their traditional role in making antibodies.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Thyroid Diseases: Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Clonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Interleukin-23: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cellsGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mixed Connective Tissue Disease: A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)Desmoglein 3: A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Receptors, Interleukin-17: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.Uveomeningoencephalitic Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by bilateral granulomatous UVEITIS with IRITIS and secondary GLAUCOMA, premature ALOPECIA, symmetrical VITILIGO, poliosis circumscripta (a strand of depigmented hair), HEARING DISORDERS, and meningeal signs (neck stiffness and headache). Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals a pattern consistent with MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p748; Surv Ophthalmol 1995 Jan;39(4):265-292)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Thyroiditis: Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Receptors, Interleukin-21: Cell surface receptors for interleukin 21. They are heterodimeric proteins found on DENDRITIC CELLS and LYMPHOCYTES that consist of the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous: A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).Nervous System Malformations: Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.

Fas on renal parenchymal cells does not promote autoimmune nephritis in MRL mice. (1/6282)

BACKGROUND: Although Fas on pancreatic islets promotes autoimmune diabetes in mice, the role of Fas expression on kidney parenchymal cells during autoimmune disease is unknown. METHODS: To determine whether Fas on renal parenchymal cells promotes autoimmune renal destruction, we compared apoptosis and pathology in Fas-intact and Fas-deficient kidneys in an autoimmune milieu. For this purpose, we transplanted single, normal kidneys from MRL-++ (Fas-intact) mice (3 months of age) into age-matched, congenic MRL-Faslpr (Fas-deficient) recipients after removal of nephritic kidneys. These Fas-intact kidneys were compared with Fas-deficient nephritic kidneys. RESULTS: There is a progressive increase of FasL on kidney-infiltrating cells and Fas and FasL on renal parenchymal cells in MRL-++ kidneys during engraftment (0, 2, 4-6, and 8 weeks). By comparison, we detected an increase in FasL in MRL-Faslpr kidneys (3 to 5 months of age), whereas Fas was not detectable. The engagement of T cells bearing FasL with Fas expressing tubular epithelial cells (TECs) induced TEC apoptosis in vitro. However, apoptosis and pathology were similar in kidneys (MRL-++, 8 weeks postengraftment vs. MRL-Faslpr, 5 months) with equivalent amounts of FasL-infiltrating cells or FasL TECs, regardless of Fas on renal parenchymal cells. CONCLUSION: The expression of Fas on renal parenchymal cells does not increase apoptosis or promote renal disease in MRL-++ mice. We speculate that the autoimmune milieu evokes mechanisms that mask, counter, or pre-empt Fas-FasL-initiated apoptosis in MRL kidneys.  (+info)

Identification of a subpopulation of lymphocytes in human peripheral blood cytotoxic to autologous fibroblasts. (2/6282)

A naturally occurring subpopulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes is cytotoxic to autologous and/or allogeneic fibroblasts. The autocytotoxic lymphocytes have a receptor for the third component of complement and for aggregated gamma globulin, do not form rosettes with sheep red blood cells, and are not removed by passage through nylon. The autocytotoxic subpopulation is not present in the thymus and tonsils of normal children or in the peripheral blood of individuals with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Fibroblast absorption experiments demonstrate that the autocytotoxic cells are "sensitized" to antigens expressed on allogeneic fibroblasts in addition to the antigens expressed on autologous cells. Some normal individuals have a second subpopulation of lymphocytes that may "regulate" the autocytotoxic cells. The relevance of these observations to the murine autocytotoxic cells is discussed.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (3/6282)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

Crossreactive recognition of viral, self, and bacterial peptide ligands by human class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte clonotypes: implications for molecular mimicry in autoimmune disease. (4/6282)

The immunodominant, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the HLA-B8-restricted peptide, RAKFKQLL, located in the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early antigen, BZLF1, is characterized by a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we show that this diversity can be partitioned on the basis of crossreactive cytotoxicity patterns involving the recognition of a self peptide-RSKFRQIV-located in a serine/threonine kinase and a bacterial peptide-RRKYKQII-located in Staphylococcus aureus replication initiation protein. Thus CTL clones that recognized the viral, self, and bacterial peptides expressed a highly restricted alphabeta TCR phenotype. The CTL clones that recognized viral and self peptides were more oligoclonal, whereas clones that strictly recognized the viral peptide displayed a diverse TCR profile. Interestingly, the self and bacterial peptides equally were substantially less effective than the cognate viral peptide in sensitizing target cell lysis, and also resulted only in a weak reactivation of memory CTLs in limiting dilution assays, whereas the cognate peptide was highly immunogenic. The described crossreactions show that human antiviral, CD8(+) CTL responses can be shaped by peptide ligands derived from autoantigens and environmental bacterial antigens, thereby providing a firm structural basis for molecular mimicry involving class I-restricted CTLs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.  (+info)

MHC class II gene associations with autoantibodies to U1A and SmD1 proteins. (5/6282)

Autoantibodies against U small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) are frequently present in the serum of patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, and have been reported to be associated with HLA-DR and -DQ genes. To better define the role of HLA genes in the production of such antibodies, we studied immunogenetic associations with autoantibodies reacting with U1 RNP, U1A and SmD1 proteins, and synthetic peptides containing immunodominant linear epitopes of these proteins. Only two out of the 15 overlapping peptides of U1A (i.e. peptides 35-58 and 257-282) and three of 11 peptides of SmD1 (i.e. peptides 1-20, 44-67 and 97-119) were significantly recognized by patients' sera selected on the basis of their antibody positivity with RNP in immunodiffusion. The distribution of DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1 alleles among the anti-RNP antibody-positive patients (n = 28) and healthy control subjects was similar. Antibodies against U1A (tested in Western immunoblotting with HeLa cell extracts) were positively associated to DRB1*06 allele; antibodies reacting with SmD1 peptide 44-67 were negatively associated to DRB1*02 and DQB1*0602 alleles. No association was found between DPB1 alleles and antibodies reacting with U1A and SmD1 antigens. This first study reporting an association between autoantibodies reacting with U1A and SmD1 proteins (and peptides of these proteins), and immunogenetic markers suggest that the production of antibody subsets directed against different components (or regions of these proteins) bound to the same snRNP particle is associated with distinct MHC class II alleles.  (+info)

Non-coding plasmid DNA induces IFN-gamma in vivo and suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (6/6282)

Regulatory sequences used in plasmids for naked DNA vaccination can modulate cytokine production in vivo. We demonstrate here that injection of plasmid DNA can suppress the prototypic T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by inducing IFN-gamma.  (+info)

IL-4 and IL-10 are both required for the induction of oral tolerance. (7/6282)

Protection from the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) can be induced by feeding mice interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein before uveitogenic challenge with the same protein. Two different regimens are equally effective in inducing protective tolerance, although they seem to do so through different mechanisms: one involving regulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta), and the other with minimal involvement of cytokines. Here we studied the importance of IL-4 and IL-10 for the development of oral tolerance using mice genetically engineered to lack either one or both of these cytokines. In these animals we were able to protect against EAU only through the regimen inducing cytokine-independent tolerance. When these animals were fed a regimen that in the wild-type animal is thought to predominantly induce regulatory cells and is associated with cytokine secretion, they were not protected from EAU. Interestingly, both regimens were associated with reduced IL-2 production and proliferation in response to interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein. These findings indicate that both IL-4 and IL-10 are required for induction of protective oral tolerance dependent on regulatory cytokines, and that one cytokine cannot substitute for the other in this process. These data also underscore the fact that oral tolerance, manifested as suppression of proliferation and IL-2 production, is not synonymous with protection from disease.  (+info)

Pregnancy ameliorates induction and expression of experimental autoimmune uveitis. (8/6282)

Female patients suffering from autoimmune uveitis are reported to experience a temporary remission during pregnancy. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a model for human uveitis. Here we examine the effect of pregnancy on the development of EAU and its associated immunological responses. Susceptible C57BL/6 mice were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). EAU scores and Ag-specific responses were evaluated 21 days later. Mice immunized during pregnancy developed significantly less EAU than nonpregnant controls. Their lymph node cells and splenocytes produced a distinct pattern of cytokines in response to IRBP: reduced IFN-gamma and IL-12 p40, but unchanged levels of TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Anti-IRBP Ab isotypes revealed an up-regulation of IgG1, indicating a possible Th2 bias at the humoral level. Ag-specific proliferation and delayed hypersensitivity, as well as mitogen-induced IFN-gamma production, remained undiminished, arguing against an overall immune deficit. Interestingly, pregnant mice that received an infusion of IRBP-primed lymphoid cells from nonpregnant donors also developed reduced EAU, suggesting that pregnancy suppresses not only the generation, but also the function of mature uveitogenic effector T cells. Pregnant mice at the time of immunization exhibited elevated levels of TGF-beta, but not of IL-10, in the serum. We suggest that protection from EAU during pregnancy is due primarily to a selective reduction of Ag-specific Th1 responses with only marginal enhancement of Th2 function, and that these effects may in part be secondary to elevated systemic levels of TGF-beta.  (+info)

Animal Auto-Immune Disease Diagnostics is used to check auto-immune diseases fo animals.Some of the popular animal auto-immune diseases are autoimmune hemolytic anemia, canine systemic lupus, and othe...
The rise of auto-immune disease corresponds with a change in the human diet. The gut biome is under attack; Allimed can be used to fight back.
Contact us and we will answer the inquiries and concerns you might have about Regenerative Medicine Institute of Nevada conventions for Auto-Immune Diseases.
A new study from the University of Calgary could change the way researchers understand and treat autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The study is published in the February edition of the prestigious journal Nature.
Objective: To assess the tolerance and efficacy of rituximab in patients with various autoimmune diseases seen in daily rheumatological practice. Methods: 866 rheumatology and internal medicine practitioners were contacted by email to obtain the files of patients treated with rituximab for systemic autoimmune diseases. Patients with lymphoma were analysed if the evolution of the autoimmune disease could be evaluated. Results: In all, 43 of 49 cases could be analysed, including 14 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), six with primary Sjögrens syndrome (pSS), five with systemic vasculitis, and five with other autoimmune diseases. Rituximab was prescribed for lymphoma in two patients with RA and two with pSS. In the 39 other cases, rituximab was given because of the refractory character of the autoimmune disease. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 26). There were 11 adverse events in 10 patients and treatment had to be discontinued in six. ...
Many autoimmune diseases are characterized by autoantibody reactivities to multiple cellular antigens. Autoantigens are commonly defined as targets of the autoimmune B cell response, but the role, if any, of these autoantigens in T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is generally unknown. Murine experimental autoimmune gastritis is a CD4+ T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disease induced by neonatal thymectomy of BALB/c mice. The murine disease is similar to human autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia, and is characterized by parietal and chief cell loss, submucosal mononuclear cell infiltrates, and autoantibodies to the alpha and beta subunits of the gastric H/K ATPase. However, the specificity of T cells that cause the disease is not known. To examine the role of the H/K ATPase in this T cell-mediated disease, transgenic mice were generated that express the beta subunit of the H/K ATPase under the control of the major histocompatibility complex class II I-Ek alpha promoter. We show ...
IF you answered yes to any of these questions, you may have an autoimmune disease, and this book is the "medicine" you need. Among the most prevalent forms of chronic illness in this country, autoimmune disease affects nearly 23.5 million Americans. This epidemic-a result of the toxins in our diet; exposure to chemicals, heavy metals, and antibiotics; and unprecedented stress levels-has caused millions to suffer from autoimmune conditions such as Graves disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohns disease, celiac disease, lupus, and more. In The Immune System Recovery Plan, Dr. Susan Blum, one of the most sought-after experts in the field of functional medicine, shares the four-step program she used to treat her own serious autoimmune condition and help countless patients reverse their symptoms, heal their immune systems, and prevent future illness ...
NE nurse Susan Alvarado says autoimmune diseases can be triggered by different events.. "Some are more genetic. Some are more environmental," she said. "Some are chemically induced.". Alvarado said it is important students let their campus nurse know about their condition and to let student accessibility resources know if they have special needs.. The more common autoimmune diseases are lupus, psoriasis, celiac disease and Type 1 diabetes. Over 80 different autoimmune diseases exist, and they affect the body differently.. For example, rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the joints, and multiple sclerosis occurs when the immune system strips away the protective covering on nerves.. Some people can live regular lives while some remain sick and in debilitating pain.. Autoimmune diseases affect up to 50 million Americans, which is more than cancer and heart disease, according to the American Autoimmune Related Disease Association, which acknowledges March as Autoimmune Disease Awareness ...
An autoimmune disease develops when your immune system, which defends your body against disease, decides your healthy cells are foreign invaders. As a result your immune system attacks healthy cells.. Psoriasis, arthritis, type 1 diabetes, chronic fatigue are all types of autoimmune disease (scroll down to see more). Depending on the type, an autoimmune disease can affect one or many different types of body tissue. It can affect all the organs, bones and cells: the skin, thyroid gland, pancreas, the joints, muscles and brain etc, it can also cause abnormal organ growth and changes organ function.. There are many types of autoimmune disease, many of which have similar symptoms, making diagnosis difficult. It is also possible to have more than one at the same time.. Autoimmune diseases usually fluctuate between periods of remission (where there are no symptoms) and flare-ups (where all symptoms are activated).. There are currently no cures for autoimmune disease so medication is used to treat the ...
Heart disease. Cancer. Diabetes. These are commonly understood health conditions. However, unless someone is diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, or knows someone who is, there seems to be a lot of confusion about what autoimmune disease is and how it develops.. I have an autoimmune disease, Hashimotos Thyroiditis, and know many people that have various autoimmune diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis, Multiple Sclerosis, and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. There is a lot of misunderstanding and I want to help clear up as much I can.. To break it down for you, here are my top eight things you should know about autoimmune disease:. ...
This is the link re all Autoimmune Diseases. Its on now. Episode 1 Overview What really is auto-immune disease? The true impact of auto-immune disease in US and other countries. What is...
Market Insights. According to American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA), autoimmune diseases are caused by functional turbulence caused to immune system. Autoimmune reactions occur when the immune system produces autoantibodies that attack and destroy healthy tissues in the body rather than infectious agents. These autoantibodies cause inflammation, pain, and organ damage. Autoimmune disease is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in girls and women in all age groups up to 64 years of age. A close genetic relationship exists among autoimmune disease, explaining clustering in individuals and families as well as a common pathway of disease. The currently available treatment comprises chemical-based drugs such as immunosuppressant, corticosteroids and NSAIDs. Biological drugs are considered as the most developing segment of autoimmune diseases treatment market due to target-specific activity, less side-effects and high patient compliance compared to chemical- based drugs. The ...
Tel Aviv, Israel, February 2, 2010 - Compugen Ltd. (NASDAQ: CGEN) announced today the discovery and experimental validation of CGEN-15001 for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. CGEN-15001 is the extracellular region of a previously unknown membrane protein in the B7/CD28 family. The existence and potential utility of the newly discovered parent protein from which CGEN-15001 is derived was predicted in silico utilizing Compugens LEADS Platform and other proprietary algorithms.. Autoimmune diseases develop when defects in the immune system lead the body to attack its own cells, tissues, and organs and include more than 80 chronic, and often disabling, illnesses. Among the most common autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes. Collectively, autoimmune diseases are among the most prevalent diseases, affecting an estimated 25 million people in the U.S.. CGEN-15001 is a novel soluble recombinant ...
Over the last 6-9 months my symptoms have escalated. My joints have swelled. My muscles ache. Most days my body feels broken. There is a blood test called a SED rate. It tests the rate of inflammation in your body. A scale of 0 , 20 is within normal limits. When I was referred to a rheumatologist a few years ago my SED rate came back at 96. My most recent blood work showed that my SED rate was 46. It is much better than 96, but it is still very high. When I have had flair ups in the past I would just be tired and have a lot of pain. But over these last months, that has changed. I have started having swelling in my hands, debilitating bouts of exhaustion, excruciating pain, severe photosensitivity, and a lovely butterfly rash on my face. My rheumatologist seems unconcerned because I have not had a positive ANA test for Lupus and my body does not tolerate most medications that are used to treat autoimmune diseases. So, I am in the waiting process of getting a second opinion ...
Matheson, D W., "Evidence against a lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune etiology for murine muscular dystrophy." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1360 ...
One common feature of autoimmune diseases is the inherent immune dysregulation that occurs even in the absence of immunosuppressive and immunomodulating therapies used to manage disease. Although similar immunosuppressive medications may be effective for different autoimmune diseases, the intricacies of immune dysregulation are often very specific to certain disorders. We are interested in studying the behavior of the altered immune system caused by these diseases and focus on the underlying immune response to immunological challenges that are commonly encountered. The two main interests of our group are: 1) the immunological response to pregnancy, where the immune system has to adapt to support the growing semi-allograft fetus; and 2) the immunological response to viral infection and vaccination, particularly with the varicella zoster virus.. Using epidemiological and translational approaches, we are studying the behavior of different autoimmune diseases during pregnancy as well as the outcomes ...
An autoimmune disease occurs when the bodyʹs immune system begins to attack its own healthy cells by mistake. This package includes the following screening: 1. Lupus Anticoagulant 2. Anti-Nuclear Antibody 3. Anti-DNA 4. C3 Complement 5. C4 Complement Sample for testing: Blood *Please take note that this test is only av
A Thomsonian Naturopathic Doctors View of a Common Sense Way Out of the Autoimmune Disease Mess. I am a Thomsonian Naturopathic doctor and follower of Dr Samuel Thomson (the founder 1822). He believed as I have learned from his teachings and my experience that all diseases are actually simple to explain. That the more you complicate disease and medical techniques the more that people are removed from the healing process. One of the results is what you see today in these auto-immune disease epidemic nightmares.. When I was looking at autoimmune diseases in 2004 there were at that time 65 and everyone was shocked at the high number. Sadly these diseases have nearly tripled in that short period of time and today I believe the number is close to 150. But this is not the true number as anyone of those autoimmune diseases can have any number of sub-diseases with their own symptoms. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) for example, has about 100 sub-diseases.. Autoimmune diseases like RA are a disease where your ...
A primary characteristic of complex genetic diseases is that affected individuals tend to cluster in families (that is, familial aggregation). Aggregation of the same autoimmune condition, also referred to as familial autoimmune disease, has been extensively evaluated. However, aggregation of diverse autoimmune diseases, also known as familial autoimmunity, has been overlooked. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed aimed at gathering evidence about this topic. Familial autoimmunity was investigated in five major autoimmune diseases, namely, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Articles were searched in Pubmed and Embase databases. Out of a total of 61 articles, 44 were selected for final analysis. Familial autoimmunity was found in all the autoimmune diseases investigated. Aggregation of
Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology is a super-speciality of medical science which deals with diseases arising out of disturbances in the immune system of the body. Our immune system is meant to protect us (like police safeguarding a city). However when the immune system goes wrong, rather than protecting, it starts damaging the cells and tissues of the body and result in diseases which are broadly known as autoimmune diseases.. Autoimmune diseases can range from mild to severe and sometimes fatal diseases. Most of the times it affects multiple systems of the body and therefore to diagnose and treat them properly, a wholesome approach is required. For example, an autoimmune disease can simultaneously affect our skin, joints (causing arthritis), muscles (causing weakness), lung and kidney. Only a well-trained specialist can put these together into perspective and design appropriate therapy for managing the patient.. Unlike previously thought, autoimmune diseases are fairly common. It is just ...
The treatment and cure of autoimmunity remains of paramount importance. The challenges to developing successful therapies are broad, ranging from complex genetics, similarities and differences among target tissues, differential pathogenic mechanisms and an incomplete knowledge of the target antigens. We have shown that the Non-Obese Diabetes (NOD) mouse strain can be used as a mouse model of multiple autoimmune disorders (AID). These other autoimmune diseases were most apparent when regulatory T cells (Tregs) were eliminated and co-stimulatory pathways altered. For instance, NOD mice develop a spontaneous autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, termed Spontaneous Autoimmune Peripheral Polyneuropathy (SAPP), in the absence of CD28 interaction with B7-2. In addition, we observed that in the complete absence of CD28 signals, NOD mice were deficient in Tregs and developed SAPP, sialadenitis, autoimmune thyroiditis and a newly appreciated autoimmune exocrine disease similar to that ...
How smart is this system?. Our immune system is dependant on distinguishing millions upon millions of foreign substances, while making sure not to attack itself in the process. It achieves this separation of "self" from "non-self" through the use of distinctive surface "self" marker molecules. If a foreign substance does not possess these surface molecules, then an attack is triggered against this invader or antigen. Basically an antigen is a substance that the immune system recognizes as foreign and may react and trigger a response against. These antigens may be viruses and bacteria, or even fragments of these microbes and protein molecules.. The immune system is not perfect, and may mistake normal, healthy cells, as invaders and instigate an attack against itself, against its own cells and tissues. This process is called an auto-immune disease. Some common auto-immune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, Type 1 diabetes, systemic lupus, MS, and thyroid disease. Other times, it may react against ...
This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence linking autoimmune diseases and psychosis. The associations between autoimmune diseases and psychosis have been studied for more than a half century, but research has intensified within the last decades, since psychosis has been associated with genetic markers of the immune system and with excess autoreactivity and other immune alterations. A range of psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, have been observed to occur more frequently in some autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. Many autoimmune diseases involve multiple organs and general dysfunction of the immune system, which could affect the brain and induce psychiatric symptoms. Most studies have been cross-sectional, observing an increased prevalence of a broad number of autoimmune diseases in people with psychotic disorders. Furthermore, there is some evidence of associations of psychosis with a family history of autoimmune disorders and vice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The progress and prospect of regulatory T cells in autoimmune diseases. AU - Zhang, Ximei. AU - Olsen, Nancy. AU - Zheng, Song Guo. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Regulatory T cells (Treg) are an important immune cell population, playing a crucial role in regulating immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. These cells consist of various cell sub-populations and generally have an immunoregulatory or suppressive role against immune responses. They also have a different cell heterogeneity and each populations has own biological characteristics. Treg deficiency, reduction, instability, reduced vitality and dysfunction all account for multiple autoimmune diseases. In this review, we have systemically reviewed Treg classification, phenotypic features, regulation of Foxp3 expression, plasticity and stability of Treg as well as their relationship with several important autoimmune diseases. We particularly focus on why and how inflammatory and diet environments affect the ...
1. 면역학 I (Immunology I). 항원의 특성과 항체의 생성 및 항원항체의 결합특성, 항체의 종류, 구조, 기능 및 보체의 활성 등 면역 일반에 대해 강의한다.. This coruse offers with an extensive study of the bodys defenses aand will gain a comprehensive understanding of immunology, normal immune responses as well as hypersensitive and immunologicaldiseases. Discussions will be held on the nature of allergies and the role of the immune system in the bodys allergic teactions. Auto-immune diseases, immunization, transplantation and cancer immunology will also be considered in detail.. 2. 미생물학실험 (Microbiology Laboratory). 미생물학 이론에 근거하여 세균과 효모, 곰팡이 등의 미샘울을 안전하고 정교하게 배양하고 분리하는 기본적인ㄴ 실험 바업을 비롯하여 대량배양과 돌연변이, 발효 및 대사과정에 관련된 응용기술까지 습득한다.. Offers basic and advanced techniques of ...
The past five years have seen many scientific and biological discoveries made through the experimental design of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). These studies were aimed at detecting variants at genomic loci that are associated with complex traits in the population and, in particular, at detecting associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, auto-immune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. We start by giving a number of quotes from scientists and journalists about perceived problems with GWASs. We will then briefly give the history of GWASs and focus on the discoveries made through this experimental design, what those discoveries tell us and do not tell us about the genetics and biology of complex traits, and what immediate utility has come out of these studies. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of all reported findings for all diseases and other complex traits, we focus on the results for auto-immune diseases and
First Google "which vaccines cause scleroderma": https://goo.gl/pMq5wI. Then Google "natural cure for scleroderma": https://goo.gl/h3KLb8. You will find every auto-immune disease (and cancer), including scleroderma, listed in the package insert of some vaccine, as a known adverse reaction.. That is the real purpose of vaccines - to drive the extremely profitable auto-immune disease & cancer industries, AND to further the elites depopulation Agenda 2030. This woman needs to WALK AWAY from the death industries, and TOWARD the true health paradigm of health through nutrition and targeted nutrition.. ...
There is concern about pesticides, especially since I relate 3 major events of a crippling illness to them, and 1 other, semi major, where my mouth and tongue were burning so bad, and I couldnt use or open my mouth for 6 months. I walked on areas that had been sprayed, then within hours was crippled and couldnt walk. Or in the case of my jaw a centipede poison pellet system was put in a badly ventilated green house, under the open floor boards of the hall, on the other side of the wall and hall outside my unventilated bedroom. Within 1 week of moving to another home...My jaw and mouth were perfectly fine.. As of February 16th 2014 from 1995, I can count 8.5 years of indescribable pain; that was totally unnecessary.... There is a direct correlation through these experiences. The event day-by-day gets worse effecting the entire body; the pain will eventually go away. This time it has taken 6 years .... You will read below I take WARFARIN... I have stopped taking it since 12-13, and have been ...
Scientists have revealed that the location of TRAF1/C5 gene on chromosome 9 plays a vital role in multiple autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Either of two immunostimulating factors (lpr, lipopolysaccharide) enhanced the pathogenic autoimmune responses of MRL/n mice, but the serologic and immunopathologic characteristics differed. In contrast, either factor acting alone, caused minimal immunopathology in normal mice, despite autoantibody induction. Combined immunostimulation, however, caused fatal glomerulonephritis in normal-background C57BL/6 mice. These results show the profound influence of the background genome on the effects of immunostimulating agents, and show that resistance to autoimmune disease in immunologically normal mice is not absolute. ...
We are on the topic of Cosmic Fundamentals, trying to dig down to the foundation of existence. That we are attempting to do so with words must tell us something fundamental. For either language is fundamental or it is not; if it isnt, then were kind of stuck, since it means that our primary tool of thought isnt up to the task -- like shaving with a hammer or trying to bite a wall. But if language can get the job done, well then, that bloody well says something special about language, doesnt it? Which is one reason Im always surprised that the intemperate tools among us can make such sweeping statements that nullify the significance of language. To cite the most obvious example, to say definitively -- which is to say absolutely -- that there is no God is to implicitly affirm that human language is adequate to ultimate reality. Which is a roundabout way of saying that we in are the image of the Creator. Thus, intelligence makes itself into a god instead of pointing beyond itself to its own ...
The prevalence of autoimmune diseases are increasing at a rapid rate and now affect 1 in 4 women and 1 in 6 men.. Over 80 autoimmune diseases have been identified and in this health talk, Amanda will discuss some of the current hypotheses around the possible causative factors. Amanda will also look at some of the most researched nutrients and dietary modifications that have shown long-lasting impact on the progression of autoimmune mechanisms.. Amanda has been in private practice for 21 years and has treated hundreds of individuals with autoimmune conditions, ranging from coeliac disease to multiple sclerosis.. Dont miss this opportunity to learn more about health from our clinic director.. DATE: Monday 1st May at the clinic. TIME: 6:30pm Talk will run for 30 minutes + opportunity to ask questions. To reserve your place please call or email reception on (02) 9555 8806 or [email protected] ...
Ari Whitten: Yeah. Lets talk about, I know heavy metals are on that list too. Lets talk about fluoride a little bit more in depth and the water issue because I think this is a really, really important one. I have done a pretty extensive review of the literature and you know, I have a good understanding of how different water filters work and stuff like that. One of the things that I know from doing this is that most peoples home filters are actually not adequate at filtering out fluoride, and most people are just unaware of this.. So, a lot of people are using these Brita style pitcher filters and that sort of thing. And they dont realize that those things dont filter out fluoride either at all or do so very minimally. And so, this is, unless you go out of your way to get super high-quality filters, either reverse osmosis or a couple other kinds of technologies, you are drinking fluoride even if you think you have a home filter and you think youre taking care of, youre not ...
| Investigators at the National Eye Institute have been probing interactions in the gut to see how they might influence the development of autoimmune diseases such as uveitis. Release | Florida...
A deficiency in one of the immune systems enzymes affects the severity of autoimmune diseases such as MS, and explains why the course of these diseases can vary so much. New findings give an insight into how this enzyme deficiency can be diagnosed, and could lead to new medicines, reveals a thesis from the Sahlgrenska Academy.
Definition of autoimmune diseases Autoimmune diseases are diseases where immune response is attacking ones own organs or tissues. It can affect small area or make itself known throughout the whole body. There are at least three classes of autoimmune diseases that are based on different immunological factors. First class is cytotoxic hypersensitivity where antibodies bind…
Results of the largest genomics study of multiple sclerosis patients ever undertaken have identified more than two dozen new genetic variants linked to disease risk, including some previously implicated in other autoimmune diseases.. The study, conducted by an international consortium of researchers from the Yale School of Medicine and 129 other institutions, appears in the Aug. 11 issue of the journal Nature. Common genetic links between multiple autoimmune diseases were also confirmed in a second study by Yale and Harvard University researchers in a second study published contemporaneously in the journal PLoS Genetics.. "We have known for some time that many devastating diseases of the immune system must have common genetic causes," said Chris Cotsapas, assistant professor of neurology and genetics at Yale and lead author of the PLoS paper. "Now we have the outline of a map that tells us where we can look for common treatments.". In the Nature study, researchers studied the DNA from 9,772 ...
There are certain autoimmune diseases that have classic findings on the skin. This is very important to recognize because, when I see a skin problem that looks concerning for an autoimmune disease, it may be a sign that there are internal problems in the body as well. Fortunately, there are treatments for this.
AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and
Purchase Endocrine Manifestations of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Volume 9 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444531728, 9780080559322
Autoimmune disease as a category affects 50 million Americans. It is one of the top ten causes of death in women under the age of 651, is the second highest cause of chronic illness, and is the top cause of morbidity in women in the United States. Additionally, autoimmune diseases have been reported to be on the rise in the U.S. and around the world, making this poorly understood category of disease a public health crisis at levels comparable to heart disease and cancer. Because of a severe lack of awareness amongst the general public and medical practitioners and unequal allocation of research funding and focus at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), plus a lack of coordinated care and standardized diagnostic tests, the associated cost of autoimmune diseases has become a significant portion of the rising cost of healthcare in the U.S. Addressing the pressing concerns surrounding autoimmune diseases should be a major priority of the United States Congress as a means of reducing healthcare ...
Purchase The Heart in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Volume 14 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444513984, 9780080507965
Gudjonssons lab has focused on autoimmune diseases of the skin. The researchers decided to take a broader approach with this study, investigating gene expression in the skin of healthy subjects, including skin biopsy samples from 31 females and 51 males.. It is important to look at changes to the skin in diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune disease, Gudjonsson says. For example, four of 11 criteria for a lupus diagnosis relate to the skin, with features like rashes.. First author Yun Liang, Ph.D., a U-M dermatology research investigator, said: ...
Autoimmune disease affects up to 50 million Americans, according to the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA). Autoimmune diseases are considered a top 10 leading cause of death in women under the age of 65. They come in many different varieties, including rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes, thyroid disease, lupus, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and more, and can cause many different types of symptoms all over the body that range from mild to severe in nature ...
This article is shared with permission from our friends at Dr. Hyman.. INFLAMMATION IS A "HOT" TOPIC IN MEDICINE. It appears connected to almost every known chronic disease - from heart disease to cancer, diabetes to obesity, autism to dementia, and even depression.. Other inflammatory diseases such as allergies, asthma, arthritis, and autoimmune disease are increasing at dramatic rates. As physicians we are trained to shut off inflammation with aspirin, anti-inflammatory medication such as Advil or Motrin, steroids, and increasingly more powerful immune suppressing medication with serious side effects.. But we are not trained to find and treat the underlying causes of inflammation in chronic disease. Hidden allergens, infections, environmental toxins, an inflammatory diet, and stress are the real causes of these inflammatory conditions.. Autoimmune diseases, specifically, now affect 24 million people and include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, thyroid disease, inflammatory ...
The immune system is the bodys defense system against infection, disease, and foreign substances. Once stimulated, the immune system automatically turns on to locate and fight invading cells.. An autoimmune disease develops when the bodys immune system fails to recognize normal body tissues and attacks and destroys them as if they were foreign rather than attacking an outside organism. The cause is not fully understood, but in some cases it is thought that autoimmune diseases are triggered by exposure to microorganisms or other environmental causes, especially in people with a genetic predisposition to the disorder. A single organ or multiple organs and tissues may be affected.. There are nearly 150 autoimmune disorders. While there are no cures for these disorders, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) provides expert care for people to maintain a high quality of life.. If your condition requires a bone marrow transplant, you should know that we are one of 15 centers whose transplant patients ...
The Global Personalized Cell Therapy Market was valued at US$ 3536.2 million in 2016 and is projected to expand at a CAGR of 25.3% during the forecast period (2017-2024 ), as highlighted in a new report published by Coherent Market Insights. The demand for disease specific drugs for treatment of disease that have high prevalence rate, for example autoimmune diseases, diabetes and cancer is expected to support growth of the personalized cell therapy market over the forecast period.. The main process that involved the use of personalized medicine is to get the right treatment for a particular patient depending on the patients genomics by the help of molecular biomarker tests and targeted therapies. Autoimmune diseases are the leading cause of death, as they are prevalent in almost every age group, though their incidence rate varies with estimates as more than 80 individual type of autoimmune diseases are present such as type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and many ...
It turns out that there is a greatly increased amount of autoimmune disease in women than in men and the timing suggests that it is associated with pregnancy and possibly even with an exchange of bodily fluids. After learning more about the risks I decided celibacy was a good idea as my own autoimmune disease worsened and I had to start avoiding a wider number of foods and food groups. Eating enough variety for health became a problem for me as animal based meats and eggs were causing severe rashes. Skin is better than a lack, and health is more valuable than you realize until you dont have it.. In other areas of social or culture some believe that procreation within a marital bond is the only reason to have sexual relations -that is not my belief as sexual relations can have mood and pain relief benefits and regular, three times per week, has been associated with increased lifespan, but it might be healthier for women to maintain a long-term bond with one person, as the familiarity of a longer ...
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Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the attack of the immune system to normal tissues. Patients with autoimmune diseases usually have the deficienc...
The CD154-CD40 interaction is critical for the induction and progression of EAE (14, 15, 16) and many other autoimmune diseases. Because of the role of the CD154-CD40 interaction in regulating IL-12 production, it has been proposed that the protection from autoimmunity is due to a deviation of T cell response from a proinflammatory Th1 response to an anti-inflammatory Th2 response (23, 24). However, CD40-CD154 interactions are critical in regulating many other immune cell functions (4). Here we address the specific mechanism(s) by which clinical autoimmune disease may be prevented by CD40 ligand blockade. The actual mechanism appears to have little or nothing to do with Th1 to Th2 cell deviation, but instead is associated with significantly reduced Ag-specific T cell responses in the lymph nodes and the prevention of CD4 T cell effector expansion/function within the autoimmune target organ.. Unlike therapies that target the B7-CD28/CD152 costimulatory pathways, interference with the CD40-CD154 ...
auto-immune diseases; autoimmunity Definition: Immune reactions against self-antigens-autoimmunity-are an important cause of certain diseases in (...)
What is Sjögrens syndrome? Sjögrens (SHOW-grins) syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease that targets the moisture-producing glands and mucose membranes in the mouth and eyes, resulting in dry eyes and mouth. Sjögrens syndrome often accompanies other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It is one of the most common autoimmune disorders with more than four million Americans living with the disease. Nine out of 10 patients are women. The average age for onset of this disease is late forties.
Find and save ideas about Autoimmune disease awareness on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Lupus facts, Chronic disease list and Autoimmune disease.
Inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus affect 1-3% of the population, and while treatments exist, these are costly and have a number of serious side effects. There is growing evidence that many of these conditions may be incorrectly classified. The PRECISESADS project will study 2 500 people with various autoimmune diseases, gathering data on the molecular causes of their disease as well as their clinical symptoms. Using this information, they will pave the way for a new classification of these diseases, something that will allow doctors to offer patients more personalised treatments at an earlier stage of their disease.
What is autoimmune disease? The medical definition is as follows; An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own immune system. However, I have my own thoughts on what autoimmune disease means to me. For me its not knowing what comes next. My good days are a normal persons worst day.…
Autoimmune disease - How does someone get autoimmune disease? Autoimmune disease. It is not fully understood and reasarch is still on. It happens in idividuals who are genetically susceptible triggered by an offending agent which could be a bacteria, virus, environemental toxins, drugs, food allergens, radiation, chemicals, hormonal to name a few. It is a flu like onset with fatigue followed by symtoms referable to the target organ, tissue or cell that is affected.
Find the best autoimmune diseases doctors in Navi Mumbai. Get guidance from medical experts to select autoimmune diseases specialist in Navi Mumbai from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Nick Cannon is speaking out in the wake of his recent health problems and has now revealed the the real reason for his kidney, blood clots and heart woes are actually the result of a "lupus-type" autoimmune disorder ...
It has long been thought that viruses play a part in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, especially autoimmunity. Many healthcare practitioners report there is frequently a hidden infection that either precedes or seems to trigger an initial autoimmune attack, or subsequently appears when the immune system is weakened once autoimmunity is activated.. This creates a vicious cycle of infection and illness. Infections are opportunistic and often travel together - many autoimmune patients find they host multiple infections that are bacterial, viral, parasitic and/or fungal, driving the inflammation that leads to symptoms.. The relationship between viral infection and autoimmune disease is multifaceted, involving numerous complex processes in the body. Scientists believe that a variety of factors must usually be present for an infection to result in an autoimmune condition. This includes not only a genetic predisposition but also lifestyle and environmental factors such as:. ...
Im a firm believer in the idea that there are ties/links between MS and our diet. Some believe that MS and many other auto-immune diseases are caused by gut issues; that the intestines have issues which allow food particles (for lack of a better term; Im not a doctor/researcher) into the bloodstream which eventually get into the brain and cause the auto-immune response that gives us MS. Like it or not, thats one theory. I doubt well find a magical cure from diet, but Id happily
A hypersensitivity reaction: when the immune system attacks foreign matter entering your body. Autoimmune diseases are hypersensitivity reactions.
Autoimmune diseases are diverse and responsible for considerable morbidity. Their etiology remains largely unknown, and current therapy with anti-inflammatory drugs is prone to adverse effects, and ra
Patients with any type of autoimmune disease are at a significantly increased risk of developing pulmonary embolism, Swedish researchers said.
PD-1 knockout mice in different genetic backgrounds develop various autoimmune diseases, not only indicating that negative costimulation via PD-1 is essential to downregulate inappropriate immune responses, such as autoimmunity and sustained inflammation, but also suggesting that PD-1 deficiency may exaggerate the genetic predisposition of autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or lupus. PD-L1 acts as a tissue-specific negative regulator of pathogenic T-cell responses. Our result that PD-L1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs, such as thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes, supports a critical role of PD-L1 in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance, also consistent with previous reports of the autoimmune phenotypes developed in PD-L1 knockout mice (9). Moreover, the observation in our study that heart expresses high levels of PD-L1 may be linked to the abnormal phenotype in mice that develop fatal autoimmune cardiomyopathy due to a lack of PD-1 signaling ...
By Jinghong Chen , Bond Life Sciences Center. Our immune system is often the key to our health. Everyday, it works to protect us from foreign invaders such as bacteria and virus, but what happens when it attacks our own tissues?. Gary Weisman, a Curators Distinguished Professor of Biochemistry at the Bond Life Sciences Center, is working to advance our understanding of the mechanisms behind immune system function and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögrens syndrome.. In our immune system, B cells are responsible for producing antibodies to recognize foreign invaders. However, in many autoimmune diseases, B cells produce autoantibodies that recognize our own proteins, causing inflammation and tissue damage. In Sjögrens syndrome (SS), they attack the glands that produce saliva and tears.. Patients with SS often suffer chronic dry eyes and dry mouth, which might lead to bacterial infection, difficulties in swallowing and speech.. "The symptoms decrease the quality of life rather than the length ...
I cannot take a multivitamin, I have negative effects off of it. Probably because I have a methyl cycle that has lots of weird things in it, things that are needed to stop from getting Lupus and Spondylitis. If I take Calcium supplements I feel great but start building up lumps on my bones and near my joints, the doctor said not to take that. That supplement had vitamin D in it. My brother had the same problem. Calcium suppression can deter autoimmune diseases, they actually use calcium channel blockers to treat autoimmune diseases. Also methyldextrate, which blocks folate to take away the ability of the immune system to fight, which then slows inflammation. But real folate is utilized in the third step of building hemoglobin, no folate, less hemoglobin. Also folate is needed for proper utilization of B12. See, I study how medicines work, what classes of meds are being used to treat what. I am really disappointed in the Pharmaceutical industry and the medical industry for believing the Pharma ...
By Staff Reports. (DGIwire) - Tears of sorrow could turn to tears of joy if scientists work on an autoimmune disease bears fruit. In June 2016, Ophthalmology Times reported that research on the composition of tears is generating insights that could lead to earlier detection and treatment of Sjögrens syndrome- an inflammatory disease that can affect many parts of the body, most often the tear and saliva glands, according to the American College of Rheumatology.. One recent development, courtesy of researchers at the University of Southern Californias Roski Eye Institute, is the discovery that four tear biomarkers distinguish patients with Sjögrens syndrome from patients with other autoimmune diseases. About 10 years ago, the USC team used mice to discover that a specific protein-called cathepsin S-was increased significantly in the tear and lacrimal glands during Sjögrens. In 2014, the same finding was made in humans. Now the team has expanded its finding to study three other proteins as ...
The immune system performs the function of defending the dogs body against various intruders such as viruses and bacteria. The immune system will produce antibodies that can reduce the dangers presented by the infectious agents. However, some dogs will have an autoimmune disorder and in this case, the immune system will not function properly. The immune system will produce certain antibodies that will attack the cells in the dogs body. This is due to the fact that the immune system considers the body cells a threat and tries to protect the body. An autoimmune disease can manifest on the skin or in the dogs system or involve both the skin and the internal organs.. The most frequent autoimmune diseases in canines include:. ...
Current celiac demographics: Most coeliac reference sites agree that celiac you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Autoimmune Diseases - Information on Autoimmune Diseases Most autoimmune diseases in cats, although some cats have been infected with it. The antispasmodic actions on the intestinal muscles,…
8 December 2014. Researchers at the Institute of Immunity and Transplantation at the Royal Free Hospital have made an important discovery about what causes type 1 diabetes.. Following six years of research, Professor Lucy Walker and her team have found that a particular kind of immune cell called a follicular helper T cell is responsible for triggering an immune response in the body which leads to the destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.. This new research, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, means that an effective treatment for type 1 diabetes could be developed more easily.. Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease, which means that it is caused by the bodys own immune system. Because insulin-producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed by the immune system the body cannot produce any insulin, which is a hormone that controls glucose levels in the blood and enables the body to use glucose as energy.. There is currently no cure for type 1 diabetes and ...
Tony, Hans-Peter; Burmester, Gerd; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Grunke, Mathias; Henes, Joerg; Kötter, Ina; Haas, Judith; Unger, Leonore; Lovric, Svjetlana; Haubitz, Marion; Fischer-Betz, Rebecca; Chehab, Gamal; Rubbert-Roth, Andrea; Specker, Christof; Weinerth, Jutta; Holle, Julia; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; König, Ramona; Fiehn, Christoph; Burgwinkel, Philip; Budde, Klemens; Sörensen, Helmut; Meurer, Michael; Aringer, Martin; Kieseier, Bernd; Erfurt-Berge, Cornelia; Sticherling, Michael; Veelken, Roland; Ziemann, Ulf; Strutz, Frank; Meier, Florian M. P.; Hunzelmann, Nico; Schmidt, Enno; Bergner, Raoul; Schwarting, Andreas; Eming, Rüdiger; Hertl, Michael; Stadler, Rudolf; Schwarz-Eywill, Michael; Wassenberg, Siegfried; Fleck, Martin; Metzler, Claudia; Zettl, Uwe; Westphal, Jens; Heitmann, Stefan; Herzog, Anna L.; Wiendl, Heinz; Jakob, Waltraud; Schmidt, Elvira; Freivogel, Klaus und Dörner, Thomas: Safety and clinical outcomes of rituximab therapy in patients with different autoimmune diseases: ...
Lupus is a disease that can affect different parts of the body, such as the skin, joints, blood, and kidneys. Lupus is an auto-immune disease. It is caused by a problem with the bodys immune system.
Lupus is an auto-immune disease, which causes your immune system to attack your body. Blood urine and protein urine in lupus: what dose it mean? It may mean there is something wrong with your kidneys. As we all known, kidney has many functi
Dr Gray said one way your body protects against autoimmune disease is definitely by forcing most self-reactive immune cells to die throughout their development. If any self-reactive cells manage to reach maturity, your body normally has a second safeguard of switching these harmful cells into an inactive condition potentially, preventing them from causing autoimmune disease, he stated. Until now, theres been debate about how exactly important the death of self-reactive cells is really as a protection against autoimmune illnesses. Our research has determined two molecules that are needed for this process.This finding suggests that dogs might be an improved pet model for type 1 diabetes than rodents, the authors added. Dr. Joel Zonszein is director of the clinical diabetes middle at Montefiore INFIRMARY in NEW YORK. He stated, Although diabetes in the dog resembles type 1 in human beings, they dont have got the same inflammatory process we observe in type 1 in human beings. In dogs, we hardly ...
Researchers have designed and synthesised a nanometer-scale DNA machine that can make the process of detecting the antibodies that can help with the diagnosis of infectious and auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and HIV much cheaper.
Wholefood supplement designed for modern day Auto-Immune Diseases where the true value of this amazing unique supplement lies in the value add of a daily internal cellular detox to re-establish internal cellular balancing whilst simultaneously supplying all the essential wholefood nutrition needed for optimal Immunity
Allergies, obesity, asthma, intestinal disorders, auto-immune diseases, and diabetes are all on the rise, with some even doubling every ten years. New research points to changes in the complex ecosystem of microbes that live on and inside every one of us - our microbiota - as a major cause. But how could microorganisms that live in your gut affect the odds youll develop asthma, a disease of the lungs - or diabetes, a metabolic disorder?. LET THEM EAT DIRT: The Hunt For Our Kids Missing Microbes connects with young families, researchers, and doctors to sleuth out whats harming our microbiota and learn what we can do to reverse this dangerous trend.. The screening will be followed by a Q&A, moderated by renowned journalist Kathryn Gretsinger, with Dr. Brett Finlay and Emmy Award-Winning producer Rivkah Beth Medow.. ...
Allergies, obesity, asthma, intestinal disorders, auto-immune diseases, and diabetes are all on the rise, with some even doubling every ten years. New research points to changes in the complex ecosystem of microbes that live on and inside every one of us - our microbiota - as a major cause. But how could microorganisms that live in your gut affect the odds youll develop asthma, a disease of the lungs - or diabetes, a metabolic disorder?. LET THEM EAT DIRT: The Hunt For Our Kids Missing Microbes connects with young families, researchers, and doctors to sleuth out whats harming our microbiota and learn what we can do to reverse this dangerous trend.. The screening will be followed by a Q&A, moderated by renowned journalist Kathryn Gretsinger, with Dr. Brett Finlay and Emmy Award-Winning producer Rivkah Beth Medow.. ...
Chris is Head of Innovation, Co-Head of Science and a Co-Founder of Genomics plc. Previously Chris spent 15 years as an academic at the University of Oxford most recently as a Wellcome Trust Fellow. His research is based around designing, implementing, applying and interpreting analyses of large amounts of human genetic data. He led the analysis of 20 large genome-wide studies of the genetics of human phenotypes, ranging from studies of malaria to heart disease, and from auto-immune disease to schizophrenia. Four of these studies have resulted in papers in Nature and Science. At Genomics, working with a multidisciplinary team, Chris has co-led the design and implementation of a series of novel innovations to curate and analyse of human genetic data to gain insights into human biology. His focus on genetics is based in the belief that to fundamentally improve healthcare we must better understand human biology, and the analysis of masses of linked genetic and phenotypic information is the best ...
If you follow this blog you know I have several auto-immune diseases including diabetes. Since my diabetes diagnosis at age 60 I have done extensive nutritional research and sucessfully learned to control my diabetes and improve my overall health. At age 67 I am healthier than I have ever been, including as a child. I do not have to follow a yucky diet as many may believe and you dont have to, either. I eat small meals about every 4 hours and I watch what I eat and how it is prepared. I try not to eat anything after 7 pm. If I need something I make sure it is a small quantity of a healthy food. I have gone from a blood sugar level of almost 500 at my diagnosis to an average of around 100 daily. I take 1 pill a day for by blood sugar and do the rest with diet. It is amazing how this has improved my overall health. My cholesterol is about half what it used to be and I have gone from extremely high liver enzymes to normal. I have routine blood work every 3 months to follow up and it continues to ...
For the first time in my life, I go to the store to buy childrens aspirin with Eric whining his feverish head off in the child seat and Rachel with her fingers in mouth, screaming in pain between bites. I then head to my old pediatricians office. Im actually in the process of changing pediatricians as the old practice are being real jack asses about my delaying vaccinations for my kids. Plus every time I go there, we are the first ones in and the last to be seen by a doctor. Im convinced its because were "those people" who the doctors scorn as they think I must have watched an episode of Oprah and decided to expose our kids to measles, mumps, tetanus, polio, ebola, leprosy... all out of fear. (I tried once to explain about the auto-immune diseases in my family and why Im hesitant to inject live viruses and various crap like animal fetuses and aluminum into my kids, but no one wants to have an intelligent discussion so I stopped trying to explain.) I think its a conspiracy by the practice ...
I have watched two people die: my daughter and my father. Both occurred in controlled hospital settings, both were expected events, and both (Gods sustaining grace notwithstanding) hurt like hell. Otherwise, I have been entire shielded from direct experience with death for most of my life. All my grandparents were gone by the time I was 13. I barely remember their funerals.. While there no algorithm exists to calculate which loss felt worse (daughter Naomi, or father Jack), the fact that my daughter was 15 days old and my father was 82 certainly made the former unutterably more jarring than the latter. Really, the two experiences are incommensurable.. Naomi succumbed to a rare chromosomal condition called Partial Trisomy 9, my father Jack, in addition to multiple health challenges, to the common malady called renal failure. About 20 years ago, he was diagnosed with inclusion body myocititis (IBM), an auto-immune disease that causes progressive muscular degeneration. Thats what slowed him down, ...
I have watched two people die: my daughter and my father. Both occurred in controlled hospital settings, both were expected events, and both (Gods sustaining grace notwithstanding) hurt like hell. Otherwise, I have been entire shielded from direct experience with death for most of my life. All my grandparents were gone by the time I was 13. I barely remember their funerals.. While there no algorithm exists to calculate which loss felt worse (daughter Naomi, or father Jack), the fact that my daughter was 15 days old and my father was 82 certainly made the former unutterably more jarring than the latter. Really, the two experiences are incommensurable.. Naomi succumbed to a rare chromosomal condition called Partial Trisomy 9, my father Jack, in addition to multiple health challenges, to the common malady called renal failure. About 20 years ago, he was diagnosed with inclusion body myocititis (IBM), an auto-immune disease that causes progressive muscular degeneration. Thats what slowed him down, ...
From my very cursory knowledge in the matter, he does seem to be on to something. Its just a matter of learning all this somehow on top of everything else that I have the difficulty. I spent mucho time on embryo studying and there were absolutely ZERO questions on the multiple choice and long answer exams. Only a smatter of questions on the spotter. I do not want to get into that irritating mentality of "am I going to need to know this for the exam" but when the volume of info is massive you cant help but let your mind wander there. I try and think of it in the practical way, "how is this going to present itself clinically and how will that matter?" None of my patients are ever going to ask me how I did on my anatomy spotter in 1st year, but they may want to know why a drug works, or what the complications of a procedure might be, or what causes an auto-immune disease ...
HealthTap: Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Machtinger on mild autoimmune diseases: Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and ankylosing spondylitis commonly cause arthritis. The joints are the target of many autoimmune diseases.
Explains that all autoimmune diseases have microbial triggers Provides strong evidence that schizophrenia is an autoimmune disease Demonstrates that
New Methods Of Treatment Of Autoimmune Diseases - Part 1 of 3 New Methods Of Treatment Of Autoimmune Diseases. A restored therapy for multiple sclerosis that teaches the body to recognize and then ignore its own nerve tissue appears to be bona fide and well-tolerated in humans, a small new study shows in June 2013.…
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE... Improving and Curing it with Dr. Joel Fuhrman , M.D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ok, in this post of mine, the information of two articles of this Famous Doctor will be combined. Before turning to the topic, I would like to RECOMMEND to those, who are interested, after reading this article Also GO to the links provides in order to get MORE Information regarding that. Quite a few words were Highlighted in this article (providing FURTHER information by Clicking On Them), so I Do Advise you go to those links to get More Knowledgeable abo ...
Learning your autoimmune quotient or AQ helps you gauge your autoimmune disease risk. It involves getting informed and knowing your family health history.
To cure autoimmune disease naturally, used natural home remedies for autoimmune disease treatment it is best method without any side effect.
Find quality autoimmune disease tests when you shop online at RapidTest. We carry a wide selection of autoimmune disease kits for online purchase.
Eli Lilly & Co said on Wednesday its drug to treat autoimmune disease lupus met the main goal of a mid-stage trial, positioning the drugmaker to begin a bigger study later this year.
The modulation of co-stimulatory pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases. Auto-reactive CD4+ T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Blocking co-stimulatory signals prevents T-cell activation, thus diminishing autoimmune responses and possibly preventing the progression of autoimmune disease. Blockade of several co-stimulatory pathways has been investigated in animal models and has led to clinical trials testing specific blocking agents in humans. In this review we will describe the role of co-stimulatory pathways, primarily the CD28-B7 pathway, in autoimmune diseases, and we will present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting the efficacy of co-stimulation blockade in animal models of autoimmune disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical therapeutic efficacy of blocking monoclonal antibodies in preventing or reducing auto-antigen driven T-cell activation in humans with ...
Pregnant women and infants: It has not been demonstrated the safety of maca in pregnancy or lactation.. - People with antidepressant medication: Although Maca has been shown effective in improving the side effects of antidepressant medication (SSRIs), it is imperative that a qualified physician supervise the treatment with maca in these people.. - People with autoimmune diseases: Maca can boost the immune system, but people with autoimmune diseases can experience a worsening of their symptoms if they choose maca supplementation. Before taking maca, you should consult your doctor.. ...
The Autoimmune Protocol is a diet that helps heal the immune system and gut.. We have a problem in this country with how we eat, treat disease and heal disease. Ive always taught people that food is truly our best medicine and thats also what this diet teaches you. AIP addresses inflammation in the gut that causes Autoimmune Disease. Autoimmune disease is a condition where the body cannot tell the difference between healthy tissue and foreign invaders and a hypersensitive reaction occurs. The body starts self-tissue attack. For months or perhaps years, this self-tissue attack can occur silently until full blown autoimmune disease develops. There are more than 80 types of "official" autoimmune disorders (and MANY more being discovered daily) but all autoimmune disease have in common is tissue self-attacking in places like the thyroid gland, brain tissue, intestines, or salivary glands, to name just a few. Some autoimmune disorders include: Celiac, Lupus, Crohns, etc.. ...
In this article, Ill give you the dietary basics for the autoimmune protocol (AIP). The autoimmune protocol is an effective diet and lifestyle protocol that helps autoimmune patients overcome the core underlying factors preventing recovery, including inflammation, leaky gut, hormone imbalances, blood sugar...
Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis is a chronic disease which results in inflammation of the liver. This disease majorly affects the middle aged women or young children and is related to HLA types A1, B8, DR3 and Dw3 and if the disease is not treated then it may cause liver cirrhosis. This disease affects one person out of 10,000 people where seven out of ten are usually women and women who are 45 years of age are affected by this disease. However it can affect all the age groups and children or elderly people as well.. Causes. The cause is still not clear of the condition but it is found that factors responsible for this condition are excess of alcohol, infections and viruses. It can be chronic which means that the condition will remain in for a long term. The chronic condition may result in destruction of liver causing serious issues. The autoimmune chronic active hepatitis occurs because the immune system triggers to attack the own tissues in the body.. Symptoms. The symptoms for Autoimmune ...
Local resource for autoimmune inner ear disease treatment in Gilbert, AZ. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to autoimmune inner ear disease treatment, tinnitus treatment, hearing loss treatment, and hearing aids, as well as advice and content on hearing loss, conditions of the ear, and hearing problems.
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease. AU - Lunardi, Claudio. AU - Puccetti, Antonio. PY - 2013/12. Y1 - 2013/12. N2 - Inner ear damage can be caused by viral infections, trauma, vascular damage, and immune mechanisms, and is responsible for sensorineural hearing loss, a syndrome characterized by rapid progression of hearing impairment that is frequently non-responsive to medical treatment. Immune-mediated inner ear disease can be of autoimmune origin either as an isolated process affecting only the ear, to be considered as an organ-specific autoimmune disease, or as part of a systemic autoimmune disorder in approximately 30% of cases. The incidence and prevalence of autoimmune inner ear disease is unknown due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tests and to the limited access to the site of autoimmune aggression. Since the rapid administration of steroids and/or other immunosuppressive agents may result in hearing preservation, a great effort is needed in order to find both clinical ...
Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) was first defined by Dr. Brian McCabe in a landmark paper describing an autoimmune loss of hearing. The disease results in progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) that acts bilaterally and asymmetrically, and sometimes affects an individuals vestibular system. AIED is used to describe any disorder in which the inner ear is damaged as a result of an autoimmune response. Some examples of autoimmune disorders that have presented with AIED are Cogans syndrome, relapsing polychondritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, polyarteritis nodosa, Sjogrens syndrome, and Lyme disease. Research has come to the consensus that AIED is the result of antibodies or other immune cells that cause damage to structures of the inner ear such as the cochlea and vestibular system. Of note, AIED is the only known SNHL that responds to medical treatment, but withholding treatment for longer than three months may result in permanent hearing loss and ...
Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic, destructive autoimmune liver disease of humans. Patient sera are characterized by a high frequency (greater than 95%) of autoantibodies to a Mr 70,000 mitochondrial antigen, a component of the M2 antigen complex. We have identified a human cDNA clone encoding the complete amino acid sequence of this autoantigen. The predicted structure has significant similarity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.12) of the Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. The human sequence preserves the Glu-Thr-Asp-Lys-Ala motif of the lipoyl-binding site and has two potential binding sites. Expressed fragments of the cDNA react strongly with sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis but not with sera from patients with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis or sera from healthy subjects.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid disease. T2 - past, present, and future.. AU - Tomer, Yaron. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - BACKGROUND: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), including Graves disease and Hashimotos thyroiditis, arise due to complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. There are sound data coming from epidemiological, family, and twin studies demonstrating a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. In this review we summarize the new findings on the genetic susceptibility to AITD focusing on emerging mechanisms of susceptibility. SUMMARY: Candidate gene analysis, whole-genome linkage screening, genome-wide association studies, and whole-genome sequencing are the major technologies that have advanced this field, leading to the identification of at least seven genes whose variants have been associated with AITD. One of the major ones is the HLA-DR gene locus. Recently, it was shown that substitution of the neutral amino ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic control of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in mice. II. Lymphocyte proliferative response to acetylcholine receptor is dependent on Lyt-1+ 23- cells. AU - Christadoss, P.. AU - Krco, C. J.. AU - Lennon, Vanda A. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors (AChR) are demonstrable in approximately 90% of patients with acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) and are the major pathogenic cause of the defect in neuromuscular transmission that is characteristic of MG. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) can be induced in animals by immunization with AChR and adjuvants. Induction of EAMG and of autoantibodies to AChR is T cell dependent. Studies in congenic mice revealed that susceptibility to EAMG is linked to the major histocompatibility complex. The lymphocyte proliferative response to AChR is controlled in congenic mice by gene(s) within the 1-A subregion. In this communication we present evidence that proliferation ...
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic; Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Autoimmune; Werlhofs Disease. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Other autoimmune diseases that have been treated with rituximab include autoimmune hemolytic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, ... and IgG4-related disease.[27] There is some evidence that it is ineffective in treating IgA-mediated autoimmune diseases.[28] ... Autoimmune diseases[edit]. Rituximab has been shown to be an effective rheumatoid arthritis treatment in three randomised ... Bosch, Xavier; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Khamashta, Munther A. (2013). Drugs Targeting B-Cells in Autoimmune Diseases. Springer ...
Autoimmune diseases. There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers. People with untreated ... "the disease that cannot be cured".[191] This deep belief that cancer is necessarily a difficult and usually deadly disease is ... a b c Wilson JMG, Jungner G. (1968) Principles and practice of screening for disease. Geneva:World Health Organization. Public ... Because cancer is a class of diseases,[206][207] it is unlikely that there will ever be a single "cure for cancer" any more ...
Autoimmune disease[edit]. Researchers have investigated the effects of autoantibody serostatus on autoimmune disease ... "Demystifying seronegative autoimmune pancreatitis". Pancreatology. Elsevier. 12 (4): 289-294. doi:10.1016/j.pan.2012.05.003 ... advocacy has emphasized the importance of learning one's HIV/AIDS serostatus in an effort to curtail the spread of the disease. ... "Contrasting disease patterns in seropositive and seronegative neuromyelitis optica: A multicentre study of 175 patients" ...
Autoimmune diseases[edit]. There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia,[64] which is an autoimmune blood disorder.[65]. *Sebaceous adenitis[66][67][68] is an autoimmune ... Hypothyroidism,[73] also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.[74] ...
Autoimmune diseases. There is an association between celiac disease and an increased risk of all cancers. People with untreated ... "the disease that cannot be cured".[199] This deep belief that cancer is necessarily a difficult and usually deadly disease is ... a b c Wilson JMG, Jungner G. (1968) Principles and practice of screening for disease. Geneva:World Health Organization. Public ... Some types of cancer such as Hodgkin disease, leukemias and cancers of the liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever.[28] ...
Autoimmune disease[edit]. This theory hypothesizes that autoantibodies that target the brain or elements of brain metabolism ... Ashwood P, Van de Water J. Is autism an autoimmune disease? Autoimmun Rev. 2004;3(7-8):557-562. doi:10.1016/j.autrev.2004.07. ... Wu S. Family history of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased risk of autism in children: A systematic review and ... When an underlying maternal autoimmune disease is present, antibodies circulating to the fetus could contribute to the ...
Graft-versus-host disease, an autoimmune condition that occurs as a result of bone marrow transplants in which the immune cells ... Scleroderma is a group of autoimmune diseases that may result in changes to the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal ... Mackay, Ian R.; Rose, Noel R. (2006). The Autoimmune Diseases. Academic Press. p. 369. ISBN 9780080454740. Firestein, Gary S.; ... Primary biliary cirrhosis, an autoimmune disease of the liver. Primary pulmonary hypertension Complex regional pain syndrome ...
Autoimmune blistering diseases[edit]. Mucous membrane pemphigoid and other autoimmune blistering diseases may present with oral ... "Orphanet: Rare Diseases". Orphanet. Retrieved June 3, 2016.. *^ "Cicatricial Alopecia Research Foundation". www.carfintl.org. ... can be useful in patients with bullous lesions to differentiate the condition from an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease.[54] ... Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)[edit]. Lacy, reticulated plaques or erosions that resemble oral LP may occur in GVHD. The ...
Antibodies against disease-associated HLA haplotypes have been proposed as a treatment for severe autoimmune diseases.[27] ... HLA and autoimmune diseases. HLA allele. Diseases with increased risk. Relative risk. ... Coeliac disease. 7[6]. In autoimmunity[edit]. HLA types are inherited, and some of them are connected with autoimmune disorders ... Mutations in HLA may be linked to autoimmune disease (examples: type I diabetes, coeliac disease). HLA may also be related to ...
Hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases}}. Medicine. Immune disorders: hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases (279.5-6). ... Infectious disease templates. Footer. Pathology. Viral disease. {{Zoonotic viral diseases}}. Medicine. Zoonotic viral diseases ... Infectious disease templates. Footer. Pathology. Viral disease. {{Viral systemic diseases}}. Medicine. Infectious diseases - ... Acari-borne diseases}}. Medicine. Zoonosis: Tick-borne diseases and mite-borne diseases. Infectious disease templates. Footer. ...
2014). The Autoimmune Diseases. Academic Press. p. 575. ISBN 978-0-123-84929-8. OCLC 965646175.. ... Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.[21] The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.[22] ... two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower ... "National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. June 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. ...
Baizabal-Carvallo, JF; Jankovic J. (2012-07-18). "Movement disorders in autoimmune diseases". Movement disorders : official ... Movement disorders have been known to be associated with a variety of autoimmune diseases.[7] ... See also: Parkinson's disease. History[edit]. Vesalius and Piccolomini in 16th century distinguished subcortical nuclei from ... Poewe, Werner; Jankovic, Joseph (2014-02-20). Movement Disorders in Neurologic and Systemic Disease. Cambridge University Press ...
... , also known as toxic diffuse goiter, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.[1] It frequently ... Begbie's disease, Flajani's disease, Flajani-Basedow syndrome, and Marsh's disease.[39] These names for the disease were ... Since Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease which appears suddenly, often later in life, a viral or bacterial infection may ... a b c d e f g Basedow's syndrome or disease at Who Named It? - the history and naming of the disease ...
... and some viruses have been accused of causing auto-immune diseases such as Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cellular auto-immune ... Generally the immunology of most auto-immune diseases is not well understood. HIV infection[edit]. Perhaps the best example of ... Many auto-immune diseases are more complex. A well-known example is rheumatoid arthritis, where both antibodies and immune ... For example, studies have suggested that lupus (SLE) and other auto-immune diseases of similar nature can be linked to the ...
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. *Incidentaloma - an unexpected finding on diagnostic imaging, often of endocrine glands ... List of diseases[edit]. Glucose homeostasis disorders[edit]. *Diabetes *Type 1 Diabetes ... Types of disease[edit]. Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:[1] ... Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known ...
... syndrome, an autoimmune disease. *Evans-Tibbs House, historic residence in Washington, D.C. ...
Stetson, DB (2012). "Endogenous retroelements and autoimmune disease". Curr Opin Immunol. 24: 692-7. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2012.09. ... and some characteristics of the condition also overlap with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). ... 1980). "Interferon-‐induced disease in mice and rats". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 350: 12-20. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb20602.x. ... Clinical features and disease course vary somewhat by genotype, with TREX1 associated with likely in utero onset and high ...
Autoimmune disease. Classically Sjögren's syndrome, but it is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid ... Wrong, O; Davies HEF (1959). "The Excretion of Acid in Renal Disease". QJM. 28 (110): 259-313. PMID 13658353. Walsh SB, Shirley ... citrate tablets which not only replace potassium but also inhibit calcium excretion and thus do not exacerbate stone disease as ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 1-13. doi:10.1155/2012/841085. ISSN 2090-0422. PMC 3529905 . PMID 23304461. Carruzzo, P; Graz, B; ... For example, some diseases are believed to be caused by meridians being invaded with an excess of wind, cold, and damp. In ... In TCM, disease is generally perceived as a disharmony or imbalance in energies such as yin, yang, qi, xuĕ, zàng-fǔ, meridians ... In some cases a lack of balance between Yin and Yang were believed to be the cause of disease. In the 1st century AD, many of ...
... autoimmune diseases; genetic mutations causing spinocerebellar ataxias, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, or autism; and ... In Alzheimer's disease, spinal pathology is sometimes seen, as well as loss of dendritic branches of the Purkinje cells. ... The genetic conditions ataxia telangiectasia and Niemann Pick disease type C, as well as cerebellar essential tremor, involve ... American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementias. 25 (7): 585-91. doi:10.1177/1533317510382892. PMID 20870670. Fekadu ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2013: 761046. doi:10.1155/2013/761046. PMC 3595708 . PMID 23509613. ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 1-4. doi:10.1155/2012/876456. ... of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in which the autoimmune ... Pyrpasopoulou, Athina; Chatzimichailidou, Sofia; Aslanidis, Spyros (2012). "Vascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus". ...
Salgado, Alberto (2012). "Lupus Nephritis: An Overview of Recent Findings". Autoimmune Diseases. doi:10.1155/2012/849684. ... an autoimmune disease. It is a type of glomerulonephritis in which the glomeruli become inflamed. As the result of SLE, the ... Class IV disease (diffuse proliferative nephritis) is both the most severe, and the most common subtype. More than 50% of ... Class III disease (focal glomerulonephritis) is indicated by sclerotic lesions involving less than 50% of the glomeruli, which ...
Autoimmune diseases are caused by an overactive immune response. Etanercept has the potential to treat these diseases by ... Etanercept (trade name Enbrel or Benepali) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor ... TNF defined as a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases". Nature Medicine. 9 (10): 1245-50. ... including autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis,[6] juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis ...
PUPPP is not an autoimmune disease. Diagnosing PG is done by biopsy using direct immunofluorescence, appearance, and blood ... Gestational pemphigoid or pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a dermatosis of pregnancy, being an autoimmune blistering skin disease ... pemphigoid Cicatricial pemphigoid List of target antigens in pemphigoid List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune ...
... is used to treat cancers and autoimmune diseases. It is used to quickly control the disease. Because of its ... it remains an important treatment for life-threatening autoimmune diseases where disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs ... Autoimmune diseasesEdit. Cyclophosphamide decreases the immune system's response, and although concerns about toxicity restrict ... Insights from three cases complicating autoimmune diseases". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 59 (7): 1034-9. doi:10.1002/art.23822. ...
Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells. The Indian Journal of ... Mucosal-associated invariant T cells in autoimmunity, immune-mediated diseases and airways disease. Immunology. May 2016, 148 ( ... Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease 5th ed. New York: Garland Pub. 2001. ISBN 978-0-8153-3642-6. OCLC ... APC-derived cytokines and T cell polarization in autoimmune inflammation. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2007-05, 117 ( ...
Autoimmune diseasesEdit. There are many autoimmune diseases that are known to sometimes occur in the Akita. These include, but ... Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or lupus, is a systemic autoimmune disease (or autoimmune connective tissue disease) that ... Autoimmune hemolytic anemia,[60] which is an autoimmune blood disorder.[61]. *Sebaceous adenitis[62][63][64] is an autoimmune ... Hypothyroidism,[69] also known as autoimmune hypothyroidism. This is an autoimmune disease which affects the thyroid gland.[70] ...
Pathophysiology and novel therapeutic approaches in autoimmune Addisons disease Author: Gan, Earn Hui ISNI: 0000 0004 5370 ... Autoimmune Addisons disease (AAD) is a debilitating condition and affected patients rely on lifelong steroid replacement. ... I performed two candidate gene studies on susceptibility alleles that have been implicated in other autoimmune diseases to ... The diseases rarity has precluded large scale genomic or cellular studies in humans, resulting in an incomplete picture of the ...
Autoimmune Addisons Disease (AAD) is an endocrine and immunological disease of uncertain pathogenesis resulting from the ... Altered DNA methylation profile in Norwegian patients with Autoimmune Addisons Disease. Type. Journal article ...
The exact role of rituximab in the treatment of B cell mediated autoimmune diseases, the optimal dose, and the duration of drug ... Treatment of refractory autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with anti-CD20 (Rituximab). Br J Haematol2001;114:241-6. ... It is possible that the use of high dose corticosteroids during the early phase of the disease and the depletion of circulating ... This case report describes our experience of using this new medication in a 2 month old infant with severe autoimmune ...
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to antibasement membrane antibody disease appearing with a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. ... Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to antibasement membrane antibody disease appearing with a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. ... Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to antibasement membrane antibody disease appearing with a polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. ... title = "Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to antibasement membrane antibody disease appearing with a polyglandular autoimmune ...
In autoimmune Addison disease, however, an immune response is triggered by a normal adrenal gland protein; in about 85 percent ... In autoimmune Addison disease, the immune system attacks the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located ... A particular HLA-DRB1 gene variant called HLA-DRB1*04:04 is the most well-known risk factor for autoimmune Addison disease. ... the HLA-DRB1 gene have been linked to an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disorder called autoimmune Addison disease ...
... a painful and chronic disease - with risk doubling. ... which can predispose children to autoimmune diseases.. Health ... and the onset of autoimmune diseases. Disruption of the microbiota in the intestine is also believed to be a contributing ... Researchers now say that antibiotics increase childrens risk of developing juvenile arthritis, a painful and chronic disease. ... This suggests that environmental factors may play an important role in the development of the disease. ...
Posted in: Autoimmune Disease July 17, 2015 02:35 PM ER Dr. thinks its an autoimmune disease particular to people of Middle ... Posted in: Autoimmune Disease August 7, 2015 03:31 PM I am so tired of these symptoms. Thyroidectomy 2010, graves disease and ... Posted in: Autoimmune Disease October 28, 2014 10:19 PM I have seen several specialists. Prob autoimmune but no one can ... Posted in: Autoimmune Disease March 11, 2016 03:39 PM Just been diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis......am afraid of ...
... several cases of onset or exacerbations of autoimmune diseases following the vaccine shot have been reported in the literature ... "On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune disease," is destined to reopen the controversy ... they listed conditions in which HPV vaccination is most likely linked to the development of autoimmune diseases (with ... a vaccine that has been declared safe and effective the world over be connected to such a wide range of autoimmune diseases? ...
Autoimmune Disorders Definition Autoimmune disorders are conditions in which a persons immune system attacks the bodys own ... There are a variety of autoimmune disorders (also called autoimmune diseases).. An autoimmune disease can be very specific, ... There are a variety of autoimmune disorders (also called autoimmune diseases).. An autoimmune disease can be very specific, ... Autoimmune Disease Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Autoimmune Disease. In order for the immune system to protect ...
... autoimmunity examine the association between microorganisms and the development of specific categories of autoimmune diseases. ... Subsequent chapters describe the role of viruses in the induction of these diseases and of diseases with an autoimmune ... The opening chapters explore the bacterial induction of diseases considered autoimmune in nature. ... autoimmunity examine the association between microorganisms and the development of specific categories of autoimmune diseases. ...
Autoimmune diseases are where your immune system attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Learn about the symptoms, tests ... Autoimmune diseases can affect many parts of the body.. No one is sure what causes autoimmune diseases. They do tend to run in ... Understanding Autoimmune Diseases (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) ... Article: Refractive surgery for the patient with autoimmune diseases. * Article: How to handle patients with autoimmune ...
... avoid certain viruses or bacteria or to be vaccinated against them in order to prevent actual development of autoimmune disease ... Scientists found mice predisposed to diabetes were more likely to develop the disease if exposed to a virus. Diabetes, lupus, ... The finding could help in the future development of therapies for the treatment or prevention of diabetes and other autoimmune ... multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis are examples of diseases where the bodys immune system mistakenly attacks healthy ...
The etiology and immunologic states of autoimmune diseases have mainly been discussed without consideration of extrathymic T ... The immunologic states of autoimmune diseases resemble those of aging, chronic GVH disease, and malarial infection. Namely, ... Segal BM, Shevach EM: IL-12 unmasks latent autoimmune disease in resistant mice. J Exp Med 1996;184:771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Autoimmune disease Extrathymic T cells Autoreactivity B-1 cells Immunosuppression This is a preview of subscription content, ...
Examples include celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Some of these conditions can have a severe effect ... Autoimmune diseases refer to a range of conditions where the immune system attacks healthy cells. ... Celiac disease. Also known as gluten intolerance. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease where the lining of the small ... Common autoimmune diseases. The NIH estimate that around 24 million Americans have an autoimmune disease. ...
Autoimmune bullous diseases in childhood.. Sansaricq F1, Stein SL, Petronic-Rosic V. ... Autoimmune blistering disorders are a heterogeneous group of diseases that result from autoantibodies generated against target ... Early detection and discrimination between the varied autoimmune blistering disorders can change the course of treatment and ... Physicians should have an appreciation and understanding of autoimmune blistering disorders in the pediatric population when ...
Definition Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the bodys immune system reacts against some of its own tissue and ... Autoimmune diseases are disorders in which the bodys immune system reacts against some of its own tissue and produces ... Most autoimmune diseases cannot yet be treated directly, but are treated according to symptoms associated with the condition. ... Your doctor may also order tests to rule in or rule out specific autoimmune diseases. For example: for rheumatoid arthritis, ...
I know MS is an autoimmune disease, and it seems like many people not only have MS, but also other AI diseases (like arthritis ...
Autoimmune Disease Diagnostics Market Size, Market Share, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Growth, Trends, Competitive ... autoimmune disease is one of the top ten causes of women deaths. The rapidly rising demand for autoimmune disease diagnosis is ... In localized autoimmune disease segment, there are huge unmet needs of the patients for various diseases such as type 1 ... The autoimmune disease diagnostics market on the basis of product is segmented into localized and systemic disease diagnostics ...
Provides information about autoimmune diseases and referrals to single-autoimmune disease groups. ... People affected with an autoimmune disease worldwide. Mission: AARDA is dedicated to the eradication of autoimmune diseases and ... Patients Support Resources Other Helpful Organizations Related Diseases and Conditions Autoimmune Diseases ... American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA) Contact: 586-776-3900. Population served: ...
... and other stress-related psychiatric issues may be more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than individuals who don ... "This can lead to increased autoimmune disease activity and trigger exacerbations of autoimmune diseases or make individuals ... Common autoimmune disorders include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease, celiac disease, ... and other stress-related psychiatric issues may be more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than individuals who dont, a ...
... which can help manage and ameliorate autoimmune diseases like lupus and related diseases. The author shows from a well- ... "I want my readers with autoimmune and related diseases to realize they can take charge of their health and there can be quality ... offers hope and alternatives to living with autoimmune related diseases as well as sound medical advice readers can learn. ... "A Wellspring for Wellness" offers hope and alternatives to living with autoimmune related diseases as well as sound medical ...
... you may be suffering from an autoimmune disease -- which means your immune system is attacking healthy tissue. ... Life With an Autoimmune Disease. If you have general, lingering symptoms, you may be suffering from an autoimmune disease -- ... According to Mary J. Shomon, author of the book Living Well With Autoimmune Disease: What Your Doctor Doesnt Tell You ... That ... SOURCES: Mary J. Shomon, author, Living Well With Autoimmune Disease. Noel R. Rose, MD, PhD, professor of molecular ...
But I also have hashimoto thryoid disease, my... ... Lupus is an auto-immune disease in which the immune system ... lol Does anyone else have other autoimmune diseases as well as lupus? I didnt know what lupus was when he told me now Im like ... Like mostly everyone else has said I feel like they should just call it Autoimmune disease and leave it at that. most of the ... I think more than half the people who have one autoimmune disease have another because they come together. I have Lupus, ...
Autoimmune disease symptoms can linger for years before a person finally receives a diagnosis and treatment. Learn to look for ... Current: Autoimmune Disease Symptoms You Need to Know About Autoimmune Disease Symptoms You Need to Know About. Dr. Axe on ... Common Autoimmune Disease Symptoms. Some of the most common autoimmune disease symptoms you should look out for include:. * ... Autoimmune Disease Symptoms Takeaways. *The symptoms of an autoimmune disease affect brain, skin, mouth, lungs, sinus, thyroid ...
Purchase Nutrition and Lifestyle in Neurological Autoimmune Diseases - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128052983, ... Nutrition and Lifestyle in Neurological Autoimmune Diseases 1st Edition. Multiple Sclerosis. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Multiple Sclerosis in Women: Vitamin D and Estrogen Synergy for Autoimmune T-Cell Regulation and Demyelinating Disease ... Nutrition and Lifestyle in Neurological Autoimmune Diseases: Multiple Sclerosis discusses important discoveries relating to the ...
  • My studies have advanced knowledge relevant to regenerative medicine approaches to adrenal failure, and the finding of residual adrenal function in some Addison's disease patient opens an important therapeutic window for this condition. (bl.uk)
  • The diagnosis of antibasement membrane antibody disease was established by immunofluorescent staining of transbronchial biopsy specimens. (elsevier.com)
  • We describe a patient with type 3-C polyglandular autoimmune syndrome who presented with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and normal renal function. (elsevier.com)
  • A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) disrupts several normal functions in the body, leading to the diverse features of autoimmune Addison disease. (nih.gov)
  • I performed two candidate gene studies on susceptibility alleles that have been implicated in other autoimmune diseases to explore potential causal pathways of these genetic determinants in AAD. (bl.uk)
  • The common variant 307*Ser allele of CD226 gene was found to contribute to AAD susceptibility as part of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy type 2. (bl.uk)
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