Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Inflammation of the OVARY, generally caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, characterized by the presence of high serum thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES; GOITER; and HYPOTHYROIDISM.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A tumor necrosis factor superfamily member that plays a role in the regulation of B-LYMPHOCYTE survival. It occurs as a membrane-bound protein that is cleaved to release an biologically active soluble form with specificity to TRANSMEMBRANE ACTIVATOR AND CAML INTERACTOR PROTEIN; B-CELL ACTIVATION FACTOR RECEPTOR; and B-CELL MATURATION ANTIGEN.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
B-cells that have a role in regulating the immune response including the production of CYTOKINES. This function is in addition to their traditional role in making antibodies.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
An experimental animal model for the demyelinating disease of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-17. Several subtypes of receptors have been found, each with its own in specificity for interleukin-17 subtype.
A syndrome characterized by bilateral granulomatous UVEITIS with IRITIS and secondary GLAUCOMA, premature ALOPECIA, symmetrical VITILIGO, poliosis circumscripta (a strand of depigmented hair), HEARING DISORDERS, and meningeal signs (neck stiffness and headache). Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals a pattern consistent with MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p748; Surv Ophthalmol 1995 Jan;39(4):265-292)
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Cell surface receptors for interleukin 21. They are heterodimeric proteins found on DENDRITIC CELLS and LYMPHOCYTES that consist of the INTERLEUKIN-21 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.

Fas on renal parenchymal cells does not promote autoimmune nephritis in MRL mice. (1/6282)

BACKGROUND: Although Fas on pancreatic islets promotes autoimmune diabetes in mice, the role of Fas expression on kidney parenchymal cells during autoimmune disease is unknown. METHODS: To determine whether Fas on renal parenchymal cells promotes autoimmune renal destruction, we compared apoptosis and pathology in Fas-intact and Fas-deficient kidneys in an autoimmune milieu. For this purpose, we transplanted single, normal kidneys from MRL-++ (Fas-intact) mice (3 months of age) into age-matched, congenic MRL-Faslpr (Fas-deficient) recipients after removal of nephritic kidneys. These Fas-intact kidneys were compared with Fas-deficient nephritic kidneys. RESULTS: There is a progressive increase of FasL on kidney-infiltrating cells and Fas and FasL on renal parenchymal cells in MRL-++ kidneys during engraftment (0, 2, 4-6, and 8 weeks). By comparison, we detected an increase in FasL in MRL-Faslpr kidneys (3 to 5 months of age), whereas Fas was not detectable. The engagement of T cells bearing FasL with Fas expressing tubular epithelial cells (TECs) induced TEC apoptosis in vitro. However, apoptosis and pathology were similar in kidneys (MRL-++, 8 weeks postengraftment vs. MRL-Faslpr, 5 months) with equivalent amounts of FasL-infiltrating cells or FasL TECs, regardless of Fas on renal parenchymal cells. CONCLUSION: The expression of Fas on renal parenchymal cells does not increase apoptosis or promote renal disease in MRL-++ mice. We speculate that the autoimmune milieu evokes mechanisms that mask, counter, or pre-empt Fas-FasL-initiated apoptosis in MRL kidneys.  (+info)

Identification of a subpopulation of lymphocytes in human peripheral blood cytotoxic to autologous fibroblasts. (2/6282)

A naturally occurring subpopulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes is cytotoxic to autologous and/or allogeneic fibroblasts. The autocytotoxic lymphocytes have a receptor for the third component of complement and for aggregated gamma globulin, do not form rosettes with sheep red blood cells, and are not removed by passage through nylon. The autocytotoxic subpopulation is not present in the thymus and tonsils of normal children or in the peripheral blood of individuals with X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Fibroblast absorption experiments demonstrate that the autocytotoxic cells are "sensitized" to antigens expressed on allogeneic fibroblasts in addition to the antigens expressed on autologous cells. Some normal individuals have a second subpopulation of lymphocytes that may "regulate" the autocytotoxic cells. The relevance of these observations to the murine autocytotoxic cells is discussed.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (3/6282)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

Crossreactive recognition of viral, self, and bacterial peptide ligands by human class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte clonotypes: implications for molecular mimicry in autoimmune disease. (4/6282)

The immunodominant, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the HLA-B8-restricted peptide, RAKFKQLL, located in the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early antigen, BZLF1, is characterized by a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we show that this diversity can be partitioned on the basis of crossreactive cytotoxicity patterns involving the recognition of a self peptide-RSKFRQIV-located in a serine/threonine kinase and a bacterial peptide-RRKYKQII-located in Staphylococcus aureus replication initiation protein. Thus CTL clones that recognized the viral, self, and bacterial peptides expressed a highly restricted alphabeta TCR phenotype. The CTL clones that recognized viral and self peptides were more oligoclonal, whereas clones that strictly recognized the viral peptide displayed a diverse TCR profile. Interestingly, the self and bacterial peptides equally were substantially less effective than the cognate viral peptide in sensitizing target cell lysis, and also resulted only in a weak reactivation of memory CTLs in limiting dilution assays, whereas the cognate peptide was highly immunogenic. The described crossreactions show that human antiviral, CD8(+) CTL responses can be shaped by peptide ligands derived from autoantigens and environmental bacterial antigens, thereby providing a firm structural basis for molecular mimicry involving class I-restricted CTLs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.  (+info)

MHC class II gene associations with autoantibodies to U1A and SmD1 proteins. (5/6282)

Autoantibodies against U small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNP) are frequently present in the serum of patients with systemic rheumatic diseases, and have been reported to be associated with HLA-DR and -DQ genes. To better define the role of HLA genes in the production of such antibodies, we studied immunogenetic associations with autoantibodies reacting with U1 RNP, U1A and SmD1 proteins, and synthetic peptides containing immunodominant linear epitopes of these proteins. Only two out of the 15 overlapping peptides of U1A (i.e. peptides 35-58 and 257-282) and three of 11 peptides of SmD1 (i.e. peptides 1-20, 44-67 and 97-119) were significantly recognized by patients' sera selected on the basis of their antibody positivity with RNP in immunodiffusion. The distribution of DRB1, DQB1 and DPB1 alleles among the anti-RNP antibody-positive patients (n = 28) and healthy control subjects was similar. Antibodies against U1A (tested in Western immunoblotting with HeLa cell extracts) were positively associated to DRB1*06 allele; antibodies reacting with SmD1 peptide 44-67 were negatively associated to DRB1*02 and DQB1*0602 alleles. No association was found between DPB1 alleles and antibodies reacting with U1A and SmD1 antigens. This first study reporting an association between autoantibodies reacting with U1A and SmD1 proteins (and peptides of these proteins), and immunogenetic markers suggest that the production of antibody subsets directed against different components (or regions of these proteins) bound to the same snRNP particle is associated with distinct MHC class II alleles.  (+info)

Non-coding plasmid DNA induces IFN-gamma in vivo and suppresses autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (6/6282)

Regulatory sequences used in plasmids for naked DNA vaccination can modulate cytokine production in vivo. We demonstrate here that injection of plasmid DNA can suppress the prototypic T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, by inducing IFN-gamma.  (+info)

IL-4 and IL-10 are both required for the induction of oral tolerance. (7/6282)

Protection from the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) can be induced by feeding mice interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein before uveitogenic challenge with the same protein. Two different regimens are equally effective in inducing protective tolerance, although they seem to do so through different mechanisms: one involving regulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta), and the other with minimal involvement of cytokines. Here we studied the importance of IL-4 and IL-10 for the development of oral tolerance using mice genetically engineered to lack either one or both of these cytokines. In these animals we were able to protect against EAU only through the regimen inducing cytokine-independent tolerance. When these animals were fed a regimen that in the wild-type animal is thought to predominantly induce regulatory cells and is associated with cytokine secretion, they were not protected from EAU. Interestingly, both regimens were associated with reduced IL-2 production and proliferation in response to interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein. These findings indicate that both IL-4 and IL-10 are required for induction of protective oral tolerance dependent on regulatory cytokines, and that one cytokine cannot substitute for the other in this process. These data also underscore the fact that oral tolerance, manifested as suppression of proliferation and IL-2 production, is not synonymous with protection from disease.  (+info)

Pregnancy ameliorates induction and expression of experimental autoimmune uveitis. (8/6282)

Female patients suffering from autoimmune uveitis are reported to experience a temporary remission during pregnancy. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is a model for human uveitis. Here we examine the effect of pregnancy on the development of EAU and its associated immunological responses. Susceptible C57BL/6 mice were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP). EAU scores and Ag-specific responses were evaluated 21 days later. Mice immunized during pregnancy developed significantly less EAU than nonpregnant controls. Their lymph node cells and splenocytes produced a distinct pattern of cytokines in response to IRBP: reduced IFN-gamma and IL-12 p40, but unchanged levels of TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10. Anti-IRBP Ab isotypes revealed an up-regulation of IgG1, indicating a possible Th2 bias at the humoral level. Ag-specific proliferation and delayed hypersensitivity, as well as mitogen-induced IFN-gamma production, remained undiminished, arguing against an overall immune deficit. Interestingly, pregnant mice that received an infusion of IRBP-primed lymphoid cells from nonpregnant donors also developed reduced EAU, suggesting that pregnancy suppresses not only the generation, but also the function of mature uveitogenic effector T cells. Pregnant mice at the time of immunization exhibited elevated levels of TGF-beta, but not of IL-10, in the serum. We suggest that protection from EAU during pregnancy is due primarily to a selective reduction of Ag-specific Th1 responses with only marginal enhancement of Th2 function, and that these effects may in part be secondary to elevated systemic levels of TGF-beta.  (+info)

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

The disease is typically induced in laboratory animals such as mice or rats by immunizing them with myelin proteins, such as myelin basic protein (MBP) or proteolipid protein (PLP), emulsified in adjuvants. The resulting immune response leads to the production of autoantibodies and activated T cells that cross the blood-brain barrier and attack the CNS.

EAE is used as a model for MS because it shares many similarities with the human disease, including:

1. Demyelination: EAE induces demyelination of nerve fibers in the CNS, which is also a hallmark of MS.
2. Autoimmune response: The immune response in EAE is triggered by autoantigens, similar to MS.
3. Chronic course: EAE is a chronic disease with recurrent relapses, similar to MS.
4. Lesion distribution: EAE lesions are distributed throughout the CNS, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord, which is also true for MS.

EAE has been used extensively in the study of MS to investigate the immunopathogenesis of the disease, to develop new diagnostic markers and treatments, and to test the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents.

Sjögren's syndrome can affect people of all ages, but it most commonly occurs in women between the ages of 40 and 60. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks the glands as if they were foreign substances.

Symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Dry mouth (xerostomia)
* Dry eyes (dry eye syndrome)
* Fatigue
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Rash
* Sores on the skin
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Sexual dysfunction

There is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications to stimulate saliva production
* Eye drops to moisturize the eyes
* Mouthwashes to stimulate saliva production
* Pain relief medication for joint pain
* Anti-inflammatory medication to reduce swelling
* Immunosuppressive medication to suppress the immune system
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat hormonal imbalances.

Sjögren's syndrome can also increase the risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It is important for people with Sjögren's syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition over time.

Some common autoimmune diseases of the nervous system include:

1. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A chronic condition that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves, causing a range of symptoms including numbness, weakness, and vision problems.
2. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO): A rare condition that causes inflammation in the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to vision loss and muscle weakness.
3. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A rare autoimmune disorder that causes muscle weakness and paralysis, often after a viral infection.
4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP): A chronic condition that affects the peripheral nerves, causing numbness, weakness, and pain in the hands and feet.
5. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A rare condition that causes inflammation in the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms including fever, headache, and muscle weakness.

The exact cause of autoimmune diseases of the nervous system is not fully understood, but they are believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition, but may include medications to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune system, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include increased thirst and urination, blurred vision, fatigue, weight loss, and skin infections. If left untreated, type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, and blindness.

Type 1 diabetes is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood glucose measurements and autoantibody tests. Treatment typically involves insulin therapy, which can be administered via injections or an insulin pump, as well as regular monitoring of blood glucose levels and appropriate lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise.

The symptoms of MS can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the damage to the CNS. Common symptoms include:

* Weakness, numbness, or tingling in the limbs
* Fatigue
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision, or loss of vision
* Difficulty with balance and coordination
* Tremors or spasticity
* Memory and concentration problems
* Mood changes, such as depression or mood swings
* Bladder and bowel problems

There is no cure for MS, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These treatments include:

* Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) - These medications are designed to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses, and they can also slow the progression of disability. Examples of DMTs include interferons, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and alemtuzumab.
* Steroids - Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation during relapses, but they are not a long-term solution.
* Pain management medications - Pain relievers, such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can help manage pain caused by MS.
* Muscle relaxants - These medications can help reduce spasticity and tremors.
* Physical therapy - Physical therapy can help improve mobility, balance, and strength.
* Occupational therapy - Occupational therapy can help with daily activities and assistive devices.
* Speech therapy - Speech therapy can help improve communication and swallowing difficulties.
* Psychological counseling - Counseling can help manage the emotional and psychological aspects of MS.

It's important to note that each person with MS is unique, and the best treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific symptoms, needs, and preferences. It's essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.

Symptoms of oophoritis may include:

* Pelvic pain or discomfort
* Fever
* Abdominal tenderness
* Vaginal discharge
* Painful urination
* Nausea and vomiting

To diagnose oophoritis, a healthcare provider may perform a physical exam, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as a pelvic exam, ultrasound, or blood tests to check for infection markers.

Treatment of oophoritis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain management medication, and other supportive care. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. It's important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated oophoritis can lead to complications such as infertility or chronic pelvic pain.

The exact cause of vitiligo is still unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In people with vitiligo, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys melanocytes, leading to a loss of skin pigmentation. The disease can also be triggered by physical or emotional stress, sun exposure, and certain medications.

The symptoms of vitiligo can vary in severity and progression. They may include:

1. White patches on the skin, which can appear suddenly or gradually over time.
2. Loss of skin pigmentation in specific areas, such as the face, hands, or limbs.
3. Thinning or loss of hair on affected areas.
4. Premature whitening or graying of the hair.
5. Itching, pain, or sensitivity in the affected areas.
6. Emotional distress and reduced quality of life due to the visible appearance of the disease.

There is no cure for vitiligo, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow down its progression. These may include:

1. Topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
2. Topical immunomodulators to suppress the immune system and promote skin repigmentation.
3. Narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) phototherapy to slow down the progression of the disease and improve skin appearance.
4. Psoralen photochemotherapy to promote skin repigmentation and reduce inflammation.
5. Surgical skin grafting or blister grafting to cover small areas of depigmentation.
6. Camouflage makeup to cover the affected areas and improve self-esteem.

In addition to these treatments, it is essential for patients with vitiligo to protect their skin from the sun by using broad-spectrum sunscreens, wearing protective clothing, and seeking shade when the sun is strongest.

Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve the quality of life for patients with vitiligo. However, the emotional and psychological impact of the disease should not be underestimated, and patients may require long-term support and counseling to cope with the challenges of living with this condition.

Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental: A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own nerve tissue, leading to damage and disruption of normal nerve function. This type of condition is often referred to as an autoimmune disease because the body's immune system is attacking its own tissues rather than foreign substances.

The term 'experimental' is used to indicate that this is a research-based definition, and not all of the information may be fully established or widely accepted by the medical community at this time. It is important to note that an experimental condition is one that has not yet been proven through rigorous scientific study, and more research is needed to determine its validity and potential clinical applications.

Examples of Nervous System Autoimmune Diseases include:

* Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A chronic autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. The immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
* Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS): A rare autoimmune disorder that causes damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis, and other symptoms. GBS is thought to be triggered by a viral or bacterial infection that stimulates an immune response.
* Peripheral Neuropathy: A condition affecting the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, often resulting in numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the hands and feet. Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, autoimmune disorders, infections, and certain medications.
* Myasthenia Gravis (MG): An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. MG can cause a variety of symptoms, including double vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty swallowing, and weakness in the arms and legs.
* Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO): A rare autoimmune disease that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to vision loss, pain, and muscle weakness. NMO is often misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis, but it has a distinct set of symptoms and requires different treatment approaches.

These are just a few examples of nervous system autoimmune diseases, and there are many others that can affect the body in different ways. It's important to note that each condition has its unique set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria, and treatment options may vary depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of the disease. If you suspect that you or a loved one may have an autoimmune disease affecting the nervous system, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and care.



There are two main types of systemic scleroderma: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DCSS) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LCSS). DCSS is characterized by skin thickening and scar formation over the trunk, arms, and legs, while LCSS is characterized by skin tightening and patches of scaly skin on the hands and face.

The symptoms of systemic scleroderma can include:

* Skin hardening and tightening
* Fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Muscle weakness
* Swallowing difficulties
* Heartburn and acid reflux
* Shortness of breath
* Raynaud's phenomenon (pale or blue-colored fingers and toes in response to cold temperatures or stress)

The exact cause of systemic scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options for systemic scleroderma include medications to manage symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swallowing difficulties, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications to improve quality of life.

In summary, systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems in the body, causing skin hardening and thickening, fatigue, joint pain, and other symptoms. While there is no cure for systemic scleroderma, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."


1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling.
2. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage in the joints wears down over time, causing pain and stiffness.
3. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory disease that affects both the skin and joints, often occurring in people with psoriasis.
4. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): A condition that causes inflammation in the spine and peripheral joints, leading to stiffness and pain.
5. Lupus: An autoimmune disease that can affect multiple systems in the body, including the joints, skin, and kidneys.
6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): A condition that affects children under the age of 16, causing inflammation in the joints and potentially leading to long-term complications.
7. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dryness in the eyes and mouth.
8. Fibromyalgia: A condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
9. Gout: A type of inflammatory arthritis caused by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood, leading to sudden and severe attacks of joint pain.
10. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures, often occurring in older adults.

Rheumatic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often involve complex symptoms and a range of possible causes. However, with the help of rheumatology specialists and advanced diagnostic tools, it is possible to manage these conditions effectively and improve quality of life for patients.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

These animal models allow researchers to study the underlying causes of arthritis, test new treatments and therapies, and evaluate their effectiveness in a controlled environment before moving to human clinical trials. Experimental arthritis models are used to investigate various aspects of the disease, including its pathophysiology, immunogenicity, and potential therapeutic targets.

Some common experimental arthritis models include:

1. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA): This model is induced in mice by immunizing them with type II collagen, which leads to an autoimmune response and inflammation in the joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models: These models are developed by transferring cells from RA patients into immunodeficient mice, which then develop arthritis-like symptoms.
3. Osteoarthritis (OA) models: These models are induced in animals by subjecting them to joint injury or overuse, which leads to degenerative changes in the joints and bone.
4. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) models: These models are developed by inducing psoriasis in mice, which then develop arthritis-like symptoms.

Experimental arthritis models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the disease and have helped to identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of arthritis. However, it is important to note that these models are not perfect representations of human arthritis and should be used as tools to complement, rather than replace, human clinical trials.

The symptoms of myasthenia gravis can vary in severity and may include:

* Weakness in the arms and legs
* Fatigue and muscle tiredness
* Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
* Difficulty speaking or slurred speech (dysarthria)
* Drooping eyelids (ptosis)
* Double vision (diplopia)
* Weakness in the muscles of the face, arms, and legs

The exact cause of myasthenia gravis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. It can also be caused by other medical conditions such as thyroid disease, vitamin deficiencies, or infections.

There is no cure for myasthenia gravis, but there are various treatments available to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These include:

* Medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and cholinesterase inhibitors
* Plasmapheresis, a procedure that removes harmful antibodies from the blood
* Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), which contains antibodies that can help block the immune system's attack on the nerve-muscle junction
* Surgery to remove the thymus gland, which is believed to play a role in the development of myasthenia gravis

It is important for individuals with myasthenia gravis to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with myasthenia gravis are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

The disease is named after Hakama Hashimoto, a Japanese physician who first described it in 1912. It is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the thyroid gland, which can lead to damage to the gland and disrupt its ability to produce thyroid hormones.

The symptoms of Hashimoto's disease are similar to those of hypothyroidism and can include fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, dry skin, constipation, and depression. The disease is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 30 and 50.

Hashimoto's disease is diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests to measure thyroid hormone levels and an ultrasound or biopsy to examine the thyroid gland. Treatment typically involves replacing missing thyroid hormones with synthetic hormones, but in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

While Hashimoto's disease is a chronic condition and cannot be cured, it can be effectively managed with appropriate treatment. With early diagnosis and proper management, most people with Hashimoto's disease can lead normal, healthy lives.

The most common demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS are:

1. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A chronic and often disabling disease that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. MS is caused by an abnormal response of the immune system, leading to inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath.
2. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO): A rare autoimmune disorder that affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, causing inflammation and demyelination. NMO is often associated with a specific type of antibody in the blood.
3. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM): A rare autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord, causing widespread inflammation and demyelination. ADEM is often triggered by a viral infection.
4. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP): A rare autoimmune disorder that affects the peripheral nerves, causing weakness, numbness, and pain. CIDP is characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the nerve fibers.

The symptoms of demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS can vary depending on the specific disease and the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* Weakness, numbness, or tingling sensations in the limbs
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or loss of vision
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
* Fatigue, fever, and general malaise
* Cognitive impairment and memory loss

The diagnosis of demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood tests to rule out other conditions and measure the levels of specific antibodies and immune cells.
2. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to detect inflammatory markers and specific antibodies.
3. Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans, to visualize the lesions and assess the extent of the damage.
4. Evoked potentials testing to evaluate the function of the nerves.

Treatment for demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS depends on the specific disease and the severity of the condition. Common treatments include:

1. Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response.
2. Immunoglobulins to block the activity of harmful antibodies.
3. Plasmapheresis to remove harmful antibodies from the blood.
4. Disease-modifying therapies, such as interferons or glatiramer acetate, to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses.
5. Physical therapy and rehabilitation to help restore lost function and improve quality of life.

In conclusion, demyelinating autoimmune diseases affecting the CNS can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but with a comprehensive approach that includes clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies, it is possible to identify the underlying cause and develop an effective treatment plan.

There are several types of lupus nephritis, each with its own unique characteristics and symptoms. The most common forms include:

* Class I (mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis): This type is characterized by the growth of abnormal cells in the glomeruli (blood-filtering units of the kidneys).
* Class II (active lupus nephritis): This type is characterized by widespread inflammation and damage to the kidneys, with or without the presence of antibodies.
* Class III (focal lupus nephritis): This type is characterized by localized inflammation in certain areas of the kidneys.
* Class IV (lupus nephritis with crescentic glomerulonephritis): This type is characterized by widespread inflammation and damage to the kidneys, with crescent-shaped tissue growth in the glomeruli.
* Class V (lupus nephritis with sclerotic changes): This type is characterized by hardening and shrinkage of the glomeruli due to scarring.

Lupus Nephritis can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling (edema)
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Joint pain

Lupus Nephritis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and kidney biopsy. Treatment options for lupus nephritis include medications to suppress the immune system, control inflammation, and prevent further damage to the kidneys. In severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant may be necessary.

There are several types of pemphigus, including:

1. Pemphigus vulgaris: This is the most common form of the disease and is characterized by the formation of large, painful blisters on the skin and mucous membranes.
2. Pemphigus foliaceus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of smaller, crusting sores on the skin.
3. Pemphigus erythematosus: This type of pemphigus is characterized by the formation of flat, red sores on the skin.
4. Bullous pemphigoid: This is a rare form of pemphigus that is characterized by the formation of large, fluid-filled blisters on the skin.

Treatment for pemphigus typically involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as infection and fluid loss.

Prevention of pemphigus is difficult, but avoiding exposure to known triggers such as certain medications and taking steps to maintain good skin care can help reduce the risk of developing the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with pemphigus.

There are several different types of uveitis, including:

1. Anterior uveitis: This type affects the front part of the eye and is the most common form of uveitis. It is often caused by an infection or injury.
2. Posterior uveitis: This type affects the back part of the eye and can be caused by a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
3. Intermediate uveitis: This type affects the middle layer of the eye and is often caused by an autoimmune disorder.
4. Panuveitis: This type affects the entire uvea and can be caused by a systemic disease such as vasculitis or Behçet's disease.

Symptoms of uveitis may include:

* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling in the eye
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision)
* Flashes of light

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible. Uveitis can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medication to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to remove any diseased tissue.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness. If you have uveitis, it is important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring to protect your vision.

The symptoms of lupus vulgaris typically include:

* Rough, scaly patches on the skin that may be dark red or purple in color
* Itching or burning sensation on the skin
* Skin thickening or hardening
* Painless ulcers or sores on the skin
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Headache
* Joint pain or swelling

The diagnosis of lupus vulgaris is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests. A physical examination of the skin and mucous membranes can reveal characteristic signs of the condition, such as scaly patches or ulcers. Laboratory tests, such as blood tests or biopsies, may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment of lupus vulgaris typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, surgical debridement or laser therapy may be necessary to remove damaged tissue and promote healing. In addition, patients with lupus vulgaris may require supportive care to manage symptoms such as pain, itching, and swelling.

Overall, lupus vulgaris is a chronic skin condition that can cause significant discomfort and disfigurement if left untreated. It is important for individuals in regions where the condition is common to be aware of the signs and symptoms and seek medical attention if they suspect they may have the condition. With proper diagnosis and treatment, however, most patients with lupus vulgaris can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and quality of life.

There are several types of alopecia areata, including:

1. Alopecia areata patchy - This is the most common form of the disease, where hair loss occurs in patches on the scalp or other parts of the body.
2. Alopecia totalis - Hair loss occurs over the entire scalp.
3. Alopecia universalis - Hair loss occurs over the entire body, including the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes.
4. Alopecia areata barbae - Hair loss occurs in the beard area.
5. Alopecia areata traction - Hair loss occurs due to pulling or tension on the hair shaft, often seen in children who pull their own hair.

The symptoms of alopecia areata may include:

1. Patchy hair loss
2. Thinning of hair
3. Redness and scalp inflammation
4. Itching or burning sensation on the scalp
5. Nail changes such as ridging, thinning, or pitting

Alopecia areata can be diagnosed through a physical examination and medical history. A skin scraping or biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for alopecia areata depends on the severity and location of hair loss, as well as the individual's overall health. Options may include:

1. Topical corticosteroids - Medicated creams or ointments applied directly to the affected area to reduce inflammation and promote hair growth.
2. Oral corticosteroids - Medications taken by mouth to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.
3. Anthralin - A medication that is applied to the skin to reduce inflammation and promote hair growth.
4. Immunotherapy - Injections or tablets that stimulate the immune system to attack cancer cells, but also can cause hair loss.
5. Wigs, hats, or other hairpieces - Used to cover up patchy hair loss.
6. Counseling or therapy - To help cope with the emotional impact of hair loss.
7. Hair transplantation - A surgical procedure that involves moving healthy hair follicles from one part of the scalp to another.

It is important to note that these treatments may not work for everyone and may have side effects. It's important to talk to a doctor or dermatologist to determine the best course of treatment for alopecia areata.

In addition to medical treatment, there are also some natural remedies that can help with alopecia areata such as:

1. Diet and nutrition - Eating a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals can promote hair growth.
2. Stress management - High stress levels have been linked to alopecia areata, so finding ways to manage stress, such as through exercise or meditation, may help.
3. Saw palmetto - A herb that has been shown to promote hair growth and slow down hair loss.
4. Fish oil - Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil have been shown to promote hair growth.
5. Coconut oil - Applying coconut oil to the scalp may help to stimulate hair growth.
6. Henna - A natural dye that can be used to color and strengthen hair, and may also help to promote hair growth.
7. Rosemary essential oil - May help to promote hair growth by increasing blood flow to the scalp.
8. Lavender essential oil - May help to reduce stress and promote relaxation, which can help with alopecia areata.

Grave's disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and affects about 1 in 200 people. It can occur at any age but is more common in women and tends to run in families. The exact cause of Grave's disease is not known, but it may be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Symptoms of Grave's disease can vary from person to person, but common signs include:

* Weight loss
* Nervousness or anxiety
* Irregular heartbeat (palpitations)
* Increased sweating
* Heat intolerance
* Fatigue
* Changes in menstrual cycle in women
* Enlargement of the thyroid gland, known as a goiter
* Bulging eyes (exophthalmos)

Grave's disease can be diagnosed through blood tests and scans. Treatment options include medication to reduce the production of thyroxine, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part of the thyroid gland, and surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Grave's disease, as untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to complications such as heart problems, osteoporosis, and eye problems. With proper treatment, most people with Grave's disease can manage their symptoms and lead a normal life.

The condition is often caused by gallstones or other blockages that prevent the normal flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine. Over time, the scarring can lead to the formation of cirrhosis, which is characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue.

Symptoms of liver cirrhosis, biliary may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Itching
* Fatigue
* Abdominal pain
* Dark urine
* Pale stools

The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis, biliary is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, CT scans, and blood tests.

Treatment for liver cirrhosis, biliary depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove gallstones or repair damaged bile ducts. Medications such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory drugs may also be prescribed to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver cirrhosis, biliary is generally poor, as the condition can lead to complications such as liver failure, infection, and cancer. However, with early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

The term "polyendocrinopathy" refers to the involvement of multiple endocrine glands, while "autoimmune" indicates that the disorder is caused by an abnormal immune response against the body's own tissues.

Examples of polyendocrinopathies, autoimmune include:

1. Type 1 diabetes with thyroiditis and adrenal insufficiency
2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis with hypophyseal and adrenal involvement
3. Addison's disease with hypothyroidism and hemolytic anemia
4. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) with autoantibodies against multiple endocrine glands
5. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2) with autoantibodies against thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal glands.

The exact cause of polyendocrinopathies, autoimmune is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors that trigger an abnormal immune response against endocrine tissues. Treatment varies depending on the specific disorder and may include hormone replacement therapy, immunosuppressive medications, and management of associated symptoms.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the joints breaks down over time, causing the bones to rub together. It is the most common form of arthritis and typically affects older adults.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joints, leading to inflammation and pain. It can affect anyone, regardless of age, and is typically seen in women.

Other types of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis, gouty arthritis, and lupus-related arthritis. Treatment for arthritis depends on the type and severity of the condition, but can include medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, can also be helpful. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Arthritis is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting over 50 million adults in the United States alone. It can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, making everyday activities such as walking, dressing, and grooming difficult and painful. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.

In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.

In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.

The symptoms of glomerulonephritis can vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease, but may include:

* Blood in the urine (hematuria)
* Proteinuria (excess protein in the urine)
* Reduced kidney function
* Swelling in the legs and ankles (edema)
* High blood pressure

Glomerulonephritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as staphylococcal or streptococcal infections
* Autoimmune disorders such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis
* Allergic reactions to certain medications
* Genetic defects
* Certain diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and sickle cell anemia

The diagnosis of glomerulonephritis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and kidney biopsy.

Treatment for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and may include:

* Antibiotics to treat infections
* Medications to reduce inflammation and swelling
* Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
* Immunosuppressive medications to suppress the immune system in cases of autoimmune disorders
* Dialysis in severe cases

The prognosis for glomerulonephritis depends on the underlying cause of the disease and the severity of the inflammation. In some cases, the disease may progress to end-stage renal disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. With proper treatment, however, many people with glomerulonephritis can experience a good outcome and maintain their kidney function over time.

There are several types of vasculitis, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of vasculitis include:

1. Giant cell arteritis: This is the most common form of vasculitis, and it affects the large arteries in the head, neck, and arms. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and loss of appetite.
2. Takayasu arteritis: This type of vasculitis affects the aorta and its major branches, leading to inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart, brain, and other vital organs. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
3. Polymyalgia rheumatica: This is an inflammatory condition that affects the muscles and joints, as well as the blood vessels. It often occurs in people over the age of 50 and is frequently associated with giant cell arteritis. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints, as well as fatigue and fever.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children under the age of 5, causing inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart and other organs. Symptoms include high fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and irritability.

The exact cause of vasculitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own blood vessels. Genetic factors may also play a role in some cases.

Diagnosis of vasculitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies (e.g., MRI or CT scans), and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of vasculitis and its severity, but may include medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery or organ transplantation may be necessary.

In addition to these specific types of vasculitis, there are other conditions that can cause similar symptoms and may be included in the differential diagnosis, such as:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the joints and can cause inflammation in blood vessels.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is another autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, joints, and blood vessels.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, often in association with hepatitis B or C infection.
4. Takayasu arteritis: This is a rare condition that affects the aorta and its branches, causing inflammation and narrowing of the blood vessels.
5. Giant cell arteritis: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the large and medium-sized blood vessels, often in association with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
6. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children, causing inflammation of the blood vessels and potential heart complications.
7. Henoch-Schönlein purpura: This is a rare condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the skin, joints, and gastrointestinal tract.
8. IgG4-related disease: This is a condition that can affect various organs, including the pancreas, bile ducts, and blood vessels, causing inflammation and potentially leading to fibrosis or tumor formation.

It is important to note that these conditions may have similar symptoms and signs as vasculitis, but they are distinct entities with different causes and treatment approaches. A thorough diagnostic evaluation, including laboratory tests and imaging studies, is essential to determine the specific diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A rare autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and damage to cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, often leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. The condition is often triggered by infections or exposure to certain medications, and can be difficult to diagnose due to its diverse range of symptoms. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing: A rare autoimmune disorder affecting cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, often causing arthritis and skin rashes. The condition is difficult to diagnose due to its diverse range of symptoms, but treatment involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body. The condition can cause a wide range of symptoms, including arthritis, skin rashes, and inflammation in various organs and joints. It is often triggered by infections or exposure to certain medications, and can be difficult to diagnose due to its diverse range of symptoms. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, causing arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and damage to cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, often leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, causing arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment usually involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves immunosuppressive medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat severe cases of the disorder.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat severe cases of the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat severe cases of the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat severe cases of the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat severe cases of the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat severe cases of the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis, relapsing is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment often involves a combination of medications and surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to treat the disorder effectively.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

Polychondritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that can cause inflammation in cartilage and connective tissue throughout the body, leading to symptoms such as arthritis, skin rashes, and other symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as surgery to repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, bone marrow transplantation may be necessary to effectively treat the disorder.

The symptoms of dermatomyositis can vary in severity and may include:

* Rashes and lesions on the skin, particularly on the face, neck, and hands
* Muscle weakness and fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Swelling and redness in the affected areas
* Fever
* Headaches
* Fatigue

Dermatomyositis is often associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as polymyositis, and can be triggered by certain medications or infections. There is no cure for dermatomyositis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and flexibility.

The term "dermatomyositis" is derived from the Greek words "derma," meaning skin, "myo," meaning muscle, and "-itis," indicating inflammation. The condition was first described in the medical literature in the early 20th century, and since then has been studied extensively to better understand its causes and develop effective treatments.

In summary, dermatomyositis is a rare autoimmune disease that affects both the skin and muscles, causing inflammation and various symptoms such as rashes, weakness, and joint pain. While there is no cure for the condition, treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

1. Autoimmune diseases: These occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes.
2. Allergies: An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to a harmless substance, such as pollen, dust mites, or certain foods. Symptoms can range from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.
3. Immunodeficiency disorders: These are conditions that impair the immune system's ability to fight infections. Examples include HIV/AIDS and primary immunodeficiency diseases.
4. Infectious diseases: Certain infections, such as tuberculosis or bacterial meningitis, can cause immune system dysfunction.
5. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as lymphoma, affect the immune system's ability to fight disease.
6. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP): This is a rare autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack and destroy platelets, leading to bleeding and bruising.
7. Guillain-Barré syndrome: This is a rare autoimmune disorder that occurs when the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
8. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): This is a condition characterized by persistent fatigue, muscle pain, and joint pain, which is thought to be related to an immune system imbalance.
9. Fibromyalgia: This is a chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, which may be linked to immune system dysfunction.
10. Autoimmune hepatitis: This is a condition in which the immune system attacks the liver, leading to inflammation and damage to the liver cells.

It's important to note that a weakened immune system can increase the risk of infections and other health problems, so it's important to work with your healthcare provider to identify any underlying causes and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Symptoms of sialadenitis may include:

* Swelling and tenderness of the salivary gland
* Pain in the jaw, cheek, or neck
* Difficulty swallowing
* Fever
* Redness and warmth of the affected area

The diagnosis of sialadenitis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-inflammatory medications, or drainage of the abscess if present.

Sialadenitis can lead to complications such as abscess formation, cellulitis, and permanent damage to the salivary gland if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition can occur in people of all ages, although it is most common in women between the ages of 20 and 40.

Symptoms of autoimmune hepatitis may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). If left untreated, the condition can lead to liver failure and even death.

Treatment for autoimmune hepatitis typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation in the liver. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

Symptoms of dacryocystitis may include:

* Pain and swelling in the affected eye
* Redness and tearing of the eye
* Discharge or pus from the eye
* Swollen eyelids
* Fever

If left untreated, dacryocystitis can lead to complications such as abscesses or cellulitis, which can be serious. Treatment usually involves antibiotics and/or surgical drainage of the lacrimal sac.

There are two main types of Addison's disease: primary and secondary. Primary Addison's disease is caused by an autoimmune disorder that destroys the adrenal glands, while secondary Addison's disease is caused by a problem with the pituitary gland, which regulates the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of Addison's disease can include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, dehydration, and changes in skin color. Treatment involves replacing the missing hormones with medication and managing symptoms. If left untreated, Addison's disease can be life-threatening.

Specialists who may be involved in treating Addison's disease include endocrinologists, primary care physicians, and surgeons. Treatment options can include medication, hydration therapy, and in some cases, surgery to remove the affected adrenal gland(s).

It is important for individuals with Addison's disease to work closely with their healthcare team to manage their condition and avoid complications. With proper treatment and self-management, most people with Addison's disease can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Experimental myasthenia gravis refers to a type of myasthenia gravis that is caused by experimental or artificial means, such as through the use of drugs or other substances that mimic or trigger an immune response. This type of myasthenia gravis is often used in research settings to study the underlying mechanisms of the disease and to test new treatments.

Autoimmune myasthenia gravis, on the other hand, refers to a type of myasthenia gravis that is caused by an abnormal immune response, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. This type of myasthenia gravis is more common than experimental myasthenia gravis and can be caused by a variety of factors, such as genetic predisposition, infections, or environmental triggers.

Overall, myasthenia gravis, autoimmune, and experimental refer to different aspects of the disease, with each term having its own specific meaning and application in the medical field.

The main symptoms of PTI include:

* Purple spots or bruises (purpura) on the skin, which may be caused by minor trauma or injury.
* Thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), typically less than 50,000 platelets/mm3.
* Mild anemia and reticulocytosis (increased immature red blood cells).
* Elevated levels of autoantibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins (GP) and other platelet proteins.
* No evidence of other causes of thrombocytopenia, such as bone marrow disorders or infections.

The exact cause of PTI is unknown, but it is believed to involve an immune-mediated response triggered by a genetic predisposition. Treatment options for PTI include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and splenectomy in severe cases. The prognosis for PTI is generally good, with most patients experiencing resolution of symptoms and normalization of platelet counts within a few months to a year after treatment. However, some individuals may experience recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia and purpura throughout their lives.

Psoriasis can affect any part of the body, including the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The symptoms of psoriasis can vary in severity, and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life. In addition to physical discomfort, psoriasis can also cause emotional distress and stigma.

There is no cure for psoriasis, but there are several treatment options available, including topical creams and ointments, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologic drugs. With proper treatment, many people with psoriasis are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psoriasis is relatively common, affecting approximately 2-3% of the global population, with a higher prevalence in Caucasians than in other races. It can occur at any age, but typically starts in the late teenage years or early adulthood. Psoriasis is often associated with other health conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and depression.

Overall, psoriasis is a complex and multifactorial condition that requires a comprehensive approach to management, including both physical and emotional support. With appropriate treatment and self-care, people with psoriasis can lead full and active lives.

1. Lymphedema: This is a condition in which the lymph vessels are unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the affected limb.
2. Lymphangitis: This is an inflammation of the lymph vessels that can cause pain, redness, and swelling.
3. Lymphadenitis: This is an infection of the lymph nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Primary lymphedema: This is a rare genetic condition in which the lymph vessels are missing or do not develop properly.
5. Secondary lymphedema: This is a condition that develops as a result of another condition or injury, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or infection.
6. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the development of the lymph vessels and nodes that can cause swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.
7. Lymphocystis: This is a rare condition in which small cysts form in the lymph vessels and nodes.
8. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare condition that causes cysts to form in the lungs and can also affect the lymph vessels and nodes.
9. Lipedema: This is a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of fat in the legs, thighs, and buttocks, which can cause swelling and pain.
10. Pemphigus: This is a group of rare autoimmune disorders that affect the skin and mucous membranes, leading to blistering and scarring.

Treatment for lymphatic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include compression garments, exercises, and manual lymph drainage therapy. In some cases, medications such as antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to help manage symptoms. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to remove blockages or repair damaged vessels.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent swelling or pain, as these can be signs of a lymphatic disease. Early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

The primary symptoms of celiac disease include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and bloating. However, some people may not experience any symptoms at all, but can still develop complications if the disease is left untreated. These complications can include malnutrition, anemia, osteoporosis, and increased risk of other autoimmune disorders.

The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is more common in people with a family history of celiac disease or other autoimmune disorders. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of blood tests and intestinal biopsy, and treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet.

Dietary management of celiac disease involves avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, rye, and some processed foods that may contain hidden sources of these grains. In some cases, nutritional supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate intake of certain vitamins and minerals.

While there is no known cure for celiac disease, adherence to a strict gluten-free diet can effectively manage the condition and prevent long-term complications. With proper management, people with celiac disease can lead normal, healthy lives.

There are several possible causes of lymphopenia, including:

1. Viral infections: Many viral infections can cause lymphopenia, such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and influenza.
2. Bacterial infections: Some bacterial infections, such as tuberculosis and leprosy, can also cause lymphopenia.
3. Cancer: Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, can cause lymphopenia by destroying lymphocytes.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, can cause lymphopenia by attacking the body's own tissues, including lymphocytes.
5. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy can destroy lymphocytes and cause lymphopenia.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs and antibiotics, can cause lymphopenia as a side effect.
7. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders, such as X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, can cause lymphopenia by affecting the development or function of lymphocytes.

Symptoms of lymphopenia can include recurring infections, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment of lymphopenia depends on the underlying cause and may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or immunoglobulin replacement therapy. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, lymphopenia is a condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many people with lymphopenia can experience improved health outcomes and a better quality of life.

1. Polymyositis: This is an inflammatory disease that affects the muscles and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.
2. Dercum's disease: This is a rare condition that causes fatty degeneration of the muscles, leading to muscle pain, weakness, and wasting.
3. Inflammatory myopathy: This is a group of conditions that cause inflammation in the muscles, leading to muscle weakness and pain.
4. Dermatomyositis: This is an inflammatory condition that affects both the skin and the muscles, causing skin rashes and muscle weakness.
5. Juvenile myositis: This is a rare condition that affects children and can cause muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness.

The symptoms of myositis can vary depending on the type of condition and its severity. Common symptoms include muscle weakness, muscle pain, stiffness, and fatigue. Other symptoms may include skin rashes, fever, and joint pain.

The diagnosis of myositis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests and muscle biopsies. Treatment for myositis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected muscle tissue.

1. Hypothyroidism: This is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, and depression.
2. Hyperthyroidism: This is a condition where the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. Symptoms can include weight loss, anxiety, tremors, and an irregular heartbeat.
3. Thyroid nodules: These are abnormal growths on the thyroid gland that can be benign or cancerous.
4. Thyroid cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the thyroid gland. There are several types of thyroid cancer, including papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer.
5. Goiter: This is an enlargement of the thyroid gland that can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid nodules.
6. Thyrotoxicosis: This is a condition where the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, leading to symptoms such as weight loss, anxiety, tremors, and an irregular heartbeat.
7. Thyroiditis: This is an inflammation of the thyroid gland that can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.
8. Congenital hypothyroidism: This is a condition where a baby is born without a functioning thyroid gland or with a gland that does not produce enough thyroid hormones.
9. Thyroid cancer in children: This is a type of cancer that affects children and teenagers, usually in the form of papillary or follicular thyroid cancer.
10. Thyroid storm: This is a life-threatening condition where the thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormones, leading to symptoms such as fever, rapid heartbeat, and cardiac arrest.

These are just a few examples of the many conditions that can affect the thyroid gland. It's important to be aware of these conditions and seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or concerns related to your thyroid health.

The exact cause of MCTD is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the body. The disease is more common in women than men and typically affects people between the ages of 20 and 50.

Symptoms of MCTD can vary widely and may include:

* Skin rashes or lesions
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Raynaud's phenomenon (digits turn white or blue in response to cold or stress)
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and wasting of muscles

There is no cure for MCTD, but treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive drugs may be used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. Physical therapy and exercise may also be helpful in maintaining joint mobility and strength.

The prognosis for MCTD varies depending on the severity of the disease and the presence of certain complications, such as lung or heart involvement. Some people with MCTD may experience a gradual worsening of symptoms over time, while others may experience periods of remission. With appropriate treatment, many people with MCTD are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.

Types of Infection:

1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

Symptoms of Infection:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Headache
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
8. Coughing
9. Diarrhea
10. Vomiting

Treatment of Infection:

1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.

Prevention of Infection:

1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.

In NAE, the immune system mistakenly attacks the nerves, leading to inflammation and damage. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. The condition is often triggered by exposure to certain environmental factors or by a genetic predisposition.

Some of the key features of NAE include:

* Inflammation of the nerves: The immune system releases chemicals that cause inflammation in the nerves, leading to damage and disruption of normal nerve function.
* Nerve damage: The inflammation can cause damage to the nerves, leading to a loss of function and potentially permanent damage.
* Pain: One of the most common symptoms of NAE is pain in the affected area. This can range from mild to severe and can be persistent or intermittent.
* Numbness and tingling: The inflammation can also cause numbness and tingling sensations in the affected area.
* Weakness: In some cases, NAE can cause weakness or paralysis of the muscles in the affected area.

There is currently no cure for NAE, but various treatments are being studied to manage its symptoms and slow its progression. These include medications to reduce inflammation and modulate the immune response, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

Causes: Thyroiditis can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, autoimmune disorders, or radiation exposure.

Symptoms: Symptoms of thyroiditis may include pain and swelling in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, fatigue, weight gain, muscle weakness, and depression.

Types: There are several types of thyroiditis, including subacute thyroiditis, silent thyroiditis, and postpartum thyroiditis.

Diagnosis: Thyroiditis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.

Treatment: Treatment for thyroiditis usually involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, pain relief medication to manage neck swelling and discomfort, and hormone replacement therapy to address hormonal imbalances. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove part or all of the affected thyroid gland.

Complications: Untreated thyroiditis can lead to complications such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), and thyroid nodules or cancer.

Prevention: Preventing thyroiditis is challenging, but maintaining good overall health, avoiding exposure to radiation, and managing any underlying autoimmune disorders can help reduce the risk of developing the condition.

Prognosis: With proper treatment, most people with thyroiditis experience a full recovery and normalization of thyroid function. However, in some cases, long-term hormone replacement therapy may be necessary to manage persistent hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

A group of autoimmune blistering diseases that are characterized by the formation of large, tense bullae on the skin and mucous membranes. These diseases are caused by abnormal immunological responses to certain antigens, which lead to the production of autoantibodies that attack the basement membrane zone of the skin and mucous membranes, causing damage and blister formation.

There are several types of pemphigoid, bullous diseases, including:

* Pemphigoid, benign chronic
* Pemphigoid, severe
* Bullous pemphigoid
* Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

Symptoms of pemphigoid, bullous diseases may include:

* Blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
* Redness and swelling around the blisters
* Itching or pain
* Fever

Diagnosis of pemphigoid, bullous diseases is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsy. Treatment involves the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Polymyositis can affect people of all ages, but it most commonly occurs in adults between the ages of 30 and 60. It is more common in women than men, and the symptoms can vary in severity. The disease may be acute or chronic, and it can affect one or more muscle groups.

The symptoms of polymyositis include:

* Muscle weakness and fatigue
* Pain in the affected muscles
* Wasting of the affected muscles
* Difficulty swallowing (in severe cases)
* Shortness of breath (in severe cases)

The diagnosis of polymyositis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to check for muscle enzymes and inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Imaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), can help to confirm the diagnosis and assess the extent of the disease.

There is no cure for polymyositis, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Treatment options may include:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Immunosuppressive drugs to suppress the immune system
* Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and function
* Pain management with analgesics and other medications
* Plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood

The prognosis for polymyositis varies, depending on the severity of the disease and the response to treatment. In general, the prognosis is better for patients who have a mild form of the disease and who respond well to treatment. However, in severe cases, the disease can be life-threatening, and mortality rates are estimated to be as high as 20% to 30%.

There are several types of retinitis, including:

1. Retinitis pigmentosa: This is a group of inherited conditions that cause progressive vision loss due to degeneration of the retina.
2. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis: This is a type of retinitis caused by the CMV virus, which is common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS.
3. Toxoplasma retinitis: This is a type of retinitis caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can cause vision loss if left untreated.
4. Syphilitic retinitis: This is a type of retinitis caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum, which can cause vision loss if left untreated.
5. Uveitis-related retinitis: This is a type of retinitis that occurs as a complication of uveitis, an inflammation of the uvea, the middle layer of the eye.

Symptoms of retinitis can include vision loss, blurred vision, sensitivity to light, and floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision). If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Retinitis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment for retinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antiviral or antibacterial medications, immunosuppressive drugs, or surgery. In some cases, vision loss may be permanent, but early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further damage and improve outcomes.

There are several types of lymphoproliferative disorders, including:

1. Lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the immune system and can arise from either B cells or T cells. There are several subtypes of lymphoma, including Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
2. Leukemia: This is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It occurs when there is an abnormal proliferation of white blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or malignant cells.
3. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow and can lead to an abnormal production of blood cells. MDS can progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL): This is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by the accumulation of mature-looking but dysfunctional B cells in the blood.
5. Marginal zone lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that arises from the marginal zone of the spleen, which is the area where the white pulp and red pulp of the spleen meet.
6. Mantle cell lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the mantle zone of the lymph node.
7. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL): This is a rare type of cancer that affects the brain and spinal cord, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the central nervous system.
8. Hairy cell leukemia: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal B cells with a "hairy" appearance in the blood and bone marrow.
9. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.
10. AIDS-related lymphoma: This is a type of cancer that affects people with HIV/AIDS, characterized by the accumulation of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues.

It's important to note that these are just some examples of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and there are many other subtypes and variants of this disease. Each type of lymphoma has its own unique characteristics and may require different treatment approaches.

There are several types of JA, including:

1. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA): A severe form of JA that affects the entire body, causing fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes in addition to joint inflammation.
2. Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (PJIA): A common form of JA that affects multiple joints, especially in the hands and feet.
3. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (OJIA): A mild form of JA that affects only a few joints.
4. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA): A type of JA that is associated with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches.
5. Enthesitis-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis (ER-JIA): A rare form of JA that affects the areas where tendons and ligaments attach to bones.
6. Undifferentiated arthritis: A type of JA that does not fit into any of the other categories.

The symptoms of JA can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Joint pain and stiffness
* Swelling and redness in the affected joints
* Fatigue and fever
* Loss of mobility and range of motion
* Difficulty walking or standing

The exact cause of JA is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for JA, but treatment options are available to help manage symptoms and prevent long-term joint damage. These may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

The symptoms of myocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and the location of the affected areas of the heart muscle. Common symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.

Myocarditis can be difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions such as coronary artery disease or heart failure. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests.

Treatment of myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Mild cases may require only rest and over-the-counter pain medication, while more severe cases may require hospitalization and intravenous medications to manage inflammation and cardiac function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.

Prevention of myocarditis is important, as it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias if left untreated. Prevention strategies include avoiding exposure to viruses and other infections, managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor cardiac function.

In summary, myocarditis is an inflammatory condition that affects the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis can be challenging, but treatment options range from rest and medication to hospitalization and surgery. Prevention is key to avoiding serious complications and maintaining good cardiac health.

There are three main types of CLE:

1. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): Characterized by the presence of discrete, flat, round lesions with a scaly border. These lesions can scar and leave behind pale or dark patches on the skin.
2. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE): Characterized by the sudden appearance of red, painful, tender lesions that may resemble hives or folliculitis. These lesions can resolve on their own within weeks to months but can leave behind scarring.
3. Chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CCLE): Characterized by the presence of widespread, thickened, darkened skin that can resemble leather or violet-colored plaques. This type is less common than DLE and SCLE.

CLE can be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to sunlight, hormonal changes, and certain medications. The disease is more common in women, especially those of childbearing age, and in people with a family history of autoimmune disorders.

The diagnosis of CLE is based on the presence of characteristic skin lesions and can be confirmed by a skin biopsy. Treatment options for CLE include topical corticosteroids, antimalarials, and immunosuppressive medications. In severe cases, phototherapy or systemic corticosteroids may be necessary. Prognosis is generally good, but the disease can be challenging to treat and recurrences are common.

Some examples of nervous system malformations include:

1. Neural tube defects: These are among the most common types of nervous system malformations and occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spinal cord, fails to close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).
2. Cerebral palsy: This is a group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often resulting from brain damage during fetal development or early childhood. The exact cause may not be known, but it can be related to genetic mutations, infections, or other factors.
3. Hydrocephalus: This is a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain, leading to increased pressure and enlargement of the head. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, or blockages in the CSF circulatory system.
4. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches, leading to reduced blood flow to the brain. It can result in stroke-like episodes, seizures, and cognitive impairment.
5. Spinal muscular atrophy: This is a genetic disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to progressive muscle weakness and wasting. It can be diagnosed through blood tests or genetic analysis.
6. Neurofibromatosis: This is a genetic disorder that causes non-cancerous tumors to grow on nerve tissue, leading to symptoms such as skin changes, learning disabilities, and eye problems. It can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation and genetic testing.
7. Tuberous sclerosis: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes non-cancerous tumors to grow in the brain and other organs, leading to symptoms such as seizures, developmental delays, and skin changes. It can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing.
8. Cerebral palsy: This is a group of disorders that affect movement, posture, and muscle tone, often resulting from brain damage sustained during fetal development or early childhood. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including premature birth, infections, and genetic mutations.
9. Down syndrome: This is a genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, leading to intellectual disability, developmental delays, and physical characteristics such as a flat face and short stature. It can be diagnosed through blood tests or genetic analysis.
10. William syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, leading to symptoms such as cardiovascular problems, growth delays, and learning disabilities. It can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation and genetic testing.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of developmental disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect cognitive and physical development in children. If you suspect your child may have a developmental disorder, it's important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

There are several causes of hypergammaglobulinemia, including:

1. Chronic infections: Prolonged infections can cause an increase in the production of immunoglobulins to fight off the infection.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis can cause the immune system to produce excessive amounts of antibodies.
3. Cancer: Some types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, can cause an increase in immunoglobulin production.
4. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, can lead to a deficiency or excess of immunoglobulins.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids and chemotherapy drugs, can suppress the immune system and reduce the production of immunoglobulins.

Symptoms of hypergammaglobulinemia can include:

1. Infections: Recurring infections are a common symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the excessive amount of antibodies can make it difficult for the body to fight off infections effectively.
2. Fatigue: Chronic infections and inflammation can cause fatigue and weakness.
3. Weight loss: Recurring infections and chronic inflammation can lead to weight loss and malnutrition.
4. Swollen lymph nodes: Enlarged lymph nodes are a common symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the body tries to fight off infections.
5. Fever: Recurring fevers can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the body tries to fight off infections.
6. Night sweats: Excessive sweating at night can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia.
7. Skin rashes: Certain types of skin rashes can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, such as a rash caused by allergic reactions to medications or infections.
8. Joint pain: Pain and stiffness in the joints can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, particularly if the excessive amount of antibodies is causing inflammation in the joints.
9. Headaches: Chronic headaches can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, particularly if the excessive amount of antibodies is causing inflammation in the brain or other parts of the body.
10. Swollen liver and spleen: Enlarged liver and spleen can be a symptom of hypergammaglobulinemia, as the body tries to filter out excess antibodies and fight off infections.

It is important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by other medical conditions, so it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional may perform blood tests and other diagnostic procedures to determine the underlying cause of the symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment for hypergammaglobulinemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as infections, allergies, or autoimmune disorders, and may include medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system.

Symptoms of orchitis may include:

* Scrotal pain
* Swelling of the scrotum
* Redness and tenderness of the scrotum
* Fever
* Chills
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting

Treatment for orchitis typically involves antibiotics to clear up any bacterial infections, as well as supportive care such as rest, ice packs, and over-the-counter pain medication. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

Prevention of orchitis includes avoiding close contact with people who have the infection, practicing safe sex, and maintaining good hygiene. Vaccination against certain types of bacteria that can cause orchitis, such as the H. influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, can also help prevent the condition.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of orchitis are present, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The symptoms of Behcet syndrome can vary widely, but may include:

* Skin lesions, such as ulcers or rashes
* Eye inflammation (uveitis)
* Joint pain and swelling
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea and abdominal pain
* Nervous system problems such as seizures and headaches
* Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can lead to aneurysms or blood clots

The exact cause of Behcet syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for the disease, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and antibiotics, as well as lifestyle modifications such as avoiding triggers like spicy foods or stress.

Behcet syndrome is rare in the United States, but it is more common in certain parts of the world, including Turkey, Japan, and other countries with high prevalence of autoimmune disorders. It affects both men and women equally, and typically begins during adulthood, although it can sometimes begin in childhood or adolescence.

Overall, Behcet syndrome is a complex and multifaceted disease that requires careful management by a healthcare team to prevent complications and improve quality of life for patients.

Blisters are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface, which causes the top layer of skin to separate from the underlying layer. This separation creates a space that fills with fluid, forming a blister. Blisters can also be caused by burns, chemical exposure, or other types of injury.

There are different types of blisters, including:

1. Friction blisters: These are the most common type of blister and are caused by friction or rubbing against a surface. They are often seen on the hands, feet, and buttocks.
2. Burn blisters: These are caused by burns and can be more severe than friction blisters.
3. Chemical blisters: These are caused by exposure to chemicals and can be very painful.
4. Blisters caused by medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as epidermolysis bullosa (a genetic disorder that affects the skin), can cause blisters to form easily.

Blisters can be treated in several ways, depending on their size and location. Small blisters may not require treatment and can heal on their own within a few days. Larger blisters may need to be drained and covered with a bandage to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

Preventing blisters is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. To prevent blisters, it is important to:

1. Wear properly fitting shoes and clothing to reduce friction.
2. Use lubricating creams or powders to reduce friction.
3. Take regular breaks to rest and allow the skin to recover.
4. Avoid using harsh chemicals or detergents that can cause irritation.
5. Keep the affected area clean and dry to prevent infection.

In conclusion, blisters are a common and uncomfortable condition that can be caused by a variety of factors. While they can be treated and managed, prevention is key to avoiding the discomfort and pain they can cause. By taking steps to prevent blisters and seeking medical attention if they do occur, individuals can reduce their risk of developing this uncomfortable condition.

The hallmark of Wegener Granulomatosis is the formation of granulomas, which are clusters of immune cells that form in response to infection or inflammation. In this condition, however, the granulomas are not caused by an infectious agent but rather by the body's own immune system attacking its own tissues.

The symptoms of Wegener Granulomatosis can vary depending on the organs affected and can include:

* Fever
* Joint pain
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain
* Coughing up blood
* Abdominal pain
* Blood in urine or stool
* Headache

The exact cause of Wegener Granulomatosis is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the body. In some cases, plasmapheresis (plasma exchange) may also be used to remove harmful antibodies from the blood.

Wegener Granulomatosis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-4 people per million each year. It can occur at any age but is most commonly diagnosed in adults between the ages of 40 and 60. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, many people with Wegener Granulomatosis can experience a good outcome and improved quality of life. However, if left untreated, the condition can be fatal.

The term splenomegaly is used to describe any condition that results in an increase in the size of the spleen, regardless of the underlying cause. This can be caused by a variety of factors, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, or genetic disorders.

Splenomegaly can be diagnosed through a physical examination, where the doctor may feel the enlarged spleen during an abdominal palpation. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and evaluate the extent of the splenomegaly.

Treatment for splenomegaly depends on the underlying cause. For example, infections such as malaria or mononucleosis are treated with antibiotics, while cancerous conditions may require surgical intervention or chemotherapy. In some cases, the spleen may need to be removed, a procedure known as splenectomy.

In conclusion, splenomegaly is an abnormal enlargement of the spleen that can be caused by various factors and requires prompt medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The syndrome is typically diagnosed based on the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or lupus anticoagulant in the blood. Treatment for antiphospholipid syndrome may involve medications to prevent blood clots, such as heparin or warfarin, and aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation. In some cases, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be given to reduce the levels of antibodies in the blood. Plasmapheresis, a process that removes antibodies from the blood, may also be used in some cases.

Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and may be triggered by certain medications or infections. It is important for individuals with antiphospholipid syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.

Some common types of skin diseases include:

1. Acne: a condition characterized by oil clogged pores, pimples, and other blemishes on the skin.
2. Eczema: a chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes dry, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin.
3. Psoriasis: a chronic autoimmune skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches on the skin.
4. Dermatitis: a term used to describe inflammation of the skin, often caused by allergies or irritants.
5. Skin cancer: a type of cancer that affects the skin cells, often caused by exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds.
6. Melanoma: the most serious type of skin cancer, characterized by a mole that changes in size, shape, or color.
7. Vitiligo: a condition in which white patches develop on the skin due to the loss of pigment-producing cells.
8. Alopecia: a condition characterized by hair loss, often caused by autoimmune disorders or genetics.
9. Nail diseases: conditions that affect the nails, such as fungal infections, brittleness, and thickening.
10. Mucous membrane diseases: conditions that affect the mucous membranes, such as ulcers, inflammation, and cancer.

Skin diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or blood tests. Treatment options vary depending on the specific condition and may include topical creams or ointments, oral medications, light therapy, or surgery.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of skin diseases include protecting the skin from UV radiation, using sunscreen, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding exposure to known allergens or irritants. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for many skin conditions.

1. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common symptoms include pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that affects ovulation and can cause cysts on the ovaries. Symptoms include irregular periods, acne, and excess hair growth.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, often on the ovaries. Symptoms include pelvic pain, heavy bleeding, and infertility.
4. Ovarian cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the ovaries. It is rare, but can be aggressive and difficult to treat. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and vaginal bleeding.
5. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This is a condition in which the ovaries stop functioning before the age of 40. Symptoms include hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and infertility.
6. Ovarian torsion: This is a condition in which the ovary becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow. Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, nausea, and vomiting.
7. Ovarian abscess: This is an infection that forms on the ovaries. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, and vaginal discharge.
8. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a condition in which a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, often on the ovaries. Symptoms include severe pelvic pain, bleeding, and fainting.
9. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries. They can be benign or cancerous. Symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular periods.
10. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is a hormonal disorder that affects the ovaries, causing symptoms such as irregular periods, cysts on the ovaries, and excess hair growth.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of the many possible conditions that can affect the ovaries. If you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your pelvic area, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive proper treatment.

There are several types of salivary gland diseases, including:

1. Parotid gland disease: This type of disease affects the parotid gland, which is located in the jaw and produces saliva to aid in digestion.
2. Sublingual gland disease: This type of disease affects the sublingual gland, which is located under the tongue and produces saliva to keep the mouth moist.
3. Submandibular gland disease: This type of disease affects the submandibular gland, which is located below the jaw and produces saliva to aid in digestion.
4. Mucocele: This is a benign tumor that occurs in the salivary glands and can cause swelling and pain.
5. Mucoceles: These are benign tumors that occur in the salivary glands and can cause swelling and pain.
6. Salivary gland stones: This is a condition where small stones form in the salivary glands and can cause pain and swelling.
7. Salivary gland cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the salivary glands and can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
8. Sialadenitis: This is an inflammation of the salivary glands that can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.
9. Sialosis: This is a condition where the salivary glands become blocked and cannot produce saliva.
10. Salivary gland cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that occur in the salivary glands and can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing.

Salivary gland diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific type of disease and may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Some common types of connective tissue diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A chronic autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and joint damage.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems in the body, including the skin, joints, and kidneys.
3. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes dry eyes and mouth, as well as joint pain and swelling.
4. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain and fatigue.
5. Myositis: Inflammatory diseases that affect the muscles, such as dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
6. Giant cell arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the head and neck.
7. Takayasu arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the aorta and its branches.
8. Polyarteritis nodosa: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the hands and feet.
9. IgG4-related disease: A condition characterized by inflammation and damage to various organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, and liver.

Connective tissue diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including joint pain and stiffness, fatigue, skin rashes, fever, and weight loss. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In some cases, surgery or physical therapy may also be necessary.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Proteinuria is usually diagnosed by a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (P/C ratio) or a 24-hour urine protein collection. The amount and duration of proteinuria can help distinguish between different underlying causes and predict prognosis.

Proteinuria can have significant clinical implications, as it is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney damage, and malnutrition. Treatment of the underlying cause can help reduce or eliminate proteinuria.

The term "immune complex disease" was first used in the 1960s to describe a group of conditions that were thought to be caused by the formation of immune complexes. These diseases include:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): an autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple organ systems and is characterized by the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): an autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints and can lead to joint damage.
3. Type III hypersensitivity reaction: a condition in which immune complexes are deposited in tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage.
4. Pemphigus: a group of autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies against desmosomal antigens.
5. Bullous pemphigoid: an autoimmune disease that affects the skin and is characterized by the formation of large blisters.
6. Myasthenia gravis: an autoimmune disorder that affects the nervous system, causing muscle weakness and fatigue.
7. Goodpasture's syndrome: a rare autoimmune disease that affects the kidneys and lungs, characterized by the presence of immune complexes in the glomeruli of the kidneys.
8. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and waste products accumulate in the kidneys, leading to kidney failure.

Immune complex diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and exposure to certain drugs or toxins. Treatment options for these diseases include medications that suppress the immune system, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, and plasmapheresis, which is a process that removes harmful antibodies from the blood. In some cases, organ transplantation may be necessary.

In conclusion, immune complex diseases are a group of disorders that occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own tissues and organs, leading to inflammation and damage. These diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications that suppress the immune system and plasmapheresis.

There are several subtypes of localized scleroderma, including:

* Linear morphea: This is the most common form of localized scleroderma and appears as a linear or polylinear band of hardened skin on the arms, legs, or torso.
* Plaque morphea: This type of scleroderma causes flat, disk-shaped patches of thickened skin that can be red, purple, or brown.
* Guttate morphea: This form of localized scleroderma is characterized by numerous small, drop-like lesions on the arms, legs, or torso.

The exact cause of localized scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder that triggers the immune system to attack healthy tissue in the skin. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as biopsies or imaging studies.

Treatment for localized scleroderma typically involves topical medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, to reduce inflammation and slow the progression of the disease. In some cases, phototherapy or physical therapy may also be recommended to improve symptoms and prevent complications.

While there is no cure for localized scleroderma, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage the condition and improve quality of life for those affected.

List of autoimmune diseases "Autoimmune diseases fact sheet". Office on Women's Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human ... The first autoimmune diseases were described in the early 1900s. Certain autoimmune diseases present similar symptoms across ... Below are some autoimmune diseases most commonly linked to cancer including celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's ... Some common diseases that are generally considered autoimmune include celiac disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, graves' disease ...
The commonest form of autoimmune heart disease is rheumatic heart disease or rheumatic fever. Aetiologically, these are most ... Autoimmune heart diseases are the effects of the body's own immune defense system mistaking cardiac antigens as foreign and ... Chronic: Valve diseases as noted above; Reduced cardiac output; Exercise intolerance. Intensive cardiac care and ... adhesion of the adjacent cusps of these valves and occlusion of the flow tracts of blood through the heart causing diseases ...
This list of autoimmune diseases is categorized by organ and tissue type to help locate diseases that may be similar. Overview ... "Celiac Disease". Archived from the original on 2009-07-20. Meize-Grochowski R (2005). "Celiac disease: a multisystem autoimmune ... This list includes conditions that are not diseases but signs common to autoimmune disease. Some, such as chronic fatigue ... The disease was listed in the prior version of this table The disease is included in several widely used lists of autoimmune ...
"Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease". Autoimmune Registry Inc. Retrieved 14 June 2022. McCabe, Brian (September 1979). "Autoimmune ... Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) was first defined by Dr. Brian McCabe in a landmark paper describing an autoimmune loss of ... "Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease". www.asha.org. Archived from the original on 2016-02-16. Retrieved 2016-02-11. "Autoimmune Inner ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Autoimmune diseases, Diseases of the ear and ...
... is a blistering skin condition that presents at birth. Accessory nail of the fifth toe List ...
... are autoimmune diseases which primarily affect the central nervous system. Examples ... Idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases Demyelinating disease "Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS - MeSH - NCBI". {{ ... Autoimmune diseases, Demyelinating diseases of CNS, All stub articles, Nervous system disease stubs). ... CNS demyelination autoimmune disease causes the myelin sheath to deteriorate since the sense of recognition of self is lost. ...
... is a description of the autoimmune diseases that affect women; it seems that these diseases are ... Women with autoimmune diseases can safely have children. There are some risks for the mother or baby, depending on the disease ... Although most autoimmune diseases cannot be cured, it is possible to manage the disease and participate in same activities that ... November 2017). "Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol Diet for Inflammatory Bowel Disease". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 23 (11 ...
Autoimmune skin disease in dogs are a group of diseases that occur in dogs that are caused by the body's immune system, where ... Autoimmune diseases in the base layer of the epidermis are characterized by damage to the connective tissue and vesicle ... Two cases of autoimmune diseases that are often found include Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) and Pemphigus. DLE can develop ... Dogs suffering from autoimmune diseases of the skin may experience a variety of symptoms, including persistent itching and ...
... play in autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune disorders are a diverse class of diseases that share a common origin. These diseases ... Quintero-Ronderos P, Montoya-Ortiz G (2012-03-22). "Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases". Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 593720. ... Quintero-Ronderos P, Montoya-Ortiz G (2012). "Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases". Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 593720. doi: ... Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease involving thyrotoxicosis, in which the body is affected by the overproduction of ...
... is a type of encephalitis that can result from a number of autoimmune diseases including: Rasmussen ... encephalitis Systemic lupus erythematosus Behçet's disease Hashimoto's encephalopathy Autoimmune limbic encephalitis Sydenham's ...
The disease is poorly understood, but may be the result of cancer or cancer chemotherapy. The disease is an autoimmune ... Autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) is a rare disease in which the patient's immune system attacks proteins in the retina, leading to ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Disorders of choroid and retina, Autoimmune diseases, ... Hall, Bruce M. (1999). "Corticosteroids in autoimmune diseases". Australian Prescriber. 22: 9-11. doi:10.18773/austprescr. ...
Endocrine diseases, Autoimmune diseases, Transcription factor deficiencies, Syndromes). ... Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), is a subtype of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (autoimmune polyglandular ... or candidiasis-hypoparathyroidism-Addison's disease syndrome. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 IPEX syndrome Autoimmune ... Addison's disease. Ectodermal dystrophy (skin, dental enamel, and nails). APS-1 may also cause: Autoimmune hepatitis. ...
Since autoimmune oophoritis is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of ... Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare autoimmune disease where the body's own immune system attacks the ovaries. This causes the ... ISBN 978-0-12-595961-2. "Autoimmune oophoritis". NIH.gov. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 2018-08-07. "Autoimmune Diseases Research ... Inflammatory diseases of female pelvic organs, Autoimmune diseases). ...
Endocrine diseases, Autoimmune diseases, Rare syndromes, Diseases of immune dysregulation). ... Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs), also called polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGASs) or polyendocrine autoimmune ... Diagnostic Criteria in Autoimmune Diseases. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9781603272858. Diseases Database (DDB): ... There are three types of APS, and there are a number of other diseases which involve endocrine autoimmunity. Autoimmune ...
Autoimmune diseases, IgG4-related disease, Steroid-responsive inflammatory conditions). ... Type 1 AIP presents with manifestations of autoimmune disease (IgG4 related) in at least half of cases. The most common form of ... "This benign disease resembles pancreatic carcinoma both clinically and radiographically. The diagnosis of autoimmune ... Terms frequently encountered are autoimmune or autoimmune-related pancreatitis, lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis, ...
... was previously called "lupoid" hepatitis due to people having an associated autoimmune disease like system ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse. "Digestive Disease: Autoimmune Hepatitis". Archived from the original on ... or autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, is a chronic, autoimmune disease of the liver that occurs when the body's immune system ... celiac disease, vasculitis, and autoimmune thyroiditis. The prevailing theory for the development of autoimmune hepatitis is ...
... is an autoimmune disease in an infant born to a mother with anti-Ro/SSA and with or without anti- ... These antibodies can be seen in autoimmune diseases, the most common being Lupus and Sjögren's. Mothers can have these ... Hon KL, Leung AK (2012). "Neonatal lupus erythematosus". Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 301274. doi:10.1155/2012/301274. PMC ... The disease most commonly presents with a rash resembling subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus and can have systemic ...
Autoimmune diseases, Central nervous system disorders, Idiopathic diseases). ... For example, some diseases like Autoimmune GFAP Astrocytopathy or variants of CIDP that affects the CNS (CIDP is the chronic ... Longitudinally extensive myelitis or optic neuritis associated with systemic autoimmune disease. Optic neuritis or myelitis ... Schilder disease or diffuse myelinoclastic sclerosis: is a rare disease that presents clinically as a pseudotumoural ...
"Familial Risks between Pernicious Anemia and Other Autoimmune Diseases in the Population of Sweden". Autoimmune Diseases. 2021 ... surgical removal of crohn's disease, and HIV. PA may be considered as an end stage of autoimmune atrophic gastritis, a disease ... Pernicious anemia is often found in conjunction with other autoimmune disorders, suggesting common autoimmune susceptibility ... Tamparo, Carol (2016). Diseases of the Human Body. F.A. Davis. p. 295. ISBN 978-0-8036-5791-5. Archived from the original on ...
Autoimmune disease. Hearing loss as a result of meningitis, otosclerosis or ossification Malformation or obstruction of the ...
Autoimmune disease. Classically Sjögren's syndrome, but it is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid ... Wrong, O; Davies HEF (1959). "The Excretion of Acid in Renal Disease". QJM. 28 (110): 259-313. PMID 13658353. Walsh SB, Shirley ... citrate tablets which not only replace potassium but also inhibit calcium excretion and thus do not exacerbate stone disease as ...
"Autoimmune Diseases". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-29. "Juvenile Arthritis". www.rheumatology.org. Retrieved 2022-11-18. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Arthritis. Retrieved March 20, 2012, from Centers for Disease Control and ... Childhood arthritis (also known as juvenile arthritis, JRA, Juvenile Idiopathic Disease or Arthritis, or Still's Disease) is ... Systemic disease is the least common form, with 10-20% of children (boys and girls equally) being affected with limited ...
... some authors have classified them as autoimmune diseases while others have classified them as distinct from autoimmune diseases ... Topical agents are typically used for mild disease, phototherapy for moderate disease, and systemic agents for severe disease. ... Some of these genes are also involved in other autoimmune diseases. The major determinant is PSORS1, which probably accounts ... The disease affects 2-4% of the population. Men and women are affected with equal frequency. The disease may begin at any age, ...
... autoimmune diseases; genetic mutations causing spinocerebellar ataxias, gluten ataxia, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, or autism; ... Gluten ataxia is an autoimmune disease triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The death of Purkinje cells as a result of gluten ... In Alzheimer's disease, spinal pathology is sometimes seen, as well as loss of dendritic branches of the Purkinje cells. ... The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is caused by an unstable polyglutamine expansion within the ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2013: 761046. doi:10.1155/2013/761046. PMC 3595708. PMID 23509613. v t e (Genes on human chromosome 2, ...
... and Autoimmune Diseases in a Brazilian Public Hospital". Autoimmune Diseases. 2018: 1-8. doi:10.1155/2018/9856910. PMC 6186355 ... The diagnosis of autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs) is done through analysis of clinical symptoms and signs, but also ... The ENA panel helps diagnosis, distinguish between, and monitor the progression of autoimmune diseases and is performed with a ... and to monitor disease activity. In essence, it allows clinicians to exclude specific autoimmune disorders if a particular ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2014: 321359. doi:10.1155/2014/321359. PMC 3932647. PMID 24649358. Burlingame, Rufus; Rubin, Robert ( ... but are also implicated in other autoimmune diseases like Sjögren syndrome, dermatomyositis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Anti- ... Anti-histone antibodies may also be present in Alzheimer's disease and dementia patients. A value of greater than 1.5 units ...
Dreyfus DH (December 2011). "Autoimmune disease: A role for new anti-viral therapies?". Autoimmunity Reviews. 11 (2): 88-97. ... Toussirot E, Roudier J (October 2008). "Epstein-Barr virus in autoimmune diseases". Best Practice & Research. Clinical ... Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 189096. doi:10.1155/2012/189096. PMC 3270541. PMID 22312480. "Developing a vaccine for the Epstein- ... and that only EBV of many infections had such a clear connection with the disease. Additional diseases that have been linked to ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 834291. doi:10.1155/2012/834291. PMC 3410306. PMID 22888407. Dreizen S (January 1991). "The ... More rarely, it is also seen in other diseases, such as pellagra, dermatomyositis, and Bloom syndrome. A malar rash of lupus is ... What diseases do these signs reflect?". Postgraduate Medicine. 89 (1): 225-8, 233-4. doi:10.1080/00325481.1991.11700800. PMID ... March 2004). "Early clinical manifestations, disease activity and damage of systemic lupus erythematosus among two distinct US ...
Autoimmune Diseases. 2012: 876456. doi:10.1155/2012/876456. PMC 3432322. PMID 22957213. (Vascular diseases). ... Lupus vasculitis is a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus in which the autoimmune response causes the deposition of ... Pyrpasopoulou, Athina; Chatzimichailidou, Sofia; Aslanidis, Spyros (2012). "Vascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus". ...
Autoimmune diseases, Neurological disorders, Vascular diseases, Rare syndromes, Syndromes affecting the nervous system). ... Susac's syndrome is a very rare disease, of unknown cause, and many persons who experience it do not display the bizarre ... Despite this being an extremely rare disease, there are 4 registries collecting data on the illness; two are the United States ... The latest thinking is that an antibody directed against endothelial cells is the pathogenic mechanism in this disease which ...
... autoimmune diseases and can serve as clinical markers of disease severity and/or as therapeutic targets for controlling the ... On the other hand, the CpG cluster(s) controlling the CMTM5 gene in the blood of individuals with the autoimmune disease of ... Studies find that the CMTM5 gene in the DNA isolated from the blood of individuals with the autoimmune diseases of systemic ... and/or worsening of the cited autoimmune diseases. Further studies are required to prove that these methylations contribute to ...
Washington involved in the development of immunotherapeutics to combat autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancer. It ...
Crohn's disease and AIDS. Cohen IR (2001). "T-cell vaccination for autoimmune disease: a panorama". Vaccine. 20 (5-6): 706-10. ... Zhang J (2002). "T-cell vaccination for autoimmune diseases: immunologic lessons and clinical experience in multiple sclerosis ... The concept of T-cell vaccination is, at least partially, analogous to classical vaccination against infectious disease. ...
She has also shown that several autoimmune diseases share common genetic factors. "Prof.dr. T.N. Wijmenga (1964 - )". Utrecht ... She was awarded the prize mainly for her research into the genetic factors associated with coeliac disease. ...
Autoimmune diseases, Syndromes affecting the eye, Facial nerve disorders, Syndromes affecting the nervous system). ... Darier-Roussy disease Sarcoidosis List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007 ... There are many possible causes of facial nerve palsy, including Lyme disease, HIV, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, schwannoma, ...
... most notably in autoimmune diseases where cells can be lysed by killer cells. Granulysin plays a large role in Toxic Epidermal ... Granulysin plays a role in a myriad of diseases, where it can be a positive or negative influence on the immune response. In ... However, in diseases in which Granulysin is expressed in high concentrations individuals can have debilitating or life- ... Granulysin has been determined to be the principal player in cell death in this disease. Individuals suffering from TEN were ...
... cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases, and systemic DNA damage responses leading to ... Parkinson's disease and Pick's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, ... Lastly, autoimmune disease patients with SLE, Sjögren syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) predominantly exhibit circulating ... "Circulating proteasomes are markers of cell damage and immunologic activity in autoimmune diseases". The Journal of ...
The role of other risk factors in gastric cancer such as salt-preserved food, smoking, auto-immune gastritis are not well ... SRCC cancers are usually diagnosed during the late stages of the disease, so the tumors generally spread more aggressively than ... ISBN 978-1-60831-434-8. "Office of Rare Diseases Research: Diffuse Gastric Cancer". National Institute of Health. National ...
In 1943, he was diagnosed with scleroderma, a rare autoimmune skin disease. He succumbed to its effects a year later, and was ...
It is possible, but uncommon for molecular mimicry to lead to an autoimmune disease. Superantigens are composed of viral or ... there are mechanisms in the periphery involving T regulatory cells to prevent the host from obtaining an autoimmune disease. ... However, if detected, this can lead to an autoimmune response because of the similarity of the epitopes on the microorganism ... These medullary epithelial cells express an autoimmune regulator (AIRE) which allows these cells to present proteins specific ...
... beta-1a and interferon beta-1b are used to treat and control multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disorder. This ... Delayed IFN-I response contributes to the pathogenic inflammation (cytokine storm) seen in later stages of COVID-19 disease. ... Bhatti Z, Berenson CS (February 2007). "Adult systemic cat scratch disease associated with therapy for hepatitis C". BMC ... Long SS, Pickering LK, Prober CG (2012). Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Disease. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. ...
... leading expert on auto-immune diseases Jeremy Farrar, director of the Wellcome Trust Marcus Flather, Clinical Professor in ... virologist who helped to create the first heat stable smallpox vaccine key in the eventual eradication of the disease. Mildred ... neurologist who co-authored the first paper which identified pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutation in human disease (in Kearn- ...
... is a typical feature of the autoimmune disease called rheumatoid arthritis (RA). During the progression of this disease the ... These cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The inner ...
Biocon's major areas of research now include cancer, diabetes, and other auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and ... oncology and auto-immune diseases. She also established two subsidiaries: Syngene (1994) which provides early research and ... "Biocon puts the spotlight on heart disease in women via 'Queen of Heart' campaign". PharmaBiz.com. 1 August 2013. Archived from ... a skin pigment disease. Bio-pharmaceuticals developed by the company include Pichia-derived recombinant human insulin and ...
... s are most commonly caused by an underlying autoimmune disease. PRS is most commonly due to ANCA- ... Respiratory disease stubs, Disease stubs, Genitourinary system stubs). ... mixed connective tissue disease, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic sclerosis. Less ... associated vasculitides (e.g., granulomatosis with polyangiitis) or due to anti-basement membrane diseases (e.g., Goodpasture's ...
... is a monoclonal antibody medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer. It is used for non-Hodgkin ...
... a neuromuscular autoimmune disease that affects the muscles and the nerves that control them." De La Hunt Broadcasting operates ...
The disease often resolves completely on its own, but is typically treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to ... autoimmune disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis, and metabolic disorders that also cause kidney stones, gallstones, and gout. ... Others associate the condition with cell death due to aging, wear, or lack of oxygen in the tissue; however, the disease is ... For those with symptoms, the symptoms vary based on the phase of the disease. In the initial "formative phase" when the calcium ...
The condition manifests as a rare set of symptoms most likely resulting from autoimmune inflammation of unknown cause of the ... "Parsonage Turner syndrome". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences ...
... active systemic autoimmune disease, interstitial lung disease, prior pneumonia, and people with a history of severe reaction to ... "FDA Approves Pembrolizumab for Advanced Cervical Cancer with Disease Progression During or After Chemotherapy". ASCO. 12 June ... with disease progression after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy. The FDA also approved a new use for the PD-L1 IHC ... with disease progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy and at least one other prior line of therapy, and the FDA ...
Zhao ZS, Granucci F, Yeh L, Schaffer PA, Cantor H. Molecular mimicry by herpes simplex virus-1: Autoimmune disease after viral ... Analysis of the relationship between viral infection and autoimmune disease. Immunity 15:137-147. McCarty N, Paust S, Ikizawa K ... CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. Proc Natl Acad ...
Patient advocates for those with autoimmune disorders, such as Crohn's disease, noted that this rule could result in many ... "Rhode Island Announces 100 Percent of Pharmacies Are Now E-Prescribing and Launches First Statewide System for Tracking Disease ... and disease management businesses, is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee. The new CVS Caremark Corporation is expected to ... patients being denied access to medicines to treat their diseases. CVS was required to pay the United States government $2.25 ...
Chukwuogo-Roy was afflicted throughout her life by myasthenia gravis, an autoimmune disease that weakens the muscles, but still ...
... autoimmune disease, and allergies. He also worked with scientists at Stanford University whose research suggests that returning ...
... is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress TSH ... "Levothyroxine treatment reduces thyroid size in children and adolescents with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis". The Journal of ... For older people (over 50 years old) and people with known or suspected ischemic heart disease, levothyroxine therapy should ... Mandel SJ, Brent GA, Larsen PR (September 1993). "Levothyroxine therapy in patients with thyroid disease". Annals of Internal ...
In autoimmune gastritis, the immune system attacks the parietal cells leading to hypochlorhydria low stomach acid secretion. ... see Role in disease) In the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, gastrin is produced at excessive levels, often by a gastrinoma gastrin- ...
Ecthyma List of cutaneous conditions List of immunofluorescence findings for autoimmune bullous conditions Imiquimod Cidofovir ... The vaccine used in sheep to prevent orf is live and has been known to cause disease in humans. The disease is endemic in ... Orf is primarily a disease of sheep and goats although it has been reported as a natural disease in humans, steenbok and ... Viral diseases". Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (13th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-323- ...
Genetic background determines such features as height, eye color, and potential to develop certain diseases like diabetes, but ... or autoimmune processes. They are very medication and therapy-resistant, and the primary therapeutic goal is to stop secondary ...
CHAPLE Disease)" at ClinicalTrials.gov (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Rare diseases). ... CHAPLE syndrome is characterized by complement-mediated autoimmune hemolysis and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. The ... Ozen A (January 2019). "CHAPLE syndrome uncovers the primary role of complement in a familial form of Waldmann's disease". ... Investigators at Marmara University in Istanbul, Turkey, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the ...
Autoimmune diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis can cause vision problems, including uveitis, a serious disorder. ... disease, patients with any autoimmune disease are more prone to getting other autoimmune diseases, some of which may affect the ... While autoimmune diseases can run in families, not everyone whose parents had one will get one themselves. These diseases may ... other autoimmune diseases that may lead to uveitis are ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis and Behcets disease, according to ...
encoded search term (Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy) and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy What to Read Next ... Graves disease. Adams and colleagues described the concept of Graves disease as an autoimmune dysfunction of the thyroid gland ... Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy. Updated: Jan 13, 2022 * Author: Dotun A Ogunyemi, MD; Chief Editor: George T Griffing ... Autoimmune thyroid diseases occur more often in women than in men. The female-to-male ratio is 5-10:1. [9] ...
Autoimmune Addison disease affects the function of the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located on top ... medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/autoimmune-addison-disease/ Autoimmune Addison disease. ... Individuals with autoimmune Addison disease or their family members can have another autoimmune disorder, most commonly ... The most well-known risk factor for autoimmune Addison disease is a variant of the HLA-DRB1 gene called HLA-DRB1*04:04. This ...
Autoimmune diseases cause immense suffering and pain, and can kill. All too often, these diseases are treated with toxic drugs ... Drugs for Autoimmune Disease A high-risk gamble doctors take with patients lives ... Nutritional Care of Autoimmune Diseases Learn why this approach is so successful ... Achieving superior health via nutritional excellence gives a person suffering from an autoimmune disorder the only opportunity ...
... and now scientists have found increased levels of an antibody to the lipid in their disease model. ... Brain levels of the lipid ceramide are high in Alzheimers disease, ... s is an autoimmune disease, which tends to be more common in women and is characterized by the immune system producing ... t know if the anti-ceramide antibodies that may develop naturally during disease might be a result or a cause of the disease. ...
Chronic health effects of microbial foodborne diseases / V. Kelly Bunning, James A. Lindsay & Douglas L. Archer  ...
Autoimmune diseases occur when your bodys defense system attacks itself. They are often hard to diagnose. Learn about ... Autoimmune Diseases Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis: These autoimmune diseases occur when your bodys own defense ... People can suffer from exhaustion and pain and not realize they are experiencing an autoimmune disease. Since these diseases ... its important to see a rheumatologist experienced in addressing autoimmune conditions for autoimmune disease treatment. ...
Understanding how gut microbes can trigger or protect from systemic autoimmune diseases is crucial to (1) tackle these diseases ... Understanding how gut microbes can trigger or protect from systemic autoimmune diseases is crucial to; 1) tackle these diseases ... Recent reports show that dysbiosis in the gut can also drive systemic autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatic ... Considering the microbiome signature as a crucial player in systemic autoimmune diseases might hold a promise to turn these ...
Nested case-control study of selected systemic autoimmune diseases in World Trade Center rescue/recovery workers. Arthritis & ... To estimate the association between arrival time to the WTC site and new onset systemic autoimmune diseases. ... To estimate the association between months of WTC-related work and new onset systemic autoimmune diseases. ... Post-September 11, 2001, incidence of systemic autoimmune diseases in World Trade Center-exposed firefighters and emergency ...
... responses is pathogenic in autoimmune diseases. However, the cause of exaggerated Tfh response in humans is still much less ... Potential Pathways Associated With Exaggerated T Follicular Helper Response in Human Autoimmune Diseases Front Immunol. 2018 ... We describe the features of "Tfh-like" cells recently identified in inflamed tissues of human autoimmune diseases. Then we will ... Keywords: IL-12; IL-23; IRF5; STAT4; T follicular helper; TNFSF4; autoimmune diseases; ustekinumab. ...
... genetic mutations in humans that helped us survive the bubonic plague at the price of increased risk of autoimmune disease. ... How Autoimmune Disease Is Linked to Black Plague Defense. Researchers have identified genetic mutations in humans that helped ... us survive the bubonic plague at the price of increased risk of autoimmune disease.. By Emilie Le Beau LucchesiDec 19, 2022 4: ... ERAP2 is now a known risk factor for Crohns disease, an immune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. And another of the ...
Know some of the most common autoimmune disorders here. ... When you have an autoimmune disease, your immune system attacks ... Some of the most common autoimmune diseases include:. Addison disease - occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough ... More than 80 types of autoimmune diseases may affect one or more organ or tissue types. An autoimmune disorder may destroy body ... such as an autoimmune disease?. A healthy immune system defends the body from disease and infection by attacking viruses and ...
Methyldopa blocks MHC class II binding to disease-specific antigens in autoimmune diabetes. David A. Ostrov,1 Aimon Alkanani,2 ... In many autoimmune disorders, genes within the HLA complex confer disease risk (16). Alleles of the polymorphic class II genes ... As many autoimmune diseases are associated with specific HLA alleles and high-resolution crystal structures exist for many of ... Exploring T cell reactivity to gliadin in young children with newly diagnosed celiac disease. Autoimmune Dis. 2014;2014:927190 ...
There are researchers that have investigated the association between fungal infections and autoimmune disease. Learn more at ... Autoimmune disease is known to create free radicals in tissues, which means that practitioners should consider a variety of ... It was before I ever met Doug Kaufmann, but I was puzzled by the standard explanation of autoimmune disease; namely, that the ... I was a little surprised that he would be so direct and strong with his perspective about autoimmune disease. He was ...
Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009 ... Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 956-959. ... Leishmaniasis, Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease, and Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy, Europe On This Page ... We found 13 additional cases of leishmaniasis in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (2-14), all published after the ...
Tagged dental procedures and auto-immune disease. Hal Huggins DDS, MS - Slaying the Dental Dragons: Dentistry Controls Immunity ... Hal Huggins DDS - Slaying the Dental Dragons: The Connection Between Dental Procedures and Disease - December 13, 2012. *One ... the Dental Dragons Patient Empowerment Through Dental Knowledge and the Connection Between Dental Procedures and Disease Fear. ... Dragons 2 HOUR SPECIAL Patient Empowerment Through Dental Knowledge and the Connection Between Dental Procedures and Disease ...
A UAB researchers suggests that autoimmune disease therapy may be an effective treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ... Autoimmune diseases are caused by a dysfunctional immune response in which the body creates autoantibodies that attack the ... Therapies that have been developed to treat autoimmune diseases may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of these IPF ... Study shows acute pulmonary fibrosis may respond to autoimmune disease therapy by Alicia Rohan ...
Learn about Thermo Fisher Scientifics allergy and autoimmune diagnostics portfolio, history of innovation, dedication to ... Allergy & Autoimmune Disease. As a global leader in allergy and autoimmune disease diagnostics, Thermo Fisher Scientific ... Rheumatoid Arthritis Connective Tissue Disease Celiac Disease Thyroid Disease Vasculitius and Goodpasture Syndrome ... Reliable results aiding in the diagnosis of allergy and autoimmune diseases. Instruments for today and tomorrow ...
AbbVie to licence Cugenes therapies for autoimmune diseases. Under the deal, AbbVie will make an upfront payment of $48.5m to ... Cugene will carry out the Phase Ib clinical trial in subjects with autoimmune/inflammatory disease during the option period. ... to potentially treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.. A Treg-selective IL-2 mutein, CUG252 can stimulate and expand ... and the global resources needed to maximize CUG252s therapeutic potential for patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. ...
An autoimmune liver disease panel is a group of tests that is done to check for autoimmune liver disease. An autoimmune liver ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and ... Blood tests for autoimmune diseases are not wholly accurate. They can have false negative results (you have the disease, but ... A weakly positive or low titer positive test for autoimmune disease is often not due to any disease. ...
Autoimmune Diseases and Their Oral Health Ties. Home/holistic dentist Miami, Miami dentist, News, Oral Health/Autoimmune ... Autoimmune Diseases and Their Oral Health Ties. When the body misconstrues normal material as though it were a foreign ... Hence, ongoing visits for patients with autoimmune diseases to a trustworthy dental specialist comprise part of the plan for ... A couple of examples of common oral symptoms in patients with autoimmune diseases include periodontal complications, dry mouth ...
Prioritization of autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants that perturb regulatory element activity in T cells. View ... Prioritization of autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants that perturb regulatory element activity in T cells ... Prioritization of autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants that perturb regulatory element activity in T cells ... Prioritization of autoimmune disease-associated genetic variants that perturb regulatory element activity in T cells ...
Targeting Kv1.3 ion channel holds promise to treat several autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, IBD, multiple sclerosis and ... VRG Therapeutics demonstrates in vivo efficacy with a selective Kv1.3 inhibitor developed for autoimmune diseases. ... autoreactive T cells are pivotal players in the pathomechanism of various autoimmune diseases. Selective pharmacological ... The company is committed to continue preclinical development to bring a new best-in-class cure for autoimmune patients. About ...
... symptoms are not specific to autoimmune diseases they can be indicators of worsening health and developing autoimmune diseases ... Home / ETNT Health / Sure Signs You May Have an Autoimmune Disease, Says This Doctor * ETNT Health ... People with autoimmune diseases often report pain in their joints that may come and go and are unrelated to physical activity. ... Autoimmune diseases are exacerbated by high stress, poor sleep, and inflammatory diets, so there is a lot you can do to reverse ...
Autoimmune diseases in the study population. A total of 34 patients had other associated autoimmune disorders, such as type 1 ... Our findings are consistent with a higher rate of coeliac disease in patients with other autoimmune diseases as had been ... Celiac disease and autoimmune endocrinologic disorders. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 1999, 44:1428-1433. ... autoimmune thyroid diseases and others [4,5]. In previous studies, coeliac disease was found to be more prevalent in patients ...
... Ayurvedic medicine curcumin detoxification inflammation spice turmeric Self-Hatred: The Cause of Autoimmune ... autoimmune disease BMJ fish oil vitamin D Turmeric/Curcumin: The "Natural Remedy of the Century" or a Waste of Money?. January ... Does Vitamin D Prevent Autoimmune Disease?. October 11, 2022 October 11, 2022 Clinical trials Herbs and supplements Science- ... A new study published in The BMJ suggests vitamin D might prevent autoimmune disease, but there are reasons to be cautious. Up ...
Reach out to us if you have an autoimmune disease and you want to understand your specific risk factors and ways to enhance ... Many of my patients with an autoimmune disease have asked if it puts them at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 or ... So, again, like the other autoimmune conditions listed above, so long as celiac disease is controlled, an individual is not at ... Here is an overview of medications often used to treat autoimmune diseases. Please do not stop any of these medications without ...
"Autoimmune Diseases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Autoimmune Diseases" was a major or minor topic of these ... Pediatric Autoimmune Liver Diseases: Autoimmune Hepatitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2021 12; ... Polygenic autoimmune disease risk alleles impacting B cell tolerance act in concert across shared molecular networks in mouse ... "Autoimmune Diseases" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
Recent Content Tagged With autoimmune disease. * Thread Recovery from back pain, foot pain, stomach pain, intolerances, ... Since pain from TMS is beatable, is autoimmune disease from TMS beatable?. ... possible severe autoimmune disease. I was never officially diagnosed by an NHS Rheumatologist, but several doctors and ... healthcare professionals thought I had Crohns disease, Celiac... Thread by: theacrobat, Mar 29, 2023, 8 replies, in forum: ...
  • Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis: These autoimmune diseases occur when your body's own defense system starts to attack itself. (uvahealth.com)
  • People who have suffered from an autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis can attest to the pervasive swelling and agonizing pain that comes with it. (discovermagazine.com)
  • rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and Crohn's disease. (knowthecause.com)
  • One fascinating reason they cite is because of the autoimmune diseases (such as MS, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and sarcoidosis) that are documented to respond to prescription antifungals . (knowthecause.com)
  • The study suggests that autoantibodies - implicated in many autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus - also play an important role in patients with acute exacerbations of IPF, a devastating lung disease. (uab.edu)
  • Diabetes (both Type I and II), thyroid disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, to name a few, are common diseases. (assureasmile.com)
  • Targeting Kv1.3 ion channel holds promise to treat several autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis, IBD, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis through an immune sparing mechanism of selective blockade of autoreactive T cells. (wjbf.com)
  • In my practice reversing autoimmune diseases with supermarket foods and lifestyle modifications, and as the author of Goodbye Lupus , I have found that the majority of my patients and wellness clients tell me they were feeling unwell for 5 to 10 years before their laboratory tests were positive enough to get a diagnosis of Lupus, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sjogrens, Hashimotos or other autoimmune condition. (eatthis.com)
  • He reports that people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have a high disease activity are at increased risk of COVID-19 due to immune dysregulation. (akashacenter.com)
  • CARD9 is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory-related diseases , such as rheumatoid arthritis , IgA nephropathy , ankylosing spondylitis , and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (bvsalud.org)
  • Hydroxychloroquine is an antimalarial drug that is also commonly used to treat a wide range of autoimmune ailments, including lupus and conditions such as juvenile dermatomyositis. (cnbc.com)
  • People with autoimmune disorders - including several types of arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), lupus and multiple sclerosis (MS) - can also develop swelling and inflammation in the middle section of the eyes that can destroy eye tissue. (aarp.org)
  • In addition to IBD, lupus and MS, other autoimmune diseases that may lead to uveitis are ankylosing spondylitis, sarcoidosis and Behcet's disease, according to James T. Rosenbaum, M.D., an ophthalmology professor at Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine who specializes in inflammation research. (aarp.org)
  • Brooke Goldner, MD is a board certified physician who developed a nutrition-based treatment for her own autoimmune disease, lupus. (eatthis.com)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus as a genetic disease. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. (limamemorial.org)
  • Patients' dental and oral hygiene may be negatively affected by such autoimmune disorders. (assureasmile.com)
  • CDC takes concerns about vaccines and immune system diseases and disorders very seriously. (cdc.gov)
  • other indications include certain congenital and acquired disorders of the haematopoietic system, autoimmune conditions and hereditary diseases. (who.int)
  • 1] At that time, this malignancies, but also congenital and other acquired disorders of procedure provided the first evidence that bone marrow had the the haematopoietic system, as well as autoimmune and hereditary capacity to regenerate the haematopoietic system and effectively diseases (Table 1). (who.int)
  • Achieving superior health via nutritional excellence gives a person suffering from an autoimmune disorder the only opportunity for a complete, drug-free remission. (drfuhrman.com)
  • If you have Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease or another autoimmune condition, and you have concerns about your eyes, talk to your doctor. (aarp.org)
  • Individuals with autoimmune Addison disease or their family members can have another autoimmune disorder, most commonly autoimmune thyroid disease or type 1 diabetes . (medlineplus.gov)
  • We then searched Medline, EMBASE, and Current Contents databases for all reports on leishmaniasis in Europe and the Mediterranean area among patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, which are often treated with anti-TNF agents. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT The prevalence of coeliac disease among patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism has not been studied before in Jordan and other Arab countries. (who.int)
  • Patients with acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis responded well to therapies similar to those used to treat autoimmune diseases, according to findings published today in PLOS ONE . (uab.edu)
  • Therapies that have been developed to treat autoimmune diseases may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of these IPF patients. (uab.edu)
  • A Treg-selective IL-2 mutein, CUG252 can stimulate and expand immune-suppressive Treg cells while lowering undesired IL-2 activity on other IL-2 receptor expressing cells to treat autoimmune diseases. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • More than 80 types of autoimmune diseases may affect one or more organ or tissue types. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • There are several medical terms being discussed in the news and many types of autoimmune conditions - which makes understanding your particular risk factors difficult. (akashacenter.com)
  • Of interest, symptoms of autoimmune thyroid diseases tend to improve during pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • The signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease can begin at any time, although they most commonly begin between ages 30 and 50. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other signs and symptoms of autoimmune Addison disease include low levels of sugar (hypoglycemia) and sodium (hyponatremia) and high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of autoimmune diseases usually come and go. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • Dysbiosis in the gut can also drive systemic autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we compile and analyze data to gain insights into the underpinning mechanisms mediating systemic autoimmune diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Understanding how gut microbes can trigger or protect from systemic autoimmune diseases is crucial to (1) tackle these diseases through diet or lifestyle modification, (2) develop new microbiome-based therapeutics such as prebiotics or probiotics, (3) identify diagnostic biomarkers to predict disease risk, and (4) observe and intervene with microbial population change with the flare-up of autoimmune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Considering the microbiome signature as a crucial player in systemic autoimmune diseases might hold a promise to turn these untreatable diseases into manageable or preventable ones. (frontiersin.org)
  • The overall goal of this two-year study is to calculate in 21,786 World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed and unexposed firefighters and emergency medical service workers and to estimate the association between intense WTC exposure and Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID). (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the association between arrival time to the WTC site and new onset systemic autoimmune diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the association between months of WTC-related work and new onset systemic autoimmune diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to test the association between acute (arrival time at the World Trade Center (WTC) site) and chronic (months of WTC-related work) exposures and new onset systemic autoimmune diseases among firefighters and Emergency Medical Service workers. (cdc.gov)
  • We found prolonged work at the WTC site, independent of acute exposure, was an important predictor of post-9/11 systemic autoimmune diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • 2015. Nested case-control study of selected systemic autoimmune diseases in World Trade Center rescue/recovery workers . (cdc.gov)
  • The dentist plays an important role in the early diagnosis and treatment of oral manifestations of systemic diseases, taking into account the importance of the histopathologic examination and referral for multidisciplinary treatment of severe, generalized lesions resistant to topical therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Instead they found that the excessive ceramide had already worked its way into the bloodstream, generating antibodies that supported disease progression, particularly in female mice. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The surprising science, published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , appears to support the theory that Alzheimer's is an autoimmune disease, which tends to be more common in women and is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against a patient's tissue, said Bieberich, corresponding author. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We don't know if the anti-ceramide antibodies that may develop naturally during disease might be a result or a cause of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In some cases, these antibodies are present in the early disease stage and even when there are no clinical symptoms yet. (thermofisher.com)
  • When the immune system is busy doing the wrong thing, like creating autoimmune antibodies, it will be less available to do its job fighting infections. (eatthis.com)
  • Coeliac disease in these patients was diagnosed by the attending physician based on positive serological tests for anti-endomysial antibodies IgA and IgG followed by duodenal biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of coeliac disease. (who.int)
  • The autoimmune diseases behind desquamative gingivitis involve the formation of antibodies targeted to particular tissue elements of the skin and mucosae. (bvsalud.org)
  • The term pemphigoid, subdivided into bullous pemphigoid and pemphigoid of mucous membranes (or scarring pemphigoid), is used for bullous cutaneous immunological diseases in which antibodies are produced against subepithelial antigens, leading to the formation of blister below the epithelium and the detachment of the underlying lamina propria. (bvsalud.org)
  • Autoimmune diseases are a series of diseases involving multiple tissues and organs, characterized by the over production of abnormal multiple antibodies . (bvsalud.org)
  • Receptors, antibodies, and disease. (who.int)
  • The defect that predisposes an individual to develop autoimmune thyroid disease is still unknown. (medscape.com)
  • A predisposition to develop autoimmune Addison disease is passed through generations in families, but the inheritance pattern is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nearly all the chronic illnesses that plague modern society (obesity, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disease, depression, autism, schizophrenia and possibly drug addiction and alcoholism) can be traced to loss or malfunction of intestinal bacteria. (wordpress.com)
  • Researchers at CDC and elsewhere have conducted studies to examine the possible link between vaccines and autoimmune conditions like MS, diabetes, and asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Morgan Gleason is facing the terrifying possibility that she'll run out of hydroxychloroquine, a drug she has been taking for her rare autoimmune disease for eight years. (cnbc.com)
  • Atrophic chronic thyroiditis is a rare autoimmune cause of hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • PPT is a variant of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis). (medscape.com)
  • A chronic autoimmune form of arthritis that affects the skin and joints. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is classified as an autoimmune disorder because it results from a malfunctioning immune system that attacks the adrenal glands. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The autoimmune form of the disorder is the most common form in developed countries, accounting for up to 90 percent of cases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An autoimmune disorder may destroy body tissue, cause abnormal growth of an organ and change organ function. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • With proper medical treatment, a person with an autoimmune disorder can control the autoimmune process, maintain the body's ability to fight disease and reduce symptoms. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • When the body misconstrues normal material as though it were a foreign substance, it will trigger the immune system to combat it, an autoimmune disorder arises. (assureasmile.com)
  • Because these are also rheumatic conditions , their symptoms overlap or mimic those of other diseases. (uvahealth.com)
  • Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • We report 2 cases of leishmaniasis in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases in Greece. (cdc.gov)
  • We report 2 new cases of leishmaniasis involving patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases who received anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). (limamemorial.org)
  • A positive test on the panel may be a sign of autoimmune hepatitis or other autoimmune liver disease. (limamemorial.org)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis. (limamemorial.org)
  • Pediatric Autoimmune Liver Diseases: Autoimmune Hepatitis and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • In 1998, some research caused concern that hepatitis B vaccination might be linked with multiple sclerosis (MS), a progressive nerve disease. (cdc.gov)
  • No. Hundreds of millions of people worldwide have received hepatitis B vaccine without developing MS or any other autoimmune disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers concluded that hepatitis B vaccination was not associated with demyelinating disease in the study population . (cdc.gov)
  • The types of arthritis that can cause vision problems are usually associated with an autoimmune disease, in which an overactive immune system attacks various parts of the body, including organs and joints, and causes inflammation . (aarp.org)
  • Prolonged fever without any other symptoms of infection is often a predecessor to autoimmune diseases and indicates and overactive immune system. (eatthis.com)
  • Although there is no direct connection between uveitis and autoimmune diseases that attack the thyroid, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, patients with any autoimmune disease are more prone to getting other autoimmune diseases, some of which may affect the eyes. (aarp.org)
  • Graves disease accounts for more than 85% of all cases of hyperthyroid, whereas Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism. (medscape.com)
  • Autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions remain a common cause of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in pregnant women. (medscape.com)
  • A cross-sectional record-based review was made of all adult autoimmune hypothyroidism patients who attended a referral centre in Jordan, during an 8-month period. (who.int)
  • Hydroxychloroquine is the most commonly prescribed medication for autoimmune conditions versus other antimalarials because it's generally believed to cause fewer side effects. (cnbc.com)
  • Graves' disease can cause what is called thyroid eye disease (TED), which mainly affects the muscles and tissue directly outside of the eyeball and can lead to bulging and dry eyes, according to Sen. And other autoimmune diseases can cause eye conditions with a variety of symptoms, including corneal ulcers and scarring. (aarp.org)
  • Addison disease can also be one of several features of other genetic conditions, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1, which are caused by mutations in other genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since these diseases are hard to diagnose and treat, it's important to see a rheumatologist experienced in addressing autoimmune conditions for autoimmune disease treatment. (uvahealth.com)
  • Strangely, there have been a number of studies showing that DHEA may be helpful in inflammatory autoimmune conditions. (knowthecause.com)
  • AbbVie R&D senior vice-president and chief scientific officer Tom Hudson said: "AbbVie is committed to developing novel therapies in immunology where unmet needs remain for patients living with complex autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • People with these conditions are more vulnerable than others to oral diseases. (assureasmile.com)
  • Because this virus is so new there is not a lot of research to go on, so medical experts are advising that most people with autoimmune conditions should consider themselves at higher risk. (akashacenter.com)
  • But not all autoimmune conditions carry the same risk - some may not carry any increased risk at all. (akashacenter.com)
  • In order to help guide whether you may be at any more of a risk for developing COVID-19 or having adverse reactions to this virus, let's break down some medical terminology and look at specific autoimmune conditions and commonly used medications. (akashacenter.com)
  • Autoimmune conditions in the World Trade Center general responder cohort: A nested case-control and standardized incidence ratio analysis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • These studies have been reassuring, providing no evidence to suggest a link between vaccines and autoimmune conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Earlier in the month, autoimmune patients could find it at a pharmacy in the area, even if it meant calling up a handful. (cnbc.com)
  • But White House advisor and leading infectious disease specialist Dr. Anthony Fauci has called for far more testing of the drug before patients with COVID-19 are urged to take it. (cnbc.com)
  • When that kind of stockpiling happens, it makes it particularly difficult for autoimmune patients such as Gleason to access the medication. (cnbc.com)
  • In light of the shortages, doctors treating autoimmune patients are pressing policymakers and drug manufacturers to increase the production as quickly as possible. (cnbc.com)
  • These investigators noted that the sera of patients with Graves disease contained a factor that stimulated the murine thyroid gland. (medscape.com)
  • In terms of histologic features, the thyroid glands of patients with Graves disease show follicular hypertrophy and hyperplasia (see Histologic Findings). (medscape.com)
  • Almost all patients with this disease have positive test results for the thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO), an autoantibody against thyroid peroxidase enzyme. (medscape.com)
  • We wanted to test the hypothesis that autoantibody-targeted therapies used to treat autoimmune disease also may benefit IPF patients with acute exacerbations. (uab.edu)
  • Cugene CEO Luke Li said: "AbbVie is an ideal partner for CUG252, with their commitment to R&D, deep therapeutic area expertise, and the global resources needed to maximize CUG252's therapeutic potential for patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Hence, ongoing visits for patients with autoimmune diseases to a trustworthy dental specialist comprise part of the plan for treatment management. (assureasmile.com)
  • A couple of examples of common oral symptoms in patients with autoimmune diseases include periodontal complications, dry mouth, and tooth decay. (assureasmile.com)
  • Diabetic patients that have not yet been treated or diagnosed also suffer from periodontal disease and oral candidiasis or thrush, which may lead to greater levels of inflammation of the body as well as high saliva glucose levels. (assureasmile.com)
  • The company is committed to continue preclinical development to bring a new best-in-class cure for autoimmune patients. (wjbf.com)
  • Of 914 patients recruited, 117 (12.8%) were seropositive for coeliac disease. (who.int)
  • RÉSUMÉ La prévalence de la maladie cœliaque chez des patients atteints d'hypothyroïdie auto-immune n'a pas été étudiée auparavant en Jordanie, ni dans d'autres pays arabes. (who.int)
  • Un examen transversal à partir des dossiers de tous les patients adultes atteints d'hypothyroïdie auto-immune qui avaient consulté un centre d'orientation en Jordanie au cours d'une période de huit mois a été mené. (who.int)
  • Many of my patients with an autoimmune disease have asked if it puts them at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19 or developing more serious complications if they were to get COVID-19. (akashacenter.com)
  • Other patients worry if their autoimmune disease puts them in the immunocompromised category of individuals that need to take extra precautions. (akashacenter.com)
  • Iliopoulou VN, Charkoftaki G, Cooper JC, Dokoumetzidis A, Joy MS. Population pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide metabolite in patients with autoimmune glomerulonephritis. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Doctors, nurses, and other staff are predominately exposed to these devastating diseases through needle sticks and other sharps injuries or when fluids from patients splash onto their eyes, nose, or mouth. (cdc.gov)
  • Morgan Gleason, 21, has an autoimmune condition called juvenile dermatomyositis, which causes her body's immune system to attack its own cells and tissues. (cnbc.com)
  • An autoimmune liver disease means that the body's immune system attacks the liver. (limamemorial.org)
  • All too often, these diseases are treated with toxic drugs -- a treatment option that ultimately leads to the necessity for more drugs, and results in a more severe condition should the medication ever be discontinued. (drfuhrman.com)
  • Autoimmune Addison disease can lead to a life-threatening adrenal crisis, characterized by vomiting, abdominal pain, back or leg cramps, and severe hypotension leading to shock. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Shira Shafir] We know that people with compromised or suppressed immune systems are more likely to get severe disease because their immune systems are not able to control the infection and this allows the fungus to spread from the lungs to other organs. (cdc.gov)
  • Shira Shafir] While coccidioidomycosis has the potential to be severe and fatal, we believe that the number of deaths in the US associated with this disease are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • Shira Shafir] When we see more people die in some groups as compared to others, we think it's either because certain groups are at an increased risk of exposure, they might have an increased risk of severe disease, or a combination of these two factors. (cdc.gov)
  • In some populations, we suspect that possibility of death increases because poor access to health care services might delay diagnosis, resulting in more severe disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Microbial dysbiosis is the main driver of local inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The imbalance in helper T cells/regulatory T cells drives autoimmune diseases such as colitis and multiple sclerosis (MS) ( 18 , 33 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that genetic deletion of CARD9 was sufficient to reduce the development of both spontaneous autoimmune disease as well as DSS- or IL-10 deficiency -associated colitis in Lyn-/- mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • Dendritic cell -specific deletion of CARD9 reversed the development of autoimmune and experimental colitis observed in dendritic cell -specific, Lyn-deficient mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system malfunctions and mistakenly attacks healthy tissue and organs. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • Some autoimmune diseases target specific organs or tissue, while others attack multiple tissue or organ systems throughout the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Does Vitamin D Prevent Autoimmune Disease? (skepdoc.info)
  • A new study published in The BMJ suggests vitamin D might prevent autoimmune disease, but there are reasons to be cautious. (skepdoc.info)
  • 40 years), presence of other autoimmune diseases, vitamin B12 deficiency and anaemia. (who.int)
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) external icon is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). (cdc.gov)
  • One of the common targets in autoimmune therapy are B cells, which are responsible for the production of autoantibodies. (uab.edu)
  • In April this year, AbbVie and Dragonfly Therapeutics expanded their research collaboration to discover and develop the latter's immunotherapies for new targets in fibrotic and autoimmune diseases. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • VRG Tx's vision is to leverage its unique miniprotein ISEP technology to cure diseases by acting on targets and utilizing mechanisms of action that conventional biopharma approach cannot achieve. (wjbf.com)
  • Our review focused on the composition and the function of the intestinal mucosal barrier to describe the research progress of it in regulating the immune homeostasis and inflammation , and also pointed that the intestinal mucosal barrier was the potential targets in the treatment of autoimmune diseases . (bvsalud.org)
  • Given that Lyn-deficient (Lyn-/-) mice are susceptible to both autoimmunity and IBD, we investigated the immunological role of CARD9 in the development of these diseases using the Lyn-/- mouse model. (bvsalud.org)
  • Autoimmune Addison disease affects the function of the adrenal glands, which are small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Addison disease affects approximately 11 to 14 in 100,000 people of European descent. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A healthy immune system defends the body from disease and infection by attacking viruses and bacteria, which contain antigens. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • Selective pharmacological blockade of Kv1.3 attenuates autoimmune processes without exerting a general immunosuppressive effect. (wjbf.com)
  • Not all individuals with an autoimmune disease are immunocompromised, however, certain medications used to treat some autoimmune diseases can be immunosuppressive. (akashacenter.com)
  • These diseases may be triggered by a wide variety of environmental factors that can include an infection you may have picked up at some point in your life, your socioeconomic status, and whether you smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol. (aarp.org)
  • Infection with C. jejuni is the most commonly identified antecedent to Guillain-Barré Syndrome, an autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. (cdc.gov)
  • I was never officially diagnosed by an NHS Rheumatologist, but several doctors and healthcare professionals thought I had Crohn's disease, Celiac. (tmswiki.org)
  • Even though IPF is not considered a prototypical autoimmune disease, acute exacerbations may be driven by autoantibody production and the treatment strategy that Dr. Duncan advocates is highly innovative with the potential to reduce IPF mortality," said Victor Thannickal, M.D., director of the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine. (uab.edu)
  • She also examines some of the research pointing to the role "adjuvants" (mostly aluminum salts) play in dangerous allergic and autoimmune responses to vaccines. (wordpress.com)
  • As with all vaccines and any disease, due to the large number of vaccinations administered worldwide, surveillance systems that monitor health concerns after vaccination do expect to receive reports of MS occurring after vaccination that happen by chance alone. (cdc.gov)
  • What research has been conducted on vaccines and other autoimmune diseases? (cdc.gov)
  • and other common ailments are also beginning to make their way into the autoimmune lists. (knowthecause.com)
  • 2012). Occupational immune diseases are some of the most common illnesses that affect workers in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • However, certain chemicals, microorganisms (viruses and bacteria) and drugs may trigger changes that confuse the immune system, especially if your genes are more prone to a particular autoimmune disease. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • In The Fungus Link, Volume 2 , Doug and Dr. David Holland detail their reasons for believing autoimmune diseases are associated with fungal overgrowth and mycotoxins. (knowthecause.com)
  • so if they help with those diseases, wouldn't we conclude that there must be a fungus link? (knowthecause.com)
  • If there is a fungus link to autoimmune diseases, practitioners should consider natural antifungal remedies such as oregano oil, caprylic acid, olive leaf extract, curcumin, pau d'arco and others. (knowthecause.com)
  • Shira Shafir] Coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci or valley fever, is a disease primarily in the lungs caused by the fungus, coccidioides. (cdc.gov)
  • That's what led them to adjust the ceramide levels downward by injecting even more ceramide under the skin, where it would mount an immune response and ideally slow disease progression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The genes that have been associated with autoimmune Addison disease participate in the body's immune response. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This and other disease-associated HLA gene variants likely contribute to an inappropriate immune response that leads to autoimmune Addison disease, although the mechanism is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In autoimmune Addison disease, however, an immune response is triggered by a normal adrenal gland protein, typically a protein called 21-hydroxylase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Autoimmune diseases are caused by a dysfunctional immune response in which the body creates autoantibodies that attack the individual's own proteins. (uab.edu)
  • 2001) compared 422 adults with demyelinating diseases external icon , including MS, and 921 matched controls (people similar in age, gender, and enrollment in a healthcare system, but who did not have demyelinating disease). (cdc.gov)
  • Women with a past history of treated Graves disease or a thyrotoxic phase in early pregnancy are at increased risk of developing (Graves) hyperthyroidism postpartum. (medscape.com)
  • Adams and colleagues described the concept of Graves disease as an autoimmune dysfunction of the thyroid gland. (medscape.com)
  • Graves disease accounts for 85% of these cases. (medscape.com)
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific is a global leader in allergy and autoimmunity diagnostics, providing you with accurate and clinically relevant testing solutions to aid in disease diagnosis and patient management. (thermofisher.com)
  • Autoimmunity : physiology and disease / editors, Antonio Coutinho, Michel D. Kazatchkine. (who.int)
  • NIOSH is also involved in basic science research related to hazard identification, methods development, and understanding the mechanisms of occupational exposure induced immune disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A characteristic feature of autoimmune Addison disease is abnormally dark areas of skin (hyperpigmentation), especially in regions that experience a lot of friction, such as the armpits, elbows, knuckles, and palm creases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most well-known risk factor for autoimmune Addison disease is a variant of the HLA-DRB1 gene called HLA-DRB1*04:04 . (medlineplus.gov)
  • A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) disrupts several normal functions in the body, leading to hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypotension, muscle cramps, skin hyperpigmentation and other features of autoimmune Addison disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rarely, Addison disease is not caused by an autoimmune reaction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • While these symptoms may not be sufficient to get diagnoses and treated for autoimmune disease, they are a great reason to start taking better care of yourself so that you can prevent the progression to autoimmune disease. (eatthis.com)
  • The data are really just, at best, suggestive,' Dr. Anthony Fauci, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, told CBS' 'Face the Nation' on April 5. (cnbc.com)
  • Fully automated and scalable instruments to optimize allergy and autoimmune workflow. (thermofisher.com)
  • Training, education, and service material for autoimmune and allergy testing. (thermofisher.com)
  • Thermo Fisher Scientific is a global leader in allergy and autoimmune diagnostics. (thermofisher.com)
  • People can suffer from exhaustion and pain and not realize they are experiencing an autoimmune disease. (uvahealth.com)
  • No one knows what causes autoimmune diseases, but certain genes may make some people more likely to develop this problem. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • You can't catch an autoimmune disease from other people. (hiltonheadregional.com)
  • Many people with autoimmune disease experience excessive fatigue, even if they are sleeping well at night. (eatthis.com)
  • People with autoimmune diseases often report difficulty thinking clearly and problems with memory. (eatthis.com)
  • People with autoimmune diseases often report pain in their joints that may come and go and are unrelated to physical activity. (eatthis.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Autoimmune Diseases" by people in this website by year, and whether "Autoimmune Diseases" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Autoimmune Diseases" by people in Profiles. (ucdenver.edu)
  • The risk for disseminated disease is significantly higher among men, people with compromised or suppressed immune systems, like those who have HIV, those receiving corticosteroids, and pregnant women, particularly those in their third trimester. (cdc.gov)
  • Reginald Tucker] Do we know why men and people from these particular populations are more susceptible to the disease? (cdc.gov)
  • We see that people in Arizona and California are more likely to die of this disease, but we suspect that it's simply because they're more likely to get the disease in the first place. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers have identified genetic mutations in humans that helped us survive the bubonic plague at the price of increased risk of autoimmune disease. (discovermagazine.com)