A 6.6-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. Apo C-I displaces APO E from lipoproteins, modulate their binding to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL), and thereby decrease their clearance from plasma. Elevated Apo C-I levels are associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).
A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.
The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.
NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily A
Receptors, NK Cell Lectin-Like
Structurally-related receptors that are typically found on NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are considered lectin-like proteins in that they share sequence homology with the carbohydrate binding domains of C-TYPE LECTINS. They differ from classical C-type lectins, however, in that they appear to lack CALCIUM-binding domains.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.
A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.
Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.
A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.
Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.
A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.
One of three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E2 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at one residue 158 where arginine is replaced by cysteine (R158--C). In contrast to Apo E3, Apo E2 displays extremely low binding affinity for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) which mediate the internalization and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in liver cells. ApoE2 allelic homozygosity is associated with HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A large and highly glycosylated protein constituent of LIPOPROTEIN (A). It has very little affinity for lipids but forms disulfide-linkage to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100. Apoprotein(a) has SERINE PROTEINASE activity and can be of varying sizes from 400- to 800-kDa. It is homologous to PLASMINOGEN and is known to modulate THROMBOSIS and FIBRINOLYSIS.
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.
A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
A glycoprotein component of HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS that transports small hydrophobic ligands including CHOLESTEROL and STEROLS. It occurs in the macromolecular complex with LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. Apo D is expressed in and secreted from a variety of tissues such as liver, placenta, brain tissue and others.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Disease Models, Animal
Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Mice, Inbred MRL lpr
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 18.104.22.168.
Apolipoprotein H - Wikipedia
Anti-β2-GP1 antibodies are found in both infectious and some systemic autoimmune diseases (eg. systemic lupus erythematosus ( ... Apolipoprotein+H at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Apolipoprotein H and Applied Research ... "A phospholipid-beta 2-glycoprotein I complex is an antigen for anticardiolipin antibodies occurring in autoimmune disease but ... The first four domains found in Apolipoprotein H resemble each other, however the fifth one appears to be different. This ...
Cardiolipin - Wikipedia
In anti-cardiolipin-mediated autoimmune disease, there is a dependency on the apolipoprotein H for recognition. Bartonellosis ... Tangier disease is also linked to CL abnormalities. Tangier disease is characterized by very low blood plasma levels of High- ... and an increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Unlike Barth syndrome, Tangier disease is mainly caused by ... Heart disease is twice as common in people with diabetes. In diabetics, cardiovascular complications occur at an earlier age ...
No data available that match "autoimmune disease apolipoprotein c i"
APOERheumatoid arthritisLipoproteinParkinson'sAtherosclerotic cardiovascular diseasePeptideInflammatoryCholesterolCardiovascularSusceptibilityFactorsAssociationsPrevention and TreatmentDecreaseOnsetInflammationHumanGeneticCancerMechanismsLowerJointsCommonRarePatientsRoleWorldwideStudyMajorDifficultResultsInclude
- The Apolipoprotein-E (APOE) gene is now known to be associated with individual differences in cognitive health in ageing. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, while the APOE ε4 allele confers significantly increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), the APOE ε2 allele is hypothesized to be protective against the development of AD. (ox.ac.uk)
- It is an antimetabolite and antifolate drug used formerly in treating cancer but now used to treat some auto immune disease like rheumatoid arthritis by replacing more toxic antifolate aminopterin. (theartofrheumatoidarthritis.ca)
- Azathioprine or imuran is a purine analogue immunosuppressive drug, and is generally used to treat autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis. (theartofrheumatoidarthritis.ca)
- Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and type 1 diabetes are all associated with a dysfunction of the immune system. (docsopinion.com)
- Statins in Parkinson's Disease: Influence on Motor Progression. (pubfacts.com)
- It has been speculated that stains are neuroprotective and are associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but only a few studies have investigated the influence of statins on the progression of PD. (pubfacts.com)
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease2
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS ORION-1 (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02597127 ) randomized 501 subjects with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or ASCVD risk equivalents and high LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), despite maximally tolerated LDL-C-lowering therapies, to one or two doses of placebo or inclisiran. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ( 3 ). (docsopinion.com)
- Interaction between ERAP1 and HLA-B27 in ankylosing spondylitis implicates peptide handling in the mechanism for HLA-B27 in disease susceptibility. (umbrella-scientific.us)
- C entral Nervous System (CNS) vasculitis is an inflammatory brain disease targe ting the blood vessels of the brain and/or spinal cord. (theartofrheumatoidarthritis.ca)
- Since Sjogren's Syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disease, it can also affect other tissues and organs in the body such as joints, skin, kidneys, lungs, nervous system, and the intestinal tract. (healthtestingcenters.com)
- Also known as: bechterew's disease, Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is one of the major forms of chronic inflammatory arthritis and is the prototypical example of the spondyloarthropathies, a group of chronic autoimmune joint diseases. (umbrella-scientific.us)
- It is approved in the United States and Europe as a treatment for several rare inflammatory diseases and has proven to be well-tolerated in people with diabetes or arthritis. (docsopinion.com)
- Information on motor function was obtained using the MDS-Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III and all subjects were extensively characterized, including information about lifestyle habits, cardiovascular risk factors and cholesterol blood levels. (pubfacts.com)
- Five common Bacteria in the Mouth are CAUSATIVE of Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Cardiovascular Disease. (theartofrheumatoidarthritis.ca)
- 6 ) Also important was the improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, considering that a recent study showed that fibromyalgia patients have double the risk of coronary artery disease. (pbdmedicine.org)
- LDL particles pose a risk for cardiovascular disease when they invade the endothelium and become oxidized, since the oxidized forms are more easily retained by the proteoglycans. (bioagilytix.com)
- Even more worrying is the rising prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes which ultimately reverse the declining trend in mortality from cardiovascular disease. (docsopinion.com)
- Many observational and clinical studies have used high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) to test the relationship between inflammation and cardiovascular disease ( 7 ). (docsopinion.com)
- Just before his appointment as head of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), Francis Collins, the most prominent medical geneticist of our time, had his own genome scanned for disease susceptibility genes. (jonathanlatham.net)
- If, instead of invoking missing genes, we take the GWA studies at face value, then apart from the exceptions noted above, genetic predispositions as significant factors in the prevalence of common diseases are refuted. (jonathanlatham.net)
Prevention and Treatment1
- The recently published results of the long awaited CANTOS trial may forever change our approach to the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease ( 1 ). (docsopinion.com)
- Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Decrease the Development of Severe Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis in B10.RIII Mice. (ucla.edu)
- The natural history of these conditions is not well defined, particularly in patients with congenital or early onset who arguably present with the highest disease burden. (pubfacts.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with risk and age at onset of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a genomewide association study of 469 438 SNPs. (ox.ac.uk)
- here's two major root causes of vascular inflammation that I was not trained to identify and treat and thatis periodontal pathogens and silent endodontic lesions (gum disease" and absence of teeth). (theartofrheumatoidarthritis.ca)
- Is Targeting Inflammation the Solution to Heart Disease? (docsopinion.com)
- However, when inflammation is inappropriate or gets out of hand, it may cause disease. (docsopinion.com)
- Antigen Long Description: Human Apolipoprotein A-1. (szabo-scandic.com)
- GWAs) to find important genes for disease in human populations 1 . (jonathanlatham.net)
- Furthermore, the applicability of this offers a translational approach to researching non-human animal models and human diseases. (regenerativemedicine.net)
- Cytoxan or cyclophosphamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent and is used to treat various types of cancer and auto immune disease. (theartofrheumatoidarthritis.ca)
- They are few enough to list individually: a fairly common single gene variant for Alzheimer's disease, and the two breast cancer genes BRCA 1 and 2 (Miki et al. (jonathanlatham.net)
- The body's defenses are controlled by the immune system which is composed of biological structures and mechanisms that continuously protects us against diseases such as infections and cancer. (docsopinion.com)
- Early PD patients with long-term statin usage showed lower motor deterioration after 4 years of disease duration compared with patients not taking statins at diagnosis, suggesting a possible influence of statins on disease progression in PD. (pubfacts.com)
- Genotype-phenotype analysis showed that the most common mutation, p.Arg249Trp (20%), was significantly associated with a more severe disease course. (pubfacts.com)
- 1996). Lastly, GWA studies themselves have identified five genes each with a significant role in the common degenerative eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (jonathanlatham.net)
- They do not dispute the GWA results themselves but are now assuming that genes predisposing to common diseases must somehow have been missed by the GWA methodology. (jonathanlatham.net)
- This disease, also called erythema infectiosum, got its name because it was fifth in a list of historical classifications of common skin rash illnesses in children. (healthmatters.io)
- A disease is considered rare if it affects no more than 5 in 10,000 inhabitants. (szabo-scandic.com)
- There are two case reports of patients experiencing disease flare after taking alfalfa seed products long-term (19). (drclaresacademy.com)
- They may even appear to contradict everything we know about the role of genes in disease. (jonathanlatham.net)
- Although the death rate from coronary artery disease has dropped in most countries, the disease remains an important cause of death and disability worldwide. (docsopinion.com)
- Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms from a genomewide association study of Alzheimer disease. (ox.ac.uk)
- For anyone who has read about 'genes for' nearly every disease and the deluge of medical advances predicted to follow these discoveries, the negative results of the GWA studies will likely come as a surprise. (jonathanlatham.net)
- These include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia and Huntington's disease. (jonathanlatham.net)