Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
The interactions between physician and patient.
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.
Cell surface receptors for AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR, which is the secreted form of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE ISOMERASE. The receptor has an unusual composition in that it shares some structural similarities with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS and functions as an ubiquitin protein ligase when internalized.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
A mode of communication concerned with inducing or urging the adoption of certain beliefs, theories, or lines of action by others.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Interaction between the patient and nurse.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.
The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.

Coexpression of transcripts encoding EPHB receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their ephrin-B ligands in human small cell lung carcinoma. (1/1262)

The EPH family is the largest subfamily of receptor protein tyrosine kinases, consisting of the EPHA and EPHB subgroups. Ephrin-B1, ephrin-B2, and ephrin-B3 are ligands of the EPHB subgroup and are encoded by the EFNB1, EFNB2, and EFNB3 genes, respectively. We have shown previously that EPHB2 transcripts are expressed in six small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines. In this study, we examined the expression of EPHB1, EPHB2, EPHB3, EPHB4, and EPHB6 in 4 SCLC tumor specimens and 14 cell lines including 3 cell lines derived from these tumor specimens. To investigate whether potential autocrine loops of EPHB receptors and ephrin-B ligands exist in SCLC, the expression of EFNB1, EFNB2, and EFNB3 was also examined. Our data show that transcripts encoding multiple members of the EPHB subgroup and the ephrin-B subgroup are coexpressed in SCLC cell lines and tumors. These results suggest that the EPHB subgroup receptor kinases may modulate the biological behavior of SCLC through autocrine and/or juxtacrine activation by ephrin-B ligands that are expressed in the same or neighboring cells.  (+info)

Maturation, activation, and protection of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA. (2/1262)

The initiation of an immune response is critically dependent on the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). This process is triggered by surface receptors specific for inflammatory cytokines or for conserved patterns characteristic of infectious agents. Here we show that human DCs are activated by influenza virus infection and by double-stranded (ds)RNA. This activation results not only in increased antigen presentation and T cell stimulatory capacity, but also in resistance to the cytopathic effect of the virus, mediated by the production of type I interferon, and upregulation of MxA. Because dsRNA stimulates both maturation and resistance, DCs can serve as altruistic antigen-presenting cells capable of sustaining viral antigen production while acquiring the capacity to trigger naive T cells and drive polarized T helper cell type 1 responses.  (+info)

Regulation of gelatinase B production in corneal cells is independent of autocrine IL-1alpha. (3/1262)

PURPOSE: The matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B is synthesized by cells at the leading edge of the corneal epithelium migrating to heal a wound. Recent data from the authors' laboratory suggest that excessive synthesis contributes to repair defects. The goal of the study reported here was to investigate mechanisms controlling gelatinase B production by corneal epithelial cells. METHODS: Freshly isolated cultures of corneal epithelial cells and early passage stromal fibroblasts from rabbit were used for these studies. RESULTS: In a previous study, it was found that the cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha is released into the culture medium of corneal epithelial cells more efficiently when they are plated at low density with limited cell-cell contact than when plated at high density. In this study, we show that production of gelatinase B by these cells is similarly affected by cell plating density. However, it is further demonstrated that these two events are not dependent on one another but occur in parallel: IL-1alpha does not regulate gelatinase B production (synthesis), nor was there evidence that any other secreted autocrine cytokine acts as mediator. Instead, our data suggest that gelatinase B production is downregulated directly by high cell density and indicate a connection to the level of protein kinase C activity. Nevertheless, the anticancer agent suramin, which blocks collagenase synthesis by interfering with autocrine cytokine-receptor interactions, still inhibits synthesis of gelatinase B. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike collagenase synthesis by corneal stromal fibroblasts, production (synthesis) of gelatinase B does not appear to be controlled by secreted autocrine cytokines but can still be inhibited by suramin. Suramin may make an effective therapeutic agent for controlling pathologic overproduction of gelatinase B in corneal ulcers.  (+info)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide, interleukin-6 and glucocorticoids regulate the release of vascular endothelial growth factor in pituitary folliculostellate cells. (4/1262)

There is increasing evidence that hormones play an important role in the control of endothelial cell function and growth by regulating the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF regulates vascular permeability and represents the most powerful growth factor for endothelial cells. In the normal anterior pituitary, VEGF has been detected only in folliculostellate (FS) cells. In the present study, the regulation of the release of VEGF from FS-like mouse TtT/GF cells, and from FS cells of rat pituitary monolayer cell cultures was investigated using a specific VEGF ELISA. Basal release of VEGF was demonstrated in cultures of both TtT/GF cells and rat pituitary cells. Interestingly, the VEGF secretion was stimulated by both forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP-38 and PACAP-27), indicating that this hypothalamic peptide regulates endothelial cell function and growth within the pituitary. VEGF secretion was also stimulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) whereas basal, IL-6- and PACAP-stimulated secretion was inhibited by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. The inhibitory action of dexamethasone was reversed by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, suggesting that in FS cells functional glucocorticoid receptors mediate the inhibitory action of glucocorticoids on the VEGF secretion. The endocrine and auto-/paracrine control of VEGF production in pituitary FS cells by PACAP, IL-6 and glucocorticoids may play an important role both in angiogenesis and vascular permeability regulation within the pituitary under physiological and pathophysiological conditions.  (+info)

Role of autocrine stimulation on the effects of cyclic AMP on protein and lipid phosphorylation in collagen-activated and thrombin-activated platelets. (5/1262)

We compared several responses in thrombin-stimulated and collagen (type I)-stimulated platelets with and without forskolin and inhibitors of autocrine stimulation (IAS: an ADP-removing system of creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide to prevent fibrinogen/fibronectin binding to GPIIb/IIIa, SQ 29.548 as a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine as a serotonin receptor antagonist, BN 52021 as a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist). The pattern of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, the phosphorylation of lipids in the polyphosphoinositide cycle and phosphorylation of pleckstrin (P47) were studied as markers for signal-transducing responses, exposure of CD62 (P-selectin) and CD63 (Glycoprotein 53), as well as secretion of ADP + ATP and beta-N-acetyl-glycosaminidase were studied as final activation responses. Clear differences between thrombin-stimulated and collagen-stimulated platelets were observed. First, practically all protein-tyrosine phosphorylation induced by thrombin was inhibited by IAS, while a partial inhibition was observed for collagen; the phosphorylation due to collagen alone was apparently stimulated by elevation of cAMP. Secondly, the other responses to thrombin were inhibited by increased levels of cAMP, independent of autocrine stimulation. In contrast, only the autocrine part of the collagen-induced responses was inhibited by elevation of cAMP. Thus, the inhibition by elevated cAMP seen in collagen-stimulated platelets seems to be due to removal of the G-protein-mediated activation from secreted autocrine stimulators either by IAS or forskolin. The remaining activity is a pure collagen effect which is not affected by elevated levels of cAMP.  (+info)

Differential inhibition of collagenase and interleukin-1alpha gene expression in cultured corneal fibroblasts by TGF-beta, dexamethasone, and retinoic acid. (6/1262)

PURPOSE: Expression of the genes for collagenase and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) are induced as stromal cells become activated to the repair fibroblast phenotype after injury to the cornea. This investigation examines the mechanisms whereby expression of these genes is inhibited by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), dexamethasone (DEX), or retinoic acid (RET A). METHODS: A model of freshly isolated cultures of corneal stromal cells and early passage cultures of corneal fibroblasts was used in these studies. This model reproduces the events of stromal cell activation in the corneal wound. RESULTS: In early passage cultures of corneal fibroblasts, expression of collagenase is under obligatory control by autocrine IL-1alpha. IL-1alpha controls its own expression through an autocrine feedback loop that is dependent on transcription factor NF-kappaB. TGF-beta, DEX, and RET A were each effective inhibitors of collagenase gene expression in these cells. Furthermore, these agents have the capacity to inhibit expression of IL-1alpha and this was correlated with their ability to affect DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB. However, TGF-beta, DEX, and RET A were also effective inhibitors of the low level of collagenase expressed by freshly isolated corneal stromal cells that cannot express IL-1alpha. CONCLUSIONS: In cells with an active IL-1alpha autocrine loop there are at least two distinct signaling pathways by which collagenase gene expression can be modulated. The results of this study demonstrate that TGF-beta, DEX, and RET A differentially inhibit collagenase and IL-1alpha gene expression. This information will be useful in the design of therapeutic modalities for fibrotic disease in the cornea and other parts of the eye.  (+info)

The role of macrophage cell death in tuberculosis. (7/1262)

Studies of host responses to infection have traditionally focused on the direct antimicrobial activity of effector molecules (antibodies, complement, defensins, reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates) and immunocytes (macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils among others). The discovery of the systems for programmed cell death of eukaryotic cells has revealed a unique role for this process in the complex interplay between microorganisms and their cellular targets or responding immunocytes. In particular, cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage have been demonstrated to undergo apoptosis following intracellular infection with certain pathogens that are otherwise capable of surviving within the hostile environment of the phagosome or which can escape the phagosome. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a prototypical 'intracellular parasite' of macrophages, and the direct induction of macrophage apoptosis by this organism has recently been reported from several laboratories. This paper reviews the current understanding of the mechanism and regulation of macrophage apoptosis in response to M. tuberculosis and examines the role this process plays in protective immunity and microbial virulence.  (+info)

Ligation of Fc gamma RII (CD32) pivotally regulates survival of human eosinophils. (8/1262)

The low-affinity IgG Fc receptor, FcgammaRII (CD32), mediates various effector functions of lymphoid and myeloid cells and is the major IgG Fc receptor expressed by human eosinophils. We investigated whether FcgammaRII regulates both cell survival and death of human eosinophils. When cultured in vitro without growth factors, most eosinophils undergo apoptosis within 96 h. Ligation of FcgammaRII by anti-CD32 mAb in solution inhibited eosinophil apoptosis and prolonged survival in the absence of growth factors. Cross-linking of human IgG bound to FcgammaRII by anti-human IgG Ab or of unoccupied FcgammaRII by aggregated human IgG also prolonged eosinophil survival. The enhanced survival with anti-CD32 mAb was inhibited by anti-granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF) mAb, suggesting that autocrine production of GM-CSF by eosinophils mediated survival. In fact, mRNA for GM-CSF was detected in eosinophils cultured with anti-CD32 mAb. In contrast to mAb or ligands in solution, anti-CD32 mAb or human IgG, when immobilized onto tissue culture plates, facilitated eosinophil cell death even in the presence of IL-5. Cell death induced by these immobilized ligands was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and was inhibited when eosinophil beta2 integrin was blocked by anti-CD18 mAb, suggesting that beta2 integrins play a key role in initiating eosinophil apoptosis. Thus, FcgammaRII may pivotally regulate both survival and death of eosinophils, depending on the manner of receptor ligation and beta2 integrin involvement. Moreover, the FcgammaRII could provide a novel mechanism to control the number of eosinophils at inflammation sites in human diseases.  (+info)

Autocrine communication is a type of cell signaling in which a cell produces and releases a chemical messenger (such as a hormone or growth factor) that binds to receptors on the same cell, thereby affecting its own behavior or function. This process allows the cell to regulate its own activities in response to internal or external stimuli. Autocrine communication plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including tissue repair, immune responses, and cancer progression.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Animal communication is the transmission of information from one animal to another. This can occur through a variety of means, including visual, auditory, tactile, and chemical signals. For example, animals may use body postures, facial expressions, vocalizations, touch, or the release of chemicals (such as pheromones) to convey messages to conspecifics.

Animal communication can serve a variety of functions, including coordinating group activities, warning others of danger, signaling reproductive status, and establishing social hierarchies. In some cases, animal communication may also involve the use of sophisticated cognitive abilities, such as the ability to understand and interpret complex signals or to learn and remember the meanings of different signals.

It is important to note that while animals are capable of communicating with one another, this does not necessarily mean that they have language in the same sense that humans do. Language typically involves a system of arbitrary symbols that are used to convey meaning, and it is not clear to what extent animals are able to use such symbolic systems. However, many animals are certainly able to communicate effectively using their own species-specific signals and behaviors.

Communication disorders refer to a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to receive, send, process, and understand concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. These disorders can be language-based, speech-based, or hearing-based.

Language-based communication disorders include:

1. Aphasia - a disorder that affects a person's ability to understand or produce spoken or written language due to damage to the brain's language centers.
2. Language development disorder - a condition where a child has difficulty developing age-appropriate language skills.
3. Dysarthria - a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to control the muscles used for speaking, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
4. Stuttering - a speech disorder characterized by repetition of sounds, syllables, or words, prolongation of sounds, and interruptions in speech known as blocks.
5. Voice disorders - problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that make it difficult to communicate effectively.

Hearing-based communication disorders include:

1. Hearing loss - a partial or complete inability to hear sound in one or both ears.
2. Auditory processing disorder - a hearing problem where the brain has difficulty interpreting the sounds heard, even though the person's hearing is normal.

Communication disorders can significantly impact a person's ability to interact with others and perform daily activities. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving communication skills and overall quality of life.

Health communication is the scientific field that uses communication strategies and methods to inform and influence individual health behaviors and organizational, community, and public policies. It combines disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health to develop and disseminate messages that will improve health literacy, engage individuals in self-care, and promote positive changes in healthcare systems and policy. Health communication can be used to increase awareness of health issues, prevent the spread of diseases, reduce risky behaviors, and promote healthy lifestyles. It encompasses a wide range of activities including interpersonal communication between patients and healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, social marketing, patient education materials, and community-based participatory research.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

Nonverbal communication in a medical context refers to the transmission of information or messages through visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and kinesthetic channels, excluding spoken or written language. It includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye contact, touch, physical appearance, use of space, and paralanguages such as tone of voice, volume, and pitch. In healthcare settings, nonverbal communication plays a crucial role in building rapport, expressing empathy, conveying emotions, and understanding patients' needs and concerns. Healthcare providers should be aware of their own nonverbal cues and interpret those of their patients to enhance clinical encounters and improve patient-centered care.

Paracrine communication is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell releases a signaling molecule, known as a paracrine factor, that acts on nearby cells within the local microenvironment. This type of communication allows for the coordination and regulation of various cellular processes, including growth, differentiation, and survival.

Paracrine factors can be released from a cell through various mechanisms, such as exocytosis or diffusion through the extracellular matrix. Once released, these factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering intracellular signaling pathways that lead to changes in gene expression and cell behavior.

Paracrine communication is an important mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and coordinating responses to injury or disease. For example, during wound healing, paracrine signals released by immune cells can recruit other cells to the site of injury and stimulate their proliferation and differentiation to promote tissue repair.

It's worth noting that paracrine communication should be distinguished from autocrine signaling, where a cell releases a signaling molecule that binds back to its own receptors, and endocrine signaling, where a hormone is released into the bloodstream and travels to distant target cells.

Communication barriers in a medical context refer to any factors that prevent or hinder the effective exchange of information between healthcare providers and patients, or among healthcare professionals themselves. These barriers can lead to misunderstandings, errors, and poor patient outcomes. Common communication barriers include:

1. Language differences: When patients and healthcare providers do not speak the same language, it can lead to miscommunication and errors in diagnosis and treatment.
2. Cultural differences: Cultural beliefs and values can affect how patients perceive and communicate their symptoms and concerns, as well as how healthcare providers deliver care.
3. Literacy levels: Low health literacy can make it difficult for patients to understand medical information, follow treatment plans, and make informed decisions about their care.
4. Disability: Patients with hearing or vision impairments, speech disorders, or cognitive impairments may face unique communication challenges that require accommodations and specialized communication strategies.
5. Emotional factors: Patients who are anxious, stressed, or in pain may have difficulty communicating effectively, and healthcare providers may be less likely to listen actively or ask open-ended questions.
6. Power dynamics: Hierarchical relationships between healthcare providers and patients can create power imbalances that discourage patients from speaking up or asking questions.
7. Noise and distractions: Environmental factors such as noise, interruptions, and distractions can make it difficult for patients and healthcare providers to hear, focus, and communicate effectively.

Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings, and addressing communication barriers requires a multifaceted approach that includes training for healthcare providers, language services for limited English proficient patients, and accommodations for patients with disabilities.

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

Computer communication networks (CCN) refer to the interconnected systems or groups of computers that are able to communicate and share resources and information with each other. These networks may be composed of multiple interconnected devices, including computers, servers, switches, routers, and other hardware components. The connections between these devices can be established through various types of media, such as wired Ethernet cables or wireless Wi-Fi signals.

CCNs enable the sharing of data, applications, and services among users and devices, and they are essential for supporting modern digital communication and collaboration. Some common examples of CCNs include local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs), and the Internet. These networks can be designed and implemented in various topologies, such as star, ring, bus, mesh, and tree configurations, to meet the specific needs and requirements of different organizations and applications.

Connexin 43 is a protein that forms gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct communication and transport of small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin 43 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the heart, brain, and various types of epithelial and connective tissues. In the heart, connexin 43 plays a crucial role in electrical conduction and coordination of contraction between cardiac muscle cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes connexin 43 have been associated with several human diseases, including certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and skin disorders.

A Radiology Information System (RIS) is a type of healthcare software specifically designed to manage medical imaging data and related patient information. It serves as a centralized database and communication platform for radiology departments, allowing the integration, storage, retrieval, and sharing of patient records, orders, reports, images, and other relevant documents.

The primary functions of a RIS typically include:

1. Scheduling and tracking: Managing appointments, scheduling resources, and monitoring workflow within the radiology department.
2. Order management: Tracking and processing requests for imaging exams from referring physicians or other healthcare providers.
3. Image tracking: Monitoring the movement of images throughout the entire imaging process, from acquisition to reporting and storage.
4. Report generation: Assisting radiologists in creating structured, standardized reports based on the interpreted imaging studies.
5. Results communication: Sending finalized reports back to the referring physicians or other healthcare providers, often through integration with electronic health records (EHRs) or hospital information systems (HIS).
6. Data analytics: Providing tools for analyzing and reporting departmental performance metrics, such as turnaround times, equipment utilization, and patient satisfaction.
7. Compliance and security: Ensuring adherence to regulatory requirements related to data privacy, protection, and storage, while maintaining secure access controls for authorized users.

By streamlining these processes, a RIS helps improve efficiency, reduce errors, enhance communication, and support better patient care within radiology departments.

Autocrine motility factor (AMF) receptors are cell surface proteins that bind to autocrine motility factor, a cytokine produced and released by certain types of cancer cells. The binding of AMF to its receptor activates signaling pathways within the same cell that produces it, leading to changes in cell behavior such as increased motility and invasiveness. This process is known as autocrine signaling and plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis.

The AMF receptor has been identified as the product of the gene for the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1R), which is a tyrosine kinase receptor that regulates cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The activation of the IGF1R by AMF leads to the activation of downstream signaling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways, which promote cell motility and invasion.

In summary, Autocrine Motility Factor (AMF) receptors are a type of cell surface proteins that bind to AMF, leading to the activation of signaling pathways within the same cell that produces it, promoting changes in cell behavior such as increased motility and invasiveness, which play a role in tumor progression and metastasis.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Hospital communication systems refer to the various technologies and methods used within a hospital or healthcare facility to facilitate the sharing and dissemination of information among healthcare professionals, patients, and their families. These systems can include:

1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs): Digital versions of a patient's medical history and treatment plans that can be accessed and updated by authorized healthcare providers.
2. Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) Systems: Electronic systems used by physicians to enter, modify, review, and communicate orders related to a patient's care, such as medication orders or diagnostic tests.
3. Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS): Tools that provide healthcare providers with evidence-based recommendations for patient care based on the patient's EHR data.
4. Telemedicine: The use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide remote clinical services and consultations.
5. Nurse Call Systems: Communication systems used by patients to summon nursing staff in a hospital setting.
6. Paging Systems: One-way communication devices used to send messages or alerts to hospital staff.
7. Wireless Telephony: The use of mobile phones and other wireless devices for communication within the hospital.
8. Real-Time Location Systems (RTLS): Technologies that allow hospitals to track the location of equipment, supplies, and personnel in real-time.
9. Secure Messaging Platforms: Encrypted messaging systems used by healthcare professionals to communicate sensitive patient information.
10. Patient Portals: Secure online platforms that allow patients to access their medical records, communicate with their healthcare providers, and manage their care.

Interdisciplinary communication in a medical context refers to the exchange of information and ideas between professionals from different healthcare disciplines, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and therapists. This form of communication is essential for coordinating patient care, making informed treatment decisions, and ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's needs, goals, and progress. Effective interdisciplinary communication can help to improve patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce medical errors. It typically involves clear, concise, and respectful communication, often through regular meetings, shared documentation, and collaborative decision-making processes.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Communication Methods, Total" is not a standard medical term. However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "communication methods" generally refer to the ways in which information is exchanged between healthcare providers, patients, and caregivers. This can include both verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as written communication through medical records and documentation.

"Total" in this context could mean that all relevant communication methods are being considered or evaluated. For example, a healthcare organization might assess their "total communication methods" to ensure that they are using a variety of effective and appropriate strategies to communicate with patients and families, including those with limited English proficiency, hearing impairments, or other communication needs.

Therefore, the term "Communication Methods, Total" could be interpreted as a comprehensive approach to evaluating and improving all aspects of communication within a healthcare setting.

Connexins are a family of proteins that form the structural units of gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct exchange of small molecules and ions between adjacent cells. These channels play crucial roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis, coordinating cellular activities, and enabling communication between cells. In humans, there are 21 different connexin genes that encode for these proteins, with each isoform having unique properties and distributions within the body. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, including hearing loss, skin disorders, and heart conditions.

Professional-patient relations, also known as physician-patient relationships or doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interactions and communications between healthcare professionals and their patients. It is a critical aspect of healthcare delivery that involves trust, respect, understanding, and collaboration. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines it as "a ethical relationship in which a physician, by virtue of knowledge and skills, provides medical services to a patient in need."

Professional-patient relations encompass various elements, including:

1. Informed Consent: Healthcare professionals must provide patients with adequate information about their medical condition, treatment options, benefits, risks, and alternatives to enable them to make informed decisions about their healthcare.
2. Confidentiality: Healthcare professionals must respect patients' privacy and maintain the confidentiality of their medical information, except in specific circumstances where disclosure is required by law or necessary for patient safety.
3. Communication: Healthcare professionals must communicate effectively with patients, listening to their concerns, answering their questions, and providing clear and concise explanations about their medical condition and treatment plan.
4. Empathy and Compassion: Healthcare professionals must demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their emotional and psychological needs and providing support and comfort when necessary.
5. Cultural Competence: Healthcare professionals must be aware of and respect cultural differences among their patients, adapting their communication style and treatment approach to meet the unique needs of each patient.
6. Shared Decision-Making: Healthcare professionals and patients should work together to make medical decisions based on the best available evidence, the patient's values and preferences, and the healthcare professional's expertise.
7. Continuity of Care: Healthcare professionals must ensure continuity of care for their patients, coordinating with other healthcare providers and ensuring that patients receive appropriate follow-up care.

Professional-patient relations are essential to achieving positive health outcomes, improving patient satisfaction, and reducing medical errors and adverse events. Healthcare professionals must maintain ethical and professional standards in their interactions with patients, recognizing the power imbalance in the relationship and striving to promote trust, respect, and collaboration.

"Communications media" is a broad term that refers to the various means by which information or messages are transmitted from one person or group to another. In the context of healthcare and medicine, communications media can include both traditional and electronic methods used to share patient information, medical research, and other health-related data.

Traditional communications media in healthcare may include written documents such as medical records, charts, and reports, as well as verbal communication between healthcare providers and patients or among healthcare professionals.

Electronic communications media, on the other hand, refer to digital technologies used to transmit and store information. Examples of electronic communications media in healthcare include:

1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs): Digital versions of a patient's medical history and records, which can be shared among authorized healthcare providers.
2. Telemedicine: The use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide healthcare services remotely, allowing patients and healthcare professionals to communicate via video conferencing, phone calls, or messaging platforms.
3. Health Information Exchanges (HIEs): Secure, electronic networks that enable the sharing of health-related data among authorized healthcare organizations, providers, and patients.
4. Medical Imaging Systems: Digital systems used for storing, accessing, and sharing medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs.
5. Personal Health Applications (mHealth): Mobile applications and wearable devices that allow individuals to monitor their health, track fitness goals, and manage chronic conditions.

Effective communication media are crucial in healthcare for ensuring accurate diagnoses, coordinating care, improving patient outcomes, and conducting medical research. It is essential to maintain confidentiality, privacy, and security when using electronic communications media to protect sensitive health information.

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) is an enzyme involved in the glycolytic and gluconeogenesis pathways. It catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), which are key metabolic intermediates in these pathways. This reaction is a reversible step that helps maintain the balance between the breakdown and synthesis of glucose in the cell.

In glycolysis, GPI converts G6P to F6P, which subsequently gets converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) by the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1). In gluconeogenesis, the reaction is reversed, and F6P is converted back to G6P.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage diseases and hereditary motor neuropathies.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Transforming Growth Factor-alpha (TGF-α) is a type of growth factor, specifically a peptide growth factor, that plays a role in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors. TGF-α binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells and activates intracellular signaling pathways that promote cellular growth and division.

TGF-α is involved in various biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue repair. However, abnormal regulation of TGF-α has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer. Overexpression or hyperactivation of TGF-α can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor progression by stimulating the proliferation of cancer cells and inhibiting their differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

TGF-α is produced by various cell types, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. It can be secreted in a membrane-bound form (pro-TGF-α) or as a soluble protein after proteolytic cleavage.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "professional-family relations," as it is more commonly referred to as "professional-patient relationship" in the medical field. However, I can provide you with the definition of professional-patient relationship:

A professional-patient relationship is a formal relationship between a healthcare provider and a patient, characterized by trust, honesty, and mutual respect. The healthcare provider has a duty to act in the best interest of the patient, providing competent and ethical care, while maintaining appropriate boundaries and confidentiality. Effective communication, shared decision-making, and informed consent are essential components of this relationship.

Family members may also be involved in the professional-patient relationship, particularly when the patient is unable to make decisions for themselves or when family involvement is necessary for the patient's care. In these cases, healthcare providers must communicate clearly and respectfully with family members while still maintaining the primary focus on the patient's needs and autonomy.

Growth substances, in the context of medical terminology, typically refer to natural hormones or chemically synthesized agents that play crucial roles in controlling and regulating cell growth, differentiation, and division. They are also known as "growth factors" or "mitogens." These substances include:

1. Proteins: Examples include insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). They bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

2. Steroids: Certain steroid hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, can also act as growth substances by binding to nuclear receptors and influencing gene expression related to cell growth and division.

3. Cytokines: Some cytokines, like interleukins (ILs) and hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, immune responses, and inflammation, thus indirectly affecting cell growth and differentiation.

These growth substances have essential roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue repair, and wound healing. However, abnormal or excessive production or response to these growth substances can lead to pathological conditions, including cancer, benign tumors, and other proliferative disorders.

Electronic mail, often abbreviated as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages between people using computer networks. The term "electronic mail" is a direct comparison to traditional paper-based mail systems and has been in use since the creation of the first email system in 1971.

In medical terms, email is commonly used as a means of communication between healthcare professionals, patients, and other stakeholders in the healthcare industry. For example, physicians may use email to communicate with colleagues or staff members, while hospitals and clinics may use email to send appointment reminders or test results to patients.

Email messages can include text, images, videos, and attachments, making them a versatile tool for communication. However, it is important to note that email is not considered a secure means of transmitting sensitive medical information due to the risk of interception or unauthorized access. As such, healthcare professionals must follow established guidelines and regulations when using email to communicate protected health information (PHI) in order to maintain patient privacy and confidentiality.

Interprofessional relations, in the context of healthcare, refers to the interactions and collaborative practices between different healthcare professionals (such as physicians, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, social workers, etc.) when providing care for patients. It involves developing and maintaining positive and effective communication, respect, trust, and collaboration among various healthcare disciplines to ensure coordinated, safe, and high-quality patient care. The goal of interprofessional relations is to enhance collaborative practice, improve patient outcomes, and promote a supportive work environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Persuasive Communication" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Persuasive communication is a broader term used in various fields including psychology, sociology, and communications to refer to the process of using communication to influence or persuade others to adopt a particular viewpoint or course of action.

However, in a medical context, communication is a crucial aspect of healthcare delivery, and effective communication skills are essential for healthcare professionals to build trust, ensure informed consent, and promote patient engagement and adherence to treatment plans. This includes being able to effectively communicate complex medical information in a clear and understandable way, as well as being sensitive to patients' emotions, values, and cultural backgrounds.

If you have any specific questions about communication in a medical context or any other healthcare-related topic, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tape recording" is not a medical term. It refers to the process of recording sound or video onto magnetic tape using a device called a tape recorder. This technology was widely used in the past for audio and video recordings, but it has been largely replaced by digital recording methods in recent years. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

Nurse-patient relations refer to the interactions and relationships between registered nurses (RNs) or licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and their patients. This relationship is based on trust, respect, and collaboration, with the goal of providing safe, effective, and compassionate care that promotes the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of the patient.

The nurse-patient relationship involves several key elements, including:

1. Communication: Effective communication is essential in the nurse-patient relationship. Nurses must listen actively to their patients, understand their needs and concerns, and provide clear and concise information about their care.
2. Empathy: Nurses should demonstrate empathy and compassion towards their patients, recognizing their feelings and emotions and providing emotional support when needed.
3. Autonomy: Nurses should respect their patients' autonomy and self-determination, involving them in decision-making about their care and promoting their independence whenever possible.
4. Confidentiality: Nurses must maintain confidentiality and protect their patients' privacy, ensuring that sensitive information is shared only with those who have a legitimate need to know.
5. Advocacy: Nurses should advocate for their patients, ensuring that they receive the care and resources they need to achieve optimal health outcomes.

Overall, nurse-patient relations are critical to the delivery of high-quality healthcare and can significantly impact patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and clinical outcomes.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "telecommunications" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Telecommunications refers to the transmission of information over long distances through electronic means, such as telephone, television, radio, and internet. It is a broader term used in various fields including engineering, technology, and communications.

However, in the context of healthcare, you might be referring to "telemedicine" or "e-health," which are subsets of telecommunications. Telemedicine involves the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide healthcare services remotely, allowing patients and providers to interact virtually. E-health is a broader concept that encompasses telemedicine as well as other electronic processes related to health, such as electronic health records and health information systems.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Patient simulation is the creation of a situation or scenario that represents a patient's medical condition or illness, using a mannequin or computer-based program. It allows healthcare professionals and students to practice their skills and decision-making abilities in a controlled and safe environment. The simulated patient can respond to treatments and interventions, providing a realistic representation of the patient's condition. This type of simulation is used for training, assessment, and research purposes in medical education and healthcare fields.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "role playing" as it is not a term typically used in the medical field. However, role-playing in general refers to the acting out or adopting of a particular role or character, often in a structured situation for the purpose of learning, practicing skills, therapy, or entertainment.

In a healthcare context, role-playing can be used as a teaching tool for medical students and healthcare professionals to practice communication skills, break bad news, manage difficult conversations, or learn about patient perspectives. Role-playing can also be used in therapeutic settings, such as psychodrama or drama therapy, to help individuals explore their emotions, experiences, and relationships.

It's important to note that role-playing should not be confused with "role-play," which is a paraphilic behavior where an individual derives sexual pleasure from acting out a scenario in which they adopt a specific role or character. Role-play as a paraphilia is considered a mental disorder when it causes distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Teleradiology is a subspecialty of radiology that involves the transmission of medical images from one location to another for the purpose of interpretation and diagnosis by a radiologist. This technology allows radiologists to review and report on imaging studies, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, remotely using secure electronic communication systems.

Teleradiology has become increasingly important in modern healthcare, particularly in emergency situations where immediate interpretation of medical images is necessary. It also enables radiologists to provide specialized expertise for complex cases, regardless of their geographic location. The use of teleradiology must comply with all relevant regulations and laws regarding patient privacy and data security.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

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Autocrine is a cell sending a signal to itself by secreting a molecule that binds to a receptor on its surface. Forms of ... Cell signaling or cell communication is important for cell regulation and for cells to process information from the environment ... Signaling can occur through direct cell contact or endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling. Direct cell-cell contact is ... cell communication, cell cycle, biochemistry, and cell composition. The study of cells is performed using several microscopy ...
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"20-HETE promotes glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in an autocrine manner through FFAR1". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 177 ... communication between cells), and in suppressing the development of certain central nervous system disorders. However, it is ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 465 (3): 512-5. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.08.050. PMID 26282200. Takahashi K ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 484 (3): 675-680. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.01.175. PMID 28159555. Cosín- ...
... s use either nearby cell-cell communication (paracrine) or same-cell communication (autocrine). They are ... Wnt is down-regulated during the dormancy stage by autocrine DKK1 to avoid immune surveillance, as well as during the ... In Wnt signaling, these proteins act as ligands to activate the different Wnt pathways via paracrine and autocrine routes. ... Wnt/IL-1β/IL-8 autocrine circuitries control chemoresistance in mesothelioma initiating cells by inducing ABCB5.Int. J. Cancer ...
Zhou J, Gao G, Crabb JW, Serrero G (May 1993). "Purification of an autocrine growth factor homologous with mouse epithelin ... Nature Communications. 8: 15277. Bibcode:2017NatCo...815277Z. doi:10.1038/ncomms15277. PMC 5477518. PMID 28541286. Nguyen AD, ... Progranulin may function as an autocrine growth factor in tumorigenesis. The discovery of a GRN mutation leading to lysosomal ... Serrero G (August 2003). "Autocrine growth factor revisited: PC-cell-derived growth factor (progranulin), a critical player in ...
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, ... Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine ... Autocrine+signaling at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Autocrine versus juxtacrine ... and that cooperation of autocrine PDGFR signaling with oncogenic was required for survival during EMT. Autocrine PDGFR ...
There are generally four types of chemical signals: autocrine, paracrine, juxtacrine, and hormones. In autocrine signaling, the ... Cell signaling (or communication) is the ability of cells to receive, process, and transmit signals with its environment and ... "Cell communication". Nature Education. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2021. "Cell signaling ...
In cellular biology, paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling, a type of cellular communication in which a cell produces ... and autocrine signaling. Cells that produce paracrine factors secrete them into the immediate extracellular environment. ...
Autocrine purinergic signalling is an important checkpoint in the activation of white blood cells. These mechanisms either ... It has an excitatory effect on neurones, and acts as a mediator in neuronal-glial communications. Both adenosine and ATP induce ... The release of ATP and an autocrine feedback through P2RY2 and A3 receptors are signal amplifiers. Hypoxia-inducible factors ... Although purinergic signaling has been connected to pathological processes in the context of neuron-glia communication, it has ...
Sica A, Saccani A, Bottazzi B, Polentarutti N, Vecchi A, van Damme J, Mantovani A (January 2000). "Autocrine production of IL- ... Nature Communications. 8: 14293. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814293C. doi:10.1038/ncomms14293. PMC 5309815. PMID 28176769. Zeisberger ...
Recent studies have shown the existence of communication between adherens junctions and gap junctions, suggesting a higher ... connexin hemichannels and pannexin channels can contribute to autocrine/paracrine signaling pathways, and (3) different ... "Regulation of connexin 43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication by Ca2+ in mouse epidermal cells is controlled by ... "Characterization of gap junctional intercellular communication in immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells with ...
This definition holds for most "classical" hormones, but there are also paracrine mechanisms (chemical communication between ... cells within a tissue or organ), autocrine signals (a chemical that acts on the same cell), and intracrine signals (a chemical ...
... autocrine communication MeSH G04.335.122.155 - bystander effect MeSH G04.335.122.300 - embryonic induction MeSH G04.335.122.600 ... paracrine communication MeSH G04.335.122.850 - signal transduction MeSH G04.335.122.850.580 - mechanotransduction, cellular ...
"Cell-to-cell communication in the anterior pituitary: evidence for gap junction-mediated exchanges between endocrine cells and ... autocrine/paracrine control of anterior pituitary cell function though the use of cytokines and growth factors, intrapituitary ... as the IL-6 is a mediator in communication between the endocrine and immune system. IL-6 production by FS cells induces hormone ... A route for long-distance communication in the anterior pituitary". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (15): ...
... and Autocrine Regulation of Structure and Functions, Cellular And Molecular Biology For Human, (all on Cell and Molecular ... and Intercellular Communication. Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57808-066-3. "Guraya SS[au] on Pubmed". Pubmed. 2016. Retrieved ... and Autocrine Regulation of Structure and Functions. Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57808-165-3. Sardul S. Guraya (1 January ... and Autocrine Regulation of Structure and Functions. Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57808-165-3. Sardul S. Guraya (1 January ...
Her work on cell-to-cell communication has also focused on the mechanisms that determine organ size and shape in plants. Her ... "Autocrine regulation of stomatal differentiation potential by EPF1 and ERECTA-LIKE1 ligand-receptor signaling". eLife. 6: ... Torii researches stem cell maintenance and the cell-to-cell communication required to correctly pattern tissue during ... Chemical Communications. 53 (69): 9632-9635. doi:10.1039/C7CC04526C. PMID 28809975. Hirakawa, Yuki; Shinohara, Hidefumi; Welke ...
The hormone acts in endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine manners through the prolactin receptor and numerous cytokine receptors ... Nature Communications. 5: 5861. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5.5861L. doi:10.1038/ncomms6861. PMC 4284646. PMID 25519203. Porto-Neto LR ... an autocrine growth factor for lymphoproliferation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... where they regulate hair growth and moulting in an autocrine fashion. Elevated levels of prolactin can inhibit hair growth, and ...
This protein functions as an autocrine factor which heightens osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Epigenetic regulation ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 198 (3): 983-989. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1140. PMID 8117306. Maruyama K, ... "Cloning and identification of annexin II as an autocrine/paracrine factor that increases osteoclast formation and bone ... "Cloning and identification of annexin II as an autocrine/paracrine factor that increases osteoclast formation and bone ...
Discovering bacteria's amazing communication system Bonnie Bassler's seminar: "Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria" (Articles ... However, it also contains traits of both autocrine signaling: a cell produces both the autoinducer molecule and the receptor ... Stokar-Avihail A, Tal N, Erez Z, Lopatina A, Sorek R. Widespread Utilization of Peptide Communication in Phages Infecting Soil ... Quorum sensing may also be useful for cancer cell communications. In addition to its function in biological systems, quorum ...
"The Inside Story of Cell Communication". learn.genetics.utah.edu. Retrieved 2018-10-20. "When Cell Communication Goes Wrong". ... called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell itself. This ... Autocrine signaling is a special case of paracrine signaling where the secreting cell has the ability to respond to the ... Estrogen can be released by the ovary and function as a hormone or act locally via paracrine or autocrine signaling. Although ...
"Autocrine versus juxtacrine signaling modes" - illustration at sysbio.org (Articles with short description, Short description ... 2002). "General Principles of Cell Communication". In NCBI bookshelf (ed.). Molecular biology of the cell (4th ed.). New York: ... Paracrine signaling occurs over short distances, while autocrine signaling involves a cell responding to its own paracrine ... Other types of cell signaling include paracrine signalling and autocrine signalling. ...
... and role in autocrine cell growth of cell surface retention sequence binding protein-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 288 (4): 1043-6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5869. PMID 11689016. Mouta Carreira ...
Autocrine signaling is a form of signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent ... Juxtacrine signaling is a type of intercellular communication that is transmitted via oligosaccharide, lipid, or protein ... Endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling have all been implicated in proliferation, one of the required steps of ... The term hormone is sometimes extended to include chemicals produced by cells that affect the same cell (autocrine or ...
"Autologous chemotaxis as a mechanism of tumor cell homing to lymphatics via interstitial flow and autocrine CCR7 signaling". ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 215 (2): 737-743. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.2525. PMID 7488016. Schweickart VL ...
This slows down communication between neurons and the nervous system. Unlike benzodiazepines, which increase the frequency of ... Gamel-Didelon, Katia; Corsi, Claudia; Pepeu, Giancarlo; Jung, Heike; Gratzl, Manfred; Mayerhofer, Artur (2002). "An Autocrine ... Communication in Plants. pp. 171-185. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-28516-8_12. ISBN 978-3-540-28516-8. {{cite book}}: ,work= ignored ( ... Chemical Communications. 50 (22): 2904-2906. doi:10.1039/C3CC49603A. ISSN 1364-548X. PMID 24492471. Carter, Lawrence P.; Wu, ...
2003). "Cloning, expression, characterization, and role in autocrine cell growth of cell surface retention sequence binding ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 288 (4): 1043-1046. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2001.5869. PMID 11689016. Mouta ...
Recently, co-culture has become the predominant approach to study the effect of cellular communication by culturing two ... autocrine signaling, and juxtacrine signaling. For example, in paracrine signaling, growth factors secreted from one cell ... Bogdanowicz DR, Lu HH (April 2013). "Studying cell-cell communication in co-culture". Biotechnology Journal. 8 (4): 395-6. doi: ... cells can engage in enhanced communication with neighboring cells and cell-extracellular matrix interactions can be modeled. In ...
These growth factors often act in a paracrine or autocrine fashion; they include fibroblast growth factor, placental growth ... requiring precise coordination of multiple steps and the participation and communication of multiple cell types. The complex ...
Autocrine Communication / immunology * Cells, Cultured * Inflammation Mediators / metabolism * Inflammation Mediators / ... Among these proinflammatory mediators, autocrine/paracrine TNF-alpha was pivotal for augmenting TLR2 expression, since receptor ... by NF-kappaB-dependent autocrine/paracrine effects of TNF-alpha in astrocytes. ...
Kho DH, Nangia-Makker P, Balan V, Hogan V, Tait L, Wang Y, Raz A (February 2013). "Autocrine motility factor promotes HER2 ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 194 (1): 446-457. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1993.1840. PMID 8392842. Fu M, Li L, ... The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor (AMF) based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted ... Liotta LA, Mandler R, Murano G, Katz DA, Gordon RK, Chiang PK, Schiffmann E (May 1986). "Tumor cell autocrine motility factor ...
The autocrine receptor will then induce a cellular response, just like any other form of cellular communication. This allows ... Autocrine signaling can also have harmful effects. Growth factors dispersed through autocrine signaling are responsible for the ... How does this work? What are examples of autocrine signaling in nature and science?. Autocrine signaling refers to a cell ... This involves the cell producing and secreting ligands, known as autocrine agents, that bond with autocrine receptors in the ...
... maintaining and reinforcing senescence in an autocrine manner [101]. Moreover, SASP can be used as a form of communication with ... on the disruption of the EGFR/EGF/TGFα autocrine loop. It inhibits both the phosphorylation of the receptor as well as ... which can act both in a paracrine and autocrine manner and are involved in the generation of low-grade inflammation. This ...
... paracrine and autocrine effects of various growth factors, cytokines elaborated by the tumor cells, and promiscuous expression ... putative pathogenetic mechanisms that may function in concert with each other are alterations in intercellular communication, ...
... short communications and proceedings on mathematical modelling in biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, and other areas. ... Discrete models of autocrine cell communication in epithelial layers. Biophys. J., 84 (2003), 3624-3635. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [ ... Autocrine signal transmission with extracellular ligand degradation. Phys. Biol., 6 (2009), 016006. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google ... Long-range signal transmission in autocrine relays. Biophys. J., 84 (2003), 883-896. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] ...
... mediated by secretion-based cell-cell communication (e.g. autocrine, paracrine, quorum sensing). ... Phosphotyrosine signaling: evolving a new cellular communication system (Cell 2010). Exploitation of Latent Allostery Enables ... We are using synthetic signaling systems and orthogonal cell-cell communication systems to disentangle these circuits. We hope ... We are also trying to understand how cell-cell communication network motifs contribute to emergent multicellular spatial self- ...
Cytokines can act on their target cells in an autocrine, paracrine, and/or endocrine fashion to induce systemic and/or ... Therefore, cytokines are critical mediators of communication for the immune system and are essential for host defense against ... Once IFN is secreted, it can act in autocrine or paracrine (like other cytokines) way, interacting with interferon receptor to ... These molecules play an important role in intercellular communication and coordinate the innate and adaptive response [35]. ...
Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1a Autocrine/Paracrine Signaling Contributes to Spatiotemporal Gradients in the Brain. Hickey, K. N ...
... intra-follicular paracrine/autocrine communication network in the ovary; (3) impacts of environmental endocrine-disrupting ... Ge, W. 2005 Intrafollicular paracrine communication in the zebrafish ovary: The state of the art of an emerging model for the ... PI) Intrafollicular Communication in the Zebrafish Ovary - Roles of GDF-9 from the oocyte in orchestrating follicle development ... PI) Functional and genetic analysis of the kit system in the ovary - a potential paracrine communication mechanism during ...
Here, we reveal a previously unreported autocrine function of HH signaling in airway epithelial cells. Epithelial cell ... Hedgehog (HH) signaling orchestrates communication between epithelial and mesenchymal cells in the lung, where it modulates ... An essential function for autocrine hedgehog signaling in epithelial proliferation and differentiation in the trachea. ...
... communication networks in eighteenth century had empirische Befunde, Schriftenreihe Mensch, Technik, Organisation. 151; ... autocrine Conductivity Fluids: with a download Poetry and the police : communication networks in eighteenth century Paris 2010 ... Small Business» Business Communications & Etiquette» Communication in Organizations» The course of Communication Between ... Nov 2014) COMMUNICATIONS. The download Poetry and the police : communication networks in eighteenth century Paris browser is ...
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autocrine sign creating specific subpopulations.5 6 Identifying the Trazodone HCl variation on the single-cell level is turning ... Cells operate in ever changing conditions using extraordinary communication capabilities that. Cells operate in ever changing ... conditions using extraordinary communication capabilities that emerge from the interactions of genetic circuitry. of the ...
Autocrine Communication G4.299.122.100 G4.85.100 Autoimmune Hypophysitis C10.228.140.617.738.100 C10.228.140.617.738.275.500 ... Cell Communication G4.299.122 G4.85 Cell Compartmentation G4.299.125 G4.128 Cell Count G4.170 G4.140 Cell Cycle G4.299.134 ... Manual Communication E2.760.169.63.500.200.609 Manubrium A2.835.232.904.766.442 A2.835.232.570.750.442 MAP Kinase Signaling ... Autocrine Motility Factor D12.776.543.750.68 D12.776.543.750.660 Receptors, Biogenic Amine D12.776.543.750.69 D12.776.543.750. ...
Autocrine Communication G4.299.122.100 G4.85.100 Autoimmune Hypophysitis C10.228.140.617.738.100 C10.228.140.617.738.275.500 ... Cell Communication G4.299.122 G4.85 Cell Compartmentation G4.299.125 G4.128 Cell Count G4.170 G4.140 Cell Cycle G4.299.134 ... Manual Communication E2.760.169.63.500.200.609 Manubrium A2.835.232.904.766.442 A2.835.232.570.750.442 MAP Kinase Signaling ... Autocrine Motility Factor D12.776.543.750.68 D12.776.543.750.660 Receptors, Biogenic Amine D12.776.543.750.69 D12.776.543.750. ...
Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins essential for intercellular communication (which also carry out neurotransmitters ... according to their functions are classified into autocrine, paracrine and endocrine. Cytokines are characterized by their ...
... β-cells against apoptosis by increasing the activity of an Igf-2/Igf-1 receptor autocrine loop," Diabetes, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 330, no. 2, pp. 577-584, 2005. ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 326, no. 4, pp. 744-751, 2005. ...
The non-synaptic communication between the various brain cell types is extremely important during development, and the various ... and fluid interconnectivity between cellular compartments are sufficiently optimized for studying paracrine and autocrine ... We believe that these two metabolic signatures are parts of an essential chemical communication mechanism between neurons and ...
The endocrine system-the other communication system in the body-is made up of endocrine glands that produce hormones, chemical ... The endocrine system-the other communication system in the body-is made up of endocrine glands that produce hormones, chemical ... The concept of endocrine function thus was expanded to paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and intracrine functions, whereas the ... Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van Cauter E. Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with ...
Wnt signaling pathways use either nearby cell-cell communication (paracrine) or same-cell communication (autocrine). They are ... Augmentative communication (1) austim (17) Austism flare up (12) Austistic Brain (1) Austria (1) Autism (486) Autism Biomarkers ... To further assess whether expression of the Wnt inhibitors impaired the signaling ability of BDNF, we analyzed autocrine ... Facilitated Communication (1) Family (1) Family history (1) Farnesyltransferase inhibitor (2) Fecal Microbiota Transplantation ...
Al-Nedawi K, Meehan B, Kerbel RS, Allison AC, Rak J. Endothelial expression of autocrine VEGF upon the uptake of tumor-derived ... It is clear that the tumor microenvironment can promote the metastatic cascade and that intercellular communication is ... Exosomes mediate stromal mobilization of autocrine Wnt-PCP signaling in breast cancer cell migration. Cell (2012) 151(7):1542- ... Exosomes: a novel pathway of local and distant intercellular communication that facilitates the growth and metastasis of ...
"Ghrelin gene-related peptides: multifunctional endocrine / autocrine modulators in health and disease". Clinical and ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 374 (1): 60-63. September 2008. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.114. PMID ... Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 280 (1): 132-138. January 2001. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.4065. PMID 11162489. ...
Goodenough, D.A.; Goliger, J.A.; Paul, D.L. Connexins, connexons, and intercellular communication. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 1996, 65 ... Exosomes mediate stromal mobilization of autocrine Wnt-PCP signaling in breast cancer cell migration. Cell 2012, 151, 1542-1556 ... extracellular vesicles; exosomes; signalling pathway; trafficking; intercellular communication; neuroscience; drug delivery; ... Ronquist, G. Prostasomes are mediators of intercellular communication: From basic research to clinical implications. J. Intern ...
Cytokines are small proteins that play a role in intracellular communication in immune responses ... Most cytokines act on local target cells in an autocrine and paracrine action ...
... his immense passion for medical writing and scientific communication goes back to his student days. He enjoys contributing back ... which promotes an inflammatory response by establishing an autocrine circuit in mesothelial cells that influences their ...
Animals, Autocrine Communication, Cell Line, Humans, Immunity, Cellular, Interleukin-12, Leishmania, Leishmaniasis, Macrophages ... Our data further reveal that autocrine-acting host factors play no role in the inhibitory response and that phagocytosis ...
VEGFR2 autocrine feed-forward loop triggers angiogenesis in lung cancer Oncogenic BRAF regulates oxidative metabolism via PGC1α ... a novel biomarker for early diagnosis Communication through resonance in spiking neuronal networks Bleb-driven chemotaxis of ... and heterosynaptic plasticity Autocrine BDNF TrkB signalling within a single dendritic spine Mycoplasma pneumoniaetriggering ... DNA damage in human skin cells High IFN-γ and low SLPI mark severe asthma in mice and humans Cell-cell communication in yeast ...
p,The activation of autocrine loops involving proto-oncogene relatedreceptor tyrosine kinases has led to the analysisof a large ... The activation of autocrine loops involving proto-oncogene relatedreceptor tyrosine kinases has led to the analysisof a large ... INFONA - science communication portal. resources. people. groups. collections. journals. conferences. series. Search. * ...
  • Among these proinflammatory mediators, autocrine/paracrine TNF-alpha was pivotal for augmenting TLR2 expression, since receptor levels were not elevated in astrocytes isolated from TNF-alpha knockout mice upon bacterial exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, this study suggests that two important anti-bacterial effector molecules, TLR2 and NO, are regulated, in part, by NF-kappaB-dependent autocrine/paracrine effects of TNF-alpha in astrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Most cells make important decisions through a combination of both autonomous (individual cell) responses and collective responses, mediated by secretion-based cell-cell communication (e.g. autocrine, paracrine, quorum sensing). (ucsf.edu)
  • Generalizing the effects of all these protein components is impossible, even so, according to their functions are classified into autocrine, paracrine and endocrine. (lyposmol.es)
  • The concept of endocrine function thus was expanded to paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and intracrine functions, whereas the classic endocrine system included the traditional endocrine axes. (medscape.com)
  • 2019) The calcium channel subunit α 2 δ-3 organizes synapses via an activity-dependent and autocrine BMP signaling pathway . (case.edu)
  • The endocrine system-the other communication system in the body-is made up of endocrine glands that produce hormones, chemical substances released into the bloodstream to guide processes such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. (medscape.com)
  • Cytokines are low molecular weight proteins essential for intercellular communication (which also carry out neurotransmitters and hormones) and are produced and released by several cell types. (lyposmol.es)
  • The same protein is also secreted by cancer cells, where it is called autocrine motility factor and stimulates metastasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells operate in ever changing conditions using extraordinary communication capabilities that emerge from the interactions of genetic circuitry. (mdm-inhibitors.com)
  • We are using synthetic signaling systems and orthogonal cell-cell communication systems to disentangle these circuits. (ucsf.edu)
  • We are also trying to understand how cell-cell communication network motifs contribute to emergent multicellular spatial self-organization in processes such as development. (ucsf.edu)
  • These hormones regulate the body's growth, and are involved in cell to cell communication, control metabolic activity, sleep-wake homeostasis, and altered regulation or dysregulation of adaptive response in various physiologic and pathophysiologic states. (medscape.com)
  • The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor (AMF) based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autocrine effects of transgenic resistin reduce palmitate and glucose oxidation in brown adipose tissue. (mitophysiology.org)
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  • The non-synaptic communication between the various brain cell types is extremely important during development, and the various chemical gradients are critical for brain patterning, neuronal differentiation and migration, laminar development and establishment of the synaptic framework [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most autocrine and paracrine interactions involved in glioma invasion constitute known signaling systems in stages of central nervous system development that involve the migration of precursor cells that populate the developing brain. (medscape.com)
  • Identification of liver cancer progenitors whose malignant progression depends on autocrine IL-6 signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike early hepatocarcinogenesis, which depends on paracrine IL-6 production by inflammatory cells, due to upregulation of LIN28 expression, HcPCs had acquired autocrine IL-6 signaling that stimulates their in vivo growth and malignant progression. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Participation of the lipoprotein receptor LRP1 in hypoxia-HSP90alpha autocrine signaling to promote keratinocyte migration. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest that acquisition of a motile phenotype in HMEC resulted from enhanced autocrine TGF-β signaling, invasion/metastasis-associated gene expression, and a shift in the ratio of antimigratory Rac1b to promigratory Rac 1. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Cell signaling is a method of communication of one cell with other cells . (studyread.com)
  • My research activity has focused on a few areas, but a theme that has been common to most of my work is investigation of molecular mechanisms that control intercellular communication (also known as signaling). (kumc.edu)
  • A detailed genetic analysis of this growth signaling pathway revealed a role for redundant secreted ligands, Pvf2 and Pvf3, in the establishment of an autocrine growth signaling loop. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This automated genome-wide screen identifies autocrine Pvf/Pvr signaling, upstream of Ras, MAPK and PI3K, as rate-limiting for the growth of immortalized fly cells in culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this way, we have identified a novel role for autocrine Pvf/Pvr signaling, upstream of both Ras and phospho-inositide-3-kinase (PI3K), as a rate-limiting step in the regulation of Drosophila cell size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. Tumour-Secreted Hsp90α on External Surface of Exosomes Mediates Tumour - Stromal Cell Communication via Autocrine and Paracrine Mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the complexity observed in such studies can be attributed to astrocytic interactions with other cell types such as neurons, microglia and vasculature, and also to the intercellular communication among astrocytes via gap-junctional coupling and/or extracellularly released neurotransmitters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, complement C3a secreted from activated astrocytes may induce the secretion of complement C1q, inflammatory cytokines and progranulin (PGRN) by microglia, facilitating injury to microglia, neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in an autocrine or paracrine manner. (medsci.org)
  • 2) Synaptic communication between neurons and brain cancer cells (e.g., malignant glioma), through voltage-regulated mechanisms, can regulate cancer growth. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • These neurons then secrete CPE/NF-α1 to protect them from glutamate- induced cell death in an autocrine/paracrine manner. (nih.gov)
  • The endocrine system-the other communication system in the body-is made up of endocrine glands that produce hormones, chemical substances released into the bloodstream to guide processes such as metabolism, growth, and sexual development. (medscape.com)
  • The concept of endocrine function thus was expanded to paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and intracrine functions, whereas the classic endocrine system included the traditional endocrine axes. (medscape.com)
  • Drivers of glioma invasion include autocrine signals propagated by secreted factors that signal through receptors on the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Describe the function of Autocrine Signals. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Autocrine signals affect the cells that made them. (getrevising.co.uk)
  • 2014. Effector CD4 T cell transition to memory requires late cognate interactions that induce autocrine IL-2. (ucf.edu)
  • These hormones regulate the body's growth, and are involved in cell to cell communication, control metabolic activity, sleep-wake homeostasis, and altered regulation or dysregulation of adaptive response in various physiologic and pathophysiologic states. (medscape.com)
  • To simplify the complexity of common in vitro systems, introduced by intercellular communication between astrocytes, we developed a novel cell culturing method, in which purified rat visual cortical astrocytes were grown in spatially defined cell-adhesion wells which we termed micropits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, we designed a new culturing approach to reduce intercellular communication to characterize astrocytes in a simplistic manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • and c ) whether preestablished insulin resistance alters the metabolic responses of adipocytes exposed to PCB126 and the communication between adipocytes and myotubes. (nih.gov)
  • These data indicate that GABA released from beta-cells functions as an autocrine inhibitor of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets and that the effect is principally due to direct suppression of exocytosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe various autocrine motility factors that are expressed by invasive glioma cells and explore the effects that they may have on normal cells present in the path of invasion. (medscape.com)
  • Her research investigates how autocrine, systemic, and environmental factors affect the regulation of mammary gland development and function. (wisc.edu)
  • The cells cultured in micropits showed a low incidence and degree of intercellular communication with cells in the adjacent micropits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Current therapies for glioma that could have an impact on paracrine communication between tumors and normal cells are discussed. (medscape.com)
  • Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone. (nih.gov)
  • Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior. (lookformedical.com)
  • The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health. (lookformedical.com)