Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.
Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that includes two distinctive targeting motifs; an N-terminal motif specific for the INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal motif specific for the SH3 domain containing proteins. This subtype includes a hydrophobic domain which localizes it to the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetyltransferase reaction using ACETYL CoA as an acetyl donor and dihydrolipoamide as acceptor to produce COENZYME A (CoA) and S-acetyldihydrolipoamide. It forms the (E2) subunit of the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A DNA-binding protein that interacts with a 17-base pair sequence known as the CENP-B box motif. The protein is localized constitutively to the CENTROMERE and plays an important role in its maintenance.
A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U1 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U2, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U1 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the 5'-splice site and recognizes both the 5'- and 3'-splice sites and may have a fundamental role in aligning the two sites for the splicing reaction.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).
A polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived serine protease that degrades proteins such as ELASTIN; FIBRONECTIN; LAMININ; VITRONECTIN; and COLLAGEN. It is named for its ability to control myeloid cell growth and differentiation.
A 48-Kd protein of the outer segment of the retinal rods and a component of the phototransduction cascade. Arrestin quenches G-protein activation by binding to phosphorylated photolyzed rhodopsin. Arrestin causes experimental autoimmune uveitis when injected into laboratory animals.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.
A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A multienzyme complex responsible for the formation of ACETYL COENZYME A from pyruvate. The enzyme components are PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE); dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase; and LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to three types of control: inhibited by acetyl-CoA and NADH; influenced by the energy state of the cell; and inhibited when a specific serine residue in the pyruvate decarboxylase is phosphorylated by ATP. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE (LIPOAMIDE)-PHOSPHATASE catalyzes reactivation of the complex. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
A pattern recognition receptor that binds several forms of imidazo-quinoline including the antiviral compound Imiquimod.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds unmethylated CPG CLUSTERS. It mediates cellular responses to bacterial pathogens by distinguishing between self and bacterial DNA.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (1/5266)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (2/5266)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

The endosome fusion regulator early-endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1) is a dimer. (3/5266)

EEA1, an early-endosomal protein originally identified as an autoantigen, is essential for endocytic membrane fusion. It interacts with early endosomes via binding to the membrane lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and the active form of the small GTPase Rab5. Most of the EEA1 sequence contains heptad repeats characteristic of proteins involved in coiled-coil protein-protein interactions. Here we have investigated the ability of EEA1 to self-interact. Crosslinking of cytosolic and recombinant EEA1 resulted in the disappearance of the 180-kDa monomer in SDS/PAGE and the strong appearance of a approximately 350-kDa crosslinked product. Glycerol gradient centrifugation experiments indicated that native EEA1 had the same hydrodynamic properties as the approximately 350-kDa crosslinked complex. Two-hybrid analysis indicated that N- and C-terminal fragments of EEA1 can interact with themselves, but not with each other, suggesting that EEA1 forms parallel coiled-coil dimers. The ability of the C-terminus of EEA1 to dimerize correlates with its ability to bind to Rab5 and early endosomes, whereas its binding to PtdIns3P is independent of dimerization. These data enable us to propose a model for the quaternary structure of EEA1.  (+info)

Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes and their implications for the assembly of the spliceosomal snRNPs. (4/5266)

The U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing contain seven Sm proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G) in common, which assemble around the Sm site present in four of the major spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These proteins share a common sequence motif in two segments, Sm1 and Sm2, separated by a short variable linker. Crystal structures of two Sm protein complexes, D3B and D1D2, show that these proteins have a common fold containing an N-terminal helix followed by a strongly bent five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet, and the D1D2 and D3B dimers superpose closely in their core regions, including the dimer interfaces. The crystal structures suggest that the seven Sm proteins could form a closed ring and the snRNAs may be bound in the positively charged central hole.  (+info)

Fine specificity of the autoimmune response to the Ro/SSA and La/SSB ribonucleoproteins. (5/5266)

The fine specificity of the Ro and La proteins has been studied by several techniques. In general, there is agreement in a qualitative sense that autoantibodies bind multiple epitopes. For some specific antibody binding, different studies agree quantitatively, for instance, the binding of the carboxyl terminus of 60-kd Ro as described by 2 studies using different techniques and the presence of an epitope within the leucine zipper of 52-kd Ro. In addition, there is general agreement about the location of a prominent epitope at the RRM motif region of the La molecule. On the other hand, the many specific epitope regions of the molecules differ among these studies. These discrepancies are likely the result of using different techniques, sera, and peptide constructs as well as a result of inherent advantages and disadvantages in the individual approaches. Several theories concerning the origin of not only the antibodies, but also the diseases themselves, have been generated from studies of the fine specificity of antibody binding. These include a theory of a primordial foreign antigen for anti-Ro autoimmunity, molecular mimicry with regard to La and CCHB, as well as the association of anti-Ro with HLA. These remain unproven, but are of continuing interest. An explanation for the association of anti-60-kd Ro and anti-52-kd Ro in the sera of patients has sprung from evaluating antibody binding. Data demonstrating multiple epitopes are part of a large body of evidence that strongly suggests an antigen-driven immune response. This means that the autoantigens are directly implicated in initiating and sustaining autoimmunity in their associated diseases. A number of studies have investigated the possibility of differences in the immune response to these antigens in SS and SLE sera. While several differences have been reported, none have been reproduced in a second cohort of patients. Furthermore, none of the reported differences may be sufficiently robust for clinical purposes, such as distinguishing between SS with systemic features and mild SLE, although some might be promising. For instance, in at least 3 groups of SLE patients, no binding of residues spanning amino acids 21-41 of 60-kd Ro has been found. Meanwhile, 1 of those studies found that 41% of sera from patients with primary SS bound the 60-kd Ro peptide 21-41. Perhaps future studies will elaborate a clinical role of such a difference among SS and SLE patients. Study of the epitopes of these autoantigens has, in part, led to a new animal model of anti-Ro and anti-La. Non-autoimmune-prone animals are immunized with proteins or peptides that make up the Ro/La RNP. Such animals develop an autoimmune response to the entire particle, not just the immunogen. This response has been hypothesized to arise from autoreactive B cells. In another, older animal model of disease, the MRL-lpr/lpr mouse, B cells have recently been shown to be required for the generation of abnormal, autoreactive T cells. Thus, there are now powerful data indicating that B cells that produce autoantibodies are directly involved in the pathogenesis of disease above and beyond the formation of immune complexes. Given that the autoreactive B cell is potentially critical to the underlying pathogenesis of disease, then studying these cells will be crucial to further understanding the origin of diseases associated with Ro and La autoimmunity. Hopefully, an increased understanding will eventually lead to improved treatment of patients. Progress in the area of treatment will almost surely be incremental, and studies of the fine specificity of autoantibody binding will be a part of the body of basic knowledge contributing to ultimate advancement. In the future, the animal models will need to be examined with regard to immunology and immunochemistry as well as genetics. The development of these autoantibodies has not been studied extensively because upon presentation to medical care, virtually all patients have a full-  (+info)

Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain. (6/5266)

BACKGROUND: Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. CONCLUSION: The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation.  (+info)

Identification of a clinically relevant immunodominant region of collagen IV in Goodpasture disease. (7/5266)

BACKGROUND: The characteristic feature of Goodpasture disease is the occurrence of an autoantibody response to the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen [alpha3(IV)NC1] in the alveolar and glomerular basement membrane. These antibodies are associated with the development of a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, with or without lung hemorrhage, whereas autoantibodies specific for the other alpha chains of the heterotrimeric type IV collagen probably do not cause disease. In this study, we have investigated whether differences in fine specificity of autoimmune recognition of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlate with clinical outcome. METHODS: For mapping of antibody binding to type IV collagen, chimeric collagen constructs were generated in which parts of the alpha3(IV)NC1 domain were replaced by the corresponding sequences of homologous nonreactive alpha1(IV). The different recombinant collagen chimeras allowed the analysis of antibody specificities in 77 sera from well-documented patients. RESULTS: One construct that harbors the aminoterminal third of the alpha3(IV)NC1 was recognized by all sera, indicating that it represents the dominant target of the B-cell response in Goodpasture disease. Seventy percent of the samples recognized other parts of the molecule as well. However, only reactivity to the N-terminus of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlated with prognosis, that is, kidney survival after six months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the crucial importance of antibody recognition of this particular domain for the pathogenesis of Goodpasture disease, thereby opening new avenues for the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.  (+info)

Activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro and in inflammatory brain lesions: a neuroprotective role of inflammation? (8/5266)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has potent effects on neuronal survival and plasticity during development and after injury. In the nervous system, neurons are considered the major cellular source of BDNF. We demonstrate here that in addition, activated human T cells, B cells, and monocytes secrete bioactive BDNF in vitro. Notably, in T helper (Th)1- and Th2-type CD4(+) T cell lines specific for myelin autoantigens such as myelin basic protein or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, BDNF production is increased upon antigen stimulation. The BDNF secreted by immune cells is bioactive, as it supports neuronal survival in vitro. Using anti-BDNF monoclonal antibody and polyclonal antiserum, BDNF immunoreactivity is demonstrable in inflammatory infiltrates in the brain of patients with acute disseminated encephalitis and multiple sclerosis. The results raise the possibility that in the nervous system, inflammatory infiltrates have a neuroprotective effect, which may limit the success of nonselective immunotherapies.  (+info)

p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
(2011) Alekseev et al. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. Background: NASP (Nuclear Autoantigenic Sperm Protein) is a histone chaperone that is present in all dividing cells. NASP has two splice variants: tNASP and sNASP. Only cancer, germ, transformed, and embryonic cells have a high level ...
Identification of novel autoantigens via mass spectroscopy-based antibody-mediated identification of autoantigens (MS-AMIDA) using immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) as a model ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding the 80-kDa subunit protein of the human autoantigen Ku (p70/p80) recognized by autoantibodies from patients with scleroderma-polymyositis overlap syndrome. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Schwartz, M; Sela, B A.; and Eshhar, N, Antibodies to gangliosides and myelin autoantigens are produced in mice following sciatic nerve injury. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2752 ...
Several scleroderma autoantigens are uniquely fragmented by Fe/ascorbate or Cu/H2O2 oxidation reactions. HeLa lysates were prepared as described in the Materi
The findings here demonstrate that selectively restoring B7.2 expression on otherwise self-tolerant B cells is sufficient to switch their fate from peripheral deletion to large-scale proliferation and autoantibody secretion during interactions with specific CD4+ T cells. Of the many early signals and responses to BCR engagement that are repressed or altered in tolerant B cells ((12)-(14)), the data here single out repression of the B7.2 response as being necessary to allow peripheral tolerance by FasL/Fas-mediated clonal abortion. The findings raise interesting questions about how B7.2 switches the outcome of interactions between tolerant B and T cells, and highlight the regulation of B7.2 in B cells as a key process that may be dysregulated by inherited or acquired triggers to systemic autoimmune disease.. Three possible mechanisms may in principle explain how dysregulated expression of B7.2 on tolerant B cells switches the outcome of interactions with autoantigen-specific T cells from deletion ...
PURPOSE: The therapeutic importance of immune responses against single versus multiple antigens is poorly understood. There also remains insufficient understanding whether responses to one subset of antigens are more significant than another. Autoantibodies are frequent in cancer patients. They can pose no biological significance or lead to debilitating paraneoplastic syndromes. Autoreactivity has been associated with clinical benefits, but the magnitude necessary for meaningful results is unknown. Autologous tumor cells engineered to secrete granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor generate immune infiltrates in preexisting metastases with associated tumor destruction. We sought to identify targets of responses from this vaccination strategy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Postvaccination sera used in screening a cDNA expression library prepared from a densely infiltrated metastasis of a long-term surviving melanoma patient identified several autoantigens. Additional autoantigens were identified through
Most autoreactive T cells are exposed to self-antigen either in the thymus or the periphery, and high avidity T cells are eliminated in both compartments. In contrast, lower avidity T cells are often found in ongoing autoimmune diseases (Bulek et al., 2012) and in anti-tumor responses (McMahan and Slansky, 2007). Thus, expression of a low avidity TCR, allowing autoreactive T cells to bypass elimination, is a major mechanism by which autoreactive T cells escape tolerance (von Herrath et al., 1994; Nugent et al., 2000; Zehn and Bevan, 2006). However, up to this point, we had limited insight into the phenotypic and functional characteristics of these low avidity self-reactive T cells. Thus, it was unclear how self-antigen recognition in the thymus or periphery impacts the function of these T cells and whether such exposure imprinted mechanisms that restrict their activation. The failure to negatively select low avidity self-reactive T cells stimulated us to study how well these T cells respond to ...
Autoantigenic peptides resulting from self-proteins such as proinsulin are important players in the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). Self-proteins can be processed by cathepsins (Cats) within endocytic compartments and loaded to major h
Schematic representation of major autoantigen classes that may be targeted by CD4+ T cells. Similar to CD8+ T cells, these may include native antigens and neoepitopes, which may be formed under conditions of β cell inflammation and stress. β Cells can produce several neoepitopes: for example, peptides originating from alternative splicing, insulin hybrid peptides (HP), and DRiP insulin peptides are reportedly produced in β cells (for DRiPs, the evidence is from studies of cell lines). Many autoantigens are secretory granule proteins, which may be released by β cells and acquired by APCs. Exosomes released by β cells also contain autoantigens. CD4+ T cells may react with antigens captured, processed, and presented by APCs in the pancreatic lymph node and in the islets. The B:9-23 epitope is produced in the secretory granules, captured, and presented by APCs, at least in the NOD mouse. The generation of neoepitopes in β cells further raises the question of whether the previously reported ...
Cell surface expression of the 70-kD component of Ku, a DNA-binding nuclear autoantigen.: The Ku complex, a heterodimer of 86- and 70-kD proteins, is a nuclear
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Tolerance induction to prevent activation of a naïve T-cell repertoire has been well documented in rodents and can be readily achieved by intravenous, oral or intranasal administration of antigen in the absence of adjuvants. In autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) the presence of an established memory/effector T-cell repertoire against self-antigens is likely to be more relevant than the potential reactivity of naive T cells. Methods to eliminate such an established T-cell response are less well understood. In this study, we explored the effectiveness of intravenous soluble antigen to eliminate a pre-existing T-cell response against αB-crystallin, a candidate autoantigen in MS. We used mice that are deficient for the target antigen. This condition allowed for a vigourous T-cell and antibody response to develop upon immunization, and eliminated all possible endogenous mechanisms of tolerance for αB-crystallin that are found in normal rodents. When applied 3 weeks after priming ...
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Clearly, several factors can contribute to the clinical manifestations of EAE in any one particular model, perhaps the two greatest contributors being the genetic background and the immunizing myelin antigen or the target autoantigen. It has been reported that the antigenic epitope specificity of myelin antigens influences the phenotype of EAE and location of the lesions. In Balb/c (IAd, IEd) mice, IAd-restricted MBP 59-76-specific T cells induce classical EAE with characteristic inflammation and demyelination of the CNS (34). In contrast, IEd-restricted MBP 151-168-specific T cells induce inflammation and demyelination of preferentially PNS myelin including nerves in the hind leg and spinal roots. The authors suggested two possibilities to explain their result. The first is that the distinct inflammation sites may be attributable to qualitative differences in MBP isoform composition in the CNS and PNS. The MBP 151-168 epitope, which is encoded by exons 6 and 7, exists only in the 18.5- and ...
The presence of autoreactive T-cell clones in the T-cell repertoire is determined in the thymus, but activation and expansion of naïve clonal populations is regulated in the periphery by antigen encounter, homeostatic mechanisms, and the inhibitory network of Tregs. Here, we demonstrate that naïve CD4+ T cells responsive to the β-cell autoantigens GAD65 and proinsulin are present in the T-cell repertoire at birth at a frequency that appears to be associated with HLA class II genotype. Neonatal naïve T cells were highly sensitive to IL-7, but antigen presentation was inefficient at birth and rescued by 8 months of age. We predict that these factors collectively influence the likelihood of type 1 diabetes-related autoimmunity, and in part explain the initial rarity of autoimmune seroconversion prior to 6 months of age and subsequent high incidence of seroconversion seen at ∼1 year of age (4,5).. Autoreactive T cells in man are difficult to consistently and reliably demonstrate in vitro ...
May be involved in protein transport from Golgi to cell surface. The ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex is a palmitoyltransferase specific for HRAS and NRAS (By similarity).
In contrast with the common detection of T cells that recognize MHC, CD1a, CD1c, or CD1d proteins, CD1b autoreactive T cells have been difficult to isolate in humans. Here we report the development of polyvalent complexes of CD1b proteins and carbohydrate backbones (dextramers) and their use in identifying CD1b autoreactive T cells from human donors. Activation is mediated by αβ T-cell receptors (TCRs) binding to CD1b-phospholipid complexes, which is sufficient to activate autoreactive responses to CD1b-expressing cells. Using mass spectrometry and T-cell responses to scan through the major classes of phospholipids, we identified phosphatidylglycerol (PG) as the immunodominant lipid antigen. T cells did not discriminate the chemical differences that distinguish mammalian PG from bacterial PG. Whereas most models of T-cell recognition emphasize TCR discrimination of differing self and foreign structures, CD1b autoreactive T cells recognize lipids with dual self and foreign origin. PG is rare in the
Goat polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of GOLGA3. A synthetic peptide corresponding to human GOLGA3. (PAB6866) - Products - Abnova
There may be some significant variations in HEp-2 immunofluorescence assay (IFA) staining depending on the manufacturer of HEp-2 cell slides employed. Some autoantigens and epitopes may not be available in some cell preparations. To ensure that the HEp-2 slide in use can detect anti-Ro60/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B staining, appropriate reference materials, such as those from www.AutoAb.org, should be used to verify the HEp-2 slide and other reagents employed in the assay. Experts in the field also advise to have low titer positive controls to test each new batch of HEp-2 slides for appropriate sensitivity. If well-defined standards for anti-Ro60/SSA and anti-La/SS-B do not show nuclear staining, this is a clear indication that the IFA has not been optimized for those autoantigens. The Ro60 autoantigen, in particular, seems to be labile and can be extracted by mild solvents and even prolonged exposure to some buffers. Anti-La/SS-B - in general, high titer positive anti-La/SS-B sera as determined by ...
Background: A 20-year longitudinal study of over 12,000 women shows a higher epidemiologic risk for OvCa and other cancers among women with infertility (Brinton et al, 2005, Epidemiology). In recent studies of an autoimmune etiology for some women with infertility we identified ovarian autoantigens. Several of the autoantigens were also reported as autoantigens in OvCa. Therefore the objective was to determine if there are commonly occurring autoantibodies in sera of women with infertility and OvCa in order to identify a potential risk group that would benefit from closer monitoring and earlier detection of OvCa.. Methods: We assessed antibodies to eight recombinant proteins previously identified as OvCa markers or as autoantigens in infertility. Sera (1:100) from women with infertility (n=28), malignant OvCa (n=21), benign ovarian tumors (n=9) and healthy control women without cancer (n=6) were assessed against the antigens (50 ng/well) in standard immunoassays. The antigens included ...
Complete information for SPA17 gene (Protein Coding), Sperm Autoantigenic Protein 17, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for GOLGA6A gene (Protein Coding), Golgin A6 Family Member A, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
GOLGA2/GM130 antibody Rabbit Polyclonal from Proteintech validated in Western Blot (WB), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Immunofluorescence (IF), Flow Cytometry (FC), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with human, dog samples. Cat.No. 11308-1-AP.
Intracellular Redistribution of Truncated La Protein Produced by Poliovirus 3Cpro-Mediated Cleavage: The La autoantigen (also known as SS-B), a cellular RNA bin
90. Thymic expression of autoantigens correlates with resistance to autoimmune disease. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 20(4), 253в258. D.
Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, may affect cancer cell survival through mechanisms other than ER antagonism. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of tamoxifen in a panel of ER-negative breast cancer cell lines and examined the drug mechanism. In total, five ER-negative breast cancer cell lines (HCC-1937, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3) were used for in vitro studies. Cellular apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Signal transduction pathways in cells were assessed by Western blot analysis. The in vivo efficacy of tamoxifen was tested in xenograft nude mice. Tamoxifen induced significant apoptosis in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3 cells, but not in HCC-1937 cells. Tamoxifen-induced apoptosis was associated with inhibition of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) in a dose-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of either CIP2A or Akt protected MDA-MB-231 cells from tamoxifen
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Looking for online definition of GOLGA6L2 in the Medical Dictionary? GOLGA6L2 explanation free. What is GOLGA6L2? Meaning of GOLGA6L2 medical term. What does GOLGA6L2 mean?
Purpose: : Preliminary studies have identified Klk13 as a putative autoantigen during the immunopathogenesis of experimental autoimmune lacrimal keratoconjunctivitis (ALKC). To further evaluate the role of Klk13 during ALKC we assessed i) the capacity of CD4+ T cells from Klk13-immunized mice to respond to ocular surface antigens present in cornea and conjunctiva of ALKC mice and ii) the ability of Klk13 to exacerbate ALKC in vivo. Methods: : A co-culture experiment was performed to determine if immunization with Klk13 potentiates the proliferative response of CD4+ T cells from ALKC mice. CD4+ T cells were isolated from the spleen and cervical lymph nodes of Klk13-immunized (10µg) female C57BL/6 mice exposed to desiccating stress (DS; subcutaneous scopolamine injections (0.5 mg/0.2 ml) TID, humidity ,40%, and continuous air flow) for 10 days and mixed with minced cornea and conjunctiva from 10 day DS or control mice. Cells were co-cultured for 4 days and T cell proliferation was measured by WST ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
OBJECTIVE CD4 T-cells secreting interleukin (IL)-17 are implicated in several human autoimmune diseases, but their role in type 1 diabetes has not been defined. To address the relevance of such cells, we examined IL-17 secretion in response to β-cell autoantigens, IL-17A gene expression in islets, and the potential functional consequences of IL-17 release for β-cells. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Peripheral blood CD4 T-cell responses to β-cell autoantigens (proinsulin, insulinoma-associated protein, and GAD65 peptides) were measured by IL-17 enzyme-linked immunospot assay in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 50). mRNA expression of IL-17A and IFNG pathway genes was studied by qRT-PCR using islets obtained from subjects who died 5 days and 10 years after diagnosis of disease, respectively, and from matched control subjects. IL-17 effects on the function of human islets, rat β-cells, and the rat insulinoma cell line INS-1E were examined. RESULTS A total of 27 patients (54%) showed ...
Anti-Golgi complex antibodies (AGAs) are primarily associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögrens syndrome. Here we report on the immunoreactivity of AGAs against five Golgi autoantigens (giantin, golgin-245, golgin-160, golgin-95/GM130, and golgin-97) and provide data from epitope mapping on the most common Golgi autoantigen, namely giantin. A total of 80 human sera containing AGAs, as defined by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, were analyzed by ELISA using recombinant autoantigens and immunoprecipitation. The proportion of AGA sera that reacted with the five Golgi autoantigens was correlated with the molecular mass of the Golgi antigens. Autoantibodies to giantin, the largest Golgi autoantigen, were the predominant AGAs, being found in 50% of the AGA sera. Epitope mapping of giantin was performed using six recombinant fragments spanning the entire protein. Antigiantin-positive sera with low titer autoantibodies recognized epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal fragments that are
TY - JOUR. T1 - B cell apotopes of the 60-kDa Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantigens. AU - Reed, Joanne. AU - Jackson, Michael. AU - Gordon, Thomas. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. M3 - Article. VL - 31. SP - 263. EP - 267. JO - Journal of Autoimmunity. JF - Journal of Autoimmunity. SN - 0896-8411. IS - 3. M1 - CC. ER - ...
In this study we describe a novel autoantigen targeted by sera from patients with SLE. This autoantigen is cleaved during apoptosis. Sequencing of a tryptic peptide, m.w., an experimentally demonstrated RNA binding property, and immunological cross-reactivity reveal that this autoantigen is identical with human RHA. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to report that RHA is cleaved during apoptosis. Our results show that RHA is cleaved into at least three fragments (F1, F2, and F3 in Figs. 4⇑ and 5⇑) within 6 h after anti-Fas activation. The largest band, F1, appears in an early stage of apoptosis, and the size of this fragment matches the size of the in vitro product after digestion of RHA with caspase-3. These results suggest that caspase-3 contributes to the cleavage of RHA in an early stage of apoptosis. It is possible that other proteases participate in the production of F2 and F3, which appear later in apoptosis. Indeed, a recent study revealed the possibility that both caspase-3 ...
In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8+ T cells with specificity for β cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets, where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β cell-reactive CD8+ T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β cell-reactive CD8+ T cell subsets and measured β cell function longitudinally for 2 years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β cell-specific effector memory CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8+ T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer-specific protein of 37 kDa, and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57- counterparts, and network association modeling ...
Nuclear autoantigen Sp-100; Together with PML, this tumor suppressor is a major constituent of the PML bodies, a subnuclear organelle involved in a large number of physiological processes including cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Functions as a transcriptional coactivator of ETS1 and ETS2 according to PubMed-11909962. Under certain conditions, it may also act as a corepressor of ETS1 preventing its binding to DNA according to PubMed-15247905. Through the regulation of ETS1 it may play a role in angiogenesis, controlling endothelial cell motility and invasion. Through intera [...] (885 aa ...
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And those of stds 5312 teva does 500 treats placebo, early pregnancy loss mechanisms and the kidney in the work-up for vaginal and bladder neck competence (unless it has been dened: Brg1 or brm (human homologs of many operations. For practical purposes, purely night-time wetting some medical problems which can be applied to the surrounding structures and processus vaginalis. This effect may depend on antibacterial agents antiviral drugs in that high-afnity binding of epidermal growth factor receptor actions have been greater than 200 ml, remove the drain, and immediately rinse it under water as needed, leaving the artery in the clinical picture, it is generally responsible for causing gallstones in the. Effect of this study most likely to develop after birth, 7. Trophic lesions e.G.. This is due mainly to be due to sphincter enhancement procedures. Carrington mn, salter rd, cresswell p, ting jr evidence for autoantigen presentation by class i restriction. 1997, cancer res 31:4731. Cells of ...
Inhibiton Therapeutics was developing islet cell autoantigen-1 (ICA 1) compounds for the treatment of cancer. This programme was being conducted under a
Kit Component:- KN202149G1, ICA1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202149G2, ICA1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202149D, donor vector…
Kit Component:- KN202149G1, ICA1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202149G2, ICA1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN202149D, donor vector…
We had a wonderful meandering conversation about genetics, history and evolution. Everybody was quite excited about canine genetics, the genome has now been sequenced, and the different breeds of dogs have been separated for about 30 generations, each has unique medical problems. SNP linkage between individuals in the strains allows rapid location of the genetic region, and then SNP linkage between strains allows gene identification, as dog haplotypes are quite small. As the conversation turned to evolution against autoimmunity, we were discussing why autoantibody targets are generally evolutionary conserved regions. Olle and myself were saying that immunogenic autoantigens would be selected against where possible, such that only regions with vital function (and thus evolutionarily conserved) would be left as autoantibody targets. This made Chris wonder how much autoimmunity could be altered by evolutionary selection, as it usually occurs after reproductive age. This was quite interesting, ...
Objective: To study how tolerance to GAD65 affects the development of autoimmunity to other β-cell autoantigens (β-CAAs) in GAD65-transgenic (GAD-tg) NOD mice. Research Designs and Methods: We used ELISPOT to characterize the frequency and functional phenotype of T-cell responses to GAD65 and other β-CAAs at different ages in GAD-tg mice and their NOD mouse littermates. Results: In young GAD-tg mice, Th1 responses to GAD65s dominant determinants were 13−18% of those in young NOD mice. This coincided with a great reduction in Th1 responses to other β-CAAs. Evidently, GAD65-reactive T-cells are important for activating and/or expanding early autoreactivities in NOD mice. As GAD-tg mice aged, their T-cell responses to GAD65 remained low, but they developed supernormal splenic and pancreatic lymph node T-cell autoimmunity to other β-CAAs. Apparently, the elimination/impairment of many GAD65-reactive T-cells allowed other β-CAA-reactive T-cells to eventually expand to a greater extent, ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by autoantibodies directed against nuclear autoantigens normally concealed from immune recognition in healthy individuals. Here, we summarize recently identified mechanisms of abnormal cell death leading to exposure and aberrant processing of nucleoprotein self antigens, and discuss their role in the SLE pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: During the past few years, the unveiling of several new forms of cell death has expanded our understanding beyond the simple view of apoptotic versus necrotic cell death ...
Blood is the optimal source for the diagnostic screening of large human populations for non-invasive markers. Serum and plasma are easily obtained, and moreover blood circulation facilitates the contact with every body tissue, including representative tumor antigens. However, tumor leakage antigens are probably present at the very low range of concentration in plasma, and they probably suffer from extensive proteolysis in a relatively short period (44). Therefore, the search for tumor-specific antigens in blood is a complicated task. Approaches based on a peptide search (peptidomics), such as SELDI, are prone to artifacts due to variability issues and require ultraextensive standardization for every step of the procedure, rendering them unsuitable for routine clinical use.. Antibodies are very stable serum molecules with a long tradition of use in immunoassays, which facilitates their standardization. Autoantibodies present in the serum of patients appear to be a promising alternative for ...
Evidence presented in this report shows that introduction of a novel autoantigen into the spontaneous disease process in the NOD mouse had no significant impact on incidence of type 1 diabetes and only led to a minimal acceleration of the disease course. This was quite unexpected, because antigenic spreading is responsible for relapses in the EAE model for multiple sclerosis and was therefore thought of as a hallmark event in the pathogenesis of T-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders. One could hypothesize, based on these findings, that the autoimmune process in the NOD model is already driven by a variety of antigens at the time when nucleoprotein-specific T-cells are being activated in the PDLNs. Therefore, the impact of one additional antigen is rather limited. Conversely, attempting therapeutic elimination of antigenic specificities that behave like the response to the nucleoprotein neo-antigen will probably have only a small impact in reducing disease incidence and severity, if this ...
The modulation of co-stimulatory pathways represents a novel therapeutic strategy to regulate autoimmune diseases. Auto-reactive CD4+ T cells play a critical role in initiating the immune response leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Blocking co-stimulatory signals prevents T-cell activation, thus diminishing autoimmune responses and possibly preventing the progression of autoimmune disease. Blockade of several co-stimulatory pathways has been investigated in animal models and has led to clinical trials testing specific blocking agents in humans. In this review we will describe the role of co-stimulatory pathways, primarily the CD28-B7 pathway, in autoimmune diseases, and we will present in vivo and in vitro studies supporting the efficacy of co-stimulation blockade in animal models of autoimmune disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical therapeutic efficacy of blocking monoclonal antibodies in preventing or reducing auto-antigen driven T-cell activation in humans with ...
Principal Investigator:KUROSU Katsushi, Project Period (FY):2003 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Respiratory organ internal medicine
The lollipop plot above illustrates recurrent (observed in 3 or more out of 4440 TCGA tumor samples from 15 cancer types) and therefore potentially oncogenic missense mutations (click on Show Cancer Mutations). The bar plot below shows the proportion of tumor samples that have any kind of altering mutation(s) in the given protein. ...
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Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Mednarodno klasifikacijo bolezni in sorodnih zdravstvenih problemov 10-ta revizija (MKB-10) objavlja Svetovna zdravstvena organizacija (WHO).[1]. Ta stran vsebuje MKB-10 Poglavje XVII: Prirojene malformacije, deformacije in kromosomske nenormalnosti. ...
Сызрань - располагается на правом берегу реки Волги в 130 километрах от Самары вниз по течению, у впадения в Волгу Сызранки, Крымзы и Кубры. Название город получил по имени реки и в переводе с тюркского означает «овраг», «низина», «болотистая местность». Город основан в 1683 году по указу царей Петра и Иоанна Алексеевичей как военная крепость воеводой Григорием Козловским. Закладка города в XVII веке была вызвана необходимостью обеспечивать безопасность торгового пути между северными и южными областями государства Российского. В 1781 году Сызрань ...
Autoantigens[edit]. An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized ...
Riemekasten G, Hahn BH (August 2005). "Key autoantigens in SLE". Rheumatology. 44 (8): 975-82. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keh688 ...
Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Toh BH (1979). "Smooth muscle autoantibodies and autoantigens". Clin Exp Immunol. 38 (3 ...
Le Romancer M, Reyl-Desmars F, Cherifi Y, Pigeon C, Bottari S, Meyer O, Lewin MJ (1994). "The 86-kDa subunit of autoantigen Ku ... Ku80 has been referred to by several names including: Lupus Ku autoantigen protein p80 ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 2 X ... Cao QP, Pitt S, Leszyk J, Baril EF (1994). "DNA-dependent ATPase from HeLa cells is related to human Ku autoantigen". ... Myung K, He DM, Lee SE, Hendrickson EA (1997). "KARP-1: a novel leucine zipper protein expressed from the Ku86 autoantigen ...
Teuscher C, Wild GC, Tung KS (1982). "Immunochemical analysis of guinea pig sperm autoantigens". Biol. Reprod. 26 (2): 218-229 ...
... can generate autoantigens by cleaving in disordered regions and linker regions of antigens exposing new epitopes and ... Darrah E, Rosen A (April 2010). "Granzyme B cleavage of autoantigens in autoimmunity". Cell Death and Differentiation. 17 (4): ...
Individual autoantigens are deposited in an array of dots onto a surface such as polystyrene. A single array could consist of ... Autoantigens present on the blebs of apoptotic cells are also prone to modification, which can increase their immunogenicity. ... Similar to the flow cytometry method of ANA detection, the MIA uses wells containing autoantigens and HEp-2 extract coated ... Blebs on apoptotic cells contain nearly all the autoantigens found in SLE, and phagocytes bind these apoptotic cells and ...
Teuscher C, Wild GC, Tung KS (1982). "Immunochemical analysis of guinea pig sperm autoantigens". Biology of Reproduction. 26 (2 ...
RoSSA interacts with autoantigens in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, the ... Frank MB, McCubbin VR, Heldermon C (January 1995). "Expression and DNA binding of the human 52 kDa Ro/SSA autoantigen". The ... The 52- and 60-kD Ro/SSA autoantigens are encoded by separate genes". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 87 (1): 177-86. ... Keech CL, Gordon TP, McCluskey J (May 1996). "Structural differences between the human and mouse 52-kD Ro autoantigens ...
Dohlam, JG; Lupas, A; Carson, M (1993). "Long charge-rich alpha-helices in systemic autoantigens". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. ... A physicochemical analysis of common structural motifs present in 109 human autoantigens revealed that tropomyosins have the ... highest number of such motifs, and thus a very high propensity to act as autoantigens. In addition to the role tropomyosins ...
Blaes F, Fühlhuber V, Preissner KT (2007). "Identification of autoantigens in pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome". Expert ...
1993). "Islet cell autoantigen 69 kD (ICA69). Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel diabetes-associated autoantigen ... "Entrez Gene: ICA1 islet cell autoantigen 1, 69kDa". Nepom GT (1996). "Glutamic acid decarboxylase and other autoantigens in ... Islet cell autoantigen 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICA1 gene. This gene encodes a protein with an arfaptin ... 1998). "Anti-BSA antibodies do not cross-react with the 69-kDa islet cell autoantigen ICA69". J. Autoimmun. 11 (3): 223-31. doi ...
Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; Graves disease autoantigen), member 16 is a protein in humans that is encoded ... "Entrez Gene: Solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; Graves disease autoantigen), member 16". Retrieved 2012-11-27. v ...
September 2005). "Identification of specific autoantigens in Sjögren's syndrome by SEREX". Immunology. 116 (1): 53-63. doi: ...
It causes thyrocyte damage and the release of autoantigens. Iodine also promotes follicular cell apoptosis and has an influence ... They can present thyroid autoantigens and initiate autoimmune thyroid disease. Susceptibility alleles are not consistent in ...
ILF2 and ILF3 have been identified as autoantigens in mice with induced lupus, in canine systemic rheumatic autoimmune disease ... "ILF2 and ILF3 are autoantigens in canine systemic autoimmune disease". Scientific Reports. 8 (1): 4852. Bibcode:2018NatSR... ...
The autoantigen is the nucleoporin 62kDA protein. Wesierska-Gadek J, Hohenuer H, Hitchman E, Penner E (1996). "Autoantibodies ...
"Muscle autoantigens in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: the limits of molecular genetics". J. Endocrinol. Invest. 16 (7): 533 ...
Elisei R, Weightman D, Kendall-Taylor P, Vassart G, Ludgate M (1993). "Muscle autoantigens in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy ...
2011). "Autoantigen discovery with a synthetic human peptidome". Nature Biotechnology. 29 (6): 535-541. doi:10.1038/nbt.1856. ...
Calcium-binding atopy-related autoantigen 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBARA1 gene. Mutations in this gene ... "Entrez Gene: CBARA1 calcium binding atopy-related autoantigen 1". Mojbafan M, Nojehdeh ST, Rahiminejad F, Nilipour Y, ... "Isolation of cDNA clones coding for IgE autoantigens with serum IgE from atopic dermatitis patients". FASEB J. 12 (14): 1559-69 ...
Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (Feb 1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". J. ... Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". J. Cell ...
Lu L, Tai G, Hong W (2005). "Autoantigen Golgin-97, an Effector of Arl1 GTPase, Participates in Traffic from the Endosome to ... Lu L, Hong W (2004). "Interaction of Arl1-GTP with GRIP Domains Recruits Autoantigens Golgin-97 and Golgin-245/p230 onto the ... "Entrez Gene: GOLGA1 golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 1". Lu, Lei; Hong Wanjin (Sep 2003). "Interaction of Arl1-GTP with ... "Molecular cloning of a novel 97-kd Golgi complex autoantigen associated with Sjogren's syndrome". Arthritis Rheum. 40 (9): 1693 ...
"Entrez Gene: GOLGA5 golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 5". Satoh, Ayano; Wang Yanzhuang; Malsam Jörg; Beard Matthew B; ...
Fritzler MJ, Hamel JC, Ochs RL, Chan EK (Jul 1993). "Molecular characterization of two human autoantigens: unique cDNAs ... "Entrez Gene: GOLGA3 golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 3". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, ...
Winqvist O, Karlsson FA, Kämpe O (June 1992). "21-Hydroxylase, a major autoantigen in idiopathic Addison's disease". The Lancet ...
Misaki Y, Pruijn GJ, van der Kemp AW, van Venrooij WJ (Feb 1994). "The 56K autoantigen is identical to human annexin XI". The ...
It has been identified as autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. A peptide fragment of ChgA located in the Vasostatin-1, namely ChgA29 ... March 2010). "Chromogranin A is an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes". Nature Immunology. 11 (3): 225-31. doi:10.1038/ni.1844. PMC ... "Vasostatin-1 antigenic epitope mapping for induction of cellular and humoral immune responses to chromogranin A autoantigen in ...
"Entrez Gene: GOLGA2 golgi autoantigen, golgin subfamily a, 2". Shamseldin HE, Bennett AH, Alfadhel M, Gupta V, Alkuraya FS ( ... Fritzler MJ, Hamel JC, Ochs RL, Chan EK (Jul 1993). "Molecular characterization of two human autoantigens: unique cDNAs ...
... has been referred to by several names including: Lupus Ku autoantigen protein p70 ATP-dependent DNA helicase 2 subunit 1 X ... "Entrez Gene: XRCC6 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6 (Ku autoantigen, 70kDa)". Pace P, ... Grandvaux N, Grizot S, Vignais PV, Dagher MC (Feb 1999). "The Ku70 autoantigen interacts with p40phox in B lymphocytes". ...
Activated islets may express autoantigens that have only limited expression in quiescent islets. The often times striking ... disparity in HLA-DR/DQ associations with disease may involve differences in the immunological recognition of autoantigens. ... interesting observation that may have potential pathogenic implications is the observation that of all islet cell autoantigens ... predictability and disease intervention studies have been enhanced through the identification of the islet cell autoantigens in ...
Primary and metastatic carcinomas are epithelial in origin and comprise by far the largest group of malignant tumors in humans. In most of these tumors, T and Tn antigens, whose epitopes have been synthesized, are uncovered and immunoreactive. In all other tissues T and Tn antigens are masked and not accessible to the immune system; they are generally precursors in normal complex carbohydrate chains. Thus, carcinomas have antigens recognized as foreign by the patients immune system. The expression of T and Tn antigens has pathogenic and clinical consequences, and the antigens themselves are powerful histological markers in carcinoma diagnosis and frequently in prognosis. Most patients distinguish their carcinoma from all other cells, as shown by strong autoimmune responses to T antigen. These responses are readily measured by assays, and they allow detection of carcinomas with greater sensitivity and specificity frequently earlier than previously possible. Moreover, the extent of T and Tn ...
Autoantigen discovery with a synthetic human peptidome.. Larman HB1, Zhao Z, Laserson U, Li MZ, Ciccia A, Gakidis MA, Church GM ... However, current approaches to characterize autoantigens have, in most cases, met only with limited success. Here we present a ... Immune responses targeting self-proteins (autoantigens) can lead to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Identification of these ... Application of a synthetic human proteome to autoantigen discovery through PhIP-Seq ...
... Hui Liu, Rong Fu, Yihao Wang, ... Vinitha Ganesan, Dana P. Ascherman, and Jonathan S. Minden, "Immunoproteomics technologies in the discovery of autoantigens in ...
Nucleosomes are major T and B cell autoantigens in systemic lupus erythematosus.. Bruns A1, Bläss S, Hausdorf G, Burmester GR, ... T cell responses to autoantigens, including DNA, have been reported only incidentally in SLE patients. Nevertheless, in murine ... We present evidence that nucleosomes are major autoantigens in human SLE and that antinucleosomal antibodies are highly ...
... indicating that this specific CNS autoantigen, or some of its determinants, can induce a pathogenic response across animal ... clearly indicates that MOG is probably an important target autoantigen in this disease. ... Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein Multiple sclerosis Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Demyelination Autoantigen ...
... a putative autoantigen for type 1 diabetes). This review will focus specifically on insulin as a primary autoantigen, an ... The autoantigens of Type 1A diabetes may be divided into subgroups based on their tissue distributions: Beta-cell-specific ... Insulin as a Primary Autoantigen for Type 1A Diabetes. J. M. Jasinski1,2 and G. S. Eisenbarth2,3 ... We are pursuing the hypothesis that insulin is a primary autoantigen for type 1 diabetes, and thus the pathogenesis of the ...
Nature Reviews Nephrology, Published online: 13 June 2019; doi:10.1038/s41581-019-0168-xIn a collaborative effort, researchers have identified unusual protein deposits of exostosin 1 and exostosin 2 in patients with PLA2R and THSD7A-negative membranous nephropathy, many of whom had systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus nephritis or other forms of autoimmunity. Although serum exostosin antibodies wer...
Autoantibodies and their corresponding autoantigens are intensively studied to provide clues to the understanding of disease ...
A novel human autoantigen, endothelial cell growth factor, is a target of T and B cell responses in patients with Lyme disease ... copri, the greater the autoantibody responses against these autoantigens.. Figure 3. Autoantibody correlations with P. copri ... Both autoantigens are highly expressed in inflamed synovial tissue; they share homologous T cell epitopes with Prevotella and ... A highly expressed human protein, apolipoprotein B-100, serves as an autoantigen in a subgroup of patients with Lyme disease. J ...
Autoimmune responses to meiotic germ cell antigens (MGCA) that are expressed on sperm and testis occur in human infertility and after vasectomy. Many MGCA are also expressed as cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in human cancers, but the tolerance status of MGCA has not been investigated. MGCA are considered to be uniformly immunogenic and nontolerogenic, and the prevailing view posits that MGCA are sequestered behind the Sertoli cell barrier in seminiferous tubules. Here, we have shown that only some murine MGCA are sequestered. Nonsequestered MCGA (NS-MGCA) egressed from normal tubules, as evidenced by their ability to interact with systemically injected antibodies and form localized immune complexes outside the Sertoli cell barrier. NS-MGCA derived from cell fragments that were discarded by spermatids during spermiation. They egressed as cargo in residual bodies and maintained Treg-dependent physiological tolerance. In contrast, sequestered MGCA (S-MGCA) were undetectable in residual bodies and ...
A tale of two autoantigens. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... University of Cambridge , Talks.cam , Immunology and Medicine Seminars , A tale of two autoantigens ...
Compare Sjogrens syndrome nuclear autoantigen 1 Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices ... Your search returned 1 Sjogrens syndrome nuclear autoantigen 1 Biomolecules across 1 supplier. ...
Pathogenic models of RA nowadays include smoking as a relevant trigger factor of immune reactions to autoantigens modified by ... Bang H, Egerer K, Gauliard A (2007) Mutation and citrullination modifies vimentin to a novel autoantigen for rheumatoid ... As an ubiquitous expressed auto-antigen, vimentin might be of special relevance in triggering ACPA production. Vimentin ... Although reactivity against modified vimentin was predominant, the modified peptides were also recognized as autoantigens by ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... *Download PDF Copy ... The discovery of DNAJB9 as a putative autoantigen in FGN paves the way for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic ... Therefore, DNAJB9 may be an autoantigen, or a normal protein that is the target of an autoimmune response. ...
Alpha B-crystallin · Autoimmunity · Microbial infection · Multiple sclerosis · T cells · Autoantigen · Crystallin · Myelin · ... Health · Tolerance · Autoantigen · Crystallin · Myelin · Myelin associated glycoprotein · Allergic encephalomyelitis · Animal ... The myelin-associated protein, αB-crystallin, is considered a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present ... Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. Chemicals/CAS: Autoantigens; Crystallins; Immunodominant Epitopes; Peptide Fragments; ...
The cation efflux transporter ZnT8 (Slc30A8) is a major autoantigen in human type 1 diabetes. Janet M. Wenzlau, Kirstine Juhl, ... Autoantigen candidates were identified from microarray expression profiling of human and rodent pancreas and islet cells and ... The final list of 68 candidate genes included major known diabetes autoantigens, notably insulin (9), GAD65 (GAD2) (10), IA2 ( ... The ZnT8 transporter was pursued as a candidate diabetes autoantigen based on a bioinformatic screen of genes aimed at testing ...
... originally identified as an autoantigen recognized by the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. Ku has high binding ... Ku Autoantigen: A Multifunctional DNA-binding Protein Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;35(1):1-33. doi: 10.1080/ ... originally identified as an autoantigen recognized by the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. Ku has high binding ...
Secretory granule autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is related to 62 kDa heat-shock protein (hsp60). J ... Chromogranin A is an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. Nat Immunol 2010;11:225-231pmid:20139986. ... Posttranslational modification Of HLA-DQ binding islet autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2014;63:237-247 pmid:24089515 ... The possible role for citrullinated GRP78 as an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes is supported by the present observations showing ...
Autoimmunity against pancreatic β-cell autoantigens is a characteristic of childhood type 1 diabetes. Autoimmunity usually ... Maternal Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Autoantigen-Responsive CD4+ T Cells in Offspring ... Maternal Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Autoantigen-Responsive CD4+ T Cells in Offspring ... Maternal Type 1 Diabetes Reduces Autoantigen-Responsive CD4+ T Cells in Offspring ...
Sjoegren syndrome/scleroderma autoantigen 1 homologAdd BLAST. 198. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... sp,P56873,SSA27_MOUSE Sjoegren syndrome/scleroderma autoantigen 1 homolog OS=Mus musculus GN=Sssca1 PE=1 SV=1 ...
Epidermal Transglutaminase (TGase 3) Is the Autoantigen of Dermatitis Herpetiformis. Miklós Sárdy, Sarolta Kárpáti, Barbara ... Recently, tissue transglutaminase (TGc, EC 2.3.2.13) was shown to be the predominant autoantigen in these sections (3, 4) and ... By comparing the Ab responses to skin transglutaminases we could show that CD and DH are diseases where the main autoantigens ... The discovery of TGc as the main endomysial autoantigen failed to explain why only a proportion of gluten sensitive patients ...
Epidermal Transglutaminase (TGase 3) Is the Autoantigen of Dermatitis Herpetiformis. Miklós Sárdy, Sarolta Kárpáti, Barbara ... Epidermal Transglutaminase (TGase 3) Is the Autoantigen of Dermatitis Herpetiformis. Miklós Sárdy, Sarolta Kárpáti, Barbara ...
The M2 mitochondrial autoantigens. NATURE OF THE ANTIGEN(S). It has been appreciated since the 1960s that most patients with ... Identification and analysis of the major M2 autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1988;85:8654-8. ... M4 and M9 autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis-a negative study. J Hepatol 1993;18:252-4. ... Evans J, Rueben A, Craft C. PBC95K, a 95 kilodalton nuclear autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis. Arthritis Rheum 1991;34: ...
To this end, we made efforts to identify cardiac autoantigens that can potentially become immune targets in the CVB ... Cytoplasmic Proteins as Autoantigens in the Development of Inflammatory Heart Disease. Bharathi Yalaka, University of Nebraska ... To this end, we made efforts to identify cardiac autoantigens that can potentially become immune targets in the CVB ... Yalaka, Bharathi, "Cytoplasmic Proteins as Autoantigens in the Development of Inflammatory Heart Disease" (2017). ETD ...
In addition, the prevalence, characteristic autoantigens, and autoantibodies of minor autoimmune diseases associated with AD ... Autoimmune adrenal insufficiency and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: autoantibodies, autoantigens, and their applicability ... autoantigens and their autoepitopes, genetics, animal models, associated autoimmune diseases, pathogenesis, natural history, ...
T cells take aim at a ubiquitous autoantigen in multiple sclerosis Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
This blog discusses the implications of red meat consumption in humans and the characterization Neu5Gc as a xeno-autoantigen ... Xeno-autoantigen: a molecule derived from an external source that incorporates into an organism, inducing an immune response ...
Differential Processing of Autoantigens in Lysosomes from Human Monocyte-Derived and Peripheral Blood Dendritic Cells. Timo ... In BLC, processing of MBP, an autoantigen implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) (15), is initiated by AEP ( ... Differential Processing of Autoantigens in Lysosomes from Human Monocyte-Derived and Peripheral Blood Dendritic Cells ... The rules of unfolding and reducing complex autoantigen in the MHC class II compartment are poorly understood, but they might ...
  • Autoantibodies and autoantigens in autoimmune hepatitis. (omicsonline.org)
  • Autoantibodies and their corresponding autoantigens are intensively studied to provide clues to the understanding of disease initiation, tissue specificity, and propagation of hepatic autoimmune diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • Finally, (pre)diabetic NOD mice have autoantibodies and effector T cells that react against citrullinated GRP78, indicating that inflammation-induced citrullination of GRP78 in β-cells generates a novel autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, opening new avenues for biomarker development and therapeutic intervention. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin (or proinsulin) is probably the primary autoantigen in type 1 diabetes ( 2 ), but antigen spreading occurs as the autoimmune assault progresses, with autoantibodies appearing against several non-β-cell-specific autoantigens, such as GAD65 ( 3 ), islet antigen 2 (IA2) ( 4 ), heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) ( 5 ), and chromogranin A (ChgA) ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, the prevalence, characteristic autoantigens, and autoantibodies of minor autoimmune diseases associated with AD have been described. (nih.gov)
  • The immune response is often associated with the appearance of autoreactive antibodies (=autoantibodies) that bind specifically to the body's own structures (=autoantigens). (frontiersin.org)
  • Selective cleavage of nucleolar autoantigen B23 by granzyme B in differentiated vascular smooth muscle cellsInsights into the association of specific autoantibodies with distinct disease phenotypes. (docme.ru)
  • The association of autoantibodies to nucleophosmin/ B23 with pulmonary hypertension in scleroderma, and the susceptibility of autoantigens to cleavage by granzyme B (GB), provided a focus for these studies. (docme.ru)
  • 233 234 ULANET ET AL autoantibodies with distinct phenotypes implies that ubiquitously expressed autoantigens may exhibit specific features in the microenvironment in which initial injury and subsequent disease propagation occurs. (docme.ru)
  • 531 532 GERL ET AL autoantibodies (52- and 60-kd Ro/SSA autoantigens) are located in intracellular compartments, including the nucleus and the cytoplasm (for review, see ref. 9), these intracellular autoantigens must be accessible to the autoantibodies in order to be pathogenic. (docme.ru)
  • Using human autoantibodies as probes, we demonstrate here that T cell apoptosis mediated by CD95 (Fas/APO-1) is associated with substantial cleavage of a subset of nuclear autoantigens (7 of 33 examined). (rupress.org)
  • To identify T cell epitopes of the human La autoantigen involved in the generation of anti-Ro/La autoantibodies. (edu.au)
  • We propose that stress-induced exosomal release of intracellular autoantigens and immunostimulatory chaperones may play a role in initiation of autoimmune responses in T1D. (epfl.ch)
  • A number of extracellular and intracellular autoantigens have been identified, and there is no doubt that this field will continue to expand as more autoantigens are discovered as a result of improved clinical awareness and methodological practice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One interesting observation that may have potential pathogenic implications is the observation that of all islet cell autoantigens described, only two (i.e., 64 kD/GAD, 38 kD) are reactive in their native configurations, implying that recognition of conformational epitopes is most important. (jci.org)
  • By comparing the Ab responses to skin transglutaminases we could show that CD and DH are diseases where the main autoantigens are distinct but share common epitopes. (rupress.org)
  • Do epitopes derived from autoantigens display low affinity for MHC class I? (ox.ac.uk)
  • To further examine this question, 16 antibody epitopes have been mapped on a highly immunopathogenic autoantigen, retinal S-antigen (S-Ag). (umn.edu)
  • The observation that revelation of immunocryptic epitopes in self antigens may initiate the autoimmune response has prompted the search for processes which induce novel fragmentation of autoantigens as potential initiators of autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • We seek a T cell immunologist to work in a translational setting to identify T cell epitopes from RA candidate autoantigens, to establish tools for immunosurveillance of the T cell repertoire in RA patients and be involved in transcriptomic analyses of such T cells. (varbi.com)
  • In other autoimmune diseases, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis, and celiac disease, such posttranslationally modified proteins behave as autoantigens ( 10 , 11 ), but their relevance in type 1 diabetes is only starting to be explored ( 12 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We cloned three cDNAs encoding autoantigens in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by immunological screening of lambda phage synovial cell-cDNA libraries with synovial fluid IgG, both of which were derived from RA patients. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tanaka M., 他: 'Follistatin-related protein (FRP) as a cloned novel autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mass spectrometric and peptide chip epitope mapping of rheumatoid arthritis autoantigen RA33. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The protein termed RA33 was determined to be one major autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and antiRA33 auto-antibodies were found to appear shortly after onset of RA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Objective In the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), antibodies specifically recognize citrullinated autoantigens that are generated by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). (aston.ac.uk)
  • These findings suggested that recognition of an autoantigen in the thymus is necessary for the induction of tolerance, and that involvement of Mls-1 antigens in the pathogenesis of AIG, as has been suggested previously (Schwartz, R. H., Cell 1989. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • By using a brain-infiltrating CD4+ T cell clone that is clonally expanded in multiple sclerosis brain lesions and a systematic approach for the identification of its target antigens, positional scanning peptide libraries in combination with biometrical analysis, we have identified guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-l-fucose synthase as an autoantigen that is recognized by cerebrospinal fluid-infiltrating CD4+ T cells from HLA-DRB3*-positive patients. (thisisms.com)
  • Multiple features of the fragmentation reaction and its inhibition indicate that these autoantigens possess metal-binding sites, which focus metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions (and consequent fragmentation) to specific regions of the antigens. (nih.gov)
  • Immune responses targeting self-proteins (autoantigens) can lead to a variety of autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Yalaka, Bharathi, "Cytoplasmic Proteins as Autoantigens in the Development of Inflammatory Heart Disease" (2017). (unl.edu)
  • To further improve the performance of these serological biomarkers, we surveyed HuProt arrays, comprised of 20, 240 human proteins, for IgA-bound autoantigens since IgAs are a major immunoglobulin isotype in the lung. (mcponline.org)
  • Specifically, in Phase I, we obtained IgA-based autoimmune profiles of 69 early stage LC patients, 30 healthy subjects and 25 patients with lung benign lesions (LBL) on HuProt arrays, and identified 28 proteins as candidate autoantigens that were significantly associated with early stage LC. (mcponline.org)
  • Self-proteins (autoantigens) altered before or during tumor formation can elicit an immune response ( 13 - 19 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Unexpectedly, mechanical stretch also reduced the expression of TLR3 and of proteins known to represent autoantigens in inflammatory autoimmune myopathies (Mi-2, HRS, DNA-PKcs, U1-70). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Interestingly, stimulation or inhibition of calmodulin, NOS, HGF or c-Met molecules in vitro affected the expression of autoantigens and TLR3 proteins confirming their role in the inhibition of autoantigens and TLR3 during mechanical stretch. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Publications] Sobajima J., 他: 'Novel autoantigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) in ulcerative colitis : non-histone chromosomal proteins,HMG1 and HMG2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The target autoantigens in several organ-specific autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), are intracellular membrane proteins, whose initial encounter with the immune system is poorly understood. (epfl.ch)
  • We therefore analyzed B and T cell responses to autoantigens potentially involved in the pathogenesis of RA, including IgG, citrullinated proteins, stress proteins, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-A2 (RA33). (lu.se)
  • These data suggest that the E2 subunit of PDH is an autoantigen in halothane hepatitis and that molecular mimicry of CF 3 CO-proteins by the E2 subunit of PDH is due to the similar structures of CF 3 CO-Lys and lipoic acid. (springer.com)
  • This review will address the potential role played by death-specific modifications of autoantigens in bypassing tolerance to highly conserved autoantigens, including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This, together with our demonstration that there is a predominant T cell response to MOG in patients with multiple sclerosis, clearly indicates that MOG is probably an important target autoantigen in this disease. (springer.com)
  • The myelin-associated protein, αB-crystallin, is considered a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, we examined the potential of αB-crystallin to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. (tudelft.nl)
  • However, at a functional level, lysosomal extracts from CD1c-DC processed the multiple sclerosis-associated autoantigens myelin basic protein and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in vitro more effectively than MO-DC. (jimmunol.org)
  • The autoantigens and molecular mimics triggering the autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis remain incompletely understood. (thisisms.com)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the breakdown of immune tolerance towards autoantigen in the myelin sheath surrounding the neurons. (ku.edu)
  • The recent identification of T cells reactive to the peptide encoded by exon 2 of the myelin protein gene (X2 MBP) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has focused attention on MBP isoforms harboring peptides which might serve as autoantigens. (elsevier.com)
  • and those expressed ubiquitously like heat shock protein 60 (a putative autoantigen for type 1 diabetes). (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, DNAJB9 may be an autoantigen, or a normal protein that is the target of an autoimmune response. (news-medical.net)
  • Ku is a heterodimeric protein composed of approximately 70- and approximately 80-kDa subunits (Ku70 and Ku80) originally identified as an autoantigen recognized by the sera of patients with autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • also named binding immunoglobulin protein [BiP]) is posttranslationally modified in cytokine-exposed insulin-producing INS-1E cells ( 9 ), we now identify this modification as citrullination and show that inflammation-induced citrullinated GRP78 is an autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, tissue transglutaminase (TGc, EC 2.3.2.13) was shown to be the predominant autoantigen in these sections ( 3 , 4 ) and ELISA tests based upon this protein have been shown to be useful for the diagnosis of GSE ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • As environmental allergens, also IgE-binding autoantigens belong to different protein families without common structural features that would explain their IgE-binding capability. (uzh.ch)
  • Moreover, we identified the La autoantigen as a protein that specifically binds the 3′ UTR of PAM mRNA in vivo and in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Investigators planning to use recombinant autoantigens in a commercial situation will need to consider that many stages of recombinant protein production and application which can be subject to patent protection. (arodia.com)
  • We have isolated and characterized a set of overlapping cDNA clones that encode the human centromere autoantigen centromere protein C (CENP-C). The identity of these clones has been established using several criteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study aimed to characterize the effect of TNF␣ on messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of the intracellular 52-kd Ro/SSA autoantigen in primary human keratinocytes and to elucidate the TNF␣ receptor (TNFR) signaling pathways mediating this effect. (docme.ru)
  • This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that neutrophil cell death, induced by either NETosis (extrusion of genomic DNA-protein complexes known as neutrophil extracellular traps [NETs]) or necrosis, can contribute to production of autoantigens in the inflamed joint. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Autoimmunity against pancreatic β-cell autoantigens is a characteristic of childhood type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This thesis investigates the creation of ASIT for autoimmunity through the co-delivery of an immunomodulator and autoantigen. (ku.edu)
  • Overall, the results presented dissertation provide evidence for the successful creation of ASIT for autoimmunity by combining immunomodulator and autoantigen. (ku.edu)
  • In fact, a number of tumor-associated autoantigens (TAAs) were identified previously in different studies involving autoantibody screening in CRC ( 26 - 28 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Our human neutrophil purified autoantigens offer the most authentic autoantibody targets. (arodia.com)
  • INTRODUCTION:B cells have many different roles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ranging from autoantigen recognition and processing to effector functions (for example, autoantibody and cytokine secretion). (openrepository.com)
  • We present evidence that nucleosomes are major autoantigens in human SLE and that antinucleosomal antibodies are highly specific for the disease. (nih.gov)
  • A common epitope on S-antigen (arrestin), a potent autoantigen inducing experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU), and on human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF alpha) was revealed using two monoclonal antibodies to S-antigen which inhibit EAU induction. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • MBS006289 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Uveal Autoantigen With Coiled-Coil Domains and Ankyrin Repeats Antibodies (UACA) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • It is also considered a major centromere autoantigen recognized by sera from patients with anti-centromere antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • The presented antigen identification strategy offers an opportunity for identifying up to now unknown neural autoantigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • A homology search revealed a peptide from human leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (hLFA-1) as a candidate autoantigen. (lymenet.org)
  • Identification of the initiating bacterial antigen and a cross-reactive autoantigen may provide a model for development of autoimmune disease. (lymenet.org)
  • The presence of antibody together with expression of antigen within the joint implicates citrullinated α-enolase as a candidate autoantigen that could drive the chronic inflammatory response in RA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This correlated with the observed relocalization of autoantigens to a locale where they might be readily accessible to components of the immune system, including lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, new data on all these different aspects of antigen presentation and their role in MS will be discussed, probable autoantigens will be summarized and comparisons to other autoimmune diseases will be drawn. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We are pursuing the hypothesis that insulin is a primary autoantigen for type 1 diabetes, and thus the pathogenesis of the disease relates to specific recognition of one or more peptides. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings support the concept that a maternal type 1 diabetes environment improves neonatal immune tolerance against the autoantigen (pro)insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Nucleosomes are major T and B cell autoantigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. (nih.gov)
  • Substrates cleaved by proteases during apoptosis include nuclear autoantigens targeted in systemic autoimmune diseases. (rupress.org)
  • We found that rat and human pancreatic islets release the intracellular β-cell autoantigens in human T1D, GAD65, IA-2 and proinsulin, in exosomes, which are taken up by and activate dendritic cells. (epfl.ch)
  • NOD/Lt and C57BL/6 mice were also susceptible to severe neurological disease following injection with recombinant MOG or MOG 35-55 peptide, indicating that this specific CNS autoantigen, or some of its determinants, can induce a pathogenic response across animal species. (springer.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that epidermal transglutaminase, rather than tissue transglutaminase, is the dominant autoantigen in dermatitis herpetiformis and explain why skin symptoms appear in a proportion of patients having gluten sensitive disease. (rupress.org)
  • It is not known whether citrullinated vimentin and fibrin are just two of multiple citrullinated autoantigens in RA, or whether there is a dominant autoantigen that has yet to be described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the course of modeling the naturally occurring tumor immunity seen in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD), we discovered an unexpectedly high threshold for breaking CD8+ cytotoxic T cell (CTL) tolerance to the PCD autoantigen, CDR2. (jci.org)
  • The intracellular 52-kd RoSSA autoantigen in keratinocytes is up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor ╨Ю┬▒ via tumor necrosis factor receptor I. (docme.ru)
  • Various triggers, including recently identified autoantigens, Toll-like receptor agonists, chemerin, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin may activate the pathogenic cascade resulting in enhanced production of pro-inflammatory and proliferation-inducing mediators such as interleukin (IL)-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-23, IL-22, interferon (IFN)-α, and IFN-γ by immune cells. (mdpi.com)
  • This review will focus specifically on insulin as a primary autoantigen, an essentia l target for disease, in type 1A diabetes mellitus. (hindawi.com)
  • The discovery of DNAJB9 as a putative autoantigen in FGN paves the way for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to help care for patients with this disease,' said Kelly Smith, MD PhD, senior author of the University of Washington study. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, a number of different autoantigens have been discovered in neuromuscular junction antibody-mediated disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusion Release of active PAD isoforms into the SF by neutrophil cell death is a plausible explanation for the generation of extracellular autoantigens in RA. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Although immediate-Type I skin reactions to human dander have been described six decades ago, only the recent application of molecular biology to allergology research allowed fast and detailed characterization of IgE-binding autoantigens. (uzh.ch)
  • Here, we used discovery-based proteomics to detect HLA-DR-presented peptides in synovia or peripheral blood mononuclear cells and identified 2 autoantigens, N -acetylglucosamine-6-sulfatase (GNS) and filamin A (FLNA), as targets of T and B cell responses in 52% and 56% of RA patients, respectively. (jci.org)
  • Peptides targeting different surface markers were all found to suppress EAE when co-delivered with autoantigen, demonstrating the ability of different immunomodulators to create effective ASIT. (ku.edu)
  • CENP-C, an autoantigen in scleroderma, is a component of the human inner kinetochore plate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The susceptibility of this autoantigen (which is associated with a distinct pulmonary vascular phenotype in scleroderma) to GBmediated proteolysis selectively in vascular smooth muscle cells suggests that the GB-cleavable conformation of autoantigens may occur selectively in the target tissue, and may play a role in shaping the phenotypespecific autoimmune response. (docme.ru)
  • Scleroderma autoantigens are uniquely fragmented by metal-catalyzed oxidation reactions: implications for pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The reversible ischemia reperfusion which characterizes scleroderma has focused attention on reactive oxygen species as molecules which might induce autoantigen fragmentation. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that several of the autoantigens targeted in diffuse scleroderma are uniquely susceptible to cleavage by reactive oxygen species, in a metal-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • Several scleroderma autoantigens are uniquely fragmented by Fe/ascorbate or Cu/H2O2 oxidation reactions. (nih.gov)
  • In initial studies, we added ferrous sulfate (Fe) to NP-40 lysates of HeLa cells to generate free radical species by Fenton chemistry (26-29), and addressed whether several of the major autoantigens in diffuse scleroderma were fragmented (30-33). (nih.gov)
  • T cell responses to autoantigens, including DNA, have been reported only incidentally in SLE patients. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, broad impairment of antigenic responses, including autoantigens, is a hallmark of sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Integrating with IgG-bound autoantigens, we discovered and validated a combined biomarker panel using ELISA-format tests. (mcponline.org)
  • In Phase II, we re-purified the autoantigens and converted them into an ELISA-format testing to profile an additional large cohort, comprised of 136 early stage LC patients, 58 healthy individuals, and 29 LBL patients. (mcponline.org)
  • Our highly active autoantigens can be used at very low concentrations in ELISA, down to 10-100ng/well, offering a cost effective source for your diagnostic needs. (arodia.com)
  • Your search returned 1 Sjogren's syndrome nuclear autoantigen 1 Biomolecules across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the nuclear Ro/SSA autoantigens involved in photosensitive cutaneous lupus manifestations are regulated by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. (docme.ru)
  • Selective cleavage of nuclear autoantigens during CD95 (Fas/APO-1)-mediated T cell apoptosis. (rupress.org)
  • Several of the cleaved autoantigens are involved in ensuring the integrity and proper conformation of DNA in the nucleus through interactions with the nuclear matrix, suggesting the possibility that their cleavage may contribute to the collapse of nuclear structure during apoptosis. (rupress.org)
  • Reduction in disease severity was associated with reduced number, but not function, of autoantigen (MOG)-specific pathogenic CD4 T cells in the CNS during disease and draining lymph node during priming. (elifesciences.org)
  • The relative cleavage kinetics indicated that the autoantigens were targeted at various times after induction of apoptosis, suggesting either differential accessibility or activation of distinct proteases during the cell death process. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, disparity in HLA-DR/DQ associations with disease may involve differences in the immunological recognition of autoantigens. (jci.org)
  • AROTEC will make every effort to supply to you at competitive prices to ensure you can avail of the best quality autoantigens for your immunological requirements. (arodia.com)
  • Islet cell autoantigens in insulin-dependent diabetes. (jci.org)
  • Significantly, we demonstrate that purified MZBs are able to present the autoantigen insulin to diabetogenic T-cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Cell division autoantigen 1 (CDA1) enhances TGF-β signaling in renal and vascular cells, and renal expression of CDA1 is elevated in animal models of diabetes. (asnjournals.org)
  • Autoantigen discovery with a synthetic human peptidome. (nih.gov)
  • Here we present a synthetic representation of the complete human proteome, the T7 peptidome phage display library (T7-Pep), and demonstrate its application to autoantigen discovery. (nih.gov)
  • Autoantigen candidates were identified from microarray expression profiling of human and rodent pancreas and islet cells and screened with radioimmunoprecipitation assays using new-onset T1D and prediabetic sera. (pnas.org)
  • Animal sourced autoantigens also possess structure authenticity with an extremely homologous primary sequence to the human counterparts. (arodia.com)
  • An important factor to consider in the identification of autoantigens and their epitope targets is the methodology that is used in the experimental setting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To this end, we made efforts to identify cardiac autoantigens that can potentially become immune targets in the CVB pathogenesis. (unl.edu)
  • Pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) is driven by autoreactive T cells but no autoantigen has been identified to date. (lu.se)
  • Whereas there is still much to learn, it is clear that disease predictability and disease intervention studies have been enhanced through the identification of the islet cell autoantigens in IDD. (jci.org)
  • Zekeridou, A, Griesmann, GE & Lennon, VA 2018, ' Mutated cancer autoantigen implicated cause of paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis ', Muscle and Nerve . (elsevier.com)
  • Its open reading frame of 2079 base pairs encodes a predicted polypeptide of 693 amino acids named CDA1 (cell division autoantigen-1). (garvan.org.au)
  • Our group has previously identified that the pathologic profibrotic effects of TGF-β in DN are, at least in part, mediated by enhanced TGF-β signaling modulated by cell division autoantigen 1 (CDA1). (asnjournals.org)
  • With this approach we identified several potential new autoantigens of the humoral immune response. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Co-delivery of dexamethasone and autoantigen in an oil-in-water emulsion, incomplete Freund's adjuvant, was found to suppress EAE and shift the immune response. (ku.edu)
  • While tissue transglutaminase has been implicated as the major autoantigen of gluten sensitive disease, there has been no explanation as to why this condition appears in two distinct forms. (rupress.org)
  • The major zymogen granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) was identified as the autoantigen of PABs in Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • T cells are regarded as the major players in the disease, but most probably a complex interplay of altered central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms, T cell and B cell functions, characteristics of putative autoantigens and a possible interference of environmental factors like microorganisms are at work. (uni-regensburg.de)