Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Group of chronic blistering diseases characterized histologically by ACANTHOLYSIS and blister formation within the EPIDERMIS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The protein components that constitute the common core of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. These proteins are commonly referred as Sm nuclear antigens due to their antigenic nature.
Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A family of structurally-related short-chain collagens that do not form large fibril bundles.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular RDGS-adhesion recognition motif and a single cytosolic protein tyrosine phosphate domain.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
Inflammatory disease of the THYROID GLAND due to autoimmune responses leading to lymphocytic infiltration of the gland. It is characterized by the presence of circulating thyroid antigen-specific T-CELLS and thyroid AUTOANTIBODIES. The clinical signs can range from HYPOTHYROIDISM to THYROTOXICOSIS depending on the type of autoimmune thyroiditis.
A desmosomal cadherin that is an autoantigen in the acquired skin disorder PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
Autoantibodies directed against cytoplasmic constituents of POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES and/or MONOCYTES. They are used as specific markers for GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS and other diseases, though their pathophysiological role is not clear. ANCA are routinely detected by indirect immunofluorescence with three different patterns: c-ANCA (cytoplasmic), p-ANCA (perinuclear), and atypical ANCA.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)
Antiphospholipid antibodies found in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; and in a variety of other diseases as well as in healthy individuals. The antibodies are detected by solid-phase IMMUNOASSAY employing the purified phospholipid antigen CARDIOLIPIN.
A condition characterized by persistent spasms (SPASM) involving multiple muscles, primarily in the lower limbs and trunk. The illness tends to occur in the fourth to sixth decade of life, presenting with intermittent spasms that become continuous. Minor sensory stimuli, such as noise and light touch, precipitate severe spasms. Spasms do not occur during sleep and only rarely involve cranial muscles. Respiration may become impaired in advanced cases. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1492; Neurology 1998 Jul;51(1):85-93)
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
A polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived serine protease that degrades proteins such as ELASTIN; FIBRONECTIN; LAMININ; VITRONECTIN; and COLLAGEN. It is named for its ability to control myeloid cell growth and differentiation.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.
A syndrome with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon. The disease is differentially characterized by high serum titers of antibodies to ribonuclease-sensitive extractable (saline soluble) nuclear antigen and a "speckled" epidermal nuclear staining pattern on direct immunofluorescence.
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by trauma-induced, subepidermal blistering with no family history of the disease. Direct immunofluorescence shows IMMUNOGLOBULIN G deposited at the dermo-epidermal junction.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
An enzyme that activates histidine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.21.
Pathological processes involving the THYROID GLAND.
Inflammatory diseases of the THYROID GLAND. Thyroiditis can be classified into acute (THYROIDITIS, SUPPURATIVE), subacute (granulomatous and lymphocytic), chronic fibrous (Riedel's), chronic lymphocytic (HASHIMOTO DISEASE), transient (POSTPARTUM THYROIDITIS), and other AUTOIMMUNE THYROIDITIS subtypes.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
An autoimmune disease of the KIDNEY and the LUNG. It is characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies targeting the epitopes in the non-collagenous domains of COLLAGEN TYPE IV in the basement membranes of kidney glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) and lung alveoli (PULMONARY ALVEOLI), and the subsequent destruction of these basement membranes. Clinical features include pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
Separation of the prickle cells of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, resulting in atrophy of the prickle cell layer. It is seen in diseases such as pemphigus vulgaris (see PEMPHIGUS) and DARIER DISEASE.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
Autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROTROPIN) on thyroid epithelial cells. The autoantibodies mimic TSH causing an unregulated production of thyroid hormones characteristic of GRAVES DISEASE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Autoantibodies directed against phospholipids. These antibodies are characteristically found in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC;), ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID SYNDROME; related autoimmune diseases, some non-autoimmune diseases, and also in healthy individuals.
The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.

Weak autoantibody reactions to antigens other than sperm after vasectomy. (1/9574)

Autoantibody activity against various antigens was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in 97 men about to undergo vasectomy and 170 men who had undergone the operation up to six years earlier. There was a significantly higher prevalence of weakly positive autoantibody reactions among those who had undergone vasectomy. There was, however, no evidence that vasectomy could induce stronger autoantibody reactions such as those associated with autoimmune disease.  (+info)

Anti-heart autoantibodies in ischaemic heart disease patients. (2/9574)

One hundred and ninety-nine ischaemic heart disease (IHD) patients were studied with regard to the prevalence of anti-heart autoantibodies (AHA). The incidence of AHA in IHD patients was 1%: one out of 102 patients who suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI), one out of seventy-two patients who suffered from acute coronary insufficiency (ACI), and none out of twenty-five patients with other signs and symptoms of IHD, had AHA in their sera. An additional 2% of patients who suffered from AMI developed detectable antibody levels during a follow-up period of 15 days. In comparison,, 53% of patients (eight out of fifteen) who underwent heart surgery and who had no AHA prior to operation, developed these antibodies in their sera during 1-2 weeks following operation.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (3/9574)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to gastrin in patients with pernicious anaemia--a novel antibody. (4/9574)

Autoantibodies arise when there is a breakdown in immunological tolerance. Autoantibodies to parietal cells and intrinsic factor are found in autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) and are associated with elevated plasma gastrin. Endogenous gastrin autoantibodies have not been described to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of autoantibodies to gastrin. Plasma from 50,000 patients, including more than 2000 with AAG, was tested. Gastrin was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in whole plasma and the presence of autoantibody determined by using a control which omitted assay antibody. The quantity and affinity of gastrin autoantibodies was assessed. Three patients had autoantibodies to gastrin. All three had AAG and pernicious anaemia (PA). The antibodies were of low titre and relatively high affinity. Free circulating plasma gastrin levels were within the normal range, but total gastrin levels were elevated. This is the first description of autoantibodies to endogenous gastrin. The incidence of antibodies to gastrin is low, they are found in association with PA, and they may lead to falsely low measurements of plasma gastrin.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (5/9574)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

The inhibition of myeloperoxidase by ceruloplasmin can be reversed by anti-myeloperoxidase antibodies. (6/9574)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize the recently reported inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) by ceruloplasmin and to determine whether this may be disturbed in the presence of anti-MPO antibodies. METHODS: Specificity of the binding between ceruloplasmin and MPO was confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the enzymatic activity of MPO was measured in the presence of ceruloplasmin, affinity-purified anti-MPO antibodies, or both. The affinity of the binding between MPO and ceruloplasmin and MPO and the anti-MPO antibodies was measured using a biosensor, with the results confirmed by chaotrope ELISA. RESULTS: Affinity-purified anti-MPO antibodies from patients with microscopic polyangiitis and florid renal vasculitis inhibited the binding between ceruloplasmin and MPO to a maximum of 72.9 +/- 12.8%, whereas those from patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and only minimal renal involvement inhibited the binding to a maximum of only 36.8 +/- 10.9% (P < 0. 001), with comparable reversal of the ceruloplasmin-mediated inhibition of MPO activity. Measurement of the affinity of the interactions demonstrated that binding between MPO and the anti-MPO antibodies is stronger than that between MPO and ceruloplasmin (1.61 x 107 to 1.33 x 108 vs. 7.46 x 106 m-1), indicating that binding to the autoantibody would be favored in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms a role for ceruloplasmin as a physiological inhibitor of MPO, and demonstrates how the inhibition may be disrupted in the presence of anti-MPO antibodies. Because a majority (16 of 21) of the antibodies did not themselves inhibit MPO activity, their interference with the inhibition mediated by ceruloplasmin may be brought about by steric hindrance consequent upon the binding of the antibody to a dominant epitope at or near the active site.  (+info)

Goodpasture antigen: expression of the full-length alpha3(IV) chain of collagen IV and localization of epitopes exclusively to the noncollagenous domain. (7/9574)

BACKGROUND: Tissue injury in Goodpasture (GP) syndrome (rapidly progressive glomerular nephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage) is mediated by antibasement membrane antibodies that are targeted to the alpha3(IV) chain of type IV collagen, one of five alpha(IV) chains that occur in the glomerular basement membrane. GP antibodies are known to bind epitopes within the carboxyl terminal noncollagenous domain (NC1) of the alpha3(IV) chain, termed the GP autoantigen. Whether epitopes also exist in the 1400-residue collagenous domain is unknown because studies to date have focused solely on the NC1 domain. A knowledge of GP epitopes is important for the understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease and for the development of therapeutic strategies. METHODS: A cDNA construct was prepared for the full-length human alpha3(IV) chain. The construct was stably transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The purified full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain was characterized by electrophoresis and electron microscopy. The capacity of this chain for binding of GP antibodies from five patients was compared with that of the human r-alpha3(IV)NC1 domain by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The r-alpha3(IV) chain was secreted from 293 cells as a single polypeptide chain that did not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical molecule. An analysis of GP-antibody binding to the full-length r-alpha3(IV) chain showed binding exclusively to the globular NC1 domain. CONCLUSION: The full-length human alpha3(IV) chain possesses the capacity to bind GP autoantibodies. The epitope(s) is found exclusively on the nontriple-helical NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, indicating the presence of specific immunogenic properties. The alpha3(IV) chain alone does not spontaneously undergo assembly into a triple-helical homotrimeric molecule, suggesting that coassembly with either the alpha4(IV) and/or the alpha5(IV) chain may be required for triple-helix formation.  (+info)

Identification of a clinically relevant immunodominant region of collagen IV in Goodpasture disease. (8/9574)

BACKGROUND: The characteristic feature of Goodpasture disease is the occurrence of an autoantibody response to the noncollagenous domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen [alpha3(IV)NC1] in the alveolar and glomerular basement membrane. These antibodies are associated with the development of a rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, with or without lung hemorrhage, whereas autoantibodies specific for the other alpha chains of the heterotrimeric type IV collagen probably do not cause disease. In this study, we have investigated whether differences in fine specificity of autoimmune recognition of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlate with clinical outcome. METHODS: For mapping of antibody binding to type IV collagen, chimeric collagen constructs were generated in which parts of the alpha3(IV)NC1 domain were replaced by the corresponding sequences of homologous nonreactive alpha1(IV). The different recombinant collagen chimeras allowed the analysis of antibody specificities in 77 sera from well-documented patients. RESULTS: One construct that harbors the aminoterminal third of the alpha3(IV)NC1 was recognized by all sera, indicating that it represents the dominant target of the B-cell response in Goodpasture disease. Seventy percent of the samples recognized other parts of the molecule as well. However, only reactivity to the N-terminus of the alpha3(IV)NC1 correlated with prognosis, that is, kidney survival after six months of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the crucial importance of antibody recognition of this particular domain for the pathogenesis of Goodpasture disease, thereby opening new avenues for the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.  (+info)

article{52e1c761-60b9-47e4-a452-0c3f8d93536e, abstract = {Aims/hypothesis Islet autoantibodies, in addition to elevated blood glucose, define type 1 diabetes. These autoantibodies are detectable for a variable period of time before diabetes onset. Thus, the occurrence of islet autoantibodies is associated with the beginning of the disease process. The age at, and order in, which autoantibodies appear may be associated with different genetic backgrounds or environmental exposures, or both. Methods Infants with HLA-DR high-risk genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8 and DR3/3) were enrolled and prospectively followed with standardised autoantibody assessments quarterly throughout the first 4 years of life and then semi-annually thereafter. Results Autoantibodies appeared in 549/8,503 (6.5%) children during 34,091 person-years of follow-up. Autoantibodies at 3 (0.1%) and 6 (0.2%) months of age were rare. Of the 549, 43.7% had islet autoantibodies to insulin (IAA) only, 37.7% had glutamic acid decarboxylase ...
OBJECTIVE As data on the predictive characteristics of diabetes-associated autoantibodies for type 1 diabetes in the general population are scarce, we assessed the predictive performance of islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs) in combination with autoantibodies against insulin (IAAs), autoantibodies against GAD, and/or islet antigen 2 for type 1 diabetes in children with HLA-defined disease predisposition recruited from the general population.. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We observed 7,410 children from birth (median 9.2 years) for β-cell autoimmunity and diabetes. If a child developed ICA positivity or diabetes, the three other antibodies were measured in all samples available from that individual. Persistent autoantibody positivity was defined as continued positivity in at least two sequential samples including the last available sample.. RESULTS Pre-diabetic ICA positivity was observed in 1,173 subjects (15.8%), 155 of whom developed type 1 diabetes. With ICA screening, 86% of 180 progressors ...
ANAs have been known to be present in BC sera for several decades [25] but their significance remains unknown [24]. This is likely because autoantibodies are part of the normal immune response, and sera from healthy subjects exhibit a plethora of autoantibodies not related to cancer [30-32]. The application of genomics and proteomics to biomarker discovery allowed the identification of multiple autoantibodies in BC sera recognizing TAAs [3-10]. These studies strongly suggested the possibility that autoantibodies in cancer sera were potentially useful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of BC. The seminal work establishing the role of autoantibodies as diagnostic biomarkers in the rheumatic ADs [16-20] suggested the hypothesis that the model epitomized by the rheumatic ADs is highly relevant to explain the plethora of autoantibodies detected in cancer sera. Importantly, PBC as an organ-specific autoimmune disease is characterized by a set of autoantibodies with mitochondrial specificity with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigation of myositis and scleroderma specific autoantibodies in patients with lung cancer. AU - Betteridge, Zoe E. AU - Priest, Lynsey. AU - Cooper, Robert G. AU - McHugh, Neil J. AU - Blackhall, Fiona. AU - Lamb, Janine A. PY - 2018/8/9. Y1 - 2018/8/9. N2 - BACKGROUND: The close temporal association between onset of some connective tissue diseases and cancer suggests a paraneoplastic association. Adult patients with scleroderma with anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibodies and adult patients with dermatomyositis with anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (anti-TIF1) or anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (anti-NXP2) autoantibodies have a significantly increased risk of developing cancer. Autoantibodies may serve as biomarkers for early detection of cancer and also could be relevant for prediction of responses to immune therapies. We aimed to test whether myositis and scleroderma specific or associated autoantibodies are detectable in individuals with lung cancer.METHODS: Serum ...
We have observed striking associations of islet autoantibodies with HLA alleles and haplotypes. Because levels of autoantibodies reduce after diagnosis of disease (26), there will be an increased false-negative rate for IA-2A and GADA compared with at time of diagnosis. A faster decline in GADA and/or IA-2A positivity in the younger onset case subjects, which we had limited power to detect, may be possible. However, we have adjusted for diabetes duration in our analyses, so the genetic associations we report were not attributable to decline in autoantibody levels (Supplementary Data). Although the false-negative rate reduces the power of our study to detect genetic associations, it does not affect the significant associations obtained. We cannot comment on genetic associations with autoantibody positivity prediagnosis since we only measured autoantibodies at a single time point at or after diagnosis. Some case subjects will have been transiently positive for autoantibodies. However, we were ...
Abstract OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the possible association between Ménières disease (MD) and autoantibodies. METHODS: Fifty-five patients with definite MD (51 unilateral and 4 bilateral) were matched with 55 patients with unilateral vestibular paresis without cochlear involvement and 55 healthy subjects. Blood samples were collected from all study subjects for the determination of serum TSH, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, anti-TSH receptor antibody, antithyroperoxidase antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody and of antibodies to non-organ-specific antigens, namely antinuclear antibodies, antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens and antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies. RESULTS: Thirty-three subjects (60%) of the MD group had 1 or more elevated serum autoantibody levels, both organ and non-organ specific; 16 patients (29.1%) with unilateral vestibular paresis had 1 or more elevated serum autoantibody levels, while 13 healthy subjects ...
Idiotypic cross-reactions were evaluated in 60 polynucleotide-binding monoclonal lupus autoantibodies produced by human-human hybridomas that were derived from seven unrelated patients with SLE. Three antiidiotype reagents were prepared by immunization of rabbits or a mouse with monoclonal autoantibodies from two patients. Binding of the three reagents to their corresponding idiotypes was inhibited by one or more polynucleotides, an indication that the antiidiotypes reacted with the variable regions of the autoantibodies. Each antiidiotype appeared to detect a different idiotypic determinant. Of the 60 monoclonal autoantibodies tested, 40 reacted in one or more competitive immunoassays; 15 reacted with one antiidiotype, 10 reacted with two antiidiotypes and 15 reacted with three antiidiotypes. A monoclonal antiidiotype reagent cross-reacted with autoantibodies from six of the seven patients. The idiotypic cross-reactions of immunoglobulins from unrelated patients suggest that the autoantibodies ...
Gerard-Gonzalez A, Gitelman SE, Cheng P, Dubose SN, Miller KM, Olson BA, Redondo MJ, Steck AK, Beck RW. Comparison of autoantibody-positive and autoantibody-negative pediatric participants enrolled in the T1D Exchange clinic registry (1). J Diabetes. , June, 2013; 5(2):216-23 ...
Fibrillarin, a component of the U3 RNP particle, is a target for the spontaneously arising autoantibodies in human scleroderma and a monoclonal autoantibody (72B9) derived from the autoimmune mouse strain (NZB x NZW) F1. Autoantibodies against fibrillarin can also be induced in H-2s mice by treatment with mercuric chloride (HgCl2). The objective of this study was to compare the spontaneously occurring anti-fibrillarin autoantibody response with the autoantibody response induced by HgCl2 treatment. Immunofluorescence microscopy on human HEp2, mouse 3T3, and Xenopus XIK-2 cells, immunoblotting with use of nuclear extract from human MOLT-4, mouse 3T3, and Xenopus XIK-2 cells, and immunoprecipitation with use of in vitro translation products of RNA transcripts from yeast fibrillarin cDNA were used in this analysis. Both spontaneous and induced autoantibodies displayed common reactivity in that, irrespective of the antigenic source, they gave the same nucleolar immunofluorescence pattern and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Novel Autoantibody to Plasminogen and Its Characterization in Heymann Nephritis. AU - Makker, Sudesh P. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - Heymann nephritis (HN) of rat is an experimental model of human membranous glomerulonephropathy (MGN). It is generally accepted that the glomerular lesion of HN results from the binding of antibodies (autoantibodies in active HN and heterologous antibodies in passive HN) to gp330, a receptor of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily located on the glomerular epithelial cell. We have previously shown that plasminogen (plg) is a ligand for gp330. This report shows that in addition to antibodies to receptor, gp330, novel autoantibodies (Aab) to ligand, plg, also develop in the course of HN and accumulate selectively and in parallel with gp330 antibodies in the glomeruli of both active and passive HN. Aab to plg are present in serum and in immunoglobulin G (IgG) eluted from glomeruli of diseased animals with the concentration severalfold ...
The present study has three important findings. First, one-third of patients with active TB had elevated serum autoantibodies. The prevalences of their autoantibodies, especially anticardiolipin IgG and anti-Scl-70, were significantly higher than those of the general population.10 Second, consistent with previous studies,1-4 the presence of autoantibodies neither altered the clinical manifestations and radiographic findings of active TB nor changed the risk of developing adverse events during anti-TB treatment. Third, the elevated autoantibody levels returned to normal limits simply by anti-TB treatment and not by immunosuppressive therapy. These findings suggest that increased serum autoantibodies during active TB may not be diagnostic of autoimmune diseases. Clinical correlation and follow-up are still necessary.. Autoantibodies come from a break in self-tolerance whereby fragments of mixed self-antigens and pathogen antigens may induce immune response, as in a mode of epitope spread and ...
Abstract: : Purpose:Glaucoma is worldwide one of the leading causes of blindness. There is evidence that an autoimmune mechanism is involved in a subset of glaucoma patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the autoantibody repertoires in sera of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects. Methods:A total of 100 patients were divided into four groups: healthy volunteers without any ocular disorders (n=25), patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n=25), ocular hypertension (OHT, n=25), and normal tension glaucoma (NTG, n=25). All groups were matched for age and gender. The sera of patients were testest against western blots of retinal antigens. The autoantibody patterns were digitized and subsequently analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques and artificial neural networks. Results:All patients showed different, complex staining patterns of autoantibodies against retinal antigens. The number of peaks was increased in sera of POAG patients compared to all other groups. Including ...
Combinations of beta cell specific autoantibodies at diagnosis of diabetesin young adults reflects different courses of beta cell damage. ...
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In systemic sclerosis (SSc), autoantibodies provide the most accurate tool to predict the disease subset and pattern of organ involvement. Scleroderma autoantibodies target nucleic acids or DNA/RNA-binding proteins, thus SSc immune complexes (ICs) can embed nucleic acids. Our working hypothesis envisaged that ICs containing scleroderma-specific autoantibodies might elicit proinflammatory and profibrotic effects in skin fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were isolated from skin biopsies obtained from healthy subjects and patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). ICs were purified by polyethylene-glycol precipitation from sera of SSc patients bearing different autoantibodies. ICs from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (PAPS) and from normal healthy subjects (NHS) were used as controls. After incubation with ICs, fibroblasts were evaluated for ICAM-1 expression, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)
Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A) mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005). Blood samples were taken within three months after onset. A robust log-normal regression model was used. Nine hundred children and adolescents had complete records and were included in the analysis. Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate changes in prevalence of autoantibody positivity by period. Results. No significant changes in levels of GADA and IA-2A were found over our 9-year study period. No trends in autoantibody positivity-in either patients or ...
Sputum and serum autoantibody profiles and their clinical correlation patterns in COPD patients with and without eosinophilic airway inflammation
Insulin Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA) can predict risk of type-1 diabetes or confirm a diagnosis of type-1 diabetes. IAA are most common in children with or at risk for type-1 diabetes.. GAD, GAD65 Autoantibodies to GAD (GADA), like IAA, are also predictive of risk for type-1 diabetes. GAD autoantibodies are present in the majority of adult patients with autoimmune diabetes.. IA-2 Autoantibodies against IA-2 (IA2-A) are the second most common autoantibody in type-1 diabetes. GAD and IA-2 autoantibodies are the most common in type-2 diabetes that also has an autoimmune component.. For children, the number of autoantibodies present is a better predictor of disease risk than the presence of any single antibody.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoantibodies, autoimmunity and cancer (review). AU - Tomer, Yaron. AU - Sherer, Yaniv. AU - Shoenfeld, Yehuda. PY - 1998/5/7. Y1 - 1998/5/7. N2 - There is a strong association between neoplasms and autoimmune diseases. Numerous autoimmune phenomena have been reported in malignancies and conversely: malignant tumors are diagnosed in increasing frequency in autoimmune conditions. We review the most common autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies found in malignancies, discuss the therapeutic role of these autoantibodies in cancer, and summarize the current knowledge on malignant transformation in autoimmunity.. AB - There is a strong association between neoplasms and autoimmune diseases. Numerous autoimmune phenomena have been reported in malignancies and conversely: malignant tumors are diagnosed in increasing frequency in autoimmune conditions. We review the most common autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies found in malignancies, discuss the therapeutic role of these ...
Background: FSGS is a histopathological lesion that has a 40-80% risk of recurrence o in the transplanted (tx) kidney, with increased risk of graft loss. Recent studies in recurrent FSGS (rFSGS) suggest potential roles for circulating factors such as suPAR and CD40 auto-antibody (autoAb) but the interaction of these factors and their synergy with intern αvβ3, a downstream pathway for podocyte injury, is unknown.. Methods: CD40 autoAb isolated from rFSGS (CD40autoAB/rFSGS), non-recurrent FSGS (CD40autoAb/nrFSGS) and non-FSGS patients (CD40autoAb/non-FSGS) were injected (i.v.) into C57BL/6 mice every other day for a total of 6 doses. Six hours after the last dose of CD40autoABs, recombinant human suPAR protein was given i.v. at 5 [mu]g/ml to all mice in order to analyze any additive effect of suPAR on CD40autoAb/rFSGS induced proteinuria. Urine was collected before and every day after the first injection of CD40autoAb to analyze urinary albumin and creatinine. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was ...
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of multiple autoantibodies that react with components of nuclear, cytoplasmic, or surface origin (for review see Nakamura and Tan, 1992; Fritzler, 1997). In clinical medicine, autoantibodies have been used to establish diagnosis, estimate prognosis, follow the progression of a specific autoimmune disease, and, finally, increase our knowledge of the pathophysiology of autoimmunity. In cell biology, autoantibodies have been extremely useful as probes for the identification of novel proteins and isolation of their corresponding genes. Human autoimmune sera have been particularly useful in the study of the eukaryotic nucleus where they have identified a wide range of nuclear antigens, including both single- and double-stranded DNA, RNA, histones, small nuclear RNA-binding proteins, transcription factors, nuclear lamins, heterochromatin-associated proteins, topoisomerase I and II, and centromere proteins (Tan, 1989, 1991; Earnshaw and Rattner, ...
Jay M. Sosenko, Jay S. Skyler, Jerry P. Palmer, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Liping Yu, Jeffrey Mahon, Craig A. Beam, David C. Boulware, Lisa Rafkin, Desmond Schatz, George Eisenbarth, the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet and the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Study Groups ...
About 60%-90% of type I (insulin-dependent) diabetics have antibody against islet cell cytoplasmic glycoprotein (islet cell autoantibody) at the time of diagnosis, and many of those initially without this antibody develop it later. This antibody disappears within 2 years after appearance in 85%-90% of type I diabetics. It has also been reported in about 20% of type II diabetics and about 10% of gestational diabetics at time of diagnosis. About 30%-50% of children have autoantibody against insulin (antiinsulin antibody) at time of diagnosis before beginning insulin therapy and some (much less than formerly) develop it after using therapeutic insulin. Some patients have autoantibodies against beta cell surface antigen (beta cell antibodies). Over 95% of type I patients possess the human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) DR3 or DR4. However, at present these autoantibodies and HLAs are not being widely used in clinical medicine or in diagnosis.. ...
Synonyms for autoantibody in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for autoantibody. 2 words related to autoantibody: rheumatoid factor, antibody. What are synonyms for autoantibody?
Our private blood test profile for Autoantibody Profile II in London tests for Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, Islet Cell antibodies, Adrenal antibodies and more. It has a guaranteed turnaround time of 3 working days.
We performed a nested case-control analysis within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study birth cohort, carrying HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (n = 7782). Serum total fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography in 240 infants with islet autoimmunity and 480 control infants at the age of 3 and 6 months. Islet autoimmunity was defined as repeated positivity for islet cell autoantibodies in combination with at least one of three selected autoantibodies. In addition, a subset of 43 infants with primary insulin autoimmunity (i.e. those with insulin autoantibodies as the first autoantibody with no concomitant other autoantibodies) and a control group (n = 86) were analysed. A third endpoint was primary GAD autoimmunity defined as GAD autoantibody appearing as the first antibody without other concomitant autoantibodies (22 infants with GAD autoimmunity; 42 infants in control group). Conditional logistic regression was applied, considering multiple ...
TRAb was measured by a 2° generation method. The Fig. 4 shows the results of TRAb measurements in patients with various newly diagnosed thyroid disorders and in healthy controls. The horizontal dotted line indicates the distinction between the values of TRAb positive and negative (cut-off 1.0 IU / L). It can be seen as patients with Graves disease have almost all of a value above the cut-off while the healthy controls, as well as patients with non-toxic goitre, are all negative TRAb (except one). In patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism, characterized by the presence of thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAb) and thyroperoxidase autoantibody (TPOAb), there is a low percentage of TRAb (probably type blockers). In summary this study shows an excellent specificity of the method with the ability to discriminate between patients with GD from healthy ones ...
TY - ABST. T1 - OX40 and OX40L are highly associated with Autoantibody Formation in early Rheumatoid Arthritis, and predict Flare after Anti-TNF Discontinuation. AU - Laustsen, Julie Kristine. AU - Rasmussen, Tue Kruse. AU - Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian. AU - Hetland, Merete Lund. AU - Hørslev-Petersen, Kim. AU - Hvid, Malene. AU - Deleuran, Bent Winding. PY - 2013/6. Y1 - 2013/6. M3 - Conference abstract for conference. ER - ...
Humans and animals with lupus produce autoantibodies that can cause inflammation, as well as damage cells and organs of ones own body. In particular, antibodies to double-stranded DNA contribute to organ damage. Researchers have long investigated the possibility of blocking the actions of lupus-related autoantibodies to reduce the extent of such damage. Typically, such research is first tested in animals to ensure efficacy and safety before being conducted in humans. Researchers at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have created a new experimental molecule to test its ability to inhibit lupus-related autoantibody attachment to ds-DNA isolated from mice, as well as to components of kidneys extracted from mice, and to living brain cells of mice. The results of these studies provide hope for the development of more specific, less toxic therapies for lupus. However, more animal research is needed before this molecule can be tested in living humans with lupus ...
Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab) are prominent in type 1 diabetes. These autoantibodies may be present both years before and after the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and are widely used as a marker for the disease. Recently it has been demonstrated that progression to type 1 diabetes is accompanied by GAD65Ab epitope maturation. Here we examine whether autoantibody maturation processes also progress after the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Antibody reactivity to GAD65, GAD67 and GAD65/67 fusion proteins was measured by radioimmunoassays in 62 children with type 1 diabetes. Samples were taken at diagnosis and five years later. While the overall GAD65Ab level declined over time, the epitope pattern was remarkably stable with no significant changes in binding pattern. Loss of GAD65Ab-positivity was associated with significantly lower GAD65Ab indices at diagnosis compared to patients sera that remained GAD65Ab-positive. The decrease in GAD65Ab levels did not correlate to ...
Autoimmunization definition, antibody production by an organism in response to and against any of its own tissues, cells, or cell components. See more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slowly progressing type 1 diabetes: persistence of islet cell autoantibodies is related to glibenclamide treatment. AU - Cabrera-Rode, E.. AU - Perich, P.. AU - Diaz-Horta, O.. AU - Tiberti, C.. AU - Molina, G.. AU - Arranz, C.. AU - Martin, J.M.. AU - Licea, M.. AU - De Leiva, A.D.. AU - Puig-Domingo, M.. AU - Dimario, U.. PY - 2002/1/1. Y1 - 2002/1/1. M3 - Article. SP - 469. EP - 474. JO - Autoimmunity. JF - Autoimmunity. SN - 0891-6934. ER - ...
Studies described here show that multiple cancer-specific autoantibodies are present in the sera of patients with breast cancer collected distant from diagnosis or at the time of diagnosis and the combination of autoantibodies can significantly discriminate patients with cancer from controls. We further show that a fraction of these autoantibodies are present in prediagnostic sera and is potentially useful for early detection.. Because of the limited availability of prediagnostic sera, the standard approach for biomarker discovery is to use samples from symptomatic patients and often from patients with advanced disease (19). Established cancer may behave differently from preclinical disease, so it remains unknown whether markers identified from patients with established disease can also apply to samples collected at earlier time points, at the time of diagnosis or even before diagnosis. Investigations in ovarian cancer have shown that none of the biomarker panels that were discovered in ...
Objective. RA patients develop autoantibodies against a spectrum of antigens but their clinical significance is unclear. Using the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach, we examined the association between autoantibodies and clinical subphenotypes of RA. Methods. This study was conducted using a validated electronic medical record (EMR) RA cohort from 2 tertiary care centers. Using a published multiplex bead assay, we measured 36 autoantibodies targeting epitopes implicated in RA. We extracted all ICD-9 codes for each subject and grouped them using a published method into disease categories (PheWAS codes). We tested for the association of each autoantibody grouped by targeted protein with PheWAS codes. For significant associations (false discovery rate [FDR] ≤0.1), we reviewed 50 medical records of subjects with each PheWAS code to determine the positive predictive value (PPV). Results. We studied 1006 RA subjects, mean age 61.0 years (SD 12.9) and 79.0% female. There were 3,568 ...
Preeclampsia is a serious pathologic complication during pregnancy but its pathogenesis remains unclear. We recently demonstrated that production of auto-antibody against angio-tensin (AGN) II type I receptor (AT1-AA) causes hypertension in experimental animals. Current study determined whether AT1-AA is present in pregnant women and if so, to investigate its potential role in the development of preeclampsia. Blood samples were collected from 35 pregnant women (preeclampsia=18, control=17) and AT1-AA was detected. To determine the potential mechanisms by which AT1-AA may contribute to the development of preeclampsia, vasoconstrictive effects of purified AT1-AA was determined in isolated rat arteriae cerebri media and its pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic effect was determined in cultured HUVEC. Compared with the normal pregnant women (week 37 to 39), sera levels of AT1-AA were markedly increased in preeclamptic patients (0.27±0.03 μmol/L vs. 0.023±0.017 μmol/L, P,0.01). In isolated resistant ...
An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individuals own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases (notably lupus erythematosus) are caused by such autoantibodies. Antibodies are produced by B cells in two ways: (i) randomly, and (ii) in response to a foreign protein or substance within the body. Initially, one B cell produces one specific kind of antibody. In either case, the B cell is allowed to proliferate or is killed off through a process called clonal deletion. Normally, the immune system is able to recognize and ignore the bodys own healthy proteins, cells, and tissues, and to not overreact to non-threatening substances in the environment, such as foods. Sometimes, the immune system ceases to recognize one or more of the bodys normal constituents as self, leading to production of pathological autoantibodies. These autoantibodies attack the bodys own healthy cells, tissues, and/or organs, causing ...
Methods SeroTag utilizes over 7,000 human proteins as antigen collection in bead-based suspension arrays (Luminex FlexMap 3D) to allow for high throughput serum sample processing with high accuracy, followed by standard and advanced data mining procedures. We screened over 4,000 serum samples from patients with autoimmune diseases such as SLE (n= ,500), SSc (n= ,250), RA (n= ,500), and healthy individuals (n= ,350) to confirm known and to discover novel autoantibodies. Recombinant antigens were covalently coupled to magnetic, color coaded beads and serum samples were incubated with 20 multiplex bead mixes each representing hundreds of antigens. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to reveal significant antigens and to define correlation of antigens with clinical parameters and amongst themselves. ...
Acharacteristic of systemic autoimmune diseases is the production of high-titer autoantibodies (autoAbs)1 to a variety of self-constituents (1). These autoAbs are important diagnostic markers of disease, and their patterns are specific for particular autoimmune diseases (1). They are also important because autoAbs can be pathogenic under certain circumstances (2)(3)(4). The pathogenic consequences of activated autoreactive B cells are not limited to autoAb production, as B cells also promote T cell activation (5).. Thus, it has been of great interest to understand the origins of autoreactive B cells in autoimmune animals and, conversely, how they are controlled in normal animals. It is possible that intrinsic B cell defects (6)(7)(8) leading to B cell hyperactivity (9)(10) account for the production of autoAbs. In this view, autoAbs are the result of nonspecific B cell activation. On the other hand, an early clue to an important role of autoantigen (autoAg) in the genesis of such B cells in ...
The present study analyzed the clinical, radiographic, and immunologic features of a series of 71 RA patients along a 9-year interval. As a group, there was progressive deterioration in functional capacity and in joint structure. The serum levels of APF and anti-CCP antibodies tended to remain stable while serum levels of rheumatoid factor increased along the 9-year interval. There was no consistent association of autoantibody status at baseline with rate of joint destruction along the 9-year interval. The outcome measure for evaluation of disease severity was the rate of joint destruction as measured by the progression in Sharp index. Therefore, we calculated the difference in Sharp index between the end and the beginning of the study for each patient and tested the correlation of this parameter with the autoantibody status at the beginning of the study. No statistically significant correlation between the baseline autoantibody status and the rate of joint destruction was observed. When a ...
The current study, led by PD Dr. Harald Prüss of Charités Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology on Campus Charité Mitte and the DZNEs Berlin site, focused on an autoantibody that targets a specific protein on the surface of brain cells. This molecule, known as NMDA receptor, is essential for the interconnection of neurons and normal brain development. The NMDA receptor antibody is a relatively common autoantibody. Data from blood donations suggest that up to one percent of the general population may carry this particular autoantibody in their blood. The reasons for this are largely unclear, notes PD Dr. Prüss. If this autoantibody reaches the brain, serious inflammations can arise. However, most carriers are free of such symptoms because the blood-brain barrier - a filtering tissue that surrounds the brains blood vessels - is usually hardly penetrable for antibodies. Unless this barrier is damaged or, as with an embryo in early pregnancy, not yet fully developed ...
Results miRNA profiling revealed 10 miRNAs to be differentially expressed between the groups; 2 in pSS vs HC, 7 in nSS vs HC and 1 in both pSS and nSS vs HC. One miRNA was excluded from further analysis after technical validation by single TaqMan microRNA Assay. The other 9 miRNAs were measured in the validation cohort. Surprisingly, 2 miRNAs were validated to be increased in the nSS group as compared to HC (snRNA-U6 and miR-661). Using the data from both cohorts combined, the levels of snRNA-U6 and miR-661 was associated with serum Ig and C4 in the nSS group, but also in the pSS group. This prompted us to investigate miRNA expression in subgroups of pSS patients. snRNA-U6 and miR-661 levels are significantly increased compared to HC in pSS patients negative for autoantibodies. In autoantibody positive pSS patients, levels of snRNA-U6 and miR-661 are comparable to those found in HC and both miRNAs are significantly increased in autoantibody negative patients as compared to autoantibody positive ...
phdthesis{a3c3a368-ef87-45b1-b612-22823f11b3ea, abstract = {Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and adolescence with an increasing incidence worldwide. It is an autoimmune disease with many autoimmune markers, where the zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) is the most recent autoantibody discovered. The most important genetic susceptibility towards type 1 diabetes is found within the HLA-region on chromosome 6. We showed that all three ZnT8A are common among children and adolescents at type 1 diabetes diagnosis and that 3.4% of the children in Sweden displayed only ZnT8A at diagnosis. Only 7% of the Swedish children were autoantibody negative at diagnosis. Additionally, 0.3% of type 1 diabetes patients in Sweden had an isolated positivity for the islet cell cytoplasm autoantibodies (ICA). This is an autoantibody with an unspecified reaction pattern to most of the other antigens involved in autoantibody formation in type 1 diabetes. The fact that children ...
PubMed journal article: Disease-related autoantibody profile in patients with systemic sclerosis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - A possible new bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. T2 - Are the anti-mitochondrial citrate synthase autoantibodies components of the natural antibody network?. AU - Czömpöly, Tamás. AU - Olasz, Katalin. AU - Simon, Diána. AU - Nyárády, Zoltán. AU - Pálinkás, László. AU - Czirják, László. AU - Berki, Tímea. AU - Németh, Péter. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - Natural antibody (nAb) producing B-1 B cells are considered an intermediate stage of evolution between innate and adaptive immunity. nAbs are immunoglobulins that are produced without antigen priming. nAbs can recognize foreign targets and may serve in the first line of immune defense during an infection. Natural autoantibodies (nAAbs) present in the serum of both healthy humans and patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases recognize a set of evolutionarily conserved self-structures. Because of their endosymbiotic evolutionary origin, proteins compartmentalized into mitochondria ...
Health,...The presence of specific autoantibodies of the immune system is associ...Antibodies are the defense molecules of the bodys immune system again... First Encouraging Results after Removal of Autoantibodies by Immuno...In earlier studies Marion Bimmler and her research team examined bloo...,Autoantibodies,damage,blood,vessels,in,the,brain,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. While mammography and breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) improve detection of early disease, there remains an unmet need for biomarkers for risk stratification, early detection, prediction, and disease prognosis. Sera from patients with breast cancer contain specific autoantibodies (AAb) to tumor antigens that develop as part of the natural immune response to cancer-associated changes in protein structure and expression. The recent development of proteomic tools for AAb detection, including protein microarrays, reverse-phase protein immunoblots, and phage display have identified a number of potential AAb biomarkers for clinical development. Immune response signatures have been identified that are highly specific, but with variable sensitivities for cancer detection. This review focuses on the detection and application of AAb signatures as biomarkers for breast cancer detection and monitoring.. ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2) is a major target of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. When first detected, IA-2-autoantibodies commonly bind epitopes in the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of IA-2 and antibody responses subsequently spread to the tyrosine phosphatase domain. Definition of structures of epitopes in the JM domain, and genetic requirements for autoimmunity to these epitopes, is important for our understanding of initiation and progression of autoimmunity. The aims of this study were to investigate the contribution of individual amino acids in the IA-2 JM domain to antibody binding to these epitopes and the role of HLA genotypes in determining epitope specificity. METHODS: Regions of the JM domain recognised by autoantibodies were identified by peptide competition and inhibitory effects of alanine substitutions of residues within the JM region. Antibody binding was determined by radioligand binding assays using sera from patients genotyped for HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles.
The stochastic and heterogeneous nature of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) supports a model whereby multiple genetic and/or environmental hits culminate in loss of tolerance and autoantibody production. Consistent with this model, the phenotype of CD45E613R mice that contain a single point mutation in the juxtamembrane wedge of CD45 depends on genetic context. Despite similar dysregulated phosphatase activity in all immune cells, CD45E613R mice on a C57Bl/6 (B6) background have no overt phenotype while BALB/c (BA) mice develop anti-double stranded (ds) DNA antibodies. An unbiased genome-wide screen for modifiers of autoantibody production between CD45E613R B6 and BA mice identified two candidate loci: Wedge Associated Modifier (Wam) 1 on Chromosome (Chr) 9 encompassing tlr9 and Wam2 on Chr 17 encompassing MHC H2. Previous work has shown that the hyporesponsive BA TLR9 allele permits anti-ds DNA antibodies while the B6 TLR9 allele is resistant. Here, we analyze the contribution of the MHC to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The reliability of immunoassays to detect autoantibodies in patients with myositis is dependent on autoantibody specificity. AU - Tansley, Sarah L. AU - Li, Danyang. AU - Betteridge, Zoe E. AU - McHugh, Neil J. N1 - © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.. PY - 2020/8/1. Y1 - 2020/8/1. N2 - OBJECTIVES: In order to address the reliability of commercial assays to identify myositis-specific and -associated autoantibodies, we aimed to compare the results of two commercial immunoassays with the results obtained by protein immunoprecipitation.METHODS: Autoantibody status was determined using radio-labelled protein immunoprecipitation for patients referred to our laboratory for myositis autoantibody characterization. For each autoantibody of interest, the sera from 25 different patients were analysed by line blot (Euroline Myositis Antigen Profile 4, EuroImmun, Lübeck, Germany) and dot blot (D-Tek BlueDiver, ...
Title: Synthetic Peptides: The Future of Patient Management in Systemic Rheumatic Diseases?. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 26. Author(s):Kai Kessenbrock, Reinout Raijmakers, Marvin J. Fritzler and Michael Mahler. Affiliation:Dr. Fooke Laboratorien GmbH,Mainstr.85, 41469 Neuss, Germany.. Keywords:Peptide, autoantibody, SLE, dsDNA, Systemic rheumatic disease. Abstract: Since the first description of self-reactive antibodies in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, many autoantigens have been identified as useful diagnostic biomarkers in clinical immunology. Among the autoantigens, double-stranded desoxoribonucleic acid (dsDNA), the Smith antigen (Sm), topoisomerase-I (topo-I), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and others were described as hallmark targets of systemic autoimmune diseases. The detection of the corresponding autoantibodies can be performed with a variety of immunoassays based on native antigens, recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides. As discussed in this review, synthetic ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - T cell abnormalities in NZB mice occur independently of autoantibody production. AU - Taurog, J. D.. AU - Raveche, E. S.. AU - Smathers, P. A.. AU - Glimcher, L. H.. AU - Huston, D. P.. AU - Hansen, C. T.. AU - Steinberg, A. D.. PY - 1981/5/15. Y1 - 1981/5/15. N2 - By means of a series of crosses and backcrosses, ZB.CBA/N mice were prepared bearing largely NZB autosomal genes, but having X chromosomes derived only from CBA/N mice. The CBA/N X chromosome carries a gene, xid, that is associated with the lack of a B cell subset necessary for most of the spontaneous autoantibody production by NZB mice. These ZB.CBA/N mice failed to develop autoantibodies to T cells, erythrocytes, or DNA. The availability of mice that were mostly NZB, but which failed to make autoantibodies, especially anti-T cell antibodies, allowed us to study possible T cell regulatory defects in NZB mice in the absence of either antibodies reactive with such T cells or other autoantibodies. We found that such mice ...
We investigated the specificities and characteristics of anti-cytoskeleton antibodies in 13 anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA)-positive patients with chronic liver disease C (CLD-C), and compared them with those in 7 ASMA-positive patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), and 6 ASMA-positive patients with chronic liver disease B (CLD-B). Anti-microfilaments (anti-MF) were found not only in 6/7 AIH patients (85.7%), but also in 8/13 CLD-C patients (61.5%) with a relatively high incidence, when compared with 1/6 CLD-B patients (16.7%), while, there was no significant difference in the incidence of anti-intermediate filaments (anti-IMF), especially anti-IMF IgM, among these patient groups. Among the patients with CLD-C, the mean levels of serum gammaglobulin and IgG in the anti-MF-positive patients were 2.46 +/- 1.03 g/dl and 3277 +/- 1089 mg/dl, respectively, which were higher than those in the anti-MF-negative patients (1.60 +/- 0.53 g/dl, 2245 +/- 610 mg/dl) and those in the patients with CLD-B ...
In the present study, we give the first detailed work-up of patients with IgM autoantibodies against neurofascin-155. Whereas IgG autoantibodies to neurofascin-155 have been reported in several studies and are supposed to cause a distinct clinical phenotype,2 17 18 IgM neurofascin-155 autoantibodies have so far only been described in a few patients and some of them also tested positive for IgG anti-neurofascin.4 7 Autoantibodies were detectable by ELISA and were confirmed by preabsorption experiments and by Western blot in four patients, but not by binding assays with neurofascin-155 transfected HEK293 cells or murine teased fibres. Most likely, the latter methods were not sensitive enough to detect the low titres of autoantibodies as indicated by a higher sensitivity of ELISA when comparing with cell based binding assays using serum of a patients with high titres of anti-neurofascin-155 IgG.. C1q deposition was not detectable by CBA although IgM antibodies are supposed to bind complement. ...
OBJECTIVE: A major feature of type 1 diabetes is the appearance of islet autoantibodies before diagnosis. However, although the genetics of type 1 diabetes is advanced, the genetics of islet autoantibodies needs further investigation. The primary susceptibility loci in type 1 diabetes, the HLA class I and II genes, are believed to determine the specificity and magnitude of the autoimmune response to islet antigens. We investigated the association of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) with the HLA region. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Associations of GADA and IA-2A with HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-A, MICA, and 3,779 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in 2,531 childhood-onset case subjects (median time since diagnosis 5 years). All analyses were adjusted for age-at-diagnosis and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: GADA and IA-2A were associated with an older age-at-diagnosis (P | 10(-19)). For GADA, the primary
Previously, we have demonstrated that the IFN-I signaling molecules, IRF9 and STAT1, were required for the production of IgG autoantibodies in the pristane model and for the high expression levels of TLR7 and TLR9 following treatment with IFN-I in B cells [32]. Here, we describe the autoantibody profile and TLR-dependent B-cell response in SLE mice genetically deficient in the IFNAR2 chain of the IFNAR. Autoantibody profiling using autoantigen microarrays in combination with conventional techniques to confirm the array results revealed that, similar to the phenotype for IRF9-/- mice, pristane-treated IFNAR2-/- mice specifically lacked IgG autoantibodies directed against all of the major targets in the pristane model. These targets included components of the RNA-associated complexes Sm/RNP and RiboP as well as the DNA-associated autoantigens ssDNA and histones. B cells from IFNAR2-/- mice exhibited defects in the expression of TLR7 as well as in responses to TLR7 agonists in the absence of ...
Stiff-person syndrome is the prototype of a central nervous system disorder with autoantibodies targeting presynaptic antigens. Patients with paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome may harbour autoantibodies to the BAR (Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein amphiphysin, which target its SH3 domain. These patients have neurophysiological signs of compromised central inhibition and respond to symptomatic treatment with medication enhancing GABAergic transmission. High frequency neurotransmission as observed in tonic GABAergic interneurons relies on fast exocytosis of neurotransmitters based on compensatory endocytosis. As amphiphysin is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, patient autoantibodies are supposed to interfere with this function, leading to disinhibition by reduction of GABAergic neurotransmission. We here investigated the effects of human anti-amphiphysin autoantibodies on structural components of presynaptic boutons ex vivo and in vitro using electron microscopy and super-resolution ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoantibody levels in myositis patients correlate with clinical response during B cell depletion with rituximab. AU - Aggarwal, Rohit. AU - Oddis, Chester V.. AU - Goudeau, Danielle. AU - Koontz, Diane. AU - Qi, Zengbiao. AU - Reed, Ann M.. AU - Ascherman, Dana P.. AU - Levesque, Marc C.. N1 - Funding Information: Grant: R01, National institute of Health/NIAMS AR061298-01; (PI: Chester V. Oddis) 10/2010-09/2014.. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - Objectives. To determine the longitudinal trends in serum levels of four myositis-associated autoantibodies: anti-Jo-1, -transcription intermediary factor 1 α (TIF1-α), -signal recognition particle (SRP) and -Mi-2, after B cell depletion with rituximab, and to determine the longitudinal association of these autoantibody levels with disease activity as measured by myositis core-set measures (CSMs). Methods. Treatment-resistant adult and pediatric myositis subjects (n = 200) received rituximab in the 44- week Rituximab in Myositis ...
Objective To identify the epitopes recognized by autoantibodies targeting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and develop novel assays for detection of serum anti-PDGFRα autoantibodies. Methods Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells from 1 patient with SSc (designated PAM) were screened for expression of IgG binding to PDGFRα and induction of reactive oxygen species in fibroblasts. The variable regions of anti-PDGFRα IgG were cloned into an IgG expression vector to generate distinct recombinant human monoclonal autoantibodies (mAb), which were characterized by binding and functional assays. The epitopes of anti-PDGFRα recombinant human mAb were defined by molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance binding assays, screening of a conformational peptide library spanning the PDGFRα extracellular domains, and expression analyses of alanine-scanned PDGFRα mutants. Direct or competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were established to detect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enolase autoantibodies and retinal function in multiple sclerosis patients. AU - Forooghian, Farzin. AU - Adamus, Grazyna. AU - Sproule, Melanie. AU - Westall, Carol. AU - OConnor, Paul. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Background: Electroretinographic (ERG) abnormalities have been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as the presence of circulating antiretinal antibodies. We and others have reported cases of impaired vision and diminished ERGs in MS patients with α-enolase autoantibodies. Anti-enolase antibodies have been implicated in autoimmune retinopathy. We performed this study to further explore the relationship between antiretinal antibodies and ERG changes in patients with MS. Methods: Patients with clinically definite MS and normal visual acuity were recruited for this study, along with healthy controls. All patients and controls had ERG testing done according to ISCEV standards. Patient and control sera were analyzed for the presence of antiretinal antibodies ...
AIMS: Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk and islet autoantibodies are recruited to a secondary prevention study. The aims were to determine metabolic control in relation to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic risk and islet autoantibodies in prepubertal children.. METHODS: In 47 healthy children with GADA and at least one additional islet autoantibody, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IvGTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed 8-65 d apart. Hemoglobin A1c, plasma glucose as well as serum insulin and C-peptide were determined at fasting and during IvGTT and OGTT.. RESULTS: All children aged median 5.1 (4.0-9.2) yr had autoantibodies to two to six of the beta-cell antigens GAD65, insulin, IA-2, and the three amino acid position 325 variants of the ZnT8 transporter. In total, 20/47 children showed impaired glucose metabolism. Decreased (≤ 30 μU/mL insulin) first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was found in 14/20 children while 11/20 had impaired glucose tolerance in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoantibodies to oxidized ldl in hyperlotdemic patients treated with hmg-coa reductase inhibitors. AU - Bui, M. N.. AU - Caulfield, M. T.. AU - Katz, P.. AU - Cannon, R. O.. AU - Rackley, C. E.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Recent studies demonstrated that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors slowed the progression and reduced the number of coronary events. Plaque stabilization has been proposed as an early beneficial mechanism. Nonisotopic ELISA technique was used to measure ox-LDL autoantibodies titers in 11 patients with hyperlipidemia LDL , IgG and IgM autoantibodies titers were measured at baseline and at 4 months after treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Baseline 4 months 12 months ofpauents 11 11 6 LDL(mg/dl) 173 ±37 138 ±28 128 ±15 Autoantibodies to ox-LDL,OD) IgG 0.138±0.076 0.154 + 0.087 0.180 + 0.071 IgM 0024 ±0.019 0.053± 0.044 p-valuc, 0.05 vs. baseline by paired Student t-test OD: optical density Six of the 11 patients had a 12-month follow-up with a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An Lck-cre transgene accelerates autoantibody production and lupus development in (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. AU - Nelson, R. K.. AU - Gould, K. A.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Lupus is an autoimmune disease characterized by the development of antinuclear autoantibodies and immune complex-mediated tissue damage. T cells in lupus patients appear to undergo apoptosis at an increased rate, and this enhanced T cell apoptosis has been postulated to contribute to lupus pathogenesis by increasing autoantigen load. However, there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we show that an Lck-cre transgene, which increases T cell apoptosis as a result of T cell-specific expression of cre recombinase, accelerates the development of autoantibodies and nephritis in lupus-prone (NZB × NZW)F1 mice. Although the enhanced T cell apoptosis in Lck-cre transgenic mice resulted in an overall decrease in the relative abundance of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, the proportion of ...
Phagocytosis of opsonized target cells has been recognized for a long time as a major pathogenic mechanism for IgG autoantibody-mediated autoimmune blood diseases such as thrombocytopenia and anemia. Indeed, IgG receptors such as FcγRIII and FcγRIV are potent mediators of phagocytosis of immune complexes involving IgG Abs of the appropriate isotype. The mechanisms responsible for the pathogenicity of IgM autoantibodies are not as well elucidated. Trapping in the spleen and liver of RBCs agglutinated by IgM anti-erythrocyte autoantibodies may account for IgM-mediated anemia (13, 26). Complement-mediated lysis of IgM-opsonized red cells or platelets (31) is another mechanism that might lead to anemia or thrombocytopenia, respectively, although rarely.. Because IgM receptors remained unknown for a long time, it was not so easy to explain IgM-mediated autoimmune thrombocytopenia, although complement fixation on IgM might also potentially activate phagocytosis involving complement receptors ...
Anti-Nuclear Antibodies HEp-2 (ANA-HEp-2), HEp-2 Cells; Anti-nDNA Antibodies (nDNA), Crithidia Luciliae; Anti-Endomysium Antibodies (AEA), Monkey Esophagus; Anti-Thyroid Antibodies (ATA), Monkey Thyroid; Autoantibodies RL/RK/RS, Rat Liver/Kidney/Stomach; Autoantibodies MsL/MsK/MsS Mouse Liver/Kidney/Stomach; Autoantibodies RL/RKm/RS Rat Liver / Kidney (with medulla/Stomach); Anti-Smooth Muscle Antibodies (ASMA) RatStomach; Anti-Gliadin Antibodies (AGA) Rat Kidney; Anti-Mitochondrial Antibodies (AMA) Rat Kidney; Autoantibodies RK/RS Rat Kidney / Stomach; Autoantibodies MsK/MsS Mouse Kidney / Stomach; Anti-Nuclear Antibodies RL (ANA-RL) Rat Liver. Cells Slides Boxes: ANA-HEp-2 Anti-nDNA Antibodies (nDNA ...
This paper presents a systematic analysis of the relevance of antigastric autoantibodies in H pylori gastritis. We and others have previously shown that autoantibodies against gastric epitopes occur in about 50% of H pylori infected patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. We have described two different in situ binding sites for these autoantibodies, one at the luminal membrane of the foveolar epithelium, the other at canalicular structures within parietal cells; the latter showed the highest correlation with H pylori infection.17 18This high prevalence of antigastric autoreactivity was confirmed in this study. Furthermore, according to our data, this type of autoantibody is correlated with histological and clinical manifestations of H pylori infection. Thus, the occurrence of anticanalicular autoantibodies correlates with the severity of body gastritis, and atrophic changes of the gastric mucosa, as well as with elevated basal serum gastrin concentrations and a decreased pepsinogen ...
A method based on histidine ligand affinity chromatography has been utilized for the separation of DNA hydrolyzing autoantibodies from sera of patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid syndrome using the gel, histidyl-aminohexyl-sepharose. The separation of autoantibodies was carried out under mild chromatographic conditions. Human IgG subclass distribution in the different fractions separated on the column was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The purified DNA hydrolyzing autoantibodies were shown to hydrolyze plasmid DNA. ...
Methods for identifying biomarkers, autoantibody signatures, and stratifying subject groups using peptide arrays - diagram, schematic, and image 20 ...
Autoantibody testing - Thyroid autoantibodies, specifically antithyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and antimicrosomal or antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, and/or adrenal autoantibodies may be present... more
PURPOSE: Potentially pathogenic autoantibodies are found increasingly in adults with seizure disorders, including focal seizures and those of unknown cause. In this study, we investigated a cohort of children with new-onset seizures to see whether there were autoantibodies and the relationship to any specific seizure or epilepsy type. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 114 children (2 months to 16 years) with new-onset seizures presenting between September 2009 and November 2011, as well as 65 controls. Patients were clinically assessed and classified according to the new International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) organization of seizures and epilepsies classification system. Sera were tested for autoantibodies to a range of antigens, blind to the clinical and classification details. KEY FINDINGS: Eleven (9.7%) of 114 patients were positive for one or more autoantibodies compared to 3 of 65 controls (4.6%, p = ns). Patients had antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex (n = 4),
The anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA) test is used to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis and distinguish it from other causes of liver damage. Learn about the test and what its results mean.
Purpose: : Melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), induced by cutaneous or uveal melanomas, results from the cross-reaction of tumor-directed autoantibodies with retinal antigens, which destroy retinal tissue. MAR ultrastructural descriptions and autoantibody localization are lacking. We present for the first time ocular ultrastructure and the retinal targets of the autoantibodies of MAR. Methods: : A pair of autopsied eyes of an 80 year-old male with metastatic cutaneous melanoma and positive retinal autoantibodies was examined with histopathology including transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry (Calbindin, calcium binding proteins; PKCalpha, protein kinas C; and TRPM1, a mGluR6-coupled cation channel in ON bipolar cells) using avidin-biotin-complex immunohistochemistry. Results: : The outer plexiform layer (OPL) was the most affected retinal tissue in both eyes; it showed thinning and atrophy, which extended to both the outer (ONL) and inner (INL) nuclear layers, resulting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Definition of human autoimmunity - autoantibodies versus autoimmune disease. AU - Lleo, Ana. AU - Invernizzi, Pietro. AU - Gao, Bin. AU - Podda, Mauro. AU - Gershwin, M. Eric. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - The critical function of the immune system is to discriminate self from non-self. Tolerance against self-antigens is a highly regulated process and, in order to maintain it, the immune system must be able to distinguish self-reactive lymphocytes as they develop. The presence of autoantibodies is the consequence of breakdown of tolerance and, although they are an important serological feature of autoimmune diseases, their presence is not exclusive of these conditions. Antibodies against self-antigens are also found in cancer, during massive tissue damage and even in healthy subjects. Natural autoantibodies provide immediate protection against infection and also prevent inflammation by facilitating the clearance of oxidized lipids, oxidized proteins, and apoptotic cells; their ...
Clinical trial for Immune Mediated Necrotizing Myopathy , Monotherapy IVIG Gamunex-C for HMG-CoA Reductase Auto-Antibody Positive Necrotizing Myopathy Treatment (The MIGHT Trial)
Prevalence of Positive Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies among Type 2 Diabetes and Related Metabolic and Inflammatory Differences in a Sample of the Bulgarian Population. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
An ENA (Extractable Nuclear Antigen Antibodies) panel detects the presence of one or more specific autoantibodies in the blood. Autoantibodies are produced when a persons immune system mistakenly targets and attacks the bodys own tissues. This attack can cause inflammation, tissue damage, and other signs and symptoms that are associated with an autoimmune disorder.. ENA are a subset of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antibodies directed against proteins found in the nucleus of cells. Certain autoimmune disorders are characteristically associated with the presence of one or more extractable nuclear antigen antibodies. This association can be used to help diagnose an autoimmune disorder and to distinguish between disorders.. The ENA panel is typically a group of 6-10 autoantibody tests. The number of tests offered will depend on the laboratory and the needs of the doctors and patients it serves. ENA panel tests, and other less common ENA tests, may be able to be ordered separately depending on the ...
Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with varied morbidity and mortality. We assessed clinical presentations, autoantibody specificities and therapeutic interventions in Native American (NA) patients with SLE. Methods: Patients with SLE meeting 1997 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria (n=3148) were enrolled between 1992 and 2010 in the multiethnic, cross-sectional Lupus Family Registry and Repository. Clinical, demographic and therapeutic information were extracted from medical records using a standardised form and formalised training. Autoantibodies were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and antidouble-stranded DNA), precipitin (ENA) and ELISA (IgG and IgM anticardiolipins). Results: NA patients met SLE classification at a younger age (29.89±12.3 years) than European Americans (EA; 32.02±12.87, P=0.0157) and a similar age to African-Americans (AAs) and Hispanics (HIS). More NA patients had ...
The exosome complex is the target of autoantibodies in patients suffering from various autoimmune diseases. These autoantibodies are mainly found in people that suffer from the PM/Scl overlap syndrome, an autoimmune disease in which patients have symptoms from both scleroderma and either polymyositis or dermatomyositis.[40] Autoantibodies can be detected in the serum of patients by a variety of assays. In the past, the most commonly used methods were double immunodiffusion using calf thymus extracts, immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells or immunoprecipitation from human cell extracts. In immunoprecipitation assays with sera from anti-exosome positive sera, a distinctive set of proteins is precipitated. Already years before the exosome complex was identified, this pattern was termed the PM/Scl complex.[41] Immunofluorescence using sera from these patients usually shows a typical staining of the nucleolus of cells, which sparked the suggestion that the antigen recognized by autoantibodies might be ...
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune blistering skin disease. Autoantibodies to BP180 and BP230 can be detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on
No marker except repeated fasting glucose determinations has proven useful to ascertain prospectively which women with gestational diabetes mellitus will remain euglycemic by diet modification or will require insulin therapy. We screened 183 black women with gestational diabetes mellitus to determine if the presence of islet cell, mitochondrial, nuclear, DNA, parietal cell, smooth muscle, thyroid microsomal, thyroid thyroglobulin autoantibodies, or rheumatoid factor predicted the need for insulin therapy to maintain euglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. One hundred forty-two women maintained normal fasting plasma glucose levels with dietary modifications and 41 required institution of split-dose insulin therapy. We found no significant differences in the prevalence of these autoantibodies in black women with Class GB versus Class A1 diabetes mellitus. We conclude that screening for autoantibodies in women with gestational diabetes mellitus is not useful in determining which ...
Serum autoantibodies found by radioimmunoassay in 27 of 52 patients with the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LES) bound specifically to a soluble omega-conotoxin binding component of a voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC) complex extracted from small
OBJECTIVE Peripheral blood cells (PBMCs) from some patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) express an interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) signature. The aim of this study was to determine whether SSc patient sera could induce IFNalpha and whether IFNalpha induction was associated with specific autoantibodies and/or clinical features of the disease. METHODS SSc sera containing autoantibodies against either topoisomerase I (anti-topo I; n = 12), nucleolar protein (ANoA; n = 12), or centromeric protein (ACA; n = 13) were cultured with a HeLa nuclear extract and normal PBMCs. In some experiments, different cell extracts or inhibitors of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (DC) activation, Fcgamma receptor II (FcgammaRII), endocytosis, or nucleases were used. IFNalpha was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Topo I-containing sera induced significantly higher levels of IFNalpha as compared with all other groups. IFNalpha induction was inhibited by anti-blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (90%), anti-CD32 (76
Technology Insight: hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) transplantation for systemic rheumatic disease. Transplantation of HSCs for the treatment of autoimmune di...
0109] 1. Gepts W. Pathologic anatomy of the pancreas in juvenile diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 1965; 14:619-633. [0110] 2. Leslie R D, Atkinson M A, Notkins A L. Autoantigens IA-2 and GAD in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 1999; 42:3-14. [0111] 3. Verge C F, Gianani R, Kawasaki E, et al. Number of autoantibodies (against insulin, GAD or ICA512/IA2) rather than particular autoantibody specificities determine risk of type I diabetes. J Autoimmun 1996; 9:379-383. [0112] 4. Graham J, Hagopian W A, Kockum I, et al. Genetic effects on age-dependent onset and islet cell autoantibody markers in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes 2002; 51:1346-1355. [0113] 5. Zimmet P Z, Tuomi T, Mackay I R, et al. Latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA): The role of antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in diagnosis and prediction of insulin dependency. Diabetic Med 1994; 11:299-303. [0114] 6. Turner R, Stratton I, Horton V, et al. UKPDS 25: autoantibodies to islet-cell cytoplasm and glutamic ...
Autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 (TG2) are hallmarks of celiac disease. To address B cell tolerance and autoantibody formation to TG2, we generated immunoglobulin knock-in (Ig KI) mice that express a prototypical celiac patient-derived anti-TG2 B cell receptor equally reactive to human and mouse TG2. We studied B cell development in the presence/absence of autoantigen by crossing the Ig KI mice to Tgm2−/− mice. Autoreactive B cells in Tgm2+/+ mice were indistinguishable from their naive counterparts in Tgm2−/− mice with no signs of clonal deletion, receptor editing, or B cell anergy. The autoreactive B cells appeared ignorant to their antigen, and they produced autoantibodies when provided T cell help. The findings lend credence to a model of celiac disease where gluten-reactive T cells provide help to autoreactive TG2-specific B cells by involvement of gluten-TG2 complexes, and they outline a general mechanism of autoimmunity with autoantibodies being produced by ignorant B cells on ...
Although the role of adaptive immune mechanisms, e.g. autoantibody formation and abnormal T-cell activation, has been long noted in the pathogenesis of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the role of innate immunity has been less well characterized. An intricate interplay between both innate and adaptive immune elements exists in protective anti-infective immunity as well as in detrimental autoimmunity. More recently, it has become clear that the innate immune system in this regard not only starts inflammation cascades in SLE leading to disease flares, but also continues to fuel adaptive immune responses throughout the course of the disease. This is why targeting the innate immune system offers an additional means of treating SLE. First trials assessing the efficacy of anti-type I interferon (IFN) therapy or modulators of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signalling have been attempted. In this review, we summarize the available evidence on the role of several distinct innate immune ...
To understand the potential role(s) that autoantibodies to OxLDL play in atherogenesis in humans, we isolated several human monoclonal IgG Fab antibodies that bound to epitopes of OxLDL, initially focusing on MDA-LDL, a model epitope of OxLDL. To our knowledge, these are the first human monoclonal antibodies against oxidation-specific epitopes of OxLDL to be characterized. All 3 Fab antibodies showed distinct antigen-binding specificity to MDA-LDL compared with other unrelated antigens. To isolate these antibodies, we used a phage display combinatorial library technique that enables rapid enrichment of desired Fab clones by using antigen-coated surfaces.10 This technique has been used to isolate monoclonal Fab antibodies from immunized animals and to study pathogenic autoantibodies in various human autoimmune disorders.23-25 Although it is not feasible to directly compare hybridomas and combinatorial libraries, several studies have demonstrated that repertoires cloned from phage display ...
Li et al. Journal of Translational Medicine 2013, 11:285 http://www.translational-medicine.com/content/11/1/285 RESEARCH Open Access Association of autoantibodies against the M2-muscarinic receptor with perinatal outcomes in women with severe preeclampsia Yanfang Li1†, Guiling Ma2†, Zhiyong Zhang2, Yin Yue2, Yuting Yuan2, Yidan Wang2, Guobin Miao2* and Lin Zhang2* Abstract Background: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that autoantibodies against M2-muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2-AAB) are associated with severe preeclampsia and increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. Methods: We conducted a case-control study comparing 60 women with severe preeclampsia to 60 women with normal pregnancy and 60 non-pregnant controls. A peptide, corresponding to amino acid sequences of the second extracellular loops of the M2 receptor, was synthesized as antigen to test for the presence of autoantibodies, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency and titer of M2-AAB ...
Circulating autoantibodies to insulin can be detected in patients with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) at the onset of the clinical disease. To characterize the autoantibody response in IDDM patients, we determined the frequency of circulating B cells committed to the production of IgM, IgG, and IgA to insulin in 12 newly diagnosed IDDM patients and, for comparison, in 9 healthy subjects and 17 insulin-treated IDDM patients. We found that B cells committed to the production of anti-insulin IgG, but not IgM, autoantibodies are present at much higher frequency in the circulation of newly diagnosed IDDM patients before insulin treatment (0.209 +/- 0.142%, mean value +/- SD of total IgG-producing cell precursors) as compared with age-matched healthy controls (0.032 +/- 0.030% of total IgG-producing cell precursors). In IDDM patients who had been treated with insulin, cells producing IgG antibody to insulin were 0.177 +/- 0.139% of total IgG-producing cell precursors. Generation of IgG
Introduction The finding of antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity in a wholesome individual is usually of unknown significance and generally is benign. Outcomes Overall, ANA amounts are considerably higher in females than in men which association retains in patients using the autoimmune illnesses lupus and arthritis rheumatoid (RA) aswell as in healthful controls (HC). Age group was not considerably connected with ANA amounts and the raised ANA values cannot be described by higher IgG amounts. Another autoantibody, anti- cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), didnt present gender dimorphism in arthritis rheumatoid (RA) or healthful people. The autoantigen array demonstrated significant elevations of various other autoantibodies in high ANA HCs. A few of these autoantibodies had been aimed to antigens in others and epidermis had been linked to autoimmune circumstances of kidney, joints or thyroid. Gene appearance analyses showed a larger prevalence of considerably upregulated genes in HCs with ...
A major challenge in human DCIS research has been the identification of markers associated with the transition from DCIS to invasive breast carcinoma. Progress toward achieving this goal could be enhanced by using advanced microarray techniques to measure the humoral response against the cancer. In this study, we successfully used protein microarray technology to identify an autoantibody signature in patients with preinvasive and early invasive breast cancer. In doing so, we identified a subset of 5 autoantibodies that can accurately distinguish between the groups. These data suggest that autoantibody detection could serve as a new prognostic test.. Surprisingly, the autoantigens identified in this study were different from previously identified DCIS-associated TAAs (12, 15-17). Substantial differences exist between protein microarrays and other techniques used to identify TAAs. The ProtoArray protein microarrays contain proteins that are expressed in insect cells and, therefore, contain ...
Type II collagen (CII) posttranslationally modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS-CII) that are present in the inflamed joint is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of anti-ROS-CII autoantibodies as a biomarker of RA.CII was exposed to oxidants that are present in the rheumatoid joint. Autoreactivity to ROS-CII was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in synovial fluid (SF) and serum samples obtained from patients during various phases of RA. This group included disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early RA (n = 85 serum samples) and patients with established RA (n = 80 serum and 50 SF samples), who were categorized as either DMARD responders or DMARD nonresponders. Control subjects included anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive patients with arthralgia (n = 58 serum samples), patients with osteoarthritis (OA; n = 49 serum and 52 SF samples), and healthy individuals (n = 51 serum
OBJECTIVE: Type II collagen (CII) posttranslationally modified by reactive oxygen species (ROS-CII) that are present in the inflamed joint is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of anti-ROS-CII autoantibodies as a biomarker of RA. METHODS: CII was exposed to oxidants that are present in the rheumatoid joint. Autoreactivity to ROS-CII was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in synovial fluid (SF) and serum samples obtained from patients during various phases of RA. This group included disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naive patients with early RA (n = 85 serum samples) and patients with established RA (n = 80 serum and 50 SF samples), who were categorized as either DMARD responders or DMARD nonresponders. Control subjects included anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive patients with arthralgia (n = 58 serum samples), patients with osteoarthritis (OA; n = 49 serum and 52 SF samples), and healthy
Yehuda Shoenfeld; M. Eric Gershwin; Pier-Luigi Meroni (2007). Autoantibodies. Elsevier. pp. 98-. ISBN 978-0-444-52763-9. ...
This effect can also occur after an infection causes the production of autoantibodies to other structures within the nucleus. ... Subsequently, in 1957, antibodies to dsDNA were the first autoantibodies to be identified in patients with SLE. Although the ... Hueber W, Utz PJ, Steinman L, Robinson WH (2002). "Autoantibody profiling for the study and treatment of autoimmune disease". ... Automated analysis of the well fluorescence allows for rapid detection of autoantibodies. Microarrays are a newly emerging ...
... autoantibodies and muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) autoantibodies. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), is similar ... However, in LEMS the neuron is unable to release enough acetylcholine for normal muscle function due to autoantibodies ... In myasthenia gravis, the body produces autoantibodies which block, inhibit or destroy nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ... In practice, the edrophonium test has been replaced by testing for autoantibodies, including acetylcholine receptor (AchR) ...
Antibodies against the body's own products are called autoantibodies. Autoantibodies can sometimes errantly be directed against ... Anti-transglutaminase antibodies (ATA) are autoantibodies against the transglutaminase protein. Antibodies serve an important ... Antibodies to epidermal transglutaminase (eTG, also keratinocyte transglutaminase) are the autoantibodies believed to cause ... "Anti-infectious antibodies and autoimmune-associated autoantibodies in patients with type I diabetes mellitus and their close ...
... a cellular link between autoantibodies and inflammatory arthritis". Science. 297 (5587): 1689-92. doi:10.1126/science.1073176. ...
2015). "Autoantibody to MOG suggests two distinct clinical subtypes of NMOSD". Science China Life Sciences. 59 (12): 1270-1281 ... Spectrum of MOG Autoantibody-Associated Inflammatory Diseases in Pediatric Patients, Neurology April 6, 2015 vol. 84 no. 14 ... The reason why anti-MOG auto-antibodies appear remains unknown. A post-infectious autoimmune process has been proposed as a ... Spadaro, Melania (2016). "Autoantibodies to MOG in a distinct subgroup of adult multiple sclerosis". Neurology - ...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GADA), islet cell autoantibody (ICA), insulinoma-associated (IA-2) autoantibody, and ... Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA), islet cell autoantibodies (ICA), insulinoma-associated (IA-2) autoantibodies ... Autoantibodies[edit]. Destruction of Glutamate decarboxylase (pictured here) via autoantibodies is strongly linked with LADA ... Since there is no regular autoantibody screening, patients with LADA are at risk of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, which ...
Autoantibodies against G-protein coupled receptor[edit]. Measurement of G protein-coupled receptor activity may be used as a ... A high number of patients has elevated levels of autoantibodies against the adrenergic alpha 1 receptor and against the ... "Adrenergic Autoantibody-Induced Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Rabbits". Journal of the American Heart Association. 8 (19): ... "Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Is Associated With Elevated G-Protein Coupled Receptor Autoantibodies". Journal of ...
The autoantibodies involved in cold agglutinin disease are usually against I antigen. The antibodies are usually IgM (kappa ... Transient autoantibodies against I antigen are common, especially after infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and are rarely ... subtype), unlike transient autoantibodies which are generally IgG. Cold-reactive IgM antibodies (cold agglutinins) bind to I ...
Auto anti-LW is not uncommon as an autoantibody but usually presents with transient suppression of the LW antigen in ... Anti-LW can be present as a clinically insignificant autoantibody and not be associated with increased red cell destruction. ... Vos GH, Petz LD, Garratty G, Fudenberg HH (September 1973). "Autoantibodies in acquired hemolytic anemia with special reference ...
While the pathogenesis behind development of autoantibodies remains largely unknown, it is very probable that an epigenetic ... with research showing that formula-fed infants are at an increased risk of developing islet autoantibodies. Individuals with ... is significantly associated with increased risk of islet autoantibody development compared to babies who are exposed to solid ... "Early infant feeding and risk of developing type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies". JAMA. 290 (13): 1721-8. doi:10.1001/ ...
2007). "Identification of Tetraspanin-7 as a Target of Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes". Diabetes. 65 (6): 1690-8. doi: ... "Identification of Tetraspanin-7 as a Target of Autoantibodies in Type 1 Diabetes". Diabetes. 65 (6): 1690-8. doi:10.2337/db15- ...
Ueki A, Isozaki Y, Kusaka M (2005). "Anti-caspase-8 autoantibody response in silicosis patients is associated with HLA-DRB1, ... DRB1*04:06: caspase-8 autoantibodies silicosis-systemic sclerosis (SSc)-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DRB1*04:09: T. ... "Influence of HLA-DR genes on the production of rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantibodies to citrullinated fibrinogen". ...
In rodents they may affect T-cell triggering and possibly autoantibody formation, and possibly also in humans. In another ... Autoantibodies recognizing carbamylated proteins are present in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and predict joint ...
Anti-gliadin not autoantibody. *RA *Rheumatoid factor/anti-IgG. *Anti-citrullinated peptide ...
This is the highest dilution of the serum at which autoantibodies are still detectable. Positive autoantibody titres at a ... Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF)[1] are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell ... von Mühlen, CA; Tan, EM (April 1995). "Autoantibodies in the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases". Seminars in Arthritis ... Scofield, RH (May 8, 2004). "Autoantibodies as predictors of disease". Lancet. 363 (9420): 1544-6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04) ...
Anti-gliadin not autoantibody. *RA *Rheumatoid factor/anti-IgG. *Anti-citrullinated peptide ...
Autoantibodies Usually present. Absent Endogenous insulin Low or absent. Normal, decreased. or increased ...
Autoantibodies: Non-specific. Can have antibodies to blood cells (DAT, anti-neutrophil, anti-platelet). Also, can have positive ...
"Structural and functional analysis of the B cell epitopes recognized by anti-receptor autoantibodies in patients with Chagas' ...
AutoantibodiesEdit. A number of specific antibodies found in the blood (antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody ... AIH with no autoantibodies detected (~20%)[citation needed] (of debatable validity/importance) ... The disease is strongly associated with anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies. There is currently no conclusive evidence as to any ...
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria, primarily ... Mitochondrial antigens and autoantibodies: from anti-M1 to anti-M9. Klin Wochenschr 64(19):897-909 Labro MT, Andrieu MC, Weber ...
These metabolites could then bind to their cell membranes and cause a release of autoantibodies which would react with the ...
"Induction of lupus autoantibodies by adjuvants". Journal of Autoimmunity. 21 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1016/S0896-8411(03)00083-0. PMID ...
Willison, Hugh J.; Goodyear, Carl S. (September 2013). "Glycolipid antigens and autoantibodies in autoimmune neuropathies". ...
2005: Showed auto-antibodies to oligomeric A? protect against AD - acknowledged by Biogen to significantly influence the ...
... insulin autoantibodies, autoantibodies targeting the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), autoantibodies ... Autoantibodies[edit]. The appearance of diabetes-related autoantibodies has been shown to be able to predict the appearance of ... but the emergence of autoantibodies may itself be termed "latent autoimmune diabetes". Not everyone with autoantibodies ... Type 1 diabetes was described as an autoimmune disease in the 1970s, based on observations that autoantibodies against islets ...
Böhm I (2004). "Increased peripheral blood B-cells expressing the CD5 molecules in association tp autoantibodies in patients ...
"Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody prevalence and association with HLA genotype in patients with younger-onset type 1 ... analysis of association with HLA genotypes and autoantibodies". Clin Endocrinol. 55 (5): 597-603. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2001. ...
Autoantibodies are used to diagnose many autoimmune diseases. The levels of autoantibodies are measured to determine the ... In systemic lupus there are autoantibodies to DNA, which cannot evoke a T cell response, and limited evidence for T cell ... Immunology became a biochemical rather than a clinical discipline.[2] By the 1950s the modern understanding of autoantibodies ... Induction of autoantibodies against tyrosinase-related proteins following DNA vaccination: Unexpected reactivity to a protein ...
The role of autoantibodies in normal immune function is also a subject of scientific research. The causes of autoantibody ... Those who have more than one autoimmune disorder may have several detectable autoantibodies. Whether a particular autoantibody ... the autoantibodies may develop. Systemic autoantibody tests are used to: Help diagnose systemic autoimmune disorders. Help ... leading to production of pathological autoantibodies. Autoantibodies may also play a nonpathological role; for instance they ...
Normally autoantibodies are routinely eliminated by the immune systems self-regulatory process-probably... ... autoantibody: Harmful antibody that attacks components of the body called self antigens. ... Autoantibody, harmful antibody that attacks components of the body called self antigens. Normally autoantibodies are routinely ... Autoantibodies also interfere with the normal functioning of cells. For example, in Graves disease, autoantibodies bind to ...
ISLET CELL AUTOANTIBODIES. Autoantibodies are created by the immune system when it fails to distinguish between "self" and " ... Islet cell autoantibodies are strongly associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. The appearance of autoantibodies to ... AUTOANTIBODY EFFECTS ON ANTIGEN PRESENTATION. One potential important role played by autoantibodies in the type 1 diabetes ... George J, Schoenfeld Y: Natural autoantibodies. In Autoantibodies. Peter JB, Shoenfeld Y, Eds. Amsterdam, Elsevier,1996 , p.534 ...
Learn about testing for islet autoantibodies, used to identify people at increased risk for developing type 1 diabetes or ... Islet Cell Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies. ICA. Measures a group of islet cell autoantibodies targeted against a variety of islet ... Insulinoma-Associated-2 Autoantibodies. IA-2A. Tests for autoantibodies directed against beta cell antigens. The presence of IA ... Insulin Autoantibodies. IAA. Autoantibody targeted to insulin; insulin is the only antigen thought to be highly specific for ...
Autoantibodies against peptides derived from prostate-cancer tissue could be used as the basis for a screening test for ... Autoantibody signatures in prostate cancer N Engl J Med. 2005 Sep 22;353(12):1224-35. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa051931. ... Conclusions: Autoantibodies against peptides derived from prostate-cancer tissue could be used as the basis for a screening ... Background: New biomarkers, such as autoantibody signatures, may improve the early detection of prostate cancer. ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about FA autoantibodies. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ...
Autoantibodies,damage,blood,vessels,in,the,brain,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current ... First Encouraging Results after Removal of Autoantibodies by Immuno...In earlier studies Marion Bimmler and her research team ... The presence of specific autoantibodies of the immune system is associ...Antibodies are the defense molecules of the bodys ... Autoantibodies damage blood vessels in the brain. ...The presence of specific autoantibodies of the immune system is associ... ...
Idiotypic cross-reactions of monoclonal human lupus autoantibodies.. Y Shoenfeld, D A Isenberg, J Rauch, M P Madaio, B D ... Idiotypic cross-reactions of monoclonal human lupus autoantibodies.. Y Shoenfeld, D A Isenberg, J Rauch, M P Madaio, B D ... Three antiidiotype reagents were prepared by immunization of rabbits or a mouse with monoclonal autoantibodies from two ... A monoclonal antiidiotype reagent cross-reacted with autoantibodies from six of the seven patients. The idiotypic cross- ...
Cees Kallenberg on Pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies, part of a collection of online lectures. ... Pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies. *Prof. Cees Kallenberg - University Medical Centre Groningen, Netherlands ... Kallenberg, C. (2007, October 1). Pathogenic mechanisms of autoantibodies [Video file]. In The Biomedical & Life Sciences ...
Even though autoantibody production may be an epiphenomenon of autoimmune diseases, autoantibody targets in scleroderma are ... Even though the prevalence for autoantibodies against nuclear components appears to be higher, the spectrum of autoantibodies ... 1997) Autoantibodies: diagnostic fingerprints and etiological perplexities. Clin Invest Med 20:103-115, pmid:9088666.. ... 1992) Update on autoantibodies to intracellular antigens in systemic rheumatic diseases. Clin Lab Med 12:1-23, pmid:1563236.. ...
Disease-specific autoantibodies other than rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibody exist in patients with TB. Autoantibody ... Detailed results of the autoantibody tests were shown in table 2. The most prevalent autoantibodies in patients with TB were ... Thirty-two patients with TB had elevated serum autoantibody levels, including nine with more than one autoantibody (table 1). ... This might lead to uncertainty in the prevalence of autoantibody in non-TB groups. Nonetheless, the autoantibody prevalence was ...
Risk of progression to T1D was influenced by how quickly the second autoantibody appeared. Emergence of a second autoantibody ... insulin autoantibody (IAA), or insulinoma-associated-protein-2 autoantibody (IA2-2A). The researchers also looked for the ... the greater their risk for developing a second autoantibody. Conversely, the risk for T1D decreased if the first autoantibody ... compared to children who stayed single autoantibody positive. IA-2A, as a second autoantibody, conferred the highest risk, ...
... or the combination anti-SSA/Ro or anti Ro/SSA autoantibodies) are anti-nuclear autoantibodies that are associated with many ... Anti-SSA autoantibodies (Anti-Sjögrens-syndrome-related antigen A, also called anti-Ro, ... "Clinical significance of autoantibodies recognizing Sjögrens syndrome A (SSA), SSB, calpastatin and alpha-fodrin in primary ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anti-SSA/Ro_autoantibodies&oldid=842518286" ...
Thrombocytopenia with Multiple Autoantibodies. Br Med J 1969; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5670.596-a (Published 06 ...
"What this is showing is that there are people, almost all men, for unclear reasons, who have these autoantibodies against their ... People can be tested for these autoantibodies, Crotty says. Of the research, he says: "This is really valuable information to ... "The most shocking thing [about the research] is that that many people are making autoantibodies that block type 1 interferon," ... In research that looked at about 1,000 patients who had severe COVID-19 pneumonia, more than 10% had autoantibodies against ...
Cytokine-targeting autoantibodies in disease. Spontaneous autoantibody production is a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases, ... Cytokine-specific autoantibodies modulate disease severity. In addition to causing immunodeficiency, autoantibodies against ... 11). Notably, this approach is not limited to detection of autoantibodies against cytokines. Autoantibodies against growth ... BAFF-ling autoantibodies. Stefanie Sarantopoulos1 and Maureen A. Su2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematological ...
Examples of Autoantibodies. Systemic autoantibodies. The list below includes some of the autoantibody tests that are used to ... What are autoantibodies? What are autoantibodies?. Autoantibodies are antibodies (immune proteins) that mistakenly target and ... Why and when are autoantibody tests performed?. Autoantibody tests are performed, along with x-rays, other imaging scans, and ... have autoantibodies and that the prevalence of the most common type of autoantibody, antinuclear antibody (ANA), is highest ...
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This volume covers methods for determination of autoantibodies in rheumatic connective tissue diseases and organ-specific ... Autoantibodies. Book Subtitle. Methods and Protocols Editors. * Gunnar Houen Series Title. Methods in Molecular Biology. Series ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Autoantibodies: Methods and Protocols aims to be helpful for all persons working with research ... Measurement of Autoantibodies to Gastric H+,K+-ATPase (ATP4A/B) Using a Luciferase Immunoprecipitation System (LIPS) ...
Examples of Autoantibodies. Systemic autoantibodies. The list below includes some of the autoantibody tests that are used to ...
Thangaratinam and colleagues assess the association of thyroid autoantibodies with miscarriage and preterm birth in ... Thyroid autoantibodies, preterm birth, and miscarriage. BMJ 2011; 342 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d2260 (Published 09 May ...
... Pietro Invernizzi,1 Xavier Bossuyt,2 and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos ... Pietro Invernizzi, Xavier Bossuyt, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, "Serum Autoantibodies: From Identification to Clinical Relevance ...
islet autoantibodies synonyms, islet autoantibodies pronunciation, islet autoantibodies translation, English dictionary ... definition of islet autoantibodies. abbreviation for 1. Institute of Contemporary Arts 2. International Cooperation ... redirected from islet autoantibodies). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to islet autoantibodies: GAD antibodies ... The concept of screening for islet autoantibodies is controversial.. Islet autoantibodies and type 1 diabetes: does the ...
気管支喘息と自己抗体 [in Japanese] AUTOANTIBODIES IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA [in Japanese] * * 藤森 勝也 Fujimori Katsuya ... We studied the difference in the prevalence of autoantibodies between the sera of atopic asthma and non-atopic asthma. The ... may cause some trouble in the impaired lymphocyte surveillance and may be especially liable to develope autoantibodies under ...
Mechanisms underlying cerebellar motor deficits due to mGluR1-autoantibodies.. Coesmans M1, Smitt PA, Linden DJ, Shigemoto R, ... We conclude that autoantibodies against mGluR1 can cause cerebellar motor coordination deficits caused by a combination of ... Patients with Hodgkins disease can develop paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia because of the generation of autoantibodies ...
... and the autoantibody levels predict disease progression. Thus, we can measure these autoantibodies in blood to identify ... This leads to development of autoantibodies, mostly of the IgG subclass; 3) The IgG autoantibodies bind galactose-deficient ... Pivotal Role Found for IgC Autoantibodies in IgA Nephropathy. IgA nephropathy is the leading primary glomerulonephritis ... The IgG autoantibody specific for galactose-deficient IgA1was not found in control extracts from two other forms of ...
... By Traci Pedersen Associate News Editor ... The findings show that diabetic women are three times more likely to have anti-fetal brain autoantibodies, particularly those ... However, among mothers of children without autism, these anti-fetal brain autoantibodies are quite rare (detected in only one ... Pedersen, T. (2018). Diabetic Moms More Likely to Carry Autism-Specific Autoantibodies. Psych Central. Retrieved on September ...
Warren K.G., Catz I. (1989) Autoantibodies to Myelin Basic Protein In Multiple Sclerosis. In: Kim S.U. (eds) Myelination and ... Catz I, Warren KG: Intrathecal synthesis of autoantibodies to myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis. Can J Neurol Sci 13: ...
Autoantibodies to Tumor-Associated Antigens in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma. Benjamin Piura1 and Ettie Piura2 ... L. Zhong, K. Ge, J. C. Zu et al., "Autoantibodies as potential biomarkers for breast cancer," Breast Cancer Research, vol. 10, ... A. Barua, M. J. Bradaric, T. Kebede et al., "Anti-tumor and anti-ovarian autoantibodies in women with ovarian cancer," American ... F. Fernández Madrid, "Autoantibodies in breast cancer sera: candidate biomarkers and reporters of tumorigenesis," Cancer ...
autoantibody synonyms, autoantibody pronunciation, autoantibody translation, English dictionary definition of autoantibody. n. ... autoantibody - an antibody acting against tissues of the organism that produces it. rheumatoid factor - autoantibody that is ... Neurological Autoantibody Prevalence in Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.. Neuronal autoantibodies call for attention in epilepsy ... autoantibody. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. au·to·an·ti·bod·y. (ô′tō-ăn′tĭ-bŏd′ē). n.. An ...
autoantibody (thing). See all of autoantibody, no other writeups in this node. ...
Additional Keywords : Autoantibodies, Body Mass Index (BMI), Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c), Hypoglycemia. Problem Substances ...
Messenger RNA-binding proteins with RNP consensus sequence (RNA recognition motifs) and KH (hnRNP-K homology) domains involved in tumorigenesis. ...
These preliminary data show that some patients with schizophrenia have potentially pathogenic autoantibodies to relevant ... and the autoantibody positive cases fulfilled criteria for DSM-IV schizophrenia. No patient had physical neurological symptoms ...
However, this does not stop an interest in other autoantibodies and the significance of their presence for the course of this ... This chapter outlines the autoantibodies found in pSS and discusses their importance in clinical practice. ... The range of autoantibodies found in pSS is constantly expanding, but their significance is not fully established. At present, ... it is known that overactivity of B-lymphocytes leads to the production of a number of autoantibodies-both markers for pSS (such ...
  • Autoantibody , harmful antibody that attacks components of the body called self antigens. (britannica.com)
  • Autoantibodies are produced against certain antigens of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas - resulting in a destruction of these cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Sera from patients with breast cancer contain specific autoantibodies (AAb) to tumor antigens that develop as part of the natural immune response to cancer-associated changes in protein structure and expression. (nih.gov)
  • Results further suggest significant promise for the development of panels of breast cancer-specific, premalignant-phase autoantibodies, as well as studies on the autoantibody response to tumor associated antigens in the pathogenesis of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This process is thought to be mediated by immune cells and no role is considered for the autoantibody response to tumor associated antigens [TAAs]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RA patients develop autoantibodies against a spectrum of antigens but their clinical significance is unclear. (pic-sure.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Myositis and scleroderma specific autoantibodies, including anti-TIF1, anti-NXP2 and anti-RNA polymerase III, are rare in patients with lung cancer without an autoimmune disease. (bath.ac.uk)
  • This private blood test profile for Autoantibody Profile I in London has a guaranteed turnaround time of 3 working days and tests for Thyroid Peroxidase antibodies, Antinuclear antibodies, Mitochondrial antibodies, Gastric Paretal cell antibodies, Smooth muscle antibodies, Reticulin antibodies, LKM. (bloodtestslondon.com)
  • This private blood test profile for Autoantibody Profile II in London has a guaranteed turnaround time of 3 working days and tests for Thyroid peroxidase antibodies, Islet Cell antibodies, Adrenal antibodies, Gastric paretal cell antibodies, Gonadal(Ovarian/Testicular) abs. (bloodtestslondon.com)
  • Some antibodies - known as autoantibodies - attack the body's own tissues. (charite.de)
  • Just like the beneficial antibodies, a pregnant woman passes on potentially harmful autoantibodies to her unborn child. (charite.de)
  • The objective of this work was to demonstrate that autoantibodies in breast cancer sera are not epiphenomena, and exhibit unique immunologic features resembling the rheumatic autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our studies on autoantibodies in malignancies strongly suggested that cancer sera exhibit immunologic features that are common in the rheumatic autoimmune diseases [ADs]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We review the most common autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies found in malignancies, discuss the therapeutic role of these autoantibodies in cancer, and summarize the current knowledge on malignant transformation in autoimmunity. (elsevier.com)
  • Any time that you have diabetes and your healthcare practitioner cannot clearly determine if you have type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, your healthcare practitioner may order tests for islet autoantibodies. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Islet autoantibodies are proteins produced by the immune system that have been shown to be associated with type 1 diabetes . (labtestsonline.org)
  • Islet autoantibodies can be present prior to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes, are usually present at the time of diagnosis, and decrease in frequency over 5 to 10 years following the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Islet autoantibodies are markers of an autoimmune (self-reactive) response to the islets, but islet autoantibodies do not cause type 1 diabetes. (labtestsonline.org)
  • When autoimmune type 1 diabetes is present, one or more of the islet autoantibodies will be present in about 95% of those affected at the time of initial diagnosis. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In turn, children who develop autoantibodies at this early age have a very high risk of developing type 1 diabetes by the age of ten. (healthcanal.com)
  • 2012), Age-related islet autoantibody incidence in offspring of patients with type 1 diabetes, Diabetologia, Epub ahead of print. (healthcanal.com)
  • We asked whether children of mothers with type 1 diabetes also have a decreased risk of developing islet autoantibodies, and which factors associated with maternal diabetes contribute to a reduced islet autoantibody risk in offspring. (childrenwithdiabetes.com)
  • Among factors that differed between pregnancies from mothers with and without type 1 diabetes, birthweight was associated with islet autoantibody risk. (childrenwithdiabetes.com)
  • Stable GAD65 autoantibody epitope patterns in type 1 diabetes children five years after onset. (lu.se)
  • Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab) are prominent in type 1 diabetes. (lu.se)
  • These autoantibodies may be present both years before and after the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and are widely used as a marker for the disease. (lu.se)
  • Here we examine whether autoantibody maturation processes also progress after the clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. (lu.se)
  • Genetic association of zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8) autoantibodies in type 1 diabetes cases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Autoantibodies to zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently emerged. (regionh.dk)
  • Influence of HLA-DR and -DQ alleles on autoantibody recognition of distinct epitopes within the juxtamembrane domain of the IA-2 autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We performed a comprehensive study of autoantibodies on a collection of sera from women with breast cancer or benign breast disease, undergoing annual screening mammography. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The distinctive autoantibody profile detected in BC sera is the expression of tumor immunogenicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, autoantibodies in sera from a patient with HCC were used as probes to immunoscreen a HepG2 cDNA expression library for the identification of TAAs involved in malignant liver transformation. (utmb.edu)
  • Children were followed from birth for the development of islet autoantibodies defined as two or more autoantibodies to insulin, glutamic acid decarboxylase or insulinoma antigen 2 in two or more blood samples. (childrenwithdiabetes.com)
  • Autoantibodies developing in breast cancer are not epiphenomena, but likely reflect an antigen-driven autoimmune response triggered by epitopes developing in the mammary gland during breast carcinogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A) mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. (regionh.dk)
  • Abstract OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the possible association between Ménière's disease (MD) and autoantibodies. (unipi.it)
  • New biomarkers, such as autoantibody signatures, may improve the early detection of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Autoantibody profiles as biomarkers of breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Autoantibodies may serve as biomarkers for early detection of cancer and also could be relevant for prediction of responses to immune therapies. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Autoantibodies were detected in virtually all patients with breast cancer, predominantly of the IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adult patients with scleroderma with anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibodies and adult patients with dermatomyositis with anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (anti-TIF1) or anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (anti-NXP2) autoantibodies have a significantly increased risk of developing cancer. (bath.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: Serum from 60 Caucasian patients with lung cancer (30 with small cell lung cancer, 30 with non-small cell lung cancer) was screened for myositis and scleroderma specific and associated autoantibodies by radiolabelled immunoprecipitation. (bath.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: Anti-TIF1, anti-NXP2 or anti-RNA polymerase III autoantibodies were not detected in any of the 60 patients with lung cancer. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Autoantibodies that attack type 1 interferons, neutralizing the immune system's ability to block the SARS-CoV-2 virus, were present in 10% of patients with life-threatening coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, a new study found. (contagionlive.com)
  • The study, published in Science , found that 101 out of 987 patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia had IgG autoantibodies that neutralize the ability of type 1 interferons to block SARS-CoV-2 infection. (contagionlive.com)
  • Autoantibodies were found in none of the patients with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 and in only 4 of the healthy participants. (contagionlive.com)
  • The study also could help explain why men have been more adversely affected by COVID-19 than women, finding that 95 of the 101 patients with the autoantibodies were men. (contagionlive.com)
  • Novel Insights into the Synergism of CD40 Autoantibodies and suPAR in Kidney Transplant Patients with FSGS Recurrence. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Sigdel T, Wei C, Vencenti F, Reiser J, Sarwal M. Novel Insights into the Synergism of CD40 Autoantibodies and suPAR in Kidney Transplant Patients with FSGS Recurrence. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • No trends in autoantibody positivity-in either patients or siblings-were found. (regionh.dk)
  • Elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase and anti-nuclear autoantibody titres in Menière's disease patients: more than a chance association? (unipi.it)
  • 16 patients (29.1%) with unilateral vestibular paresis had 1 or more elevated serum autoantibody levels, while 13 healthy subjects (23.6%) had 1 or more elevated serum autoantibody levels. (unipi.it)
  • We report here the first case of anti-EJ autoantibodies being detected in a patient with lung cancer without clinical or radiographic evidence of the anti-synthetase syndrome. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Using the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach, we examined the association between autoantibodies and clinical subphenotypes of RA. (pic-sure.org)
  • We demonstrated the application of a bioinformatics method, the PheWAS, to screen for clinical significance of RA-related autoantibodies. (pic-sure.org)
  • The NMDA receptor antibody is a relatively common autoantibody. (charite.de)
  • When first detected, IA-2-autoantibodies commonly bind epitopes in the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of IA-2 and antibody responses subsequently spread to the tyrosine phosphatase domain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We aimed to test whether myositis and scleroderma specific or associated autoantibodies are detectable in individuals with lung cancer. (bath.ac.uk)
  • No other known myositis or scleroderma autoantibodies were identified. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The EarlyCDT®-Lung Test detects autoantibodies to abnormal cell surface proteins in the earliest stages of the disease which may allow tumour detection at an earlier stage thus altering prognosis. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to evaluate changes in prevalence of autoantibody positivity by period. (regionh.dk)
  • With type 2 diabetes, the autoantibodies are typically absent. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Prof. Anette-G. Ziegler from the Institute of Diabetes Research at the Helmholtz Zentrum München and her colleagues from the Forschergruppe Diabetes at the Technical University of Munich succeeded in narrowing down the period during which autoantibodies most frequently develop. (healthcanal.com)
  • Home Research Outputs Stable GAD65 autoantibody epitope patterns in type 1 diabete. (lu.se)
  • If specific maternal autoantibodies enter the brain of the unborn child, serious inflammation can arise. (charite.de)
  • PheWAS identified potential significant links between variations in levels of autoantibodies and comorbidities of interest in RA. (pic-sure.org)
  • METHODS: Regions of the JM domain recognised by autoantibodies were identified by peptide competition and inhibitory effects of alanine substitutions of residues within the JM region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies test is performed on a sample of blood to measure level of Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies in blood.It is performed to confirm or detect Myasthenia Gravis and also during treatment and after treatment of Myasthenia Gravis. (practo.com)
  • Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies Blood. (practo.com)
  • The normal result for Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies Blood for Acetyl Choline Receptor Autoantibodies is nil for Unisex gender and for All age groups. (practo.com)
  • The current study, led by PD Dr. Harald Prüss of Charité 's Department of Neurology with Experimental Neurology on Campus Charité Mitte and the DZNE's Berlin site, focused on an autoantibody that targets a specific protein on the surface of brain cells. (charite.de)
  • Using a published multiplex bead assay, we measured 36 autoantibodies targeting epitopes implicated in RA. (pic-sure.org)
  • PheWAS identified 24 significant associations of autoantibodies to epitopes at FDR≤0.1. (pic-sure.org)
  • After creation, cytokines are targeted by different regulators at different phases: in the gene activation stage, during secretion, and in blood flow through binding to soluble receptors and autoantibodies (Aabs), aswell as at the amount of cytokine-target cell discussion. (healthyfutureforkids.com)
  • Autoantibodies damage body tissues by bringing about the phagocytosis (ingestion) or lysis (bursting) of healthy cells. (britannica.com)
  • We tested for the association of each autoantibody grouped by targeted protein with PheWAS codes. (pic-sure.org)
  • Anti-glycyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase (anti-EJ) autoantibodies were detected in one patient with non-small cell lung cancer. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Indeed, in mice, large quantities of maternal autoantibodies were found to reach the brain of the embryo. (charite.de)
  • Autoantibody-secreting plaque forming cells in spleen and thymus of nzb and normal mice. (jax.org)
  • and Holmes, M, "Autoantibody-secreting plaque forming cells in spleen and thymus of nzb and normal mice. (jax.org)