Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.EnglandWater Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water SofteningDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Great BritainSocial Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Authoritarianism: The personality pattern or syndrome consisting of behavioral and attitudinal characteristics reflecting a preoccupation with the factors of power and authority in interpersonal relationships.Nuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.WalesLocal Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Water Wells: Constructions built to access underground water.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.LondonFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Building Codes: Standards or regulations for construction which are designed to ensure safety against electrical hazards, fires, etc.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.United StatesDemocracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Swimming PoolsAquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Water Resources: Environmental reservoirs of water related to natural WATER CYCLE by which water is obtained for various purposes. This includes but is not limited to watersheds, aquifers and springs.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Consumer Product SafetyNational Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Extravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.EuropeDrug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Public Housing: Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Interdepartmental Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutional departments.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Trustees: Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Legislation, Nursing: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of nursing, proposed for enactment by a legislative body.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Institutional Management Teams: Administrator-selected management groups who are responsible for making decisions pertaining to the provision of integrated direction for various institutional functions.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Housing: Living facilities for humans.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Judaism: The religion of the Jews characterized by belief in one God and in the mission of the Jews to teach the Fatherhood of God as revealed in the Hebrew Scriptures. (Webster, 3d ed)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Water Pollution, RadioactiveAquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.ItalySocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Employee Discipline: Regulations or conditions imposed on employees by management in order to correct or prevent behaviors which are counterproductive to the organization.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Partnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Baths: The immersion or washing of the body or any of its parts in water or other medium for cleansing or medical treatment. It includes bathing for personal hygiene as well as for medical purposes with the addition of therapeutic agents, such as alkalines, antiseptics, oil, etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Informed Consent By Minors: Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Health Facility Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of health care facilities such as nursing homes.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
  • Download the PFA's 2018 Water Infrastructure Fund report to the Legislature. (mn.gov)
  • On February 1, 2018, the Minnesota Public Facilities Authority (PFA) will submit its report to the Minnesota Legislature on water projects eligible for grants from the Water Infrastructure Funding (WIF) program. (mn.gov)
  • To prepare this report, we are requesting updated project information from municipalities with water projects on the 2018 Project Priority Lists (PPLs) prepared by the MPCA or the MDH. (mn.gov)
  • Four years on WRE is ready to move from planning and research into practical delivery and will be officially launched on Monday 9 July 2018 at The Epic Centre in Lincoln, between 2-6pm with the theme 'What Will Water Look Like in 2060? (ada.org.uk)
  • The plan calls for using water from a little-known desert aquifer in Imperial County to keep the Salton Sea from becoming too salty to support the countless fish and birds that rely on it. (latimes.com)
  • The water source is from six wells and one spring located at the foot of Goodspring Mountain on the south side of Pine Creek in the Mauch Chunk aquifer. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Artesian, spring, well and ground water comes from an underground aquifer and may or may not be treated. (brazos.org)
  • The source area where the jet fuel spill occurred is particularly problematic because without cleanup it would continue releasing highly toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene and EDB to Albuquerque's drinking water aquifer. (nuclearactive.org)
  • Historically many communities in the region relied on nonrenewable groundwater from the Denver Basin Aquifer system for much of their water supply. (southmetrowater.org)
  • As we reported , in July 2015 the city had a boil advisory after heavy rain, and in September 2015 and May 2016 low chlorine levels made the water unsafe to drink without boiling. (npr.org)
  • Greenwood Village, Colo., August 9, 2016 - The South Denver Metro region has made tremendous progress securing a sustainable water future over the past 12 years thanks to aggressive efforts to conserve water, maximize efficiency and invest in renewable water supplies, according to the results of the 2016 South Metro Water Supply Authority (SMWSA) Master Plan Update. (southmetrowater.org)
  • Most drinking water supplies had been managed by local authorities, but the Central Advisory Water Committee, which reported in 1971, had found that this system was inflexible, and the new water authorities took over 157 water supply undertakings from local authorities and joint water boards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some 1,400 sewage authorities were divided among the ten water authorities, as it was recognised that the discharge of treated effluent was a major element in the total hydrologic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detroit will continue to own the system and lease it to the authority for $50 million a year for 40 years. (reuters.com)
  • The water system covers 1,079 square miles and serves about 40 percent of Michigan's residents. (reuters.com)
  • Thirty sites in the San Diego County water supply system have tested negative for illness-causing bacteria, officials said Thursday. (latimes.com)
  • Charged with monitoring the water quality of the lake and providing public safety, CLA sought to establish the prototype GIS system to help monitor the shoreline in conjunction with FirstLight. (esri.com)
  • Attend one of our free landscaping classes and learn from an expert how to build a drip irrigation system or create a water-smart landscape. (snwa.com)
  • Agency officials said during periods of peak energy demand, water would flow down from the upper reservoir, through the hydroelectric system to create electricity and end up in the lower reservoir. (kpbs.org)
  • Our ultimate goal is the construction of a complete surface water system, and the fact that we've started construction on the first piece is a real highlight," Schindewolf said. (chron.com)
  • The Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District requires that area residents stop relying on below-ground well water and switch to a regional surface water system over the next 25 years. (chron.com)
  • By 2030, the north authority will have in place a massive pipeline system that supplies about 80 percent of those districts with water from Houston's northeast water treatment plant on Lake Houston. (chron.com)
  • For the Water projects, municipalities not receiving funding from Rural Development may receive a WIF grant in conjunction with a CWRF loan when the average per household system costs exceed 1.4% of median household income. (mn.gov)
  • The Water Authority's mission is to provide a cooperative forum for development of a regional water system for its member communities and to help them obtain safe, reliable and cost effective water resources. (lbwl.com)
  • For many facilities, this means installing a wastewater treatment system that effectively separate the contaminants from the water so it can be legally discharged into sewer systems or even re-used. (eponline.com)
  • These systems are available as manual batch processors, semi-automatic, automatic and can be designed as a closed loop system for water reuse or provide a legally dischargeable effluent suitable for the sewer system. (eponline.com)
  • The first step in evaluating the potential cost savings and effectiveness of a new system is to sample the wastewater to determine its chemical make-up followed by a full review of local water authority requirements. (eponline.com)
  • In his manager report, Kasmari also noted that there was 19 percent of the water unaccounted for in the system, which was something that would be continuously investigated. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 07/23/08) HONOLULU -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today fined the Guam Waterworks Authority $9,000 for failing to fully comply with a 2003 court order to make improvements to its drinking water system. (epa.gov)
  • Guam's water system is being upgraded and improved upon to ensure the proper management, treatment and delivery of safe drinking water. (epa.gov)
  • Detroit Lake drains into the North Santiam River, and from there, water runs into the municipal system. (newsweek.com)
  • On May 31, a few days after the algae was first detected in the system, Salem toxicologists found potentially deadly toxins in the water supply. (newsweek.com)
  • Shutting down the reservoir strained the rest of the water system, and when it failed, health officials ordered roughly 3,000 residents to boil their water before drinking it. (newsweek.com)
  • The Brazos River, its many tributaries and the reservoirs in the Brazos River Authority water supply system are dynamic and their flow rates and levels can change at any given time. (brazos.org)
  • Pennsylvania residents can find test results for their water providers in two places: a water quality report and the DEP's drinking water reporting system. (witf.org)
  • The DEP also maintains an online database , called a drinking water reporting system, where it keeps records for all water test results in the state dating back to 1999. (witf.org)
  • The Companies note that the proposed testimony of persons within group (a) relates solely to the Applicant's attempt to regionalize the water system for the entire county and their related planning efforts to acquire the system owned by the Companies. (ny.gov)
  • The Companies contend that issues concerning the planning by county officials and Authority members to operate and maintain a county-wide water system and their desire to regionalize the water system go far beyond the gambit of scrutiny and examination in this proceeding, which, the Companies argue, should be confined to examining the impact of the acquisition upon the system to be acquired. (ny.gov)
  • Applicant argues that SWSI seeks 'to stifle public comment,' deprive DEC of receiving relevant material testimony, and eliminate the interest of the County and NY State Legislature in forming SCWA to provide a consolidated and unified water system throughout the area. (ny.gov)
  • The complaint, which this settlement resolves, alleged numerous violations, including that VIWAPA had not properly operated nor maintained its water injection pollution control system during various times from October 2005 through December 2013. (justice.gov)
  • The purpose of this program is to minimize the introduction of fats, oils, and greases into the Clayton County Water Authority (CCWA) wastewater collection system. (ccwa.us)
  • Of more critical concern to Pennsylvania residents, according to White, was that the deposition revealed that the DEP developed a specialized computer-code system to manipulate the test results for residents whose water was tested by the DEP over concerns of adverse effects from gas drilling operations. (ecowatch.com)
  • Brain Eating Amoeba Contaminate New Orleans Water Supply: How Will Authorities Treat Water System? (isciencetimes.com)
  • While the city of Phnom Penh has a quality drinking water system, the situation is different for provincial cities and sanitation services are still largely undeveloped across the country. (ppwsa.com.kh)
  • Today's action withdraws the final rule entitled "Revisions to the Water Quality Planning and Management Regulation and Revisions to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Program in Support of Revisions to the Water Quality Planning and Management Regulation ("the July 2000 rule") published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2000. (federalregister.gov)
  • This was a real wake-up call for us, that, yeah, it can get into drinking water systems," says Jonathan Modie, a communications officer for the Oregon Health Authority. (newsweek.com)
  • A high enough dose of microcystin could cause liver or kidney failure, says David Farrer, a public health toxicologist with the Oregon Health Authority. (newsweek.com)
  • The Dubai Health Authority (DHA) recently began a campaign across its hospitals and primary healthcare centres to educate people about the importance of consuming sufficient amounts of water per day and also tips to calculate how much of water is sufficient for different people based on their body weight. (khaleejtimes.com)
  • The First Nations Health Authority ( FNHA ) is a health service delivery organization responsible for administering a variety of health programs and service for First Nations people living in BC . (wikipedia.org)
  • A first for Canada , the FNHA is the first province-wide First Nations Health Authority in Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • Legislators' goal was to push Texas towards comprehensive water planning and management to ensure the future quality of the water supply.The state designated the Brazos River Authority as the lead agency to conduct water quality assessment and Clean Rivers Program (CRP) planning in the Brazos River watershed. (brazos.org)
  • A 30-year project to phase out water wells in North Harris County is moving from discussion to action. (chron.com)
  • Together, the two pipeline segments will connect at least three municipal utility districts that have water surpluses with at least four that need to buy water to supplement aging or tainted ground-water wells. (chron.com)
  • MUD 24 board president Daniel Staab Jr. said the district has water to sell because it has two strong wells and more than enough water to serve homes in Ashcreek subdivision and several Beltway 8 and Texas 249 commercial areas. (chron.com)
  • We know it costs a lot of money for districts with bad water to drill new wells. (chron.com)
  • Feindler said that while the authority's four wells are far from being in drought condition, "We felt it was prudent to go ahead and follow the lead of the other water authorities. (mcall.com)
  • The Woodlands Division provides water through groundwater wells designed to produce water from the Evangeline and Jasper aquifers. (sjra.net)
  • Some of these wells have been producing water since 1973 and have drill depths as deep as 1,700 feet below ground level. (sjra.net)
  • Prior to October 2015, the MUDs located within The Woodlands received 100% of the water supply from groundwater wells spread out in The Woodlands area. (sjra.net)
  • The two separate complaints-one pertaining to the synthetic industrial chemical 1,4-dioxane and the other to the organic fluorinated alkanes perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)-were filed in the Eastern District Court of New York and seek to recover the costs of treating contaminated water to remove the chemicals, all shown to be potentially carcinogenic in studies, from SCWA wells. (scwa.com)
  • In response to the threat in communities near the air base, SCWA worked with the Suffolk County Department of Health Services to connect affected customers using private wells to public water. (scwa.com)
  • The Water Authority's report states that in 2006 the NRA started vacuuming out stormwater wells in order to clear debris and mitigate flooding. (caymancompass.com)
  • When the NRA started vacuuming out the wells, the agency initially took material to the Water Authority's wastewater treatment ponds. (caymancompass.com)
  • Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances, collectively called PFAS, have turned up in public water supplies and private wells around the country, and there is growing evidence that long-term. (ap.org)
  • The 300-foot-high dam spans a 2,400-foot-wide canyon and will be filled with water from the Colorado River aqueduct to create a 200-acre reservoir. (latimes.com)
  • The authority plans to begin filling the reservoir Aug. (latimes.com)
  • The town of Norton immediately stopped drawing water from the reservoir, and the Kansas National Guard arrived hours later to hand out bottled water. (newsweek.com)
  • In this section you can also find water supply and reservoir data for Brazos basin lakes, including their locations, elevation above sea level, capacity and surface area, among other information. (brazos.org)
  • A wildlife management exemption to Texas water rights allows property owners to build and maintain a dam or reservoir of not more than 200 acre-feet of water on qualified open-space land for the purpose of providing water to indigenous wildlife. (brazos.org)
  • At issue for the authority board is that the Falcon line will be constructed near a raw water line that serves as the only source of water from the Ambridge Reservoir, which in turn provides drinking water for 30,000 people. (timesonline.com)
  • Despite that, Shell's application showed "appropriate construction techniques and special conditions requiring (Shell) to control pollution from construction of the ethane pipeline in the area of the reservoir and other water resources along the pipeline route," the DEP said. (timesonline.com)
  • This transition to renewable water is the result of a number of regional projects that communities throughout the region have invested in, including WISE, the Chatfield Reallocation Project, Reuter Hess Reservoir, the ACCWA/ECCV Northern Project, Castle Rock's Plum Creek Water Purification Facility and many more. (southmetrowater.org)
  • The Water Authority's Board voted to approve the 30-year contract after more than 40 public meetings and hearings - an exceptional amount of scrutiny for any project. (sdcwa.org)
  • FILE PHOTO: Workers from a local water service fill the water buffaloes from their tanker at a city fire station in the Lawrenceville section of Pittsburgh where the city made water available for the public on Wednesday, Feb. 1, 2017. (witf.org)
  • He said they would not move surface water purchased from the city of Houston through those pipelines for six more years, but they would use them to move well water between municipal utility districts, Schindewolf said. (chron.com)
  • The municipal utility districts with the largest number of well problems, which are in the area planned to be the first converted to surface water in the north authority, lie within the area bordered by Bammel North Houston Road, Texas 249, Interstate 45 North and Spring-Cypress Road. (chron.com)
  • Although municipal water managers are reluctant to talk publicly about the issue, "they're very worried," says Deepak Mishra, an associate professor of geography at the University of Georgia who studies the global distribution of harmful algal blooms. (newsweek.com)
  • Brackish is a term used to describe water that contains more dissolved minerals (see total dissolved solids) than normally acceptable for municipal, domestic and agricultural uses. (brazos.org)
  • Woodlands Water is the central management agency for the eleven Municipal Utility Districts (MUDs). (sjra.net)
  • The brain eating amoeba was found at a total of four different locations within the municipal water supply. (isciencetimes.com)
  • Waste disposal permits required of counties, municipalities and public corporations - Cities, towns or municipal corporations may be granted authority to issue permits - Revocation - Termination of permits. (wa.gov)
  • River boards were replaced by twenty-seven river authorities as a result of the Water Resources Act 1963, and they gained further responsibilities, covering the monitoring of water quality and the protection of water resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over many years there had been little incentive to improve the quality of treatment, but the water authorities were given the task. (wikipedia.org)
  • EWG's drinking water quality report shows results of tests conducted by the water utility and provided to the Environmental Working Group by the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, as well as information from the U.S. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History database (ECHO). (ewg.org)
  • The safe drinking water benchmark is also proposed by EPA for use at the national level as an environmental indicator of water quality, and therefore state-to-state comparisons and comparison to a national average should be possible. (oregon.gov)
  • We ensure our member partner communities get the highest quality water using treatment standards that are stricter than state or federal regulatory requirements. (dice.com)
  • Working hand-in-hand with our member partners, we provide water and wastewater services of the highest quality. (dice.com)
  • We are trying to help with water quality problems in the area," he said. (chron.com)
  • Pennsylvania DEP, which is charged with regulating drinking water quality, is understaffed, according to the U.S. EPA. (eveningsun.com)
  • Hegins-Hubley Authority is responsible for providing high quality drinking water but cannot control the variety of materials used in plumbing components, he said. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality released results on Sunday from 28 water samples collected Dec. 15 and Dec. 16 showing none of them detected dangerous levels of the chemical, which the TCEQ and local branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defined as under 2.6 mg/l for Indulin-AA-86 in drinking water. (npr.org)
  • Each water utility must publish a water quality report that informs customers of any recent test results. (witf.org)
  • Some utilities may post the water quality report online or send it directly to customers in the mail along with a monthly bill. (witf.org)
  • Governor Andrew Cuomo subsequently created a Drinking Water Quality Council and gave the group as one of its top priorities the recommendation of maximum contaminant levels for PFOA and PFOS. (scwa.com)
  • The three surface water quality indicators reflect key issues related to surface water quality across the province: nutrients (Total Phosphorus), bacteria/waste ( E.coli) , and aquatic health (Benthic Macroinvertebrates). (ssmrca.ca)
  • These small bugs act as barometers of water quality. (ssmrca.ca)
  • Reliable water infrastructure is vital to delivering the water quality, public health protection and economic growth our state depends on," said Michael Regan, secretary of the N.C. Department of Environmental Quality, or DEQ. (nc.gov)
  • Inadequate water infrastructure can lead to lost economic opportunity, threatened water quality, even more financial burden and continuing and unpredictable inconvenience to residents. (nc.gov)
  • This includes water licensing to private users, quality control and environmental preservation. (un.org)
  • The July 2000 rule amended and clarified existing regulations implementing a section of the Clean Water Act (CWA) that requires States to identify waters that are not meeting applicable water quality standards and to establish pollutant budgets, called Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), to restore the quality of those waters. (federalregister.gov)
  • RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) - After days of reports of foul tasting or smelling tap water in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Gov. Wilson Witzel has called for analysis of the water's quality as well as management at local utility Cedae. (ap.org)
  • Water quality standards affected by forest practices - Department of ecology solely responsible for water quality standards - Forest practices rules - Adoption - Examination - Enforcement procedures. (wa.gov)
  • The Oregon Safe Drinking Water Benchmark is intended to measure progress of both the drinking water program and public water suppliers as we implement safe drinking water standards in Oregon. (oregon.gov)
  • As you might guess, it is extremely difficult to characterize the status of Oregon's public drinking water systems within the confines of a single measure of progress. (oregon.gov)
  • Included in the benchmark are about 1,300 public water systems, including all community systems, all nontransient noncommunity systems, and the larger transient noncommunity systems (serving over 500 people per day). (oregon.gov)
  • Needless to say, it is very important that water suppliers make a concerted effort to meet safe drinking water standards all the time, to protect public health and to demonstrate positive progress over time toward meeting the goal! (oregon.gov)
  • The authority will mark this first pipeline project with a public ground-breaking ceremony at 2 p.m. Tuesday at the Bammel North Houston/West Richey Road intersection. (chron.com)
  • The Pennsylvania DEP is in danger of losing its authority to monitor for close to 100 substances that can be found in public drinking water. (eveningsun.com)
  • Lead and chromium-6 are just two substances on the list of about 100 metals, minerals, chemicals and other items that are monitored in public drinking water, The Evening Sun has previously reported. (eveningsun.com)
  • Administered by the Minnesota Public Facilities Authority (PFA), the fund provides matching grants to communities that meet affordability criteria and receive PFA loans or water financing from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Rural Development program. (mn.gov)
  • In the late 1980's, several public water supplies in the Tri-County area were in the midst of evaluating construction or expansion of their water treatment facilities. (lbwl.com)
  • In 1988, a drought in the region accentuated the differences in capabilities between existing public water systems. (lbwl.com)
  • The combined set of circumstances led to an open house at Michigan State University, where community representatives discussed the feasibility of a cooperative approach to providing public water supply throughout the region. (lbwl.com)
  • We're told the drinking water is safe, and there is no threat to the public or employees. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Environmental Protection prescribe regulations which limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The LRG Public Water Works Authority serves these five colonias and Del Cerro, Joy Drive Subdivision, Las Palmeras, and Montana Vista communities. (rcac.org)
  • A public, non-profit agency providing water, sewer & reclaimed water services to the Carrboro-Chapel Hill community. (owasa.org)
  • The California Water Board's Fact Sheet on the PHG says in part that "A drinking water sample with a detection of [chromium above the PHG of 0.02 ppb does not necessarily represent a public health concern. (owasa.org)
  • The East of England faces many challenges to available water resources: climate change and drought risks, population growth, increased public water supply demand, and environmental degradation. (ada.org.uk)
  • The new standard is a result of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act passed in Jan. 2011, aimed at reducing the amount of lead in drinking water pipes and other plumbing fixtures to protect public health. (timesreview.com)
  • In regard to last week's editorial on our proposed wind turbine for our property near Laurel Lake, the idea sprung not from the nefarious motives you've attributed to us, but rather our desire to create SCWA's first energy-independent public water supply facility and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions at the site by 104 metric tons annually. (timesreview.com)
  • The administration and control of the Hydraulic Public Domain (public waters). (un.org)
  • Taking part in Cambodia in this sector since 2004, AFD has positioned itself as a privileged partner of public authorities, private operators and the government in order to reach its goal of total coverage of the water network in urban areas by 2025. (ppwsa.com.kh)
  • Drinking water advisories include Boil Water Advisory (BWA), Do Not Consume (DNC), and Do Not Use (DNU) are put in place by the FNHA's Environmental Public Health Services (EPHS). (wikipedia.org)
  • AP) - Coal ash is leaking from a dump complex at the largest coal-fired plant owned by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the utility is monitoring whether it's affecting public water supplies. (ap.org)
  • Kibaigwa Water Supply and Sanitation Authority(KIBAWASA) is an aut-0nomous public water utility responsible for the overall operations and management of water supply and sanitation services at Kibaigwa Small Township in Kongwa District Council, Dodoma Region. (blogspot.com)
  • Meeting all health-based standards at all times during the year is an important indicator of drinking water safety. (oregon.gov)
  • Examine whether contaminants in your water supply met two standards: the legal limits established by the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the typically stricter health guidelines. (nytimes.com)
  • The reference values for total water intake include water from drinking water, beverages of all kind, and from food moisture and only apply to conditions of moderate environmental temperature and moderate physical activity levels (PAL 1.6). (europa.eu)
  • Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Protection regulates water systems for about 100 substances that can appear in drinking water. (eveningsun.com)
  • State records from the past three years reveal that York and Adams county residents might have been exposed to levels of chromium-6 and lead in their drinking water that fall under the EPA limit, but in some cases, over scientists' recommended intake. (eveningsun.com)
  • The federal Safe Drinking Water Act gives the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency the responsibility for protecting the United States' drinking water supplies. (eveningsun.com)
  • In the letter, EPA Water Protection Division Director Jon Capacasa wrote that the DEP's inadequate staffing caused the number of unaddressed Safe Drinking Water Act violations to nearly double from 4,298 to 7,922 over five years, the Associated Press reported. (eveningsun.com)
  • According to the EPA, the chemical is used as fluoride in drinking water. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The filling of providing a great product of drinking water. (indeed.com)
  • Some of the data is from prior years, in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act, he said. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The MCL of arsenic allowable in drinking water is 10. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Kasmari said that the lead in drinking water is primarily from materials and components associated with service lines and home plumbing. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Reduce your sugar intake by drinking water instead. (fraserhealth.ca)
  • GWA was fined for failing to meet a June 30 deadline to design and install new drinking water supply lines as part of the Sinajana Water Transmission Line project. (epa.gov)
  • While GWA has made improvements in chlorination and disinfection of drinking water, missed deadlines are delaying critical next steps," said Alexis Strauss, water division director for the EPA's Pacific Southwest Region. (epa.gov)
  • But city leaders hadn't anticipated a threat to drinking water. (newsweek.com)
  • In 2001, the EPA and the Water Research Foundation surveyed 45 drinking water sources in the U.S. and Canada. (newsweek.com)
  • One expert estimates that more than 90 percent of lakes, rivers and reservoirs used as drinking water sources in the United States are vulnerable to algal blooms. (newsweek.com)
  • Water systems would also be subject to double-permitting, as the EPA takes over enforcement of federal law and Pennsylvania continues to enforce its own state Safe Drinking Water Act, according to StateImpact. (witf.org)
  • Consumers have several options for monitoring and removing various substances, such as lead, chromium-6 and other toxins, from their drinking water. (witf.org)
  • PAM cannot be spread person to person nor by drinking water. (brazos.org)
  • The major source of chromium 6 in drinking water is natural chromium present in some types of rock. (owasa.org)
  • What are the limits on total chromium and chromium 6 in drinking water? (owasa.org)
  • The EPA limits total chromium (i.e., all forms of chromium) in drinking water to a maximum of 100 parts per billion (ppb). (owasa.org)
  • Currently, there are no federal limits for individual forms of chromium in drinking water (such as chromium 6), but states are allowed to set regulations that are stricter than federal regulations. (owasa.org)
  • So, a PHG is not a boundary line between a "safe" and "unsafe" level of a chemical, and drinking water is frequently demonstrated as safe to drink even if it contains chemicals at levels exceeding their PHGs. (owasa.org)
  • Through the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR), the EPA collects occurrence and concentration data for various compounds which are or are suspected to be in drinking water, but currently do not have health-based standards under the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. (owasa.org)
  • For more information, please visit the EPA webpage on chromium in drinking water . (owasa.org)
  • UCMR data is not intended to be used to draw any conclusions from comparing one utility's results to another, but instead to provide the EPA with a more complete understanding of chromium 6 occurrence in drinking water nationally. (owasa.org)
  • In anticipation of potential new Federal regulations, OWASA did a study in 2011 to determine the sources of the chromium 6 in our drinking water. (owasa.org)
  • Distilling kills microbes and removes minerals, giving water a "flat" taste.Drinking water is simply intended for human consumption and can come from a variety of sources, including publi. (brazos.org)
  • As it's been throughout this process, our focus remains on protecting the authority's assets and ensuring the authority's ability to deliver safe drinking water to all of our customers is not compromised. (timesonline.com)
  • Where does the drinking water come from? (sjra.net)
  • the maximum amount of lead allowed for use in pipes distributing drinking water will change from 8 percent to .25 percent - a new standard decided upon by the Environmental Protection Agency. (timesreview.com)
  • Although the act was passed nearly three years ago, the EPA only recently indicated fire hydrants would have to meet the new standard - because they can be used to provide drinking water in emergency situations - according to a release from Sen. Charles Schumer's office. (timesreview.com)
  • The residents within the WHCRWA's boundaries knew very little about the changes on the horizon…in the source, delivery and price of their drinking water. (whcrwa.com)
  • White said he received a letter and corresponding documents highlighting the sworn testimony of DEP Bureau of Laboratories Technical Director Taru Upadhyay, who was deposed in a lawsuit alleging nearby natural gas drilling operations contaminated drinking water supplies in Washington County, causing serious health issues. (ecowatch.com)
  • Phosphorus can also impact human health indirectly by contaminating drinking water sources. (ssmrca.ca)
  • E.coli can impact human health if it gets into drinking water sources. (ssmrca.ca)
  • Funds for selected projects across the state were awarded through the Clean Water State Revolving Fund, the Drinking Water State Reserve and the Wastewater State Reserve programs. (nc.gov)
  • The safe drinking water act mandates that each state must have a UIC program. (epa.gov)
  • BOSTON (AP) - Massachusetts state regulators have issued new standards for toxic compounds in drinking water. (ap.org)
  • Council members and Mayor Mike Duggan had warned that if the city council did not approve the new water authority state-appointed Emergency Manager Kevyn Orr would privatize the systems. (reuters.com)
  • The list of those water systems that meet all the above health-based standards during the year will be published for each calendar year, along with the percentage of the combined population of these systems compared to the total population served by all benchmark systems. (oregon.gov)
  • We will also construct an annual listing of water systems that failed to meet health-based standards, listing the specific standards not met. (oregon.gov)
  • Recent news about lead and chromium-6 in York and Adams counties' water systems may be cause for concern for residents. (eveningsun.com)
  • The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection is responsible for regulating the approximately 100 items that must be monitored for in water systems, but that could change if the federal government revokes its authority. (eveningsun.com)
  • The water is typically then separated using a de-watering table or bag filters before it is discharged into sewer systems or further filtered for re-use as process water. (eponline.com)
  • Some home water filtration systems are capable of removing all or some amounts of toxins from water. (witf.org)
  • In rural southern New Mexico, five colonias, unincorporated towns along the border- Vado, Berino, Desert Sands, Mesquite, and La Mesa- merge their water systems to expand and improve access to clean, reliable water with help from RCAC. (rcac.org)
  • Also unlike sanitary sewers, these systems usually drain directly into a creek, river, or other body of water without treatment. (brazos.org)
  • All of the above are required to provide bulk trunk water supply systems for Central Saanich, Sidney and North Saanich. (crd.bc.ca)
  • FNHA in British Columbia monitors 285 community water systems in 193 First Nations in British Columbia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Federal clean water act - Rules for on-site sewage disposal systems adjacent to marine waters. (wa.gov)
  • The guidelines cover a variety of topics, including: sizing rainwater storage tanks, installation of rainwater (non-potable water) plumbing, rainwater treatment, as well as how to design RWH systems to operate during dry periods and handle overflows from the tank. (newswire.ca)
  • Supervises the operation and maintenance of the water source, water treatment works, water network, sewerage systems and sewerage treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • Sewerage boards had been largely responsible for sewage collection and disposal in areas defined by local authority boundaries and water supply had been managed by quasi-regional water boards. (wikipedia.org)
  • The city's water and sewerage department had become a sticking point in the plan to restructure Detroit's $18 billion of debt and other obligations. (reuters.com)
  • The water and sewerage department inspired city-wide protests this summer when it shut off delinquent bill payers' water in an effort to collect on $90 million in unpaid bills. (reuters.com)
  • If your proposal involves building over or within 3m of a sewer or lateral drain as shown from your proposal plans, then we are obliged to inform and consult the sewerage/water authority. (nottinghamcity.gov.uk)
  • Equally troubling: The majority of water treatment plants aren't equipped to remove toxins, which require pricey treatment methods like ozone disinfection. (newsweek.com)
  • Residents of Corpus Christi, Texas, can use their tap water again, city officials announced on Sunday. (npr.org)
  • The Companies note that the Applicant listed these persons in its Response to [the Companies'] Demand for Fact Witnesses, and categorized these persons within group (a), members of SCWA or named Saratoga County officials, and group (b), individuals residing within the service territory of the utility [SWSI] and receiving water service from the utility. (ny.gov)
  • According to officials, water testing for the brain-eating amoeba was conducted after the death of a child caused by encephalitis was reported. (isciencetimes.com)
  • While officials insist the water is safe for drinking, they are carefully monitoring the water supply and upgrading the purifying process just to be safe. (isciencetimes.com)
  • Officials told Washington ABC affiliate WJLA that Dingley rushed at six Port Authority police officers when the plane came to a stop on the tarmac and the plane's door opened, causing them to fall down the plane's exit stairs. (yahoo.com)
  • TRENTON, N.J. (AP) - All 37,000 of the lead water pipes in New Jersey's capital city will be replaced over the next five years at an estimated cost of $150 million, Trenton officials said Thursday. (ap.org)
  • PLAINFIELD TOWNSHIP, Mich. (AP) - Two western Michigan townships reached a tentative settlement with a footwear company in a federal lawsuit over contaminated water, officials announced Tuesday. (ap.org)
  • The EPA is the front line of protection for making sure people have safe water to drink. (eveningsun.com)
  • Some states and townships began testing a decade or so ago, but the benchmarks water administrators use to determine if the water is safe to drink are largely preliminary-the Environmental Protection Agency implemented its first trial protocol just this year. (newsweek.com)
  • Is my water safe to drink? (sjra.net)
  • In order to assure residents that the water is safe, St. Bernard President Dave Peralta took a gulp of tap water during a televised interview. (isciencetimes.com)
  • As drought continues in Southern Nevada, it's more important than ever to reduce and prevent water waste throughout the community and in your home. (snwa.com)
  • Our community can save 12 BILLION gallons of water per year by removing useless grass and replacing it with water-smart landscaping, which makes a big difference when we are facing worsening drought conditions . (snwa.com)
  • For those living on or near surface water in the Brazos basin as well as those wishing to enjoy the recreational aspects of the rivers and reservoirs, up to the minute information can be not just important but vital. (brazos.org)
  • Under an agreement announced today by the Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency, the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (VIWAPA) will come into compliance with the federal Clean Air Act at its Krum Bay facility on St. Thomas and Cruz Bay facility on St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. (justice.gov)
  • Drains take foul sewage (waste from toilets, bathrooms and kitchens) and surface water (rain water) away from a single property. (nottinghamcity.gov.uk)
  • Located in western Connecticut, Candlewood Lake's surface waters span some 5,420 acres and are surrounded by more than 60 miles of shoreline with approximately 60 percent of that residentially zoned and developed. (esri.com)
  • The end result is more cost-effective than drilling a new $1 million well that could be put out of service when districts start converting to surface water in 2010. (chron.com)
  • Primary Amebic Meningeoncephalitis or PAM is a rare, almost always fatal disease caused by an ameba (naegleria fowleri) found in all untreated, fresh surface water and in soil. (brazos.org)
  • Separate from sanitary water lines or wastewater sewers, storm sewers carry away surface rain runoff, street wash and snow melt via curb-side drains. (brazos.org)
  • Well and artesian water are tapped through a well.Spring water is collected as it flows to the surface, and ground water can be either.Distilled water comes from steam from boiling water that is condensed. (brazos.org)
  • Our forensic pathologist determined Mr. Smith's cause of death to be acute water intoxication, due to the over consumption of water in a short period of time," the Sheriff's Office stated in a release. (mercurynews.com)
  • The over consumption of water was influenced by Mr. Smith's underlying mental health issues. (mercurynews.com)
  • This water consumption led to an electrolyte imbalance, which caused Mr. Smith's organs to fail, leading to Mr. Smith's death. (mercurynews.com)
  • The PHG tries to account for persons at three different stages in their lives by including protection factors to account for age and by applying higher rates of water consumption in their calculation … The California PHG represents the level of [chromium at which no adverse health effects would be anticipated over an entire lifetime of exposure to the most sensitive population. (owasa.org)
  • The California Cannabis Authority, which encompasses the majority of California's famed Emerald Triangle, helps local governments ensure cannabis regulatory compliance. (yahoo.com)
  • At a press conference Monday, Mr. Schumer called on the EPA to exempt existing stocks of fire hydrants purchased before the EPA released the guidelines in October, which he says will save water districts thousands of dollars. (timesreview.com)
  • Two sites from fire hydrants came up with the presence and two sites at water bibs, which is the water facets at people houses," Peralta explained . (isciencetimes.com)
  • We are fighting to preserve the careful balance of federal versus state and local power that Congress built into the Clean Water Act. (msnbc.com)
  • McKee said the water authority was relying on state and federal grants to finance the construction of the new water plant. (johnsoncitypress.com)
  • That created a deficit in the funds needed to build the project that the water authority is attempting to make up through state revenue bonds in which the money will be borrowed and paid back through the sale of water to its customers once the water plant is on line. (johnsoncitypress.com)
  • McKee said there are several steps the water authority has to take in order for the bonds to be issued by the state. (johnsoncitypress.com)
  • StateImpact Pennsylvania reports that if Pennsylvania loses primacy, the state could stand to lose millions in federal funds supporting water improvements. (eveningsun.com)
  • VALLEY VIEW - Hegins-Hubley Authority released its Consumer Confidence Report on Monday, showing no water contaminant violations according to state and federal law. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The Woodlands water meets or is better than all standards set by the state and federal governments. (sjra.net)
  • The Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS), under contract to the Imperial Valley Water Authority (IVWA), has operated a network of rain gauges in Mason and Tazewell Counties since August 1992. (illinois.edu)
  • The Water Authority's report does not state why the Department of Environmental Health stopped accepting the waste at the landfill, or whether any plans were made to dispose of the waste somewhere other than the wetlands. (caymancompass.com)
  • RIO DE JANEIRO (AP) - Rio de Janeiro police are investigating workers at a state utility after foul-smelling tap water began flowing into dozens of neighborhoods in the Brazilian city, raising health concerns and sparking a run on bottled water. (ap.org)
  • Federal clean water act - Department designated as state agency, authority - Delegation of authority - Powers, duties, and functions. (wa.gov)
  • Application of barley straw to waters of the state. (wa.gov)
  • Discharge of oil into waters of the state - Definitions. (wa.gov)
  • With the establishment of the water authorities in April 1974, England and Wales had, for the first time, organisations which were responsible for all aspects of the management of water within a geographical region, defined by a river basin or a series of river basins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applicants not meeting Rural Development requirements apply directly to the PFA as part of an application for a Clean Water Revolving Fund loan. (mn.gov)
  • Non-Rural Development projects must request placement on the Clean Water Revolving Fund Intended Use Plan and follow the PFA's loan application process. (mn.gov)
  • The European Commission (EC) asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for scientific assistance regarding the possible impact on human health of exposure to ammonium released from water filter cartridges. (europa.eu)
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) received in December 2011, a request from the European Commission for an update on the possible scientific developments for cloning of farmed animals for food production purposes. (europa.eu)
  • The Department of Environmental Protection also has an accreditation program for Pennsylvania labs that conduct water testing. (witf.org)
  • Case No. 2012-3534), the DEP lab would conduct water tests using an EPA-approved standard, but the DEP employee who requested the testing would use a specially designed 'Suite Code' which limits the information coming back from the DEP lab to the DEP field office, and ultimately to the property owner. (ecowatch.com)
  • Keeping nonessential water use to a minimum is critical during this time of the summer, when SCWA pumps are fighting to keep up with peak demand," the water agency said in its post. (newsday.com)
  • dated April 28, 1995 (received in the Office of Hearings May 1, 1995), Saratoga Water Services, Inc. (SWSI), and the Luther Forest Corporation (LFC) (both collectively 'the Companies') moved for an order precluding certain named persons from testifying on behalf of the Applicant (the Saratoga County Water Authority or SCWA), and other and further relief. (ny.gov)
  • Its focus on participatory governance means users, and regional and local authorities, all take part in the decision-making process. (un.org)
  • One of the designers of a massive Kansas water park slide that decapitated a 10-year-old boy has been arrested in Texas, federal authorities said Tuesday. (latimes.com)
  • Our primary concern is always to ensure the safety of all customers and crew and we are cooperating with authorities," CommutAir told ABC News on Sunday. (yahoo.com)
  • Over time, desalinated water is expected to be comparable in price to - or even less expensive than - imported supplies from the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. (sdcwa.org)
  • When the algae interfere with drinking supplies, timely remedies can be hard to come by, leaving some towns with no choice but to order the residents to stop using tap water, sometimes for weeks at a time. (newsweek.com)
  • These persons would testify on planning for the Exit 12 Malta area including that served by SWSI, efforts to develop water supplies in and around this area and the need for water in areas nearby, the desirability of having a water supply under the auspices of Applicant, and the services they can render 'in curing the many faults which have been testified to by residents at the legislative hearing. (ny.gov)
  • Water supplies are strained by growing populations and increasing demand. (sjra.net)
  • He has assembled an outstanding team who will continue the work begun during his tenure, including fully implementing the WISE project and delivering renewable water to the South Metro members, securing additional water storage and new supplies, and continuing to implement South Metro's other important programs which are helping us successfully transition to renewable supplies. (southmetrowater.org)
  • The report, produced by SMWSA and its technical consultant, CH2M, is the most definitive study of water demand and supplies of the region in nearly a decade. (southmetrowater.org)
  • Some thirty independent water supply companies remained, but operated under agency agreements with the new bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Farm Bureau argues that the EPA exceeded its authority in regulating the amount of pollutants flowing into the bay, which the federal agency says is severely contaminated . (msnbc.com)
  • The Candlewood Lake Authority (CLA) is one such agency. (esri.com)
  • A remarkable transformation is happening in the South Metro region," said James Eklund, director of the state's water agency and architect of Colorado's Water Plan. (southmetrowater.org)
  • Golden algae is a naturally occurring microscopic algae that typically occurs in brackish water. (brazos.org)
  • It has a higher amount of dissolved solids than fresh water but not as high as saltier types such as sea water.Brackish water includes concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). (brazos.org)
  • The authority) has recently received notice of the DEP decision regarding the permit application of the Falcon Pipeline," Michael Dominick said. (timesonline.com)
  • Schindewolf said the north authority would start four more pipeline projects this year. (chron.com)
  • Schindewolf said the north authority could not connect any districts until the second pipeline project is complete. (chron.com)
  • Schindewolf said all ground-water transfer pipeline projects would tie in with the north authority's long-range plans. (chron.com)
  • The contract launched construction of Poseidon's desalination plant in Carlsbad, along with a 10-mile-long pipeline to connect it to Water Authority facilities. (sdcwa.org)
  • The Ambridge Water Authority is "evaluating its options" after the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection on Thursday approved two permits needed by Shell Pipeline to construct the Falcon ethane pipeline. (timesonline.com)
  • At the time, the board issued a statement saying that the planned route was "not acceptable" and that the board would do "everything in our power to try and have the pipeline relocated outside of our watershed and away from our main, and only, raw water line. (timesonline.com)
  • Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), additional FTZ authority PO 00000 Frm 00007 Fmt 4703 Sfmt 4703 58273 would be limited to the specific foreignstatus materials and components and specific finished products described in the submitted notification (as described below) and subsequently authorized by the FTZ Board. (justia.com)
  • The Water Authority subsequently sent samples from the wetlands, a roadside well, and an unpolluted control site to Florida for testing. (caymancompass.com)
  • Orr had requested, and received, indications of interest from potential private operators, but the idea faded as negotiations on the authority advanced. (reuters.com)
  • In a finding that further complicates negotiations over a proposed Southern California water deal, a Caltech scientist has concluded that the Colorado River is entering a dry period and may not be as bountiful in coming decades. (latimes.com)
  • Since 2010, negotiations between the Water Authority and Poseidon had focused on protecting ratepayers by transferring risk for the design, construction and operation of the desalination plant to the private sector. (sdcwa.org)
  • Charles R. Feindler, Telford borough manager, said the authority asked its 2,000 residential customers to voluntarily reduce their use of water. (mcall.com)
  • Replacing an older, inefficient spray valve with a low-flow 1.6 gallon per minute spray valve can reduce water use by 50 percent. (ccwa.us)