Autacoids: A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Asbestos, Serpentine: A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Asbestos, Crocidolite: A lavender, acid-resistant asbestos.Receptors, Bradykinin: Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.Receptor, Bradykinin B2: A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Yawning: An involuntary deep INHALATION with the MOUTH open, often accompanied by the act of stretching.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Neuroeffector Junction: The synapse between a neuron (presynaptic) and an effector cell other than another neuron (postsynaptic). Neuroeffector junctions include synapses onto muscles and onto secretory cells.Bemegride: A CNS stimulant that is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals. It has also been used as a respiratory stimulant and in the treatment of barbiturate overdose.BooksIsoxsuprine: A beta-adrenergic agonist that causes direct relaxation of uterine and vascular smooth muscle. Its vasodilating actions are greater on the arteries supplying skeletal muscle than on those supplying skin. It is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and in premature labor.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Anaplasma centrale: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing mild ANAPLASMOSIS in CATTLE. It also can infect SHEEP and GOATS. It is transmitted by TICKS.BrazilEncephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.

The cat lung strip as an in vitro preparation of peripheral airways: a comparison of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, autacoids and anaphylactic challenge on the lung strip and trachea. (1/57)

1 A new in vitro preparation, the isolated lung strip of the cat, is described for investigating the direct effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lung. The preparation comprises a thin strip of lung parenchyma which can be mounted in a conventional organ bath for isometric tension recording. Its pharmacological responses have been characterized and compared with the isolated tracheal preparation of the cat. 2 The lung strip exhibited an intrinsic tone which was relaxed by catecholamines, aminophylline and flufenamate. It was contracted strongly by histamine, prostaglandin F2alpha, acetylcholine, compound 48/80, potassium depolarizing solution and alternating current field stimulation. In contrast, the cat trachea was unresponsive to histamine and prostaglandin F2alpha and did not exhibit an intrinsic tone. 3 (-)-Isoprenaline and (-)-adrenaline were much more potent in relaxing the lung strip than the trachea. The potency order of relaxation responses to isoprenaline, adrenaline and (+/-)-noradrenaline in the lung strip was isoprenaline greater than adrenaline greater than noradrenaline but in the trachea was isoprenaline greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline. 4 beta2-Adrenoceptor selective agonists salbutamol and terbutaline were more potent in the lung strip than the trachea, suggesting beta2-adrenoceptors predominated in the lung strip. Propranolol was equipotent in inhibiting isoprenaline relexations of the lung strip and trachea, whereas practolol was much less effective in inhibiting lung strip than trachea, further supporting a predominance of beta2-adrenoceptors in lung strip and beta1-adrenoceptors in trachea. 5 Strong Schultz-Dale type contractions were elicited in both lung strips and trachea by Ascaris lumbricoides antigen in actively sensitized cats. The initial phase of the contractile response of the lung strip following challenge was shown to be due to histamine release and was absent in the trachea. The delayed phase of the contraction which took several minutes to develop in both the mepyramine-treated lung strip and trachea was not due to prostaglandins E1, F2alpha or bradykinin, the probable mediator being slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A). 6 It is concluded that the isolated lung strip of the cat is useful as an in vitro model for investigating the effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lungs.  (+info)

Slow reacting substance as a preformed mediator from human lung. (2/57)

Homogenates from human lung contained a preformed slow reacting substance (pSRS). The pattern of contraction on the guinea-pig ileum by pSRS was indistinguishable from that of SRS-A. The activity of pSRS could not be attributed to the presence of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, or any prostaglandin including PGF2 or its 15-oxo derivative. As with SRS-A, pSRS could be absorbed onto Amberlite XAD-2 and silicic acid. Both were eluted from the former with 80 per cent ethanol and from the latter with a mixture of ethanol, ammonia and water. Both pSRS and SRS-A were resistant to the action of NaOH whereas their activities were destroyed by boiling in HCl. Arylsulphatase II B destroyed the activities of both pSRS and SRS-A. An antagonist of SRS-A, FPL55712, inhibited the action of pSRS at comparable concentrations to that of SRS-A. These experiments suggest that pSRS and SRS-A are identical. Thus SRS joins histamine and ECF-A as a preformed mediator. Although SRS was present in a preformed state the amount of material extractable was more than doubled by the anaphylactic reaction. The extraction of slow reacting substance from human lung without apparent requirement for antigen or antibody points to a possible role of this mediator in inflammatory reactions evoked by mechanisms independent of IgE and other tissue-sensitizing antibodies.  (+info)

Changes in renal autacoids in aged human hypertensives. (3/57)

The aging process determines several modifications of the kidney, that, however, do not provoke any dysfunction in normal conditions. But in the elderly--in the presence of stressful situations and particularly when adrenergic activation is present--the kidney is more vulnerable than in the young, and renal failure may arise. Variations typical of the aging kidney are accelerated when hypertension overlaps the physiological renal process, because both senescence and hypertension weight on the same structures, i.e. glomeruli. We studied renal hemodynamic adaptation capacity both in the healthy elderly and in patients affected by isolated systolic hypertension, in an acute experiment which requires the application of a mental stress-induced adrenergic activation. In hypertensive patients we have already demonstrated a total lack of renal adaptation capacity. In fact, while the elderly normotensives react with a prolonged and pronounced vasoconstriction, in those with isolated systolic hypertension, adrenergic activation induces a passive renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration. The anomalous adaptation capacity of renal hemodynamics is probably due to an impairment in the paracrine response of renal vasculature. Indeed in the hypertensive elderly, unlike in the normotensive one, no variations of autacoid production occur during the adrenergic activation. Following on from this, pattients affected by isolated systolic hypertension passively suffer the many hypertensive peaks which characterize their every day life. The altered renal autoregulation of the elderly with isolated systolic hypertension may explain the accelerated glomerulosclerosis and the greater incidence of renal damage and end-stage renal disease which characterize this condition. These aspects underline the primary role of the antihypertensive treatment of isolated systolic hypertension, not only for the prevention of cardiovascular mortality but also of renal damage and/or end-stage renal disease.  (+info)

Mechanisms in anti-inflammation and resolution: the role of lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins. (4/57)

Multicellular host responses to infection, injury or inflammatory stimuli lead to the formation of a broad range of chemical mediators by the host. The integrated response of the host is essential to health and disease; thus it is important to achieve a more complete understanding of the molecular and cellular events governing the formation and actions of endogenous mediators of resolution that appear to control the duration of inflammation. Lipoxins are trihydroxytetraene-containing lipid mediators that can be formed during cell-cell interactions and are predominantly counterregulators of some well-known mediators of inflammation. Since this circuit of lipoxin formation and action appears to be of physiological relevance for the resolution of inflammation, therapeutic modalities targeted at this system are likely to have fewer unwanted side effects than other candidates and current anti-inflammatory therapies. Here, we present an overview of the recent knowledge about the biosynthesis and bioactions of these anti-inflammatory lipid mediators.  (+info)

Selective inhibition of the renal angiotensin type 2 receptor increases blood pressure in conscious rats. (5/57)

The angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor is present in rat kidney; however, its function is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of the AT(2) receptor in blood pressure (BP) regulation. The effects of selective inhibition of the renal AT(2) receptor with phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) were examined in conscious uninephrectomized rats. Oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODN or scrambled [S-ODN]) were infused directly into the renal interstitial space by using an osmotic pump at 1 microL/h for 7 days. Texas red-labeled AS-ODN was distributed in renal tubules in the infused but not the contralateral kidney of normal rats. Continuous renal interstitial infusion of the AS-ODN, but not S-ODN, caused a significant (P<0.01) increase in BP 1 to 5 days after the initiation of the infusion. AS-ODN-treated rats experienced an increase in systolic BP from 109+/-4 to 130+/-4 mm Hg (n=8, P<0.01), whereas S-ODN-treated (n=8) and vehicle-treated (n=8) rats did not show any significant change in BP. On day 5 of the oligodeoxynucleotide infusion, AS-ODN-treated rats exhibited a greater pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusion (30 ng/kg per hour) than did S-ODN-treated rats (P<0.01). Renal interstitial fluid cGMP decreased from 11.9+/-0.8 to 3.6+/-0.5 pmol/mL (P<0.001), and bradykinin decreased from 0.05+/-0.05 to 0.18+/-0.03 ng/mL (P<0.001) in response to AS-ODN, but they were not significantly changed in response to S-ODN. To evaluate the effects of AS-ODN and S-ODN on AT(2) receptor expression, Western Blot analysis was performed on treated kidneys. Kidneys treated with AS-ODN had approximately 40% less expression of AT(2) receptor than did kidneys treated with S-ODN or vehicle (P<0.05). These results suggest that AS-ODN directed selectively against the renal AT(2) receptor decreased receptor expression and caused an increase in BP. We conclude that the renal AT(2) receptor plays an important role in the regulation of BP via a bradykinin/cGMP vasodilator signaling cascade.  (+info)

Formation of slow-reacting substance by guinea pig immunoglobulins. (6/57)

The capacity of guinea pig antibodies to mediate the antigen-induced release of slow-reacting substance (SRS) in the rat peritoneal cavity is restricted to IgG2 and, to a lesser extent, to IgG1 populations of immunoglobulin. IgM and homocytotropic antibody of the reaginic type lacked this activity. The process was partially blocked by previous decomplementation of the rats, was not affected by previous reduction of the circulating leukocytes, and was partially suppressed by previous depletion of circulating platelets with an antiserum to rat platelets.  (+info)

Tissue-specific expression of human lipoprotein lipase in the vascular system affects vascular reactivity in transgenic mice. (7/57)

1. The role of smooth muscle-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) that translocates to the endothelium surface on vascular dysfunction during atherogenesis is unclear. Thus, the role of vascular LPL on blood vessel reactivity was assessed in transgenic mice that specifically express human LPL in the circulatory system. 2. Aortic free fatty acids (FFAs) were increased by 69% in the transgenic mice expressing human LPL in aortic smooth muscle cells (L2LPL) compared with their non-transgenic littermates (L2). 3. Contractility to KCl was increased by 33% in aortae of L2LPL mice. Maximal contraction to phenylephrine (PE) was comparable in L2 and L2LPL animals, while the frequency of tonus oscillation to PE increased by 104% in L2LPL mice. 4. In L2LPL animals, *NO mediated relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and ATP was reduced by 47 and 32%, respectively. In contrast, endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was not different in both groups tested. 5. ATP-initiated Ca(2+) elevation that triggers *NO formation was increased by 41% in single aortic endothelial cells freshly isolated from L2LPL animals. 6. In aortae from L2LPL mice an increased *O(2)(-) release occurred that was normalized by removing the endothelium and by the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor DPI and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X. 7. The reduced ACh-induced relaxation in L2LPL animals was normalized in the presence of SOD, indicating that the reduced relaxation is due, at least in part, to enhanced *NO scavenging by *O(2)(-). 8. These data suggest that despite normal lipoprotein levels increased LPL-mediated FFAs loading initiates vascular dysfunction via PKC-mediated activation of endothelial NAD(P)H oxidase. Thus, vascular LPL activity might represent a primary risk factor for atherosclerosis independently from cholesterol/LDL levels.  (+info)

EDHF, but not NO or prostaglandins, is critical to evoke a conducted dilation upon ACh in hamster arterioles. (8/57)

Vasomotor reactions upon focal stimulation of arterioles have been shown to be conducted along the vascular wall. Such a conduction, which is assumed to reflect the spread of electrical signals, may contribute to coordination of responses within a vascular segment. We aimed to identify which endothelial autacoid(s) act as mediators of the local and conducted dilator responses, respectively. To this end, arterioles in the hamster cremaster microcirculation were locally stimulated with endothelium-dependent [acetylcholine (ACh)] or endothelium-independent dilators [sodium nitroprusside (SNP)], and the resulting changes in diameter were measured using a videomicroscopy technique at the site of application and up to 1.4 mm upstream at distant sites. Experiments were also performed after blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, cyclooxygenase, P-450 monooxygenase, or K(+) channels. Dilations upon ACh (71 +/- 3%) were conducted rapidly (<1 s) to upstream sites (at 1.4 mm: 37 +/- 5%). Although the NO donor SNP induced a similar local dilation (71 +/- 7%), this response was not conducted. Maximal amplitudes of ACh-induced dilations were not attenuated after inhibition of NO synthase and cyclooxygenase at the local and remote sites. However, additional treatment with a P-450 monooxygenase blocker (sulfaphenazole) strongly attenuated the local response (from 62 +/- 9 to 17 +/- 5%) and abrogated dilations at distant sites (at 0.67 mm: from 23 +/- 4% to 4 +/- 3%). Likewise, 17-octadecynoic acid strongly attenuated local and remote responses. Blockers of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) attenuated dilations at the local and remote sites after focal application at the ACh stimulation site. In marked contrast, treatment of the upstream site with these blockers was without any effect. We conclude that upon local stimulation with ACh, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase product is generated that induces local dilation via the activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels and initiates conduction of the dilation. In contrast to the local site, neither activation of these K(+) channels nor the synthesis of NO or prostaglandins is necessary to dilate the arterioles at remote, distant sites. This suggests that endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor serves as an important mediator to initiate conducted dilations and, by doing so, may act as a key player in the coordination of arteriolar behavior in the microcirculatory network.  (+info)

Can you name the Autacoids? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by mackb33
RvD2 is a potent immunoresolvent and controller of leukocyte traffic and is protective in a wide range of disease models, including airway and gastrointestinal inflammation (8, 19). In the present study, we demonstrated that RvD2-DRV2 interaction protected mice from sepsis, preventing hypothermia, enhancing phagocytosis-based bacterial clearance, and increasing survival. In infectious exudates collected from sepsis, DRV2-KO gave increased levels of PG, LT, and TX, and reduced SPM (i.e., RvD1, RvD3, AT-RvD1, AT-RvD3) in infectious exudates (Fig. 2). These results are consistent with those found in E. coli peritoneal infections where selected SPM, including AT-RvD1, RvD2, RvD5, PD1, and AT-PD1, were significantly reduced in DRV2-KO mice compared with WT mice. DRV2-KO also gave increased amounts of TX (30), indicating that DRV2-KO is associated with heightened inflammatory status during bacterial infection. Of interest, mice deficient in an RvD1 receptor, namely ALX, also gave heightened disease ...
Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Autacoids or "autocoids" are biological factors (molecules) which act like local hormones, have a brief duration, and act near their site of synthesis.[1] The word autacoid comes from the Greek "autos" (self) and "acos" (relief; i.e., drug). The effects of autacoids are primarily local, though large quantities can be produced and moved into circulation.[citation needed] Autacoids may thus have systemic effects by being transported via the circulation. These regulating molecules are also metabolized locally. In sum, these compounds typically are produced locally,[citation needed] act locally and are metabolized locally. Autacoids can have a variety of different biological actions, including modulating the activities of smooth muscles, glands, nerves, platelets and other tissues.[citation needed] Some autacoids are chiefly characterized by the effect they have on specific tissues, such as smooth muscle.[2] With respect to vascular smooth muscle, there exist both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator ...
In biochemistry, docosanoids are signaling molecules made by the metabolism of twenty-two-carbon fatty acids (EFAs), especially the omega-3 fatty acid, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (i.e. 4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid) by lipoxygenase, cyclooxygenase, and cytochrome P450 enzymes. Other docosanoids are metabolites of n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (i.e. 7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid), n-6 DHA (i.e. 4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosahexaenoic acid, and docosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z-docosatetraenoic acid, DTA, or adrenic acid). Prominent docosanoid metabolites of DHA and n-3 DHA are members of the specialized proresolving mediator class of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites that possess potent anti-inflammation, tissue healing, and other activities (see specialized proresolving mediators). Potently bioactive agents of the specialized proresolving mediator class include: DHA-derived Resolvins (Rvs) of the D series: RvD1, RvD2, RvD3, RvD4, RvD5, RvD6, AT-RvD1, AT-RvD2, AT-RvD3, ...
1919) Horse asthma following blood transfusion. JAMA 73, 984-5. F. (1959) The Mast Cells. D. Livingston, Edinburgh. B. (1952) Histamine in tissue mast cells. J Physiol 117, 729-39. F. B. (1952) Histamine in tissue mast cells. J Physiol (Lond) 172, 72-3. B. (1953) Mast cells and histamine in normal and pathological tissues. J Physiol 119, 44P. , Beraldo, W. & Rosenfeld, G. (1949) Bradykinin, a hypotensive and smooth muscle stimulating factor released from plasma globulin by snake venoms and trypsin. Samuelson Identification of leukotrienes as slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis, role in allergic diseases and in this sense is cytostimulating rather than cytolytic (in which there is destruction of the cells with liberation of preformed histamine). In myasthenia gravis, on the other hand, autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors have been identified. These have antagonist properties leading to a failure to sustain maintained or repeated contraction of striated muscle. Although, in ...
The resolution of inflammation is an active process that is coordinated by endogenous mediators. Previous studies have demonstrated the immunomodulatory properties of the axonal guidance proteins in the initial phase of acute inflammation. We hypothesized that the neuronal guidance protein neogenin (Neo1) modulates mechanisms of inflammation resolution. In murine peritonitis, Neo1 deficiency (Neo1-/-) resulted in higher efficacies in reducing neutrophil migration into injury sites, increasing neutrophil apoptosis, actuating PMN phagocytosis, and increasing the endogenous biosynthesis of specialized proresolving mediators, such as lipoxin A4, maresin-1, and protectin DX. Neo1 expression was limited to Neo1-expressing Ly6Chi monocytes, and Neo1 deficiency induced monocyte polarization toward an antiinflammatory and proresolving phenotype. Signaling network analysis revealed that Neo1-/- monocytes mediate their immunomodulatory effects specifically by activating the PI3K/AKT pathway and suppressing ...
AnxA1 is a molecule that belongs to a large and structurally heterogeneous family of proresolving molecules. Other family members include resolving lipid mediators, proresolving cytokines, and proresolving hormones. Although these molecules are structurally different they share functional similarities. They terminate inflammatory leukocyte accumulation by reducing leukocyte recruitment and enhancing egress; they stimulate clearance of aged and apoptotic cells and actively promote tissue repair.16 Here, we show that AnxA1 is an endogenous inhibitor of arterial leukocyte recruitment. Because this process is a mechanism essential to atherogenesis, it is not surprising that mice lacking AnxA1 or its receptor FPR2 have accelerated atherosclerosis. Mechanistically, we show that the AnxA1 fragment Ac2-26 counteracts chemokine-mediated integrin activation in neutrophils and monocytes and could hence be a potential tool for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Direct interference with integrins, cell ...
These functions take as arguments a Well-Known Text (WKT) representation and, optionally, a spatial reference system identifier (SRID). They return the corresponding geometry. For a description of WKT format, see Well-Known Text (WKT) Format. Functions in this section detect arguments in either Cartesian or geographic spatial reference systems (SRSs), and return results appropriate to the SRS. ...
Looking for anterior uvea? Find out information about anterior uvea. The pigmented, vascular layer of the eye: the iris, ciliary body, and choroid Explanation of anterior uvea
Charles N. Serhan, Rong Yang, Kimberly Martinod, Kie Kasuga, Padmini S. Pillai, Timothy F. Porter, Sungwhan F. Oh, Matthew Spite ...
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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a major ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) found in fish oil is the source of E-series resolvins (RvEs), one of the specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) that show potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions (Molfino et al. 2017). The biosynthesis of RvEs occurs mainly during the process of inflammation when endothelial cells interact with leukocytes. EPA, circulating in plasma or released/mobilised from damaged cellular membranes on injury or infection, moves with edema into the tissue sites of acute inflammation where it is converted to exudate RvEs to interact with local immune cells (Kasuga et al. 2008). The initial transformation of EPA by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase 2- and/or cytochrome P450-mediated catalysis can produce stereospecific resolvins (18(R)- or 18(S)-RvEs). Combinations of oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis reactions determine the type of resolvin formed (RvE1, RvE2 or RvE3) (Serhan et al. 2000, 2002, Serhan & Petasis 2011, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of the sensitivity of photodamage assays in rat basophilic leukemia cells. AU - Barth, Erin E.. AU - Hallworth, Richard J.. AU - Nichols, Michael G.. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - Many aspects of cellular function or physiology can be used to indicate the level of damage resulting from the application of potentially deleterious agents such as drugs, solvents or even light. The dose required to reach a specific biological endpoint will necessarily depend on the characteristics of the damage induced by the agent. By using multiple biological probes, it is possible to get a more complete description of the type of damage induced. Photodamage was induced in rat basophilic leukemia cells by either 254-nm UVC light exposure or rose bengal photosensitization. Damage was measured by three quantitative assays employing fluorescent probes: calcein, to measure nonspecific esterase activity, propidium iodide (PI), to measure loss of plasma membrane integrity, rhodamine 123 ...
The Postdoc will work on a project entitled "Resetting self-tolerance in autoimmune diabetes by proresolving mediators derived from apoptotic cell efferocytosis". Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease resulting from the selective destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β-cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes. We hypothesize that administration of pro-resolving mediators, issued from apoptotic cell phagocytosis by macrophages (called efferocytosis), may constitute a promising strategy for controlling the dysregulated immune responses characteristic of T1D. Our research program will use both the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model and samples from T1D patients. Our first objective is to assess the capacity of NOD macrophages to produce pro-resolving mediators after apoptotic cell efferocytosis. A strong focus will be brought on immunomodulatory cytokines and lipid ...
BioAssay record AID 78192 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro percent inhibition of LTD4 release from sensitized guinea pig lung fragment at dose of 3 uM.
SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Blackwell, G. L., Burka, J. F., & Flower, R. J. (1978). On the preparation of highly purified slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) from biological extracts [proceedings]. British Journal Of Pharmacology, 63(2), 365P-366P ...
لایه عروقی یا انگوره (Uvea) لایه پرعروق تغذیه‌کننده چشم است. این لایه شامل عنبیه، جسم مژگانی و مشیمیه است و و توسط صلبیه و قرنیه محافظت می‌شود. ...
Yellowstone Reminds News Crews, Film Crews And Still Photographers About Permit Rules. Yellowstone National Park takes the opportunity early each calendar year to remind news reporters, still photographers, and film, video and audio crews to review permitting regulations before attempting to capture images and sounds in the park.. Shooting photos and videos in Yellowstone for personal use does not require a permit. However, federal regulations and National Park Service (NPS) policies place some restrictions on other types of film, photography, and media activities due to concerns over visitor safety and impacts on fragile park resources.. Permits are not usually required for news-gathering organizations. However, news crews larger than two people or those using satellite trucks, production vehicles and some specialized equipment may require a permit due to the potential impact on park visitors and resources. While NPS employees performing their duties in public may be photographed or recorded at ...
BioAssay record AID 77998 submitted by ChEMBL: Ability to prevent constrictions induced by SRS-A (slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis) in guinea pig ileum.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease characterized by persistent accumulation of leukocytes within the articular cavity and synovial tissue. Metabololipidomic profiling of arthritic joints from omega-3 supplemented mice identified elevated levels of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM) including resolvin D1 (RvD1). Profiling of human RA synovial fluid revealed physiological levels of RvD1, which - once applied to human neutrophils - attenuated chemotaxis. These results prompted analyses of the antiarthritic properties of RvD1 in a model of murine inflammatory arthritis. The stable epimer ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating disease characterized by persistent accumulation of leukocytes within the articular cavity and synovial tissue. Metabololipidomic profiling of arthritic joints from omega-3 supplemented mice identified elevated levels of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPM) including resolvin D1 (RvD1). Profiling of human RA synovial fluid revealed physiological levels of RvD1, which - once applied to human neutrophils - attenuated chemotaxis. These results prompted analyses of the antiarthritic properties of RvD1 in a model of murine inflammatory arthritis. The stable epimer ...
Zhang T, Xiang CD, Outburst D, Carreiro S, Zhang EY (2008) Drug transporter and cytochrome P450 mRNA pronouncement in charitable ocular bar- riers: implications for ocular drug disposition. Usual signs and symptoms reported during the healthiness news may encompass irritability, headache, dizziness, delicacy, shortness of surprise, pallor, and fatigue. Annually about 38,000 cases of lung cancer are diagnosed in the UK solo levitra jelly 20mg with visa erectile dysfunction with new partner. In the community-based backdrop, teaching is often focused on assisting the little one and family to reach independence. It was later inaugurate that a variety of immune-cell-derived products can, directly or indirectly, influence neural and endocrine mechanisms that are at the beck brain control. Has anyone been fetching risperdal on hither levitra 10 mg for sale impotence natural remedies. The largest features of the SRSs observed during the long-term spell earmarks of those of somebody complex not total ...
BY: Col. (Rtd). Wani Tombe Lako Lokitari, RSS, MAR/29/29/2014, SSN;. Whether people like it or not, Equatoria is always the political game-changer in the politics of South Sudan (SS). Those who argue that Equatoria must become an innocent and unconcerned spectator while history and the political roadmap of SS are being redone, are gravely mistaken. Others must not confuse the protection of their constitutional posts, with commensurate financial and other privileges, with the selfless struggle for the comprehensive interests of the downtrodden and poverty ridden peoples of SS.. There are some Equatorians holding constitutional posts and other menial constitutional jobs in the presidency, the states, and other ministries in Juba, who think that because they are happy as individuals and families, and therefore by implication, the rest of Equatoria are also happy. These detached Equatorian constitutional and other post holders in the Sovereign Republic of South Sudan (SRSS) are but selfish others. ...
This report is the first to study sites within P-450 2B6 that are involved in substrate specificity. Workers in our laboratory have used multiple amino acid sequence alignments in the past to develop homology models of several P-450s (Szklarz et al., 1995; Szklarz and Halpert, 1997), and a similar alignment was used here to choose 12 sites within the predicted 2B6 SRSs for study. The panel of marker substrates, androstenedione, 7-EFC, and RP 73401 was useful for separating mutations that caused nonspecific functional alterations from those that produced a change in an enzyme-specific function. We were most interested in mutants that would display only decreased 2B6-specific RP 73401 hydroxylase activity or demonstrate a significant increase in 2B1-specific androstenedione hydroxylase activity.. Each of the mutants was tested for the three marker activities, and the results were compared with 2B6 (Fig. 2). Only T292L exhibited an almost complete lack of any of the three activities tested. T292A ...
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Research supports the hypothesis that GPR18 is the abnormal cannabidiol receptor and N-arachidonoyl glycine, the endogenous lipid metabolite of anandamide, initiates directed microglial migration in the CNS through activation of GPR18,[10] though recent evidence demonstrates that NAGly was not shown to be a GPR18 agonist in rat sympathetic neurons.[11]. Resolvin D2 (RvD2), a member of the specialized proresolving mediators (SPM) class of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites, is an activating ligand for GPR18; RvD2 and its activation of GPR18 contribute to the resolution of inflammatory responses as well as inflammation-based and other diseases in animal models and are proposed to do so in humans.[12] Furthermore, RvD2 is a metabolite of the omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); the metabolism of DHA to RvD2 and RvD2s activation of GPR18 is proposed to one among many other mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and other beneficial effects attributed to omega-3 fatty acid-rich ...
Previous studies have clearly established the presence of various peptides and autacoids in the lung, being mostly localized in neuroendocrine cells and mast cells. Proliferation of these cell types following asbestos fiber inhalation bas been described. In order to better understand the biochemical basis of asbestosis, this study investigated the lung levels of serotonin, histamine and various peptides following asbestos exposure. Asbestosis was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intratracheal injection of 5 or 10 mg of standard UICC Canadian Chrysotile B, while control animals received only the saline carrier. After various exposure times, lung extracts were prepared and measured for content in autacoids and peptides. Isolated rat lung cells were also prepared from normal and asbestos exposed rats and then were fractionated on BSA gradients and measured for their content in autacoids and peptides. The following changes were observed, serotonin and histamine contents increased in a ...
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... is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, leading to a drop in blood pressure. It also causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut, increases vascular permeability and is also involved in the mechanism of pain.[4] Bradykinin also causes natriuresis, contributing to the drop in blood pressure. Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has only been confirmed in-vitro.[5] Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on widely prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs. It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased levels of bradykinin, which causes a dry cough via bronchoconstriction. In severe cases, the elevation of bradykinin may result in angioedema, a medical emergency.[6] People of African descent have up to 5x increased risk of ACE ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 26 (4): 361-9. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2006.00376.x. PMID 16968475.. ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 25 (4): 135-41. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2005.00342.x. PMID 16176444.. ...
Autacoids in anti-inflammation". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (17): 14677-87. doi:10.1074/jbc.M300218200. PMID 12590139. Bazan NG (2007 ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 26 (3): 219-33. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2006.00368.x. PMID 16879488. Ishii M, Kurachi Y (2006). " ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 25 (4): 135-41. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2005.00342.x. PMID 16176444. Sallinen J, Höglund I, Engström ...
Autacoid Pharmacology. 23 (5-6): 319-26. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2004.00303.x. PMID 15255816.. ...
Eglen RM (July 2006). "Muscarinic receptor subtypes in neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic function". Autonomic & Autacoid ...
PEA's mechanism of action sometimes is described as Autacoid Local Injury Antagonism (acronym ALIA), and PEA under this ... Aloe, L.; Leon, A.; Levi-Montalcini, R. (1993). "A proposed autacoid mechanism controlling mastocyte behaviour". Agents and ...
They are members of the autacoid family. They act locally to induce vasodilation and contraction of smooth muscle. It is a ...
Autacoids are enzymatically derived chemical mediators with distinct biological activities and molecular structures. Protectins ...
Eglen RM (July 2006). "Muscarinic receptor subtypes in neuronal and non-neuronal cholinergic function". Auton Autacoid ...
... which play physiological roles as lipid neurotransmitters and autacoids. The crystal structure of the membrane enzyme NAPE-PLD ...
In the human heart, adenosine functions as an autacoid in the regulation of various cardiac functions such as heart rate, ...
... s (LXs or Lxs), an acronym for lipoxygenase interaction products, are bioactive autacoid metabolites of arachidonic acid ...
... s are autacoids of a specific lipid structure: dihydroxy or trihydroxy metabolites of omega-3 fatty acids, primarily ... SPMs are locally formed and locally acting cell signaling autacoids: they are made by cells and act upon their parent or nearby ...
A well-studied group of autacoid mediators that are the products of arachidonic acid metabolism include: the prostaglandins, ...
In 2015, a new definition of autacoids was proposed, which helps to more specifically describe Autacoid Medicine: '"Autacoids ... "The terms 'autacoid', 'hormone' and 'chalone' and how they have shifted with time". Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 35: 51-8. doi: ... Recently, research on autacoids has given rise to the nascent field of "Autacoid Medicine,"[3] particularly since new lipid ... The word autacoid comes from the Greek "autos" (self) and "acos" (relief; i.e., drug). The effects of autacoids are primarily ...
Autacoid) এবং কেন্দ্রীয় স্নায়ুতন্ত্রের মধ্যে থেকে নিউরোট্রান্সমিটার হিসেবে কাজ করে। এটা অ্যামিনো এসিড হিস্টিডিন (histidine) ...
In 2015, a new definition of autacoids was proposed, which helps to more specifically describe Autacoid Medicine: "Autacoids ... "The terms autacoid, hormone and chalone and how they have shifted with time". Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 35: 51-8. doi: ... Recently, research on autacoids has given rise to the nascent field of "Autacoid Medicine,"[3] particularly since new lipid ... The word autacoid comes from the Greek "autos" (self) and "acos" (relief; i.e., drug). The effects of autacoids are primarily ...
Autacoids synonyms, Autacoids pronunciation, Autacoids translation, English dictionary definition of Autacoids. also au·to·coid ... autacoid. (redirected from Autacoids). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. au·ta·coid. also au·to·coid (ô′tə-koid′). ... Autacoids - definition of Autacoids by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Autacoids ... autacoid. (ˈɔːtəˌkɔɪd) n. (Physiology) physiol any natural internal secretion, esp one that exerts an effect similar to a drug ...
Can you name the Autacoids? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz ...
Autacoid definition, any physiologically active internal secretion, especially one of uncertain classification, as histamine or ... autacoid. 1910-15; aut- + Greek ák(os) remedy + -oid. Related formsau·ta·coi·dal, adjective. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on ... autacoid. C20: from auto- + Greek akos cure + -oid. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. It is an essential element of the hypothalamic-pituit..
The gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland secrete luteinizing hormone (LH). A sudden rise of LH triggers ovulation and development of the corpu..
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. FSH plays a major role in promoti..
We set out to define how changes in ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA impact formation of lipid autacoids in the cornea, specifically ω-3 PUFA- ... derived autacoids. Methods: : Mice were placed on ω-3 or ω-6 PUFA diets for 3 months. Lipid autacoids were analyzed by LC/MS/MS ... Mice were treated post injury with selected DHA-derived autacoids (100 ng tid)for 7 days. ... Results: : Formation of inflammatory and angiogenic lipid autacoids peaked 4 day post suture placement and remained elevated at ...
Autacoids - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides ... as an autacoid. At cellular level, it is found largely in mast cells and basophils. Non-mast-cell histamine occurs as a ... AUTACOIDS (LOCAL. HORMONES) AND THEIR PHARMACOLO- GICAL MODULATION (Summary) endogenous compounds; play an important role in ... Autacoids a) Histamine 1. Monoamines The synthesis and breakdown of histamine Histamine is presented in high concentration in ...
Learn Autacoids, Antihistamines, Corticosteroids facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple ... versions of Autacoids, Antihistamines, Corticosteroids: main , yours , all. Please enable JavaScript in your browser settings. ... All of the following statements with regard to the autacoid prostaglandin are correct EXCEPT. derived from essential amino ...
Previous studies have clearly established the presence of various peptides and autacoids in the lung, being mostly localized in ... After various exposure times, lung extracts were prepared and measured for content in autacoids and peptides. Isolated rat lung ... from normal and asbestos exposed rats and then were fractionated on BSA gradients and measured for their content in autacoids ...
Autonomic & Autacoid Pharmacology [electronic resource] Material type: Computer fileAnalytics: Show analyticsPublisher: Oxford ... UK : Blackwell Publishing ISSN: 1474-8673 Other title: Autonomic and autacoid pharmacology Subject(s): Autonomic nervous system ...
Bradykinin is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, leading to a drop in blood pressure. It also causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut, increases vascular permeability and is also involved in the mechanism of pain.[4] Bradykinin also causes natriuresis, contributing to the drop in blood pressure. Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has only been confirmed in-vitro.[5] Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on widely prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs. It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased levels of bradykinin, which causes a dry cough via bronchoconstriction. In severe cases, the elevation of bradykinin may result in angioedema, a medical emergency.[6] People of African descent have up to 5x increased risk of ACE ...
Autacoids; Cardiovascular drugs; Water, salts, and ions; Drugs affecting renal function and electrolyte metabolism; Drugs ... Autacoids; Cardiovascular drugs; Water, salts, and ions; Drugs affecting renal function and electrolyte metabolism; Drugs ... Autacoids; Cardiovascular drugs; Water, salts, and ions; Drugs affecting renal function and electrolyte metabolism; Drugs ...
Autacoids; Cardiovascular drugs; Water, salts, and ions; Drugs affecting renal function and electrolyte metabolism; Drugs ...
transmitter, hormones, autacoids). 3.Drugs acts by modulating the receptor to produce/inhibit the release of mediators. 4. They ...
autacoid I [ ^ R C h autoimmune disease ȖƉu autoinhibitory domain ȑj Q ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 26 (4): 361-9. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2006.00376.x. PMID 16968475.. ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 25 (4): 135-41. doi:10.1111/j.1474-8673.2005.00342.x. PMID 16176444.. ...
Chapter 4. Palmitoylethanolamid and Other Lipid Autacoids Against Neuroinflammation, Pain, and Spasms in Multiple Sclerosis* ...
Autacoids in anti-inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278(17):14677-14687.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ...
Autacoids in anti-inflammation. J. Biol. Chem 2003, 278, 14677-14687. [Google Scholar] ... Resolvins (resolution-phase interaction products) are short-lived autacoids, belonging to a novel family of aspirin-triggered ( ...
Autacoids in anti-inflammation. J. Biol. Chem. 2003. 278:14677-14687. View this article via: PubMed Google Scholar ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;27(4):181-7.. PMID:. 18076479. Similar articles ...
Auton Autacoid Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;26(3):303-9.. PMID:. 16879496. Similar articles ...
  • Topical treatment with DHA-derived autacoids such as protectin D1 signifcantly inhibited neovascularization and formation of inflammatory and angiogenic mediators. (arvojournals.org)
  • Since Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous lipid mediator chemically related to - and co-released with- the endocannabinoid anandamide, behaves as a local autacoid down-regulator of mast cell activation and inflammation, we explored the possible contribution of PEA in allergic sensitization, by using ovalbumin (OVA) as sensitizing agent in the mouse. (frontiersin.org)
  • [ citation needed ] Autacoids may thus have systemic effects by being transported via the circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word autacoids comes from the Greek "autos" (self) and "acos" (relief, i.e. drug). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some ethanolamides are naturally occurring, such as anandamide, palmitoylethanolamide and prostamides, which play physiological roles as lipid neurotransmitters and autacoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autacoids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) http://scientiaricerca.com/sracpm/pdf/SRACPM-01-00002.pdf Keppel Hesselink, JM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of autacoids are primarily local, though large quantities can be produced and moved into circulation. (wikipedia.org)