Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese
Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family. (1/718)We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy. (+info)
The natural course of hepatitis C virus infection 18 years after an epidemic outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis in a plasmapheresis centre. (2/718)BACKGROUND: The natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is variable and factors determining the course of the illness are unclear. AIMS: To determine the natural course of HCV infection in a well characterised group of patients 18 years after an epidemic outbreak of non-A, non-B hepatitis at a plasmapheresis centre. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1996, 20 of 30 affected individuals were studied. HCV infection was confirmed using second and third generation ELISA test kits. HCV RNA was detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and HCV genotyping was performed by analysing amplicons from the conserved 5'-non-translated region generated by nested PCR. Thirty two liver biopsies were carried out in 14 patients. RESULTS: HCV antibodies were detected in all subjects. Eighteen patients had abnormal liver enzymes and 17 were HCV RNA positive, all of whom were infected with genotype 1a. Ninety per cent of this cohort showed evidence of chronic HCV infection with 50% having progressive liver disease and 20% cirrhosis 18 years after acute onset of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Considerable variation in disease outcome occurred between individuals and no correlation with clinical features of the acute illness was found. CONCLUSIONS: Variability in the consequences of HCV infection in cases infected with the same virus suggests that host factors are important in determining disease outcome. The factors which determine differences in the natural history of the disease still remain to be elucidated. (+info)
The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir. (3/718)The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. (+info)
Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (4/718)OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between altitude of residence and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: A retrospective, case control study in the Tyrol, Austria enrolled 99 infants with SIDS occurring between 1984 and 1994, and 136 randomly selected control cases. Data on pregnancy, delivery, child care practice, and socio-demographic characteristics including altitude of residence were collected with a standardised questionnaire. RESULTS: The risk of SIDS increased gradually with increasing altitude of residence. This relation remained independently significant when the analysis was adjusted for gestational age, birth weight, prenatal care, mother's age at delivery, educational level of parents, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The prone sleeping position emerged as an obligatory cofactor in this association. In the whole of Austria, a similar trend of association emerged between the average altitudes in the 99 political counties and the rates of SIDS. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified altitude of residence as a significant risk predictor of SIDS, primarily in combination with the prone sleeping position. Respiratory disturbances, reduced oxygen saturation, and lower temperatures at high altitude might explain this association. (+info)
beta-2 Adrenergic receptor variants affect resting blood pressure and agonist-induced vasodilation in young adult Caucasians. (5/718)Recent evidence suggests that the prodownregulatory Gly16 allele of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta-2 AR) is associated with essential hypertension in African Caribbeans. To further investigate the effect of the glycine (Gly)16 and arginine (Arg)16 beta-2 AR variants on hemodynamics, we investigated the agonist-mediated in vivo vasodilation in normotensive Austrian Caucasians and analyzed the results with respect to the Gly16/Arg16 polymorphism. Fifty-seven normotensive men, 20 to 32 years of age with body mass index of 18.7 to 29.9 kg/m2, were genotyped for the Arg16/Gly16 beta-2 AR alleles. All 15 Gly16/Gly16 subjects, all 12 Arg16/Arg/16 subjects, and 27 of 30 heterozygous subjects underwent hemodynamic measurements while supine after an overnight fast. The observers were unaware of the subjects' genotypes. The subjects received a graded infusion of the selective beta-2 AR agonist salbutamol (0.07, 0.14, and 0.21 microgram/kg per minute, respectively), each dose over 8 minutes. Stroke volume and blood pressure were determined continuously by means of impedance cardiography and oscillometry, respectively. The last 4 minutes of each infusion were evaluated statistically. Basal mean blood pressure was higher in the Gly16/Gly16 subjects compared with Arg16/Arg16 subjects (mean+/-SD: 81.6+/-6.14 versus 75.2+/-4.93 mm Hg, P<0.01). Homozygous Gly16 subjects showed a significantly decreased vasodilation during the first dose of salbutamol infusion compared with Arg16/Arg16 subjects (Deltatotal peripheral resistance index -17.9+/-14.4 versus -30. 6+/-8.3%, P<0.01) despite increased sympathetic counterregulation in the Arg16/Arg16 group (Deltaheart rate +16.9+/-7.0% versus +8.6+/-7. 0%, P<0.01; Deltacardiac index +39.5+/-18.5% versus 21.4+/-18.8%, P<0.05). Our results provide additional evidence that the Gly16/Arg16 alleles of the beta-2 AR are intimately related to blood pressure regulation and deserve further studies in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. (+info)
Comparative susceptibility to penicillin and quinolones of 1385 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Austrian Bacterial Surveillance Network. (6/718)Antibiotic resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates has spread rapidly throughout the world since the first description of a strain with diminished susceptibility to penicillin in Australia in 1967. A total of 1385 strains of S. pneumoniae, collected in several centres throughout Austria, were assessed for their sensitivity to moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and lomefloxacin. The MICs were determined using the agar dilution method, according to NCCLS guidelines. Both moxlfloxacin and trovafloxacin showed good anti-pneumococcal activity in terms of MIC50 (both 0.125 mg/L) and MIC90 (both 0.25 mg/L). Less active, but with similar activity to each other, were ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, each with an MIC50 of 1 mg/L and an MIC90 of 2 mg/L. Ofloxacin showed only moderate activity (MIC50, 1 mg/L; MIC90, 2 mg/L) and lomefloxacin was the least active compound (MIC50, 4 mg/L; MIC90, 8 mg/L). Both moxifloxacin and trovafloxacin at a concentration of < or = 0.5 mg/L inhibited all of the S. pneumoniae strains tested. (+info)
Psychotherapeutic counseling and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization. (7/718)PURPOSE: Since the Austrian propagation bill of July 1, 1992, was passed into law, Austrian physicians are committed to offer psychological counseling to women before performing assisted reproductive techniques, unless refused by the patient. The acceptance of psychotherapeutic counseling (PSITCO) and its influence on pregnancy rate were carefully reviewed. METHODS: The study comprised 1156 consecutive patients (mean age, 33.3 years) and 1736 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. In a consent form for follicle puncture, the patients were interviewed about PSITCO as follows. Several methods of psychological support during IVF-embryo transfer treatment were offered to patients especially psychotherapy, hypnotherapy, and relaxation and physical perception exercises. RESULTS: Forty-two and three-tenths percent of patients rejected PSITCO, 17.8% had already received PSITCO, and 10.4% were willing to undergo PSITCO. The acceptance of PSITCO had no relevance on pregnancy rate. The cumulative calculation of pregnancy rates showed that up to 56.4% of women who had undergone PSITCO conceived. In patients who were planning to undergo PSITCO, the pregnancy rate was 41.9%. Concerning the cumulative pregnancy rate, this study showed that patients who accepted or underwent PSITCO had a higher pregnancy rate than those who did not avail themselves of this possibility. CONCLUSIONS: These results should encourage sterility specialists to consider psychological therapy as an essential aspect of IVF. Solely a written declaration of the patient stating his/her awareness of the possibility to undergo PSITCO is, in our opinion, insufficient. (+info)
Agrococcus citreus sp. nov., isolated from a medieval wall painting of the chapel of Castle Herberstein (Austria). (8/718)A bacterial strain, D-1/1aT, isolated from a medieval wall painting of the chapel of Herberstein (Styria, Austria) was characterized by a polyphasic approach. Strain D-1/1aT shared 98.1% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Agrococcus jenensis. The chemotaxonomic characteristics including polar lipid pattern, whole cell sugars, quinone system, polyamine pattern, cell wall composition and fatty acid profile were in good agreement with those of Agrococcus jenensis. The G+C content of the DNA was determined to be 74 mol%. The value of 47% DNA reassociation obtained after DNA-DNA hybridization between DNA of Agrococcus jenensis and strain D-1/1aT as well as differences in the amino acid composition of the peptidoglycan and in physiological characteristics demonstrate that the isolate represents a new species of the genus Agrococcus. The name Agrococcus citreus sp. nov. is proposed for the new species harbouring isolate D-1/1aT. The type strain is DSM 12453T. (+info)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Austria" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in central Europe, known officially as the Republic of Austria. It is not a medical condition, treatment, or related term. If you have any questions about a medical issue, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "paintings" are generally not a term that would have a medical definition. Paintings are artistic creations, typically made by applying pigments to a surface like canvas or paper, often using brushes or other tools. They can be created with various intentions and may evoke different emotions, thoughts, or reactions in viewers, but they do not have a direct connection to medicine or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them!
Infanticide is the act of killing an infant, typically a child under one year of age. In forensic medicine and criminal law, infanticide is often distinguished from homicide in general based on the age of the victim, the mental state of the perpetrator, or other factors.
In some cases, infanticide may be the result of an unplanned or unwanted pregnancy, or it may be related to cultural or societal pressures. In other cases, it may be associated with mental illness or other factors that impair the judgment and decision-making abilities of the perpetrator.
It is important to note that infanticide is a criminal offense in most jurisdictions, and those who are accused of committing this act may face severe legal consequences. At the same time, it is also important to recognize the complex social, cultural, and psychological factors that can contribute to this tragic phenomenon, and to work towards preventing it through education, support, and access to resources for new parents.
The study and recording of events in their order of occurrence, usually in relation to specific time periods. In the medical context, chronology is used to document a patient's medical history, including symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes over time. This information can help healthcare providers understand the progression of a patient's condition, identify patterns or trends, and make informed decisions about their care.
A medical chronology may include various types of records, such as clinic notes, hospital discharge summaries, laboratory results, and imaging studies. It is important to maintain an accurate and up-to-date chronology to ensure continuity of care, support research and quality improvement initiatives, and facilitate communication among healthcare team members.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."
If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
Japanese Encephalitis Viruses (JEV) are part of the Flaviviridae family and belong to the genus Flavivirus. JEV is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui complex.
JEV has a complex transmission cycle involving mosquito vectors, amplifying hosts (primarily pigs and wading birds), and dead-end hosts (humans). The virus is maintained in nature through a enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and amplifying hosts. Humans become infected when bitten by an infective mosquito, but they do not contribute to the transmission cycle.
The incubation period for JEV infection ranges from 5 to 15 days. Most infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and malaise. However, a small percentage of infected individuals develop severe neurological manifestations, including encephalitis, meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis. The case fatality rate for JEV-induced encephalitis is approximately 20-30%, with up to half of the survivors experiencing long-term neurological sequelae.
There are no specific antiviral treatments available for Japanese encephalitis, and management primarily focuses on supportive care. Prevention strategies include vaccination, personal protective measures against mosquito bites, and vector control programs. JEV vaccines are available and recommended for travelers to endemic areas and for residents living in regions where the virus is circulating.
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Flights to Austria from 23,410 DZD: Book & fly - Lufthansa
- Find great flight deals to Salzburg SZG from a wide range of offers and fly, for example, in January 2024 from Algiers ALG to Austria from 23,410 DZD. (lufthansa.com)
- Whether it's a business meeting in Salzburg or the best holiday destination in Austria, a flight booked on lufthansa.com always guarantees you a comfortable and safe journey from Algeria to your desired destination. (lufthansa.com)
- Austria is great for a visit with friends for the cultural, artistic and party scene in Vienna or Salzburg. (lastminute.com)
- In Salzburg, for a romantic weekend in Austria, let yourself be enchanted by the magic of this classical music paradise and walk in the footsteps of Mozart and so many other composers during the famous festival. (lastminute.com)
- Ischl is located east of Salzburg, southwest of Linz, in Upper Austria . (aol.com)
- As a result, Ottokar II of Bohemia effectively assumed control of the duchies of Austria, Styria, and Carinthia. (wikipedia.org)
- After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Emperor Franz Joseph declared war on Serbia, which ultimately escalated into World War I. The empire's defeat and subsequent collapse led to the proclamation of the Republic of German-Austria in 1918 and the First Austrian Republic in 1919. (wikipedia.org)
- Hallstatt is a small town in the district of Gmunden, in the Austrian state of Upper Austria. (istockphoto.com)
- Austria retains the principle of the right of asylum, and the benefits of Austrian social legislation are granted to refugees and displaced persons. (nationsencyclopedia.com)
- Bad Ischl (Austrian German [baːt ˈɪʃl̩]) is a spa town in Austria . (aol.com)
- Austria (German: Österreich), formally the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich), is a landlocked country in Central Europe, lying in the Eastern Alps. (wikipedia.org)
- The German name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the Old High German Ostarrîchi, which meant "eastern realm" and which first appeared in the "Ostarrîchi document" of 996. (wikipedia.org)
- Daher muss für Österreich auf Vergleichsdaten von Statistik Austria und Eurostat sowie - mit Einschränkungen auf die oberösterreichische Medienstudie - zurückgegriffen werden. (lse.ac.uk)
- A year before the outbreak of World War II, Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany by Adolf Hitler, and it became a sub-national division. (wikipedia.org)
- Immediately after the annexation of Austria, Nazi Germany erected the Mauthausen concentration camp in Mauthausen and several other subcamps throughout the country. (worldatlas.com)
- It lies in the southern part of Upper Austria , at the river Traun in the centre of the Salzkammergut region. (aol.com)
- Popular with tourists taking skiing holidays in Austria in the winter and spring, Innsbruck is location of the grand Tyrolean State Museum, where you can see works of art from many distinguished artists and learn about the history of Europe from the prehistoric era. (lastminute.com)
- When Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party Annexed Austria in March 1938, his aim was to take full control of the country and make it part of Greater Germany. (worldatlas.com)
- Austria map highlighted with border and country name, zooming in from the space through a 4K photo real animated globe, with a panoramic view consisting of Asia, Africa and Europe. (istockphoto.com)
- For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/managing-municipal-solid-waste/austria-country-paper-on-municipal or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
- Vienna is very interested in seeing the EU one day admit Croatia, a country with which Austria has close historical ties. (rferl.org)
- Just how much do you know about the beautiful alpine country of Austria, located in the heart of Europe? (funtrivia.com)
- There are clearly not enough quizzes about Austria here, so this is my contribution about this small European country. (funtrivia.com)
- This Austria Mini Window Banner is a great way to show love for your country wherever you go! (united-states-flag.com)
- I come from Austria myself and so I wanted to create a (not so easy) quiz about eastern Tyrol and upper Carinthia! (funtrivia.com)
- At the time, the Danube basin of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria. (wikipedia.org)
- 62,279 records of Jews deported from Austria to various concentration camps. (jewishgen.org)
- Were There Concentration Camps in Austria? (worldatlas.com)
- The prisoners at the concentration camps in Austria, like most Nazi prisoners in Germany, were forced into slavery under poor conditions that led to the death of many of them. (worldatlas.com)
- And throughout all of Austria, admire the well-preserved traditions and folklore, while enjoying the vibrant and lively nightlife of the big cities. (lastminute.com)
- Austria is more than just Alps and Edelweiss. (funtrivia.com)
- In September, the Brussels-based nongovernmental organization (NGO) Action and Protection League issued the results of its European antisemitism survey, which found that 18 percent of 1,000 respondents ages 18-75 in Austria said they had negative feelings towards Jews. (state.gov)
- Charismatic, cosmopolitan cities, splendid Alpine scenery, exquisite palaces, Austria is one of the world's most affluent countries, and is overlooked by the second most prominent peak in Europe, the 3,798m Großglockner. (lastminute.com)
- The 33 years after the end of the Napoleonic Wars are called in Austria-and to some extent in all of Europe-the Age of Metternich. (britannica.com)
- After European congresses at Troppau, Laibach, and Verona (1820-22) granted permission to Austria to deal with revolutions in Italy and to France to do the same in Spain , Britain announced its withdrawal from the Concert of Europe, proclaiming that it wanted no more to do with the conservative Continental powers. (britannica.com)
- Let's go to Austria, a republic in central Europe! (funtrivia.com)
- Following the political upheavals in Hungary in 1956, Czechoslovakia in 1968, and Poland in 1981, Austria received large numbers of refugees from these countries: 180,432 Hungarians, about 100,000 Czechs and Slovaks, and 33,142 Poles. (nationsencyclopedia.com)
- Austria is bordered by Germany to the northwest, Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. (wikipedia.org)
- The empire's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 led to the end of the Confederation and paved the way for the establishment of Austria-Hungary a year later. (wikipedia.org)
- The combined databases have over 1.2 million entries, referring to individuals living in the area of modern Austria and Czech Republic. (jewishgen.org)
- 19,000 entries by Jewish genealogists researching families in Austria and the Czech Republic. (jewishgen.org)
- 250,000 burial records in Austria and the Czech Republic. (jewishgen.org)
- iStock's ever-growing Signature collection features millions of authentic images-including these awe-inspiring austria videos-that you won't find on any other stock site. (istockphoto.com)
- Here you will find information on food control in Austria, food labeling and protection against deception. (ages.at)
- Between 1968 and 1986, 261,857 Jewish emigrants from the Soviet Union passed through Austria, about one-third of them going to Israel and the rest to other countries, primarily the US. (nationsencyclopedia.com)
- In 1156, the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. (wikipedia.org)
- Book your flights to Austria with us for holidays, a weekend or a bank holiday in Austria. (lufthansa.com)
- What is it that makes a winter holiday in Austria so unique? (austria.info)
- Teachers, writers, and students suspected of liberal views were blacklisted throughout Germany and Austria. (britannica.com)
- Check out iStock's vast library of royalty-free Austria footage. (istockphoto.com)
- and the Sisi Museum, containing hundreds of items once owned by the Empress Elisabeth of Austria. (lastminute.com)
- After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the dominant member of the German Confederation. (wikipedia.org)
- As of 2002, Austria has a net migration rate of -0.8 migrants per 1,000 population. (nationsencyclopedia.com)
- So I decided to migrate to Austria for I love to learn and explore new culture and different walks of life. (nationsencyclopedia.com)