Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Gold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5Sesame Oil: The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Penicillin G Procaine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.United StatesUniversal Precautions: Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Erythema Multiforme: A skin and mucous membrane disease characterized by an eruption of macules, papules, nodules, vesicles, and/or bullae with characteristic "bull's-eye" lesions usually occurring on the dorsal aspect of the hands and forearms.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Flammulina: A genus of mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae, whose species are characterized by a slimy cap (FRUITING BODIES, FUNGAL).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Selenious Acid: A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.Selenomethionine: Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Organoselenium Compounds: Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Selenoprotein P: An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Pantothenic Acid: A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

Anti-rheumatic compound aurothioglucose inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. (1/74)

NF-kappaB is a potent cellular activator of HIV-1 gene expression. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB activation is known to inhibit HIV replication from the latently infected cells. Gold compounds have been effectively used for many decades in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We previously reported that gold compounds, especially aurothioglucose (AuTG) containing monovalent gold ion, inhibited the DNA-binding of NF-kappaB in vitro. In this report we have examined the efficacy of the gold compound AuTG as an inhibitor of HIV replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in OM10.1 or Ach2 cells was significantly inhibited by non-cytotoxic doses of AuTG (>10 microM in OM10.1 cells and >25 F.M in Ach2 cells), while 25 microM of the counter-anion thioglucose (TG) or gold compound containing divalent gold ion, HAuCl3, had no effect. The effect of AuTG on NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression was confirmed by a transient CAT assay. Specific staining as well as electron microscopic examinations revealed the accumulation of metal gold in the cells, supporting our previous hypothesis that gold ions could block NF-kappaB-DNA binding by a redox mechanism. These observations indicate that the monovalent gold compound AuTG is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of patients infected with HIV.  (+info)

Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 induction from cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts by treatment with aurothioglucose. (2/74)

Gold compounds have long been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their actions in RA have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effect of one of the monovalent gold compounds, aurothioglucose (AuTG), on the IL-1-induced production of IL-6, IL-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF) isolated from three RA patients. IL-6 and IL-8 induction but not GM-CSF induction was inhibited in most of the RSF after pretreatment with AuTG. Since gene expression of these cytokines is known to be under the control of a common transcription factor, NF-kappaB, the effect of AuTG on the cellular localization of NF-kappaB (p65 subunit) and on NF-kappaB-DNA binding was examined. Although AuTG treatment did not prevent NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, AuTG blocked the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB when examined in vitro. Morphologically, both metal-specific cell staining using p-dimethylaminobenzylidene rhodamine and transmission electron microscopic examinations demonstrated the accumulation of metal gold in the cytoplama and some organella (mitochondria and lysosomes) of the AuTG-treated RSF. These results indicate that one of the anti-rheumatic actions of AuTG might be through its inhibitory action on NF-kappaB.  (+info)

The effect of goldthioglucose on peroxidative processes in mice. (3/74)

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of goldthioglucose (GTG) upon the processes associated with lipid peroxidation. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (G6PD; E.C. 1. 1.1.49) in red blood cells (RBC) and the amount of malonaldehyde precursors (MDA) per gram of brain, liver and kidney were determined. Adult mice received i.p. injections for three consecutive days of either saline (controls) or GTG dissolved in saline, in a dose of 0.10 mg.g(-1) or 0. 15 mg.g(-1) b.w. In mice receiving higher dose of GTG the G6PD activity was significantly increased (349.38+/-17.46 mU.10(-9) RBC compared to 258.2+/-14.46 mU.10(-9) RBC in control animals). The content of MDA precursors rose significantly from 4.8+/-0.81 micromol.g(-1) of the liver in controls to 8.12+/-1.41 micromol.g(-1) and 7.88+/-0.51 micromol.g(-1) and from 18.71+/-1.01 micromol.g(-1) of the kidneys in controls to 24.25+/-1.25 micromol.g(-1) and 24.88+/-1.7 micromol.g(-1) respectively. The GTG-induced higher levels of MDA precursors and increased G6PD activity in RBC corresponds to the rise in lipid peroxidation and its participation in producing the lesions after experimental and therapeutic use of gold-containing substances seems possible.  (+info)

Leptin has acute effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in both lean and gold thioglucose-obese mice. (4/74)

Leptin is reported to have effects in peripheral tissues that are independent of its central effects on food intake and body weight. In this study, the acute effects of a single dose of recombinant mouse leptin on lipid and glucose metabolism in lean and gold thioglucose-injected obese mice were examined. Changes were measured 2 h after leptin injection. In lean mice, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) lipogenesis was inhibited. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHCa), the rate-determining step for glucose oxidation, was reduced in heart, liver, quadriceps muscle, and both brown and white adipose tissues. Muscle and liver glycogen and liver triglyceride (TG) content was unchanged, but muscle TG was decreased. In obese mice, liver and WAT lipogenesis was inhibited and PDHCa reduced in heart and quadriceps muscle. Muscle and liver glycogen was decreased but not TG. Serum insulin was reduced in obese but not lean mice. These results are consistent with a role for leptin in the maintenance of steady-state energy stores by decreasing lipid synthesis and increasing fat mobilization, with decreased glucose oxidation occurring as a result of increased fatty acid oxidation.  (+info)

Aggressive treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. On behalf of the Rheumatic Research Foundation Utrecht, The Netherlands. (5/74)

OBJECTIVES: To compare three therapeutic strategies using slow acting antirheumatic drugs (SAARDs) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), for their disease modifying properties, toxicity, and lag time until treatment effect. METHODS: Patients with recent onset RA from six hospitals were randomly assigned to immediate initiation of one of three treatment strategies: (I) a "mild SAARD with a long lag time" (hydroxychloroquine, if necessary replaced by auranofin); (II) a "potent SAARD with a long lag time" (intramuscular gold, if necessary replaced by D-penicillamine); (III) a "potent SAARD with a short lag time" (methotrexate, if necessary replaced by sulfasalazine). Comparisons included two years of follow up. RESULTS: All SAARD strategies reduced mean disease activity. A greater percentage of patients improved clinically with strategies II and III than with strategy I: percentages of patients improved on joint score with strategies II and III (79% and 82%, respectively), which was statistically different from strategy I (66%). The same was true for remission percentages: 31% and 24% v 16%, respectively). Longitudinal analysis showed significantly less disability with strategy III, and a lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate with strategy II than with strategy I. In addition, radiological damage after one and two years, was significantly lower in strategies II and III (at two years median scores were 11 and 10 v 14 in strategy I, p<0.05). Toxicity was increased in strategy II compared with the other strategies. CONCLUSION: Strategy III, comprising methotrexate or sulfasalazine, produced the best results weighing effectiveness and toxicity. Strategy I (hydroxychloroquine or auranofin) was slightly less effective, and strategy II (intramuscular gold or D-penicillamine) was associated with increased toxicity.  (+info)

Accumulation of gold in various organs of mice injected with gold thioglucose. (6/74)

The response of either male or female mice to the administration of gold thioglucose (GTG) was observed in food intake, in body and organ weights, and in gold accumulation in respective organs. Male mice were more sensitive to GTG toxicity than females. During 103 days after GTG administration, the adipose tissues of the females and males increased in weight 15 times and 2.5 times as high as those of control mice, respectively. The weights of heart, lung, and brain were not affected by GTG administration. In the respective organs, gold concentrations, which were determined by neutron activation analysis, were high in liver, kidney, spleen, adrenal, and adipose tissue (especially in female) within a shorter time after the GTG injection. In various organs of nonobese mice, the concentrations of GTG were significantly less than those in the typical obese mice. Even after more than 100 days after injection, gold was detected in the respective organs. In the control mice without any GTG administration, no gold could be detected.  (+info)

Apoprotein C-III deficiency markedly stimulates triglyceride secretion in vivo: comparison with apoprotein E. (7/74)

Apoprotein (apo) C-III plays an important role in the development of hypertriglyceridemia by inhibiting triglyceride (TG) removal. However, the effect of apo C-III on TG production remains unclear. We measured TG secretion rate (TGSR) in apo C-III gene-disrupted (apo C-III-null) mice to investigate the influence of this protein on TG turnover. TGSR measured by the Triton WR-1339 method was increased twofold in these mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Obesity was induced by the injection of gold-thioglucose (GTG), which made the WT mice hypertriglyceridemic due to a threefold increase of TGSR. However, GTG-induced obesity failed to increase TG in apo C-III-null mice, although TGSR was increased 10-fold, suggesting substantial stimulation of TG removal. Apo E-null mice were severely hypercholesterolemic but were not hypertriglyceridemic, and TGSR was rather decreased. GTG-induced obesity made these mice hypertriglyceridemic because of TG overproduction to an extent similar to that seen in WT mice. These results suggest that apo C-III deficiency potently enhances TG turnover, especially when TG production is stimulated, and that apo E deficiency is not always rate limiting for TG production.  (+info)

A novel, enzymatically active conformation of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). (8/74)

Electron microscopy has demonstrated the unusual L-shaped structure of the respiratory complex I consisting of two arms, which are arranged perpendicular to each other. We found that the Escherichia coli complex I has an additional stable conformation, with the two arms arranged side by side, resulting in a horseshoe-shaped structure. The structure of both conformations was determined by means of electron microscopy of gold thioglucose-stained single particles. They were distinguished from each other by titration of the complex with polyethylene glycol and by means of analytical ultracentrifugation. The transition between the two conformations is induced by the ionic strength of the buffer and is reversible. Only the horseshoe-shaped complex I exhibits enzyme activity in detergent solution, which is abolished by the addition of salt. Therefore, it is proposed that this structure is the native conformation of the complex in the membrane.  (+info)

Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.. Chemistry - A water soluble gold salt, aurothioglucose contains approximately 50% gold. It is practically insoluble in alcohol and insoluble in vegetable oils. The commercial product is a 5% (50 mg/ml) suspension in sesame oil, 2% aluminum monostearate, and propylparaben is added as a preservative.. Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Protect from light and store between 15-30° C; avoid freezing. A five year expiration date is assigned after manufacture. Do not mix with any other compound when injecting.. Pharmacology - Aurothioglucose has anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, immunomodulating, and antimicrobial (in vitro) effects. The exact mechanisms for these actions are not well understood. Gold is taken up by macrophages where it inhibits phagocytosis and may inhibit lysoso-mal enzyme activity. Gold also inhibits the release of histamine, and the production of prostaglandins. While gold does have antimicrobial effects in vitro, it is not ...
Lets really look at the bizarre idea that non-forced "overeating" causes subsequent damages your VMH. This is how it works for over eating by a gold thioglucose injected rat, no yummie high fat diet needed: It simply decides to over eat crapinabag because this has suddenly and randomly become delicious and so it becomes obese. We all know overeating CAUSES the VMH injury in fat fed rodents. So how do GTG injured rats get the injury first and over eat secondarily? Gold thioglucose obese rodents might SEEM to have a chemical lesion causing obesity but clearly they get fat first, travel back in time (squeezing in to a time machine as obese chrononaughts) and retrospectively force the researchers to give them the injection of GTG to obtain the lesion in their VMH which they are going to produce in the future by eating too much crapinabag. Got that? Youve all watched Back to the Future. I watched parts I and II but never managed part III. Its simple time travel. Ditto MSG and ice-pick (ouch!) ...
Lets really look at the bizarre idea that non-forced "overeating" causes subsequent damages your VMH. This is how it works for over eating by a gold thioglucose injected rat, no yummie high fat diet needed: It simply decides to over eat crapinabag because this has suddenly and randomly become delicious and so it becomes obese. We all know overeating CAUSES the VMH injury in fat fed rodents. So how do GTG injured rats get the injury first and over eat secondarily? Gold thioglucose obese rodents might SEEM to have a chemical lesion causing obesity but clearly they get fat first, travel back in time (squeezing in to a time machine as obese chrononaughts) and retrospectively force the researchers to give them the injection of GTG to obtain the lesion in their VMH which they are going to produce in the future by eating too much crapinabag. Got that? Youve all watched Back to the Future. I watched parts I and II but never managed part III. Its simple time travel. Ditto MSG and ice-pick (ouch!) ...
Classic lesion experiments from the 1940s have established the hypothalamus as playing an essential role in controlling energy homeostasis. Gold-thioglucose (GTG) induces lesions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) resulting in hyperphagia and obesity. To identify genes involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis, we employed a screen to search for genes that were dysregulated in GTG induced obese mice. In this screen, GPR7, the endogenous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for the recently identified ligands neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW), was found to be specifically down-regulated after GTG treatment. The physiological role of GPR7 was investigated by generating and analyzing mice with targeted disruption of GPR7. Male GPR7-/- mice developed an adult-onset obesity syndrome that progressively worsened with age and was greatly exacerbated when animals were fed a high fat diet. Male GPR7A mice were hyperphagic and had decreased energy expenditure and
The time zone used on board the ISS is Coordinated hours per day exercising on the equipment that occurs when humans live for a long time without gravity read more + ...
The activity of the intramitochondrial branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCDH), like that of pyruvate dehydrogenase, is regulated, at least in part, by interconversion between the active dephosphorylated enzyme and its inactive phosphorylated form. The stimulatory effect of insulin on BCDH activity was compared with its effect on phosphorylation of the enzyme. Intact tissues were incubated in the presence or the absence of insulin, and then mitochondria were isolated and disrupted before assaying for enzyme activity or estimating the extent of enzyme phosphorylation. Tissues were incubated in either the presence or the absence of leucine, which also stimulated BCDH activity up to 10-fold. Insulin (1 munit/ml) doubled the activity of BCDH in the absence and in the presence of leucine. Together, 1 mM-leucine and insulin appeared to stimulate BCDH activity fully. Phosphorylation of BCDH was estimated indirectly by measuring the incorporation of 32P into phosphorylation sites that remained
Rick and Parker reveal that theres bad blood in the most intense conversation yet. Parker admits that his feud with Tony is often worse than whats portrayed on the show. Then, Rick and his crew lighten the mood with wild tales of life on the claim.
Glucosinolates are the major class of secondary metabolites found in Brassicacrops. The molecule comprises a β-thioglucose moiety, a sulphonated oxime moiety and a variable side chain, derived from...
Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). For best results viewing and printing PDF documents, it is recommended that you download the documents to your computer and open them with Adobe Reader. PDF documents opened from your browser may not display or print as intended. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge. More information about viewing, downloading, and printing report files can be found here.. ...
Professional guide for Auranofin. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
Title: Protein Targets for Anticancer Gold Compounds: Mechanistic Inferences. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Chiara Gabbiani and Luigi Messori. Affiliation:MetMed Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia, 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.. Keywords:Gold compounds, cancer, proteins, metal-protein adducts, phosphine complexes, antiproliferative properties, dithiocarbamate complexes, thiosugar ligand, X-ray diffraction, cytochrome c. Abstract: Gold compounds form an interesting class of antiproliferative agents of potential pharmacological use in cancer treatment. Indeed, a number of gold compounds, either gold(III) or gold(I), were recently described and characterised that manifested remarkable cytotoxic properties in vitro against cultured cancer cells; for some of them encouraging in vivo results were also reported toward a few relevant animal models of cancer. The molecular mechanisms through which gold compounds exert their biological effects are ...
Seventy-four Israeli patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied for possible association between HLA antigens and adverse reactions to gold treatment (aurothioglucose). HLA-B35 was significantly increased in patients who developed gold induced mucocutaneous lesions. These results are in accord with earlier reports, despite the different genetic background of the Israeli RA population and the different type of gold compound used. ...
0101]Particularly advantageous antioxidants are chosen from the group consisting of amino acids (e.g. glycine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan) and derivatives thereof, imidazoles (e.g. urocanic acid) and derivatives thereof, peptides such as D,L-carnosine, D-carnosine, L-carnosine and derivatives thereof (e.g. anserine), carotenoids, carotenes (e.g. alpha.-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and derivatives thereof, chlorogenic acid and derivatives thereof, lipoic acid and derivatives thereof (e.g. dihydrolipoic acid), aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (e.g. thioredoxin, glutathione, cysteine, cystine, cystamine and the glycosyl, N-acetyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, amyl, butyl and lauryl, palmitoyl, oleyl, γ-linoleyl, cholesteryl and glyceryl esters thereof) and salts thereof, dilauryl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, thiodipropionic acid and derivatives thereof (esters, ethers, peptides, lipids, nucleotides, nucleosides and salts) and sulfoximine compounds (e.g. ...
Gold compounds have been employed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since Forestier pioneered their use for this purpose in 1929. Subsequent randomized trials confirmed the effectiveness of gold in RA (seebelow). Gold has also been used
We prefer compounds that require metabolic activation, although standards that are active in themselves will be accepted if they have otherwise valuable properties. We require knowing the active metabolite, and we prefer compounds where the metabolite is stable and can be independently tested in order to verify the mechanism of toxicity as well as of metabolic activation in the test cell line ...
The E. coli biosensor developed by the international team of US and Australian researchers, as well as a similar biosensor developed by an Argentinian team, represent important steps towards revolutionizing gold prospecting. However, further refinement of this technology is necessary. First, more rigorous determination of the biosensor capabilities is required. While this study is an improvement over previous research because more realistic samples were used (soil samples and metal mixtures), a larger range of gold concentrations should be tested. Also, the effect of gold and other metals on the physiology of the bacteria needs to be better characterized. As mentioned in the study, the toxic effects of high concentrations of metals can compromise the ability of the bacteria to express the reporter. Finally, the pivotal experiment in which real soil samples were used lacks an important control: the unspiked soil (not containing gold). It is critical that these experiments are repeated with proper ...
Two placebo-controlled studies, involving a total of 81 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, found significant reductions in swelling and pain over the course of 3 months. A comparative study in 60 arthritic patients over 6 months showed that Boswellia extract produced symptomatic benefits comparable to oral gold therapy in arthritic patients. According to a recent review of unpublished studies, preliminary double-blind trials have found Boswellia to be effective in relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. ...
TransScript® II Green Two-Step qRT-PCR SuperMix,qPCR and qRT-PCR,PCR, RT-PCR, qPCR, qRT-PCR,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionTransScript® II Gree
Complete validated workflows provide standardized and reliable solutions for routine testing. Automation with the QIAsymphony RGQ integrates automated sample preparation and assay setup with detection on the Rotor-Gene Q to maximize your efficiency and optimize your workflows, from sample to result. Choose the workflow below for the pathogen of interest ...
Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites composed of a thioglucose group and an amino acid side-chain. They occur in the Brassicaceae and related families. A wide variety of glucosinolates exists owing to modification of the side-chain structure. Following tissue damage, myrosinase enzymes catalyse the decomposition of glucosinolates to a variety of volatile and nonvolatile products. The genetic control of concentration and side-chain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates, which have side-chains derived from methionine, are simple and well known from work on Arabidopsis and Brassica crops. In controlled conditions in the laboratory or in field trials, many aliphatic glucosinolates, or their degradation products, affect the behaviour of herbivores. For these reasons, we suggest that polymorphism for aliphatic glucosinolates in natural populations offers an attractive system for the study of ecological genetics of plant-herbivore interactions.
Two pairs of sibs with definite rheumatoid arthritis responded in a remarkably similar way to parenteral gold therapy, in terms of both toxicity and efficacy. Both pairs proved to be HLA identical. One of the pairs possessed the HLA antigens B8 and DR3, which have been associated with both drug toxicity and excellent clinical response. The other pair did not possess either of these antigens, suggesting that the reaction to gold therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be determined by other HLA or genetic factors coded for by chromosome 6, or both. ...
Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a 10-patient pilot study in asymptomatic ovarian cancer patients with cancer antigen (CA 125) elevation.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To explore whether oral gold therapy either stabilizes or lowers the CA 125 level and maintains patients in an asymptomatic state and to provide descriptive data on tumor response and duration of response.. II. To acquire qualitative data on patients perceptions of learning of CA 125 elevation.. III. To explore whether immunohistochemical staining for PKC iota expression in resected tumor samples appears to be associated with clinical outcomes with auranofin.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive auranofin orally (PO) twice daily (BID) on days 1-28. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 6 months for 2 years. ...
High-field proton NMR spectroscopic analysis of urine and plasma has been employed to study the biochemical effects and nephrotoxic action of an intramuscular dose of auranofin in rats. Auranofin induced a characteristic profile of proximal tubular damage as evidenced by aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria and increased urinary acetate concentrations. In addition, ethanol was detectable in both urine and plasma obtained from auranofin-treated rats. Auranofin-mediated elevations in the plasma and urine concentrations of 3-D-hydroxybutyrate indicated an increased utilisation of fats for fuel in rats treated with this novel therapeutic agent.. ...
Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 10 healthy volunteers, 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eight patients with osteoarthritis, and five patients with ankylosing spondylitis were examined for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production using monoclonal antibodies and an indirect immunofluorescent method. In freshly isolated PBMC from healthy controls very few cells were stained for either IL-1 type. All 20 RA patients who were not receiving parenteral gold therapy had PBMC staining for IL-1 alpha. In these patients, up to 7.5% of PBMC showed bright IL-1 alpha staining (range 1.2-7.5%). No IL-1 beta staining was seen. These IL-1 alpha-staining cells had a dendritic morphology and the percentage of cells staining correlated well with levels of C-reactive protein, an index of disease activity in these RA patients. Significantly fewer IL-1 alpha-staining cells were present in the peripheral blood of RA patients receiving gold therapy
Arthrisoothe Gold Tablets- joint supplements for dogs with arthritis, joint pain and stiffness. This natural pain relief remedy contains glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM and more.
Atlanta, GA (PRWEB) April 09, 2014 -- BlueLeap, LLC, a Gold level member of Oracle PartnerNetwork (OPN), today announced it has achieved OPN Specialized status
Starting April 16, you can redeem freebies for as little as 25 points, but former Gold Level members might not be thrilled about the new system.
We describe the first case of chronic neutropenia of 17 years duration following gold therapy in a 53-year-old woman given a 1-g course of gold therapy in 1965 for treatment of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Although she had a good response to the gold therapy, her originally normal leukocyte count fell to 1.2 x 10(9)/L. Over the subsequent 17 years, she required multiple hospitalizations for recurrent skin, mouth, and respiratory tract infections. Serial leukocyte counts failed to show a cyclical nature to the chronic neutropenia. Normal results of a technetium Tc 99m spleen scan and lack of increased bone marrow leukocyte precursors rendered a diagnosis of Feltys syndrome unlikely. A bone marrow biopsy specimen revealed an isolated reduction in the number of myeloid precursors, which is consistent with gold-induced bone marrow toxicity. This patients relative freedom from serious life-threatening infections remains enigmatic, but is undoubtedly related to her ability to augment another ...
We are manufacturer of ASCORBYL GLUCOSIDE Used for Comesitc Additive CAS 129499-78-1, ASCORBYL GLUCOSIDE Used for Comesitc Additive CAS 129499-78-1 China, if you want to buy China ASCORBYL GLUCOSIDE Used for Comesitc Additive CAS 129499-78-1, please contact us.
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) is used in skin care recipes for UV protection, collagen production, as an antioxidant and for its skin lightening and brightening effects.
Buy The Ordinary by Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12% 30ml from our Skin Care range - Anti-Ageing, Uneven Skin Tone/Texture - @ JML
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Protect from light. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.. Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.. ...
Daniel is a chat coordinator with PN phpBB Question and Answers . Daniel matches your request with our community of online experts. Daniel has achieved "Gold" level status, the highest overall rating possible. Daniel has a positive feedback rating of 92.7 ...
Rufus also gained his Kennel Club Good Citizenship Bronze level award at just 6 months old. He has now also passed his Gold level ...
Daniel is a chat coordinator with Answer Me True. Daniel matches your request with our community of online experts. Daniel has achieved "Gold" level status, the highest overall rating possible. Daniel has a positive feedback rating of 92.7 ...
EWGs Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases.
HP 30 WQHD 60 Hz 8 ms GTG LED Monitor - Black - (D7P94A8#ABA) : Get outstanding image accuracy; exceptional adjustability; and mission-critical reliability optimized for commercial environments. Built with IPS Gen 2 panels; the HP Z30i 30-inch IPS Display delivers power savings over firstgeneration IPS technology and extra-wide viewing angles that foster collaboration.Say hello to your new power-smart IPS Gen 2 team playerDesigned-in comfort
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a brain pacemaker), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS in select brain regions has provided therapeutic benefits for otherwise-treatment-resistant disorders such as Parkinsons disease, essential tremor, dystonia, chronic pain, major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allow blinded studies. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DBS as a treatment for essential tremor and Parkinsons disease in 1997, ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
If rheumatoid arthritis is ever to be controlled completely and permanently, it would seem reasonable to suppose that such a result would have to be achieved during the comparatively early stages of the disease; that is, before marked crippling caused by joint destruction, ankylosis and deformity has taken place. In the early months of rheumatoid arthritis, apparently up to one year, the disease is nearly always completely reversible. It may be completely reversible even later if joint destruction has not occurred. This characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis has been stressed recently by Hench in his Heberden Oration.1. Much has been written ...
Gold shimmers, attracts and has always been relatively expensive. This led people to believe that it must have mystical curative properties. Gold therapy was popular. It was given for arthritis, psoriasis, asthma and sexually transmitted diseases in the form of orally administered gold salts. It was and is still used in several ancient systems of medicine.Gold therapy is effective in rheumatoid arthritis. Eventually, as scientific evidence-based medicine gained popularity, the use of gold fell into disrepute. It did not work in all forms of arthritis. It had no effect on some of the other diseases mentioned. In fact, unless the dosage was carefully controlled, gold accumulated in the body and produced itching, skin pigmentation, pneumonia, jaundice and kidney failure. Today, however, the use of gold has resurged and it is effective when used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Some 10 million Indians, 70 per cent of whom are women between the ages 30 and 50, are affected by RA. The disease strikes ...
Buy ♠️ READY STOCK ♠️ The Ordinary Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12% in Singapore,Singapore. What It Is Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12% is a lightweight, water-based serum with a stable form of vitamin C. What It Does This treatment brightens the skin Chat to Buy
Get radiant results when you use The Ordinary Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12%, a topical vitamin C treatment that brightens dull skin tones. For those looking for a visibly brighter complexion, the Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12% is a light ser
Get radiant results when you use The Ordinary Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12%, a topical vitamin C treatment that brightens dull skin tones. For those looking for a visibly brighter complexion, the Ascorbyl Glucoside Solution 12% is a light ser
The award recognizes Berkshire Health Systems achievements developing, implementing and participating in corporate health improvement and wellness programs. BHS is one out of six Gold Level award recipients for 2018, and is the only organization to have received a Gold Level award each of the four years of the program. ...
Buy The Ordinary Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Solution 20% in Vitamin F Beauty Features. Irelands No1 Online Beauty Store. Best Price, Next Day Delivery Ireland
TransScript® II Two-Step RT-PCR SuperMix,RT-PCR,PCR, RT-PCR, qPCR, qRT-PCR,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionTransScript® II Two-Step RT-PCR Super
This revolutionary powder-to-emulsion technology delivers the highest concentration of Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate (MAP) directly into the skin to help dramatically improve skin firmness and clarity. Our highly-effective form of Vitamin C works with a bl
Penicillamine is used for |a href=https://www.lybrate.comtopic/rheumatoid-arthritis target=_blank|Rheumatoid Arthritis|/a| etc. Know Penicillamine uses, side-effects, composition, substitutes, drug interactions, precautions, dosage, warnings only on Lybrate.com
Dining Passes- Buy your Deluxe Dining Pass online by February 29 and youll automatically get a free upgrade to our prestigious new Gold level. With a Gold Dining Pass, enjoy lunch, dinner, and a snack every time at ALL other Six Flags theme parks this year. This special offer also includes a free Sports Bottle with unlimited soft drinks all season long. As a special bonus, youll get 20% off most merchandise throughout the park ...
Daniel is a chat coordinator with Answer Me True. Daniel matches your request with our community of online experts. Daniel has achieved "Gold" level status, the highest overall rating possible. Daniel has a positive feedback rating of 92.7 ...
Iegādājies Smaržas un kosmētiku, ādas un matu kopšanas līdzekļus tiešsaistē: Internetveikals: douglas.lv. Papildu iespējas: Paraugi, dāvanu iesaiņošana un apsveikuma kartiņa bez maksas, veicot pasūtījumu internetveikalā: www.douglas.lv.
Chloroauric acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula HAuCl 4. Both the trihydrate and tetrahydrate are known. It is an orange-yellow solid, a common precursor to other gold compounds and an intermediate in the purification of gold metal. Both the trihydrate and tetrahydrate are available commercially. Chloroauric acid is a strong monoprotic acid. The crystalline tetrahydrate is known to contain H 5O+ 2·AuCl− 4 and two water molecules. The AuCl− 4 anion has square planar molecular geometry. The Au-Cl distances are around 2.28 Å. Other d8 complexes adopt similar structures, e.g. [PtCl4]2−. Solid chloroauric acid is a hydrophilic (ionic) protic solute. It is soluble not only in water, but also in many oxygen-containing solvents, such as alcohols, esters, ethers, and ketones. For example, in dry dibutyl ether of diethylene glycol, the solubility exceeds 1 mol/L.[citation needed] Saturated solutions in the organic solvents often are the liquid solvates of specific ...
Australian approved name (AAN): Disodium ascorbyl sulfate. Common names and synonyms: Disodium ascorbate sulfate; Disodium ascorbyl sulfate anhydrous; Disodium l-ascorbic acid sulfate. Warnings and restrictions: Only for use in topical medicines for dermal application. Allowable purpose of the ingredient: Excipient. TGA reference: International Cosmetic Ingredient Directory. ...
Comment: The publication reports results that were obtained using a mouse model. The News Release states that a Phase I clinical trial is under way at the Mayo Clinic, but this trial isnt mentioned in the full text of the publication in Cancer Research. According to MedicineNet.com, aurothiomalate is a "gold-containing chemical (salt) used in treating rheumatoid arthritis ...
The goals of this TRND project are to develop a treatment for CLL and to develop a novel paradigm for repurposing drugs for rare diseases.
In 2013, the City of Oxnards City Council adopted their Energy Action Plan, which is a component of the proposed Oxnard Climate Action and Adaptation Plan. Also in 2013, Oxnards Advanced Water Purification Facility received LEED™ certified Gold level recognition. Oxnards General Plan, adopted in 2011, includes a Chapter 2: Sustainable Community and the City has a whole webpage devoted to Green Sustainability Programs. Oxnard is currently in the process of updating their Local Coastal Program, specifically Chapter 2 of the General Plan to include information on sea level rise and maps designating sea level rise hazard zones.. ...
Description: Ascorbyl Palmitate is a fat-soluble form of Vitamin C that can cross the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes. As a form of Vitamin C, it provides antioxidant activity and is intended to provide nutritive support for normal, healthy collagen synthesis, cartilage and bone development, immune function, capillary and blood vessel integrity and nerve impulse transmission. Size: 60ct 500mg Directions: Take 1 capsul daily. Serving Size: 1 Capsule 60 Servings per container Ingredients: Amount Per Serving - % Daily Value Vitamin C (as Ascorbyl Palmitate) 215 mg 358% Other Ingredients: Gelatin Capsule, Cellulose, Silica and Magnesium Stearate
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and Chinese Ascorbyl palmitate (CAS 137-66-6) Industry, 2016 Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Ascorbyl palmitate Industry, 2011-2021 Market...
WoW shares many wow gold of its features with previously launched games. Essentially, you battle with Cheapest wow gold monsters and traverse the countryside, by yourself or as a buy cheap wow gold team, find challenging tasks, and go on to higher Cheap Wow Gold levels as you gain skill and experience. In the course of your journey, you will be gaining new powers that are increased as your skill rating goes up. All the same, in terms of its features and quality, that is a ture stroy for this.WoW is far ahead of all other games of the genre the wow power leveling game undoubtedly is in a league of its own and cheapest wow gold playing it is another experience altogether ...
Learn about Cuprimine (Penicillamine) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Shelley Atwoods brooch is a festive combination of gold pods, gilded needles, and red leaves. Alien meets suburban Texas but in a good, friendly way.. I hadnt checked on Shelleys work lately and it felt like going home for the holidays. Her colors are muted and slightly dark and her shapes change. The clay leads and she follows in a curious, unforced way.. Shelley created a slew of earrings for her gallerys ArtWalk. Her UK fan, Carrie Harvey pointed out what Id been missing. Shelley demos on Facebook and shows her work on Flickr.. ...
We went to CSA in 2004 and CSS in 2011. I am sad to see that the nights from 2004 have expired. We belong to a lot of rewards programs, and I dont think rewards should expire. That was our deciding factor on if we were going to spend our 10th anniversary at CSA. Its too bad Couples has a policy like this. So we were renewed love and got shot down to young love. dont get that. Other rewards when we reached gold level, we remain gold level. We still went to couples for a total of 15 nights.
Xbox Live Gold üyesi olun ve her hafta belirli içeriklerde indirimlere sahip olun. Xbox Mağazasındaki oyunlarda %50-75e varan indirimler kazanın.
Auranofin Aurothioglucose Gold salts Sodium aurothiomalate Shaw, III, C. F. (1999). "Gold-Based Therapeutic Agents". Chemical ... The structure of the related drug Aurothioglucose is also polymeric with two-coordinate gold(I) centers. In such compounds, the ...
Auranofin (UK & US) Aurothioglucose (Gold thioglucose) (US) Disodium aurothiomalate Sodium aurothiosulfate (Gold sodium ... 164-165: auranofin and Aurothioglucose side effects & overdose Auranofin complete list of warnings, precautions and reactions ... "Aurothioglucose is a gold salt used in treating inflammatory arthritis". MedicineNet.com "About gold treatment: What is it? ... www.healthdigest.org/topics/category/979-aurothioglucose-suspension-dosage-interactions-side-effects-how-to-use Gold sodium ...
Anthanthrene Anthracene Anthranilic acid Antimony trisulfide Apholate para-Aramid fibrils Atrazine Aurothioglucose (Auranofin) ...
It was recently discontinued from the US market along with Aurothioglucose leading only Auranofin as the only gold salt on the ...
M01CA03 Oxycinchophen M01CB01 Sodium aurothiomalate M01CB02 Sodium aurothiosulfate M01CB03 Auranofin M01CB04 Aurothioglucose ...
... aurothioglucose MeSH D02.691.675.249.150 --- auranofin MeSH D02.691.675.500 --- gold sodium thiomalate MeSH D02.691.750.100 ...
In 2001, aurothioglucose was withdrawn from the Dutch market, where it had been the only injectable gold preparation available ... Aurothioglucose, also known as gold thioglucose, is a chemical compound with the formula AuSC6H11O5. This derivative of the ... Aurothioglucose has an interaction with the antimalarial medication hydroxychloroquine. Auranofin Shaw, III C. F. (1999). "Gold ... Efficacy and safety of therapy after switching from aurothioglucose to aurothiomalate (van Roon et al., J Rheumatol 2005) ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism,[9] and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism,[10] who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing.[12][13] Levothyroxine is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion.[14] A subset of people with hypothyroidism treated with an appropriate dose of levothyroxine will describe continuing symptoms despite TSH levels in the normal range.[11] In these people, further laboratory and clinical evaluation is warranted as they may have another cause for their symptoms.[11] Furthermore, it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone levels.[11] Levothyroxine is also used to treat subclinical ...
... is a low cost drug.[7] In the United States, Salix Pharmaceuticals holds a US Patent for rifaximin and markets the drug under the name Xifaxan.[17][18] In addition to receiving FDA approval for traveler's diarrhea and (marketing approved for)[18] hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin received FDA approval for IBS in May 2015.[19] No generic formulation is available in the US and none has appeared due to the fact that the FDA approval process was ongoing. If rifaximin receives full FDA approval for hepatic encephalopathy it is likely that Salix will maintain marketing exclusivity and be protected from generic formulations until March 24, 2017.[18] Rifaximin is approved in 33 countries for GI disorders.[20][21] On August 13, 2013, Health Canada issued a Notice of Compliance to Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc. for the drug product Zaxine.[22] In India it is available under the brand names Ciboz and Xifapill.[citation needed] In Russia and Ukraine the drug is sold under the name Alfa Normix ...
Long-term use of methylprednisolone, as with all corticosteroids, can be associated with hyperglycemia, decreased resistance to infection, swelling of face, weight gain, congestive cardiac insufficiency, fluid and sodium retention, edema, hypertension, increased eye pressure, glaucoma, osteoporosis, and psychosis, especially when used at high doses.[11][12] The most serious side effect occurs after the adrenal glands cease natural production of cortisol, which methylprednisolone will replace. Abrupt cessation of the drug after this occurs can result in a condition known as Addisonian crisis, which can be fatal. To prevent this, the drug is usually prescribed with a tapering dose, including a predosed "dose pack" detailing a specific number of tablets to take at designated times over a several-day period. Pharmacists sometimes advise that this drug may cause sleeplessness and "down" moods. Measles and chicken pox are very dangerous and potentially fatal for people on methylprednisolone therapy. ...
Important drug interactions are rare.[27][28] However, the most significant major drug interaction concern is the decreased activation of clopidogrel when taken together with omeprazole.[29] Although still controversial,[30] this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent these events. This interaction is possible because omeprazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.[31] Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug that partially depends on CYP2C19 for conversion to its active form. Inhibition of CYP2C19 may block the activation of clopidogrel, which could reduce its effects.[32][33] Almost all benzodiazepines are metabolised by the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 pathways, and inhibition of these enzymes results in a higher AUC (i.e., the total effect over time of a given dose). Other examples of drugs dependent on CYP3A4 for their metabolism are escitalopram,[34] warfarin,[35] oxycodone, tramadol, and oxymorphone. The concentrations of these drugs may ...
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, et al. (August 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-231. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176857. PMID 16880336 ...
... has been investigated for use as a radiation countermeasure. Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets.[6] Its potential use as a radiation countermeasure was developed by the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) and subsequently studied by AFRRI and Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals under the proposed brand name Neumune for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.[6][7] The clinical trials with rhesus monkeys were successful. According to the Hollis-Eden report, only 12.5% of the 40 Neumune-treated animals died versus 32.5% in the placebo group.[8] Hollis-Eden had applied for a contract from the U.S. Government under the BioShield Request for Proposals (RFP) for radiation countermeasures. After being encouraged for 2.5 years that Neumune was in the competitive range, on March 9, 2007, the RFP was canceled by HHS. According to HHS, "the product was no longer in the competitive ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
... is an allosteric endocannabinoid, as it is a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor.[4][5] Pregnenolone is involved in a natural negative feedback loop against CB1 receptor activation in animals.[6][better source needed] It prevents CB1 receptor agonists like tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active constituent in cannabis, from fully activating the CB1 [6][better source needed] Pregnenolone has been found to bind with high, nanomolar affinity to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain.[7][8] In contrast to pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate did not bind to microtubules.[7][8] However, progesterone did and with similar affinity to pregnenolone, although unlike pregnenolone, it did not increase binding of MAP2 to tubulin.[7][8] Pregnenolone was found to induce tubule polymerization in neuronal cultures and to increase neurite growth in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor.[7][8] As such, pregnenolone may control formation and stabilization of microtubules ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
InChI=1S/C22H22N2O8/c1-7-8-5-4-6-9(25)11(8)16(26)12-10(7)17(27)14-15(24(2)3)18(28)13(21(23)31)20(30)22(14,32)19(12)29/h4-6,10,14-15,17,25,27-29,32H,1H2,2-3H3,(H2,23,31)/t10-,14-,15+,17+,22+/m1/s1 ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
... , also known as eltanolone (INN), is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.[1] It is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor,[1] as well as a negative allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor,[2] and is known to have sedative, anxiolytic, anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects.[1][2][3] It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted side effects such as convulsions on occasion, and for this reason was never marketed.[2][4] During pregnancy, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone are involved in sedation and anesthesia of the fetus.[5][6] ...
As of 2017 brands included: Actalor, Actidin, Aerotina, Alaspan, Alavert, Albatrina, Alerdina, Alerfast, Alergan, Alergiano, Alergiatadina, Alergin Ariston, Alergipan, Alergit, Alergitrat L, Aleric Lora, Alermuc, Alernitis, Alerpriv, Alertadin, Alertine, Aleze, Algac, Algecare, Algistop, Alledryl, Aller-Tab, Allerfre, Allerget, Allergex Non Drowsy, Allergyx, Allerhis, Allernon, Allerta, Allertyn, Allohex, Allor, Allorat, Alloris, Alor, Analor, Anhissen, Anti-Sneeze, Antial, Antil, Antimin, Ao Hui Feng, Ao Mi Xin, Ao Shu, Ardin, Atinac, Avotyne, Axcel Loratadine, Bai Wei Le, Bang Nuo, Bedix, Belodin, Benadryl, Besumin, Bi Sai Ning, Bi Yan Tong, Biliranin, Biloina, Biolorat, Bollinol, Boots Hayfever Relief, Boots Hooikoortstabletten, Boots Once-a-Day Allergy Relief, Carin, Carinose, Chang Ke, Civeran, Clara, Claratyne, Clarid, Clarihis, Clarihist, Clarilerg, Clarinese, Claritin, Claritine, Clarityne, Clarityne SP, Clarotadine, Clatatin, Clatine, Clear-Atadine, Clear-Atadine Children's, Clistin, ...
A component in various medicinal plants (e.g. Scutellaria baicalensis), chrysin is a dihydroxyflavone, a type of flavonoid.[6] It is also found in honey, propolis, the passion flowers, Passiflora caerulea and Passiflora incarnata, in Oroxylum indicum,[2] carrots,[1] chamomile,[7] many fruits, and in mushrooms, such as the mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus.[6] It is extracted from various plants,[1] such as the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea).[1] The amount of chrysin in honey from various plant sources is about 0.2 mg per 100 g.[8] Chrysin is typically found at higher amounts in propolis than in honey.[9] A 2010 study found the amount of chrysin was 0.10 mg/kg in honeydew honey, and 5.3 mg/kg in forest honeys.[10] A 2010 study found the amount of chrysin in propolis was as much as 28 g/L.[10] A 2013 study found the amount of chrysin in various mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece varied between 0.17 mg/kg in Lactarius deliciosus to 0.34 mg/kg in Suillus bellinii.[10] ...
Recreational use of tianeptine is rare[according to whom?] and thus far has only been seen in persons already using multiple substances for recreational purposes.[citation needed] In 2001, Singapore's Ministry of Health restricted tianeptine prescribing to psychiatrists due to its recreational potential,[49] In 2003, Bahrain classified it a controlled substance due to increasing reports of misuse and recreational use.[50] Between 1989 and 2004, in France 141 cases of recreational use were identified, correlating to an incidence of 1 to 3 cases per 1000 persons treated with tianeptine and 45 between 2006 and 2011. The main reason for recreational use is to achieve an anxiolytic effect. According to Servier, stopping of treatment with tianeptine is difficult, due to the possibility of withdrawal symptoms in a person. The severity of the withdrawal is dependent on the daily dose, with high doses being extremely difficult to quit.[51][better source needed][52][53] In 2007, according to French Health ...
... is very toxic to cats which cannot tolerate the therapeutic doses for dogs.[7] This is associated with UGT1A6 deficiency in cats, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing cypermethrin. As a consequence, cypermethrin remains much longer in the cat's organs than in dogs or other mammals and can be fatal in large doses. In male rats cypermethrin was shown to exhibit a toxic effect on the reproductive system. After 15 days of continual dosing, both androgen receptor levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly reduced. These data suggested that cypermethrin can induce impairments of the structure of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis in male rats at high doses.[8] Long-term exposure to cypermethrin during adulthood is found to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats, and postnatal exposure enhances the susceptibility of animals to dopaminergic neurodegeneration if rechallenged during adulthood.[9] If exposed to cypermethrin during pregnancy, rats give birth to ...
Biosynthesis of mevastatin is primarily accomplished via a type 1 PKS pathway it proceeds in the PKS pathway as seen in figure 1 until it reaches a hexaketide state where it undergoes a Diels-Alder cyclization. After cyclization it continues via the PKS pathway to a nonaketide after which it is released and undergoes oxidation and dehydration. It is presumed that the oxidations are preformed by a polypeptide that is similar to cytochrome p450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by mlcC within the mevastatin gene. Lastly the biosynthesis is completed by the PKS facilitating the addition of a diketide sidechain and a methylation by SAM.[7] Figure 1 shows mevastatin in its acid form but it can also be in the more commonly seen lactone form. This pathway was first observed in Penicillium cilrinum and was later discovered that another type of fungus, Penicillium brevicompaetum also produced mevastatin via a PKS pathway. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization ...
It is commonly available without a prescription in various dosage forms, such as a topical cream, ointment, or vaginal suppository. It is also available as an oral troche or throat lozenge as a prescription only. Topically, clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. For vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection), clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in treatment of fungal infections of the scalp or nails.[citation needed] When using over-the-counter drug clotrimazole products, use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for athlete's foot or ringworm.[6] Throat lozenge preparations are used for oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or prevention of oral thrush in people with neutropenia.[6] Clotrimazole is usually used 5 times daily for 14 days for oral thrush, twice daily for 2 to 8 weeks for ...
Aurothioglucose Injection 50 mg/ml suspension (contains approximately 50% gold); in 10 ml vials; Solganal® (Schering); (Rx) ... The safety of aurothioglucose has not been established during pregnancy, it should only be used when the potential benefits ... Pharmacology - Aurothioglucose has anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, immunomodulating, and antimicrobial (in vitro) effects. ... Adverse Effects/Warnings - Veterinary experience with aurothioglucose is limited. Pain at the injection site is common and some ...
In 2001, aurothioglucose was withdrawn from the Dutch market, where it had been the only injectable gold preparation available ... Aurothioglucose, also known as gold thioglucose, is a chemical compound with the formula AuSC6H11O5. This derivative of the ... Aurothioglucose has an interaction with the antimalarial medication hydroxychloroquine. Auranofin Shaw, III C. F. (1999). "Gold ... Efficacy and safety of therapy after switching from aurothioglucose to aurothiomalate (van Roon et al., J Rheumatol 2005) ...
Aurothioglucose * Levomethadyl Other Interactions Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or ...
Detailed drug Information for Coartem. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Aurothioglucose Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some ...
Increasing use of immunosuppressive biologic therapies poses a challenge for infectious diseases. Immunosuppressed patients have a high risk for influenza complications and an impaired immune response to vaccines. The total burden of immunosuppressive conditions in the United States, including those receiving emerging biologic therapies, remains unknown. We used the national claims database MarketScan to estimate the prevalence of immunosuppressive conditions and risk for acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). We studied 47.2 million unique enrollees, representing 115 million person-years of observation during 2012-2017, and identified immunosuppressive conditions in 6.2% adults 18-64 years of age and 2.6% of children &lt;18 years of age. Among 542,105 ARI hospitalizations, 32% of patients had immunosuppressive conditions. The risk for ARI hospitalizations was higher among enrollees with immunosuppression than among nonimmunosuppressed enrollees. Future efforts should focus on developing improved
Aurothioglucose. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in ...
Aurothioglucose. Dihydrotachysterol. Basiliximab. Dinoprostone and its salts and derivatives. Bevacizumab. Docetaxel and its ...
... or aurothioglucose (Solganal); imipenem-cilastatin (Primaxin); immune globulin (gamma globulin, BayGam, Carimmune, Gammagard, ...
... such as aurothioglucose and gold sodium thiomalate; and antiparasitic drugs, such as suramin and mebendazole. ...
Aurothioglucose. Aurothioglucose is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of early active adult and juvenile type rheumatoid ...
Gold salts include aurothioglucose (Solganal), gold sodium thiomalate (Aurolate), and auranofin (Ridaura). ...
The medications aurothioglucose, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis; colchicine, prescribed to prevent gout attacks; and ...
Generic for Cuprimine (Penicillamine) is used for treating arthritis and wilsons disease. Order more than a months supply and save $44.00.
... aurothioglucose, 50 mg/wk); or oral methotrexate (7.5 to 15 mg/wk). If adverse effects occurred, patients could only change ...
... or aurothioglucose (Solganal); imipenem-cilastatin (Primaxin); immune globulin (gamma globulin, BayGam, Carimmune, Gammagard, ...
Be sure to mention any of the following: gold compounds such as auranofin (Ridaura) and aurothioglucose (Solganol); ...
Auranofin Aurothioglucose Gold salts Sodium aurothiomalate Shaw, III, C. F. (1999). "Gold-Based Therapeutic Agents". Chemical ... The structure of the related drug Aurothioglucose is also polymeric with two-coordinate gold(I) centers. In such compounds, the ...
Use of corticosteroids and aurothioglucose in a pygmy goat with pemphigus foliaceus.. Penfigo foliaceo em cabra Boer ...
i,Background,/i,. Aurothioglucose- (ATG-) mediated inhibition of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) improves alveolarization in ... R. D. Britt Jr., M. Velten, M. L. Locy, L. K. Rogers, and T. E. Tipple, "The thioredoxin reductase-1 inhibitor aurothioglucose ... Within 12 h of birth, pups received either 25 mg/kg aurothioglucose (ATG) or saline (SA) intraperitoneally (i.p.). Pups were ... A. D. Smith, C. A. Guidry, V. C. Morris, and O. A. Levander, "Aurothioglucose inhibits murine thioredoxin reductase activity in ...
You started a combination therapy which is thought to be the therapy of choice in feline PF. The owner brings an almost completely cured cat after 4 weeks of therapy (picture 1), and also the PD/PU and incontinence are gone.
as dihydrolipoic acid) , aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (for. example thioredoxin, glutathione, cysteine, ... Aurothioglucose, Propylthiouracil und andere Thiole (z. B. Thioredoxin, Glutathion, Cystein, Cystin, Cystamin und deren ...
B. dihydrolipoic acid), aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (for. example thioredoxin, glutathione, cysteine, ... Aurothioglucose, Propylthiouracil und andere Thiole (z. B. Thioredoxin, Glutathion, Cystein, Cystin, Cystamin und deren ...
Aurothioglucose (lot 7, Evening Sale). household gloss and enamel. paint on canvas. 172.7 by 274.3cm.. executed in 2008. ...
Quinolines (Oxycinchophen) - Gold preparations (Sodium aurothiomalate, Sodium aurothiosulfate, Auranofin, Aurothioglucose, ...
  • Aurothioglucose is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of early active adult and juvenile type rheumatoid arthritis that is not adequately controlled by other anti-inflammatory agents and conservative measures like salicylate, glucocorticoids, etc. (drugbank.ca)
  • Seventy-four Israeli patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied for possible association between HLA antigens and adverse reactions to gold treatment (aurothioglucose). (bmj.com)
  • The islets in aurothioglucose-treated Reg I-deficient mice were significantly smaller than those of control, indicating that islets of Reg I-deficient mice have lower proliferation activity in response to a demand of beta-cell proliferation in adulthood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • All mammalian thioredoxin reductase isozymes are homologous to glutathione reductase and contain a conserved C-terminal elongation with a cysteine-selenocysteine sequence forming a redox-active selenenylsulfide/selenolthiol active site and are inhibited by goldthioglucose (aurothioglucose) and other clinically used drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The safety of aurothioglucose has not been established during pregnancy, it should only be used when the potential benefits outweigh the risks involved. (elephantcare.org)