A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.
Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.
An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.
A FLAVOPROTEIN enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of THIOREDOXINS to thioredoxin disulfide in the presence of NADP+. It was formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.5
The refined fixed oil obtained from the seed of one or more cultivated varieties of Sesamum indicum. It is used as a solvent and oleaginous vehicle for drugs and has been used internally as a laxative and externally as a skin softener. It is used also in the manufacture of margarine, soap, and cosmetics. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)
Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.
One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.
Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.
The interactions between physician and patient.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Prudent standard preventive measures to be taken by professional and other health personnel in contact with persons afflicted with a communicable disease, to avoid contracting the disease by contagion or infection. Precautions are especially applicable in the diagnosis and care of AIDS patients.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A sodium salt of gold thiosulfate. It has uses like the ORGANOGOLD COMPOUNDS.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae, whose species are characterized by a slimy cap (FRUITING BODIES, FUNGAL).
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A selenium compound with the molecular formula H2SO3. It used as a source of SELENIUM, especially for patients that develop selenium deficiency following prolonged PARENTERAL NUTRITION.
Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.

Anti-rheumatic compound aurothioglucose inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. (1/74)

NF-kappaB is a potent cellular activator of HIV-1 gene expression. Down-regulation of NF-kappaB activation is known to inhibit HIV replication from the latently infected cells. Gold compounds have been effectively used for many decades in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. We previously reported that gold compounds, especially aurothioglucose (AuTG) containing monovalent gold ion, inhibited the DNA-binding of NF-kappaB in vitro. In this report we have examined the efficacy of the gold compound AuTG as an inhibitor of HIV replication in latently infected OM10.1 and Ach2 cells. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced HIV-1 replication in OM10.1 or Ach2 cells was significantly inhibited by non-cytotoxic doses of AuTG (>10 microM in OM10.1 cells and >25 F.M in Ach2 cells), while 25 microM of the counter-anion thioglucose (TG) or gold compound containing divalent gold ion, HAuCl3, had no effect. The effect of AuTG on NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression was confirmed by a transient CAT assay. Specific staining as well as electron microscopic examinations revealed the accumulation of metal gold in the cells, supporting our previous hypothesis that gold ions could block NF-kappaB-DNA binding by a redox mechanism. These observations indicate that the monovalent gold compound AuTG is a potentially useful drug for the treatment of patients infected with HIV.  (+info)

Inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 induction from cultured rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts by treatment with aurothioglucose. (2/74)

Gold compounds have long been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, their actions in RA have not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effect of one of the monovalent gold compounds, aurothioglucose (AuTG), on the IL-1-induced production of IL-6, IL-8 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts (RSF) isolated from three RA patients. IL-6 and IL-8 induction but not GM-CSF induction was inhibited in most of the RSF after pretreatment with AuTG. Since gene expression of these cytokines is known to be under the control of a common transcription factor, NF-kappaB, the effect of AuTG on the cellular localization of NF-kappaB (p65 subunit) and on NF-kappaB-DNA binding was examined. Although AuTG treatment did not prevent NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, AuTG blocked the DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB when examined in vitro. Morphologically, both metal-specific cell staining using p-dimethylaminobenzylidene rhodamine and transmission electron microscopic examinations demonstrated the accumulation of metal gold in the cytoplama and some organella (mitochondria and lysosomes) of the AuTG-treated RSF. These results indicate that one of the anti-rheumatic actions of AuTG might be through its inhibitory action on NF-kappaB.  (+info)

The effect of goldthioglucose on peroxidative processes in mice. (3/74)

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of goldthioglucose (GTG) upon the processes associated with lipid peroxidation. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (G6PD; E.C. 1. 1.1.49) in red blood cells (RBC) and the amount of malonaldehyde precursors (MDA) per gram of brain, liver and kidney were determined. Adult mice received i.p. injections for three consecutive days of either saline (controls) or GTG dissolved in saline, in a dose of 0.10 mg.g(-1) or 0. 15 mg.g(-1) b.w. In mice receiving higher dose of GTG the G6PD activity was significantly increased (349.38+/-17.46 mU.10(-9) RBC compared to 258.2+/-14.46 mU.10(-9) RBC in control animals). The content of MDA precursors rose significantly from 4.8+/-0.81 micromol.g(-1) of the liver in controls to 8.12+/-1.41 micromol.g(-1) and 7.88+/-0.51 micromol.g(-1) and from 18.71+/-1.01 micromol.g(-1) of the kidneys in controls to 24.25+/-1.25 micromol.g(-1) and 24.88+/-1.7 micromol.g(-1) respectively. The GTG-induced higher levels of MDA precursors and increased G6PD activity in RBC corresponds to the rise in lipid peroxidation and its participation in producing the lesions after experimental and therapeutic use of gold-containing substances seems possible.  (+info)

Leptin has acute effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in both lean and gold thioglucose-obese mice. (4/74)

Leptin is reported to have effects in peripheral tissues that are independent of its central effects on food intake and body weight. In this study, the acute effects of a single dose of recombinant mouse leptin on lipid and glucose metabolism in lean and gold thioglucose-injected obese mice were examined. Changes were measured 2 h after leptin injection. In lean mice, liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) lipogenesis was inhibited. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHCa), the rate-determining step for glucose oxidation, was reduced in heart, liver, quadriceps muscle, and both brown and white adipose tissues. Muscle and liver glycogen and liver triglyceride (TG) content was unchanged, but muscle TG was decreased. In obese mice, liver and WAT lipogenesis was inhibited and PDHCa reduced in heart and quadriceps muscle. Muscle and liver glycogen was decreased but not TG. Serum insulin was reduced in obese but not lean mice. These results are consistent with a role for leptin in the maintenance of steady-state energy stores by decreasing lipid synthesis and increasing fat mobilization, with decreased glucose oxidation occurring as a result of increased fatty acid oxidation.  (+info)

Aggressive treatment in early rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. On behalf of the Rheumatic Research Foundation Utrecht, The Netherlands. (5/74)

OBJECTIVES: To compare three therapeutic strategies using slow acting antirheumatic drugs (SAARDs) in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA), for their disease modifying properties, toxicity, and lag time until treatment effect. METHODS: Patients with recent onset RA from six hospitals were randomly assigned to immediate initiation of one of three treatment strategies: (I) a "mild SAARD with a long lag time" (hydroxychloroquine, if necessary replaced by auranofin); (II) a "potent SAARD with a long lag time" (intramuscular gold, if necessary replaced by D-penicillamine); (III) a "potent SAARD with a short lag time" (methotrexate, if necessary replaced by sulfasalazine). Comparisons included two years of follow up. RESULTS: All SAARD strategies reduced mean disease activity. A greater percentage of patients improved clinically with strategies II and III than with strategy I: percentages of patients improved on joint score with strategies II and III (79% and 82%, respectively), which was statistically different from strategy I (66%). The same was true for remission percentages: 31% and 24% v 16%, respectively). Longitudinal analysis showed significantly less disability with strategy III, and a lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate with strategy II than with strategy I. In addition, radiological damage after one and two years, was significantly lower in strategies II and III (at two years median scores were 11 and 10 v 14 in strategy I, p<0.05). Toxicity was increased in strategy II compared with the other strategies. CONCLUSION: Strategy III, comprising methotrexate or sulfasalazine, produced the best results weighing effectiveness and toxicity. Strategy I (hydroxychloroquine or auranofin) was slightly less effective, and strategy II (intramuscular gold or D-penicillamine) was associated with increased toxicity.  (+info)

Accumulation of gold in various organs of mice injected with gold thioglucose. (6/74)

The response of either male or female mice to the administration of gold thioglucose (GTG) was observed in food intake, in body and organ weights, and in gold accumulation in respective organs. Male mice were more sensitive to GTG toxicity than females. During 103 days after GTG administration, the adipose tissues of the females and males increased in weight 15 times and 2.5 times as high as those of control mice, respectively. The weights of heart, lung, and brain were not affected by GTG administration. In the respective organs, gold concentrations, which were determined by neutron activation analysis, were high in liver, kidney, spleen, adrenal, and adipose tissue (especially in female) within a shorter time after the GTG injection. In various organs of nonobese mice, the concentrations of GTG were significantly less than those in the typical obese mice. Even after more than 100 days after injection, gold was detected in the respective organs. In the control mice without any GTG administration, no gold could be detected.  (+info)

Apoprotein C-III deficiency markedly stimulates triglyceride secretion in vivo: comparison with apoprotein E. (7/74)

Apoprotein (apo) C-III plays an important role in the development of hypertriglyceridemia by inhibiting triglyceride (TG) removal. However, the effect of apo C-III on TG production remains unclear. We measured TG secretion rate (TGSR) in apo C-III gene-disrupted (apo C-III-null) mice to investigate the influence of this protein on TG turnover. TGSR measured by the Triton WR-1339 method was increased twofold in these mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Obesity was induced by the injection of gold-thioglucose (GTG), which made the WT mice hypertriglyceridemic due to a threefold increase of TGSR. However, GTG-induced obesity failed to increase TG in apo C-III-null mice, although TGSR was increased 10-fold, suggesting substantial stimulation of TG removal. Apo E-null mice were severely hypercholesterolemic but were not hypertriglyceridemic, and TGSR was rather decreased. GTG-induced obesity made these mice hypertriglyceridemic because of TG overproduction to an extent similar to that seen in WT mice. These results suggest that apo C-III deficiency potently enhances TG turnover, especially when TG production is stimulated, and that apo E deficiency is not always rate limiting for TG production.  (+info)

A novel, enzymatically active conformation of the Escherichia coli NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). (8/74)

Electron microscopy has demonstrated the unusual L-shaped structure of the respiratory complex I consisting of two arms, which are arranged perpendicular to each other. We found that the Escherichia coli complex I has an additional stable conformation, with the two arms arranged side by side, resulting in a horseshoe-shaped structure. The structure of both conformations was determined by means of electron microscopy of gold thioglucose-stained single particles. They were distinguished from each other by titration of the complex with polyethylene glycol and by means of analytical ultracentrifugation. The transition between the two conformations is induced by the ionic strength of the buffer and is reversible. Only the horseshoe-shaped complex I exhibits enzyme activity in detergent solution, which is abolished by the addition of salt. Therefore, it is proposed that this structure is the native conformation of the complex in the membrane.  (+info)

Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.. Chemistry - A water soluble gold salt, aurothioglucose contains approximately 50% gold. It is practically insoluble in alcohol and insoluble in vegetable oils. The commercial product is a 5% (50 mg/ml) suspension in sesame oil, 2% aluminum monostearate, and propylparaben is added as a preservative.. Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Protect from light and store between 15-30° C; avoid freezing. A five year expiration date is assigned after manufacture. Do not mix with any other compound when injecting.. Pharmacology - Aurothioglucose has anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, immunomodulating, and antimicrobial (in vitro) effects. The exact mechanisms for these actions are not well understood. Gold is taken up by macrophages where it inhibits phagocytosis and may inhibit lysoso-mal enzyme activity. Gold also inhibits the release of histamine, and the production of prostaglandins. While gold does have antimicrobial effects in vitro, it is not ...
Lets really look at the bizarre idea that non-forced overeating causes subsequent damages your VMH. This is how it works for over eating by a gold thioglucose injected rat, no yummie high fat diet needed: It simply decides to over eat crapinabag because this has suddenly and randomly become delicious and so it becomes obese. We all know overeating CAUSES the VMH injury in fat fed rodents. So how do GTG injured rats get the injury first and over eat secondarily? Gold thioglucose obese rodents might SEEM to have a chemical lesion causing obesity but clearly they get fat first, travel back in time (squeezing in to a time machine as obese chrononaughts) and retrospectively force the researchers to give them the injection of GTG to obtain the lesion in their VMH which they are going to produce in the future by eating too much crapinabag. Got that? Youve all watched Back to the Future. I watched parts I and II but never managed part III. Its simple time travel. Ditto MSG and ice-pick (ouch!) ...
Lets really look at the bizarre idea that non-forced overeating causes subsequent damages your VMH. This is how it works for over eating by a gold thioglucose injected rat, no yummie high fat diet needed: It simply decides to over eat crapinabag because this has suddenly and randomly become delicious and so it becomes obese. We all know overeating CAUSES the VMH injury in fat fed rodents. So how do GTG injured rats get the injury first and over eat secondarily? Gold thioglucose obese rodents might SEEM to have a chemical lesion causing obesity but clearly they get fat first, travel back in time (squeezing in to a time machine as obese chrononaughts) and retrospectively force the researchers to give them the injection of GTG to obtain the lesion in their VMH which they are going to produce in the future by eating too much crapinabag. Got that? Youve all watched Back to the Future. I watched parts I and II but never managed part III. Its simple time travel. Ditto MSG and ice-pick (ouch!) ...
Glucokinase translocates between the cytoplasm and nucleus of hepatocytes where it is bound to a 68 kDa protein. The mechanism by which glucose induces translocation of glucokinase from the nucleus was investigated using glucose analogues that are not phosphorylated by glucokinase. There was strong synergism on glucokinase translocation between effects of glucose analogues (glucosamine, 5-thioglucose, mannoheptulose) and sorbitol, a precursor of fructose 1-phosphate. In the absence of glucose or glucose analogues, sorbitol had a smaller effect than glucose on translocation. However, sorbitol potentiated the effects of glucose analogues. In the absence of sorbitol the effect of glucose on glucokinase translocation is sigmoidal with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 suggesting involvement of two glucose-binding sites. The effects of glucosamine and 5-thioglucose were also sigmoidal but with lower Hill Coefficients. In the presence of sorbitol, the effects of glucose, glucosamine and 5-thioglucose were ...
Classic lesion experiments from the 1940s have established the hypothalamus as playing an essential role in controlling energy homeostasis. Gold-thioglucose (GTG) induces lesions in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) resulting in hyperphagia and obesity. To identify genes involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis, we employed a screen to search for genes that were dysregulated in GTG induced obese mice. In this screen, GPR7, the endogenous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for the recently identified ligands neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW), was found to be specifically down-regulated after GTG treatment. The physiological role of GPR7 was investigated by generating and analyzing mice with targeted disruption of GPR7. Male GPR7-/- mice developed an adult-onset obesity syndrome that progressively worsened with age and was greatly exacerbated when animals were fed a high fat diet. Male GPR7A mice were hyperphagic and had decreased energy expenditure and
The time zone used on board the ISS is Coordinated hours per day exercising on the equipment that occurs when humans live for a long time without gravity read more + ...
The activity of the intramitochondrial branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (BCDH), like that of pyruvate dehydrogenase, is regulated, at least in part, by interconversion between the active dephosphorylated enzyme and its inactive phosphorylated form. The stimulatory effect of insulin on BCDH activity was compared with its effect on phosphorylation of the enzyme. Intact tissues were incubated in the presence or the absence of insulin, and then mitochondria were isolated and disrupted before assaying for enzyme activity or estimating the extent of enzyme phosphorylation. Tissues were incubated in either the presence or the absence of leucine, which also stimulated BCDH activity up to 10-fold. Insulin (1 munit/ml) doubled the activity of BCDH in the absence and in the presence of leucine. Together, 1 mM-leucine and insulin appeared to stimulate BCDH activity fully. Phosphorylation of BCDH was estimated indirectly by measuring the incorporation of 32P into phosphorylation sites that remained
Rick and Parker reveal that theres bad blood in the most intense conversation yet. Parker admits that his feud with Tony is often worse than whats portrayed on the show. Then, Rick and his crew lighten the mood with wild tales of life on the claim.
Glucosinolates are the major class of secondary metabolites found in Brassicacrops. The molecule comprises a β-thioglucose moiety, a sulphonated oxime moiety and a variable side chain, derived from...
TY - GEN. T1 - (111)-Oriented large-grain Ge on insulator by gold-induced crystallization combined with interfacial layer insertion. AU - Park, Jong Hyeok. AU - Suzuki, Tsuneharu. AU - Kurosawa, Masashi. AU - Miyao, Masanobu. AU - Sadoh, Taizoh. PY - 2012/10/31. Y1 - 2012/10/31. N2 - Low-temperature (≤ 350°C) formation of orientation-controlled large-grain Ge on insulating substrates is essential to achieve advanced flexible devices employing plastic substrates. To achieve this, effects of interfacial-oxide layer insertion on gold-induced crystallization (GIC) of amorphous Ge films on insulating substrates have been investigated. Consequently, (111)-oriented large-grain (20-50 μm) Ge crystals are obtained at 350°C by inserting interfacial oxide layers. It is speculated that this phenomena is attributed to suppression of random bulk nucleation of Ge in Au films.. AB - Low-temperature (≤ 350°C) formation of orientation-controlled large-grain Ge on insulating substrates is essential to ...
gold flotation plant for gold ore separation_gold concentration machine flotation cell in cip plantgold concentration machine flotation cell in cip plant gold concentration machine flotation cell in cip plant cip who needs it? a combinati
Part or all of this report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF). For best results viewing and printing PDF documents, it is recommended that you download the documents to your computer and open them with Adobe Reader. PDF documents opened from your browser may not display or print as intended. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge. More information about viewing, downloading, and printing report files can be found here.. ...
Professional guide for Auranofin. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
Title: Protein Targets for Anticancer Gold Compounds: Mechanistic Inferences. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Chiara Gabbiani and Luigi Messori. Affiliation:MetMed Lab, Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia, 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.. Keywords:Gold compounds, cancer, proteins, metal-protein adducts, phosphine complexes, antiproliferative properties, dithiocarbamate complexes, thiosugar ligand, X-ray diffraction, cytochrome c. Abstract: Gold compounds form an interesting class of antiproliferative agents of potential pharmacological use in cancer treatment. Indeed, a number of gold compounds, either gold(III) or gold(I), were recently described and characterised that manifested remarkable cytotoxic properties in vitro against cultured cancer cells; for some of them encouraging in vivo results were also reported toward a few relevant animal models of cancer. The molecular mechanisms through which gold compounds exert their biological effects are ...
In recent years, gold compounds have gained more and more attentions in the design of new metal anticancer drugs. Numerous researches have reported that gold compounds, in addition to their widely studied cytotoxic antitumor effects, also reverse tumor immune escape and directly facilitate the functions of immune cells, leading to enhanced anticancer effects. This review mainly summarizes our current understandings of antitumor effects of gold drugs and their relationships with various aspects of antitumor immunity, including innate immunity, adaptive immunity, immunogenic cell death, and immune checkpoints, as well as their roles in adverse effects. Some recent examples of anticancer gold compounds are highlighted. The property of gold compounds is expected to combine with anticancer immunotherapy, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, to develop new anticancer therapeutic strategies.
Seventy-four Israeli patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied for possible association between HLA antigens and adverse reactions to gold treatment (aurothioglucose). HLA-B35 was significantly increased in patients who developed gold induced mucocutaneous lesions. These results are in accord with earlier reports, despite the different genetic background of the Israeli RA population and the different type of gold compound used. ...
0101]Particularly advantageous antioxidants are chosen from the group consisting of amino acids (e.g. glycine, histidine, tyrosine, tryptophan) and derivatives thereof, imidazoles (e.g. urocanic acid) and derivatives thereof, peptides such as D,L-carnosine, D-carnosine, L-carnosine and derivatives thereof (e.g. anserine), carotenoids, carotenes (e.g. alpha.-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and derivatives thereof, chlorogenic acid and derivatives thereof, lipoic acid and derivatives thereof (e.g. dihydrolipoic acid), aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (e.g. thioredoxin, glutathione, cysteine, cystine, cystamine and the glycosyl, N-acetyl, methyl, ethyl, propyl, amyl, butyl and lauryl, palmitoyl, oleyl, γ-linoleyl, cholesteryl and glyceryl esters thereof) and salts thereof, dilauryl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, thiodipropionic acid and derivatives thereof (esters, ethers, peptides, lipids, nucleotides, nucleosides and salts) and sulfoximine compounds (e.g. ...
Gold compounds have been employed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since Forestier pioneered their use for this purpose in 1929. Subsequent randomized trials confirmed the effectiveness of gold in RA (seebelow). Gold has also been used
We prefer compounds that require metabolic activation, although standards that are active in themselves will be accepted if they have otherwise valuable properties. We require knowing the active metabolite, and we prefer compounds where the metabolite is stable and can be independently tested in order to verify the mechanism of toxicity as well as of metabolic activation in the test cell line ...
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To the Editor.-In recent years, many reports have been published about the occurrence of several dermatologic lesions in the course of gold therapy. Only one ca
The E. coli biosensor developed by the international team of US and Australian researchers, as well as a similar biosensor developed by an Argentinian team, represent important steps towards revolutionizing gold prospecting. However, further refinement of this technology is necessary. First, more rigorous determination of the biosensor capabilities is required. While this study is an improvement over previous research because more realistic samples were used (soil samples and metal mixtures), a larger range of gold concentrations should be tested. Also, the effect of gold and other metals on the physiology of the bacteria needs to be better characterized. As mentioned in the study, the toxic effects of high concentrations of metals can compromise the ability of the bacteria to express the reporter. Finally, the pivotal experiment in which real soil samples were used lacks an important control: the unspiked soil (not containing gold). It is critical that these experiments are repeated with proper ...
Two placebo-controlled studies, involving a total of 81 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, found significant reductions in swelling and pain over the course of 3 months. A comparative study in 60 arthritic patients over 6 months showed that Boswellia extract produced symptomatic benefits comparable to oral gold therapy in arthritic patients. According to a recent review of unpublished studies, preliminary double-blind trials have found Boswellia to be effective in relieving the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. ...
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Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites composed of a thioglucose group and an amino acid side-chain. They occur in the Brassicaceae and related families. A wide variety of glucosinolates exists owing to modification of the side-chain structure. Following tissue damage, myrosinase enzymes catalyse the decomposition of glucosinolates to a variety of volatile and nonvolatile products. The genetic control of concentration and side-chain modification of aliphatic glucosinolates, which have side-chains derived from methionine, are simple and well known from work on Arabidopsis and Brassica crops. In controlled conditions in the laboratory or in field trials, many aliphatic glucosinolates, or their degradation products, affect the behaviour of herbivores. For these reasons, we suggest that polymorphism for aliphatic glucosinolates in natural populations offers an attractive system for the study of ecological genetics of plant-herbivore interactions.
Two pairs of sibs with definite rheumatoid arthritis responded in a remarkably similar way to parenteral gold therapy, in terms of both toxicity and efficacy. Both pairs proved to be HLA identical. One of the pairs possessed the HLA antigens B8 and DR3, which have been associated with both drug toxicity and excellent clinical response. The other pair did not possess either of these antigens, suggesting that the reaction to gold therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis may be determined by other HLA or genetic factors coded for by chromosome 6, or both. ...
Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and ...
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a 10-patient pilot study in asymptomatic ovarian cancer patients with cancer antigen (CA 125) elevation.. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To explore whether oral gold therapy either stabilizes or lowers the CA 125 level and maintains patients in an asymptomatic state and to provide descriptive data on tumor response and duration of response.. II. To acquire qualitative data on patients perceptions of learning of CA 125 elevation.. III. To explore whether immunohistochemical staining for PKC iota expression in resected tumor samples appears to be associated with clinical outcomes with auranofin.. OUTLINE:. Patients receive auranofin orally (PO) twice daily (BID) on days 1-28. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up every 6 months for 2 years. ...
High-field proton NMR spectroscopic analysis of urine and plasma has been employed to study the biochemical effects and nephrotoxic action of an intramuscular dose of auranofin in rats. Auranofin induced a characteristic profile of proximal tubular damage as evidenced by aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria and increased urinary acetate concentrations. In addition, ethanol was detectable in both urine and plasma obtained from auranofin-treated rats. Auranofin-mediated elevations in the plasma and urine concentrations of 3-D-hydroxybutyrate indicated an increased utilisation of fats for fuel in rats treated with this novel therapeutic agent.. ...
Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 10 healthy volunteers, 28 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), eight patients with osteoarthritis, and five patients with ankylosing spondylitis were examined for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) production using monoclonal antibodies and an indirect immunofluorescent method. In freshly isolated PBMC from healthy controls very few cells were stained for either IL-1 type. All 20 RA patients who were not receiving parenteral gold therapy had PBMC staining for IL-1 alpha. In these patients, up to 7.5% of PBMC showed bright IL-1 alpha staining (range 1.2-7.5%). No IL-1 beta staining was seen. These IL-1 alpha-staining cells had a dendritic morphology and the percentage of cells staining correlated well with levels of C-reactive protein, an index of disease activity in these RA patients. Significantly fewer IL-1 alpha-staining cells were present in the peripheral blood of RA patients receiving gold therapy
Arthrisoothe Gold Tablets- joint supplements for dogs with arthritis, joint pain and stiffness. This natural pain relief remedy contains glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM and more.
ASCORBYL GLUCOSIDE. produs obtinut prin condensarea acidului ascorbic cu glucoza.Poate reduce radicalii liberi care rezulta de la iradierea UV a pielii si reduce semnificativ deteriorarea celulelor si previne fotoimbatranirea. De asemenea, promoveaza sinteza de colagen. Colagenul este o proteina care...
Through the exceptional capabilities and caring spirit of its people, Vanderbilt will lead in improving the healthcare of individuals and communities regionally, nationally and internationally. We will combine our transformative learning programs and compelling discoveries to provide distinctive personalized care ...
Starting April 16, you can redeem freebies for as little as 25 points, but former Gold Level members might not be thrilled about the new system.
Atlanta, GA (PRWEB) April 09, 2014 -- BlueLeap, LLC, a Gold level member of Oracle PartnerNetwork (OPN), today announced it has achieved OPN Specialized status
美白成份、水性抗氧化劑,能抑制酪胺酸酵素活性,衛生署規定濃度限量為3%[1]。水性維他命C衍生物,pH呈中性,安定度低~中等,保存上可在產品未拆封前冷藏,以減緩活性降解速度[2 ...
We describe the first case of chronic neutropenia of 17 years duration following gold therapy in a 53-year-old woman given a 1-g course of gold therapy in 1965 for treatment of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Although she had a good response to the gold therapy, her originally normal leukocyte count fell to 1.2 x 10(9)/L. Over the subsequent 17 years, she required multiple hospitalizations for recurrent skin, mouth, and respiratory tract infections. Serial leukocyte counts failed to show a cyclical nature to the chronic neutropenia. Normal results of a technetium Tc 99m spleen scan and lack of increased bone marrow leukocyte precursors rendered a diagnosis of Feltys syndrome unlikely. A bone marrow biopsy specimen revealed an isolated reduction in the number of myeloid precursors, which is consistent with gold-induced bone marrow toxicity. This patients relative freedom from serious life-threatening infections remains enigmatic, but is undoubtedly related to her ability to augment another ...
Clostridioides difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial infections and a worldwide urgent public health threat. Without doubt, there is an urgent need for new effective anticlostridial agents due to the increasing incidence and severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). The aim of the present study is to investigate the in vivo efficacy of auranofin (rheumatoid arthritis FDA-approved drug) in a CDI mouse model and establish an adequate dosage for treatment. The effects of increased C. difficile inoculum, and pre-exposure to simulated gastric intestinal fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), on the antibacterial activity of auranofin were investigated. Auranofins in vitro antibacterial activity was stable in the presence of high bacterial inoculum size compared to vancomycin and fidaxomicin. Moreover, it maintained its anti-C. difficile activity after being exposed to SGF and SIF. Upon testing in a CDI mouse model, auranofin at low clinically achievable doses (0.125 mg/kg and 0.25 ...
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Among the twenty gold-based compounds Benoit Bertrand synthesized, two of them presented interesting selective toxicity for cancer cells compared to healthy cells and tissues and deserve further investigations as potential anticancer drugs. Currently, platinum-based compounds are present in the majority of the chemotherapeutic cocktails. However, despite their clinical success, platinum-based drugs present several limitations including numerous and severe side effects. A strategy envisaged to overcome these limitations is the replacement of platinum by other transition metals. Among the different metals tested over the years, gold compounds have been shown to be promising as they can overcome resistance to cisplatin due to their different modes of action. In his thesis, Bertrand presents the synthesis of different types of gold-based complexes including gold(I)-N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHC), (C^N) cyclometalated gold(III) complexes as well as heterobimetallic complexes bearing a gold(I)-NHC ...
Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP) is used in skin care recipes for UV protection, collagen production, as an antioxidant and for its skin lightening and brightening effects.
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Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F). Protect from light. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date.. Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.. ...
Daniel is a chat coordinator with PN phpBB Question and Answers . Daniel matches your request with our community of online experts. Daniel has achieved Gold level status, the highest overall rating possible. Daniel has a positive feedback rating of 92.7 ...
Rufus also gained his Kennel Club Good Citizenship Bronze level award at just 6 months old. He has now also passed his Gold level ...
Daniel is a chat coordinator with Answer Me True. Daniel matches your request with our community of online experts. Daniel has achieved Gold level status, the highest overall rating possible. Daniel has a positive feedback rating of 92.7 ...
EWGs Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases.
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
HP 30 WQHD 60 Hz 8 ms GTG LED Monitor - Black - (D7P94A8#ABA) : Get outstanding image accuracy; exceptional adjustability; and mission-critical reliability optimized for commercial environments. Built with IPS Gen 2 panels; the HP Z30i 30-inch IPS Display delivers power savings over firstgeneration IPS technology and extra-wide viewing angles that foster collaboration.Say hello to your new power-smart IPS Gen 2 team playerDesigned-in comfort
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical procedure involving the implantation of a medical device called a neurostimulator (sometimes referred to as a brain pacemaker), which sends electrical impulses, through implanted electrodes, to specific targets in the brain (brain nuclei) for the treatment of movement and neuropsychiatric disorders. DBS in select brain regions has provided therapeutic benefits for otherwise-treatment-resistant disorders such as Parkinsons disease, essential tremor, dystonia, chronic pain, major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite the long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allow blinded studies. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DBS as a treatment for essential tremor and Parkinsons disease in 1997, ...
"Aurothioglucose Suspension adverse effects". Health Digest. "Gold sodium thiomalate (gold)". Archived from the original on 28 ... Auranofin (UK & US) Aurothioglucose (Gold thioglucose) (US) Disodium aurothiomalate Sodium aurothiosulfate (Gold sodium ... Beck RK (2002). "Auranofin and Aurothioglucose side effects & overdose". Drug Reference for EMS Providers. pp. 164-165. " ... "Aurothioglucose is a gold salt used in treating inflammatory arthritis". MedicineNet.com "About gold treatment: What is it? ...
The structure of the related drug Aurothioglucose is also polymeric with two-coordinate gold(I) centers. In such compounds, the ... Auranofin Aurothioglucose Gold salts Sodium aurothiomalate Shaw III CF (September 1999). "Gold-based therapeutic agents". ...
Care should be taken if combined with medication altering liver function as well as aurothioglucose (Solganal), cimetidine ( ...
It was recently discontinued from the US market along with aurothioglucose leaving only auranofin as the only gold salt on the ...
Anthanthrene Anthracene Anthranilic acid Antimony trisulfide Apholate para-Aramid fibrils Atrazine Aurothioglucose (Auranofin) ...
Historically, injectable gold salts such as gold sodium thiomalate and aurothioglucose were considered by many to be the most ...
In 2001, aurothioglucose was withdrawn from the Dutch market, where it had been the only injectable gold preparation available ... Aurothioglucose, also known as gold thioglucose, is a chemical compound with the formula AuSC6H11O5. This derivative of the ... Aurothioglucose has an interaction with the antimalarial medication hydroxychloroquine. Auranofin Shaw, III C. F. (1999). "Gold ... Efficacy and safety of therapy after switching from aurothioglucose to aurothiomalate (van Roon et al., J Rheumatol 2005) ...
Anthanthrene Anthracene Anthranilic acid Antimony trisulfide Apholate para-Aramid fibrils Atrazine Aurothioglucose (Auranofin) ...
The official start to its development started in December 1986 when Merck's president, Edward Scolnick, announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in West Point, Pennsylvania and placed Emilio Emini in charge of the laboratory.[11] A couple months later on January, 1987, a team of researchers consisting of Emilio Emini, Joel Huff, and Irving Sigal, kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones who started the process of research and development into protease inhibitors and its relation to the virus. Over a year later, in July 1988, Nancy Kohl, Emilio Emini, et al., published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the Science about the idea of inhibiting the protease.[11] On February, 1989, Manuela Navia, Paula Fitzgerald, et al., published a paper that showed the three-dimensional structure of HIV's protease enzyme.[5] Other ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism,[9] and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism,[10] who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy.[11] It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing.[12][13] Levothyroxine is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion.[14] A subset of people with hypothyroidism treated with an appropriate dose of levothyroxine will describe continuing symptoms despite TSH levels in the normal range.[11] In these people, further laboratory and clinical evaluation is warranted as they may have another cause for their symptoms.[11] Furthermore, it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone levels.[11] Levothyroxine is also used to treat subclinical ...
... is a low cost drug.[7] In the United States, Salix Pharmaceuticals holds a US Patent for rifaximin and markets the drug under the name Xifaxan.[17][18] In addition to receiving FDA approval for traveler's diarrhea and (marketing approved for)[18] hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin received FDA approval for IBS in May 2015.[19] No generic formulation is available in the US and none has appeared due to the fact that the FDA approval process was ongoing. If rifaximin receives full FDA approval for hepatic encephalopathy it is likely that Salix will maintain marketing exclusivity and be protected from generic formulations until March 24, 2017.[18] Rifaximin is approved in 33 countries for GI disorders.[20][21] On August 13, 2013, Health Canada issued a Notice of Compliance to Salix Pharmaceuticals Inc. for the drug product Zaxine.[22] In India it is available under the brand names Ciboz and Xifapill.[citation needed] In Russia and Ukraine the drug is sold under the name Alfa Normix ...
Long-term use of methylprednisolone, as with all corticosteroids, can be associated with hyperglycemia, decreased resistance to infection, swelling of face, weight gain, congestive cardiac insufficiency, fluid and sodium retention, edema, hypertension, increased eye pressure, glaucoma, osteoporosis, and psychosis, especially when used at high doses.[11][12] The most serious side effect occurs after the adrenal glands cease natural production of cortisol, which methylprednisolone will replace. Abrupt cessation of the drug after this occurs can result in a condition known as Addisonian crisis, which can be fatal. To prevent this, the drug is usually prescribed with a tapering dose, including a predosed "dose pack" detailing a specific number of tablets to take at designated times over a several-day period. Pharmacists sometimes advise that this drug may cause sleeplessness and "down" moods. Measles and chicken pox are very dangerous and potentially fatal for people on methylprednisolone therapy. ...
Important drug interactions are rare.[27][28] However, the most significant major drug interaction concern is the decreased activation of clopidogrel when taken together with omeprazole.[29] Although still controversial,[30] this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent these events. This interaction is possible because omeprazole is an inhibitor of the enzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4.[31] Clopidogrel is an inactive prodrug that partially depends on CYP2C19 for conversion to its active form. Inhibition of CYP2C19 may block the activation of clopidogrel, which could reduce its effects.[32][33] Almost all benzodiazepines are metabolised by the CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 pathways, and inhibition of these enzymes results in a higher AUC (i.e., the total effect over time of a given dose). Other examples of drugs dependent on CYP3A4 for their metabolism are escitalopram,[34] warfarin,[35] oxycodone, tramadol, and oxymorphone. The concentrations of these drugs may ...
Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Kanu C, et al. (August 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Valvular Heart Disease): developed in collaboration with the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists: endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-231. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.176857. PMID 16880336 ...
... has been investigated for use as a radiation countermeasure. Its value as a radiation countermeasure is based mainly on its stimulation of production of white blood cells and platelets.[6] Its potential use as a radiation countermeasure was developed by the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) and subsequently studied by AFRRI and Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals under the proposed brand name Neumune for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.[6][7] The clinical trials with rhesus monkeys were successful. According to the Hollis-Eden report, only 12.5% of the 40 Neumune-treated animals died versus 32.5% in the placebo group.[8] Hollis-Eden had applied for a contract from the U.S. Government under the BioShield Request for Proposals (RFP) for radiation countermeasures. After being encouraged for 2.5 years that Neumune was in the competitive range, on March 9, 2007, the RFP was canceled by HHS. According to HHS, "the product was no longer in the competitive ...
... (CBZ), sold under the trade name Tegretol among others, is an anticonvulsant medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.[1] It is not effective for absence or myoclonic seizures.[1] It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder.[3][1] Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate for focal and generalised seizures.[4] Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness.[1] Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion.[1] It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems.[1] Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however, stopping the medication in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended.[1] Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended.[1] Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems.[1] Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter ...
... is an allosteric endocannabinoid, as it is a negative allosteric modulator of the CB1 receptor.[4][5] Pregnenolone is involved in a natural negative feedback loop against CB1 receptor activation in animals.[6][better source needed] It prevents CB1 receptor agonists like tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active constituent in cannabis, from fully activating the CB1 [6][better source needed] Pregnenolone has been found to bind with high, nanomolar affinity to microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) in the brain.[7][8] In contrast to pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate did not bind to microtubules.[7][8] However, progesterone did and with similar affinity to pregnenolone, although unlike pregnenolone, it did not increase binding of MAP2 to tubulin.[7][8] Pregnenolone was found to induce tubule polymerization in neuronal cultures and to increase neurite growth in PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor.[7][8] As such, pregnenolone may control formation and stabilization of microtubules ...
... has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 months. The FDA has assigned it as pregnancy category B. Animal studies have shown no effects on fertility or teratogenicity, but studies in humans have not been performed. The excretion of permethrin in breastmilk is unknown, and breastfeeding is recommended to be temporarily discontinued during treatment.[11] According to the Connecticut Department of Public Health, permethrin "has low mammalian toxicity, is poorly absorbed through the skin, and is rapidly inactivated by the body. Skin reactions have been uncommon."[14] Excessive exposure to permethrin can cause nausea, headache, muscle weakness, excessive salivation, shortness of breath, and seizures. Worker exposure to the chemical can be monitored by measurement of the urinary metabolites, while severe overdose may be confirmed by measurement of permethrin in serum or blood plasma.[15] Permethrin does not present any ...
where CL is total body clearance (L/h), BSA is total body surface area (m2), AAG and ALB represent alpha1 acid glycoprotein and albumin plasma concentrations (g/L) respectively, and AGE is the patients age (years).[13] HEP12 represents a measure of hepatic dysfunction, affecting clearance of docetaxel. This final model accounted for a modest proportion of patients and identified most of the patients varying from the model (population median of CL = 35.6 L/h) as having hepatic dysfunction, indicating hepatic function as the most unpredictable factor with regards to clearance variability.[13] Patients with significant hepatic dysfunction had an approximately 30% decrease in clearance of docetaxel and were also at a higher risk of toxicity poisoning from docetaxel treatment.[13] Clearance has been shown from population pharmacokinetic studies to decrease significantly with age, increased alpha1 acid glycoprotein and albumin concentrations and decreased body surface area.[13] Renal impairment is ...
InChI=1S/C22H22N2O8/c1-7-8-5-4-6-9(25)11(8)16(26)12-10(7)17(27)14-15(24(2)3)18(28)13(21(23)31)20(30)22(14,32)19(12)29/h4-6,10,14-15,17,25,27-29,32H,1H2,2-3H3,(H2,23,31)/t10-,14-,15+,17+,22+/m1/s1 ...
Human exposure to methoxychlor occurs via air, soil, and water,[7] primarily in people who work with the substance or who are exposed to air, soil, or water that has been contaminated. It is unknown how quickly and efficiently the substance is absorbed by humans who have been exposed to contaminated air or via skin contact.[7] In animal models, high doses can lead to neurotoxicity.[7] Some methoxychlor's metabolites have estrogenic effects in adult and developing animals before and after birth.[7] One studied metabolite is 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) which shows reproductive toxicity in an animal model by reducing testosterone biosynthesis.[8][9] Such effects adversely affect both the male and female reproductive systems. It is expected that this "could occur in humans" but has not been proven.[7] While one study has linked methoxychlor to the development of leukemia in humans, most studies in animals and humans have been negative, thus the EPA has determined that it is ...
... , also known as eltanolone (INN), is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.[1] It is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor,[1] as well as a negative allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor,[2] and is known to have sedative, anxiolytic, anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects.[1][2][3] It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted side effects such as convulsions on occasion, and for this reason was never marketed.[2][4] During pregnancy, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone are involved in sedation and anesthesia of the fetus.[5][6] ...
As of 2017 brands included: Actalor, Actidin, Aerotina, Alaspan, Alavert, Albatrina, Alerdina, Alerfast, Alergan, Alergiano, Alergiatadina, Alergin Ariston, Alergipan, Alergit, Alergitrat L, Aleric Lora, Alermuc, Alernitis, Alerpriv, Alertadin, Alertine, Aleze, Algac, Algecare, Algistop, Alledryl, Aller-Tab, Allerfre, Allerget, Allergex Non Drowsy, Allergyx, Allerhis, Allernon, Allerta, Allertyn, Allohex, Allor, Allorat, Alloris, Alor, Analor, Anhissen, Anti-Sneeze, Antial, Antil, Antimin, Ao Hui Feng, Ao Mi Xin, Ao Shu, Ardin, Atinac, Avotyne, Axcel Loratadine, Bai Wei Le, Bang Nuo, Bedix, Belodin, Benadryl, Besumin, Bi Sai Ning, Bi Yan Tong, Biliranin, Biloina, Biolorat, Bollinol, Boots Hayfever Relief, Boots Hooikoortstabletten, Boots Once-a-Day Allergy Relief, Carin, Carinose, Chang Ke, Civeran, Clara, Claratyne, Clarid, Clarihis, Clarihist, Clarilerg, Clarinese, Claritin, Claritine, Clarityne, Clarityne SP, Clarotadine, Clatatin, Clatine, Clear-Atadine, Clear-Atadine Children's, Clistin, ...
A component in various medicinal plants (e.g. Scutellaria baicalensis), chrysin is a dihydroxyflavone, a type of flavonoid.[6] It is also found in honey, propolis, the passion flowers, Passiflora caerulea and Passiflora incarnata, in Oroxylum indicum,[2] carrots,[1] chamomile,[7] many fruits, and in mushrooms, such as the mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus.[6] It is extracted from various plants,[1] such as the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea).[1] The amount of chrysin in honey from various plant sources is about 0.2 mg per 100 g.[8] Chrysin is typically found at higher amounts in propolis than in honey.[9] A 2010 study found the amount of chrysin was 0.10 mg/kg in honeydew honey, and 5.3 mg/kg in forest honeys.[10] A 2010 study found the amount of chrysin in propolis was as much as 28 g/L.[10] A 2013 study found the amount of chrysin in various mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece varied between 0.17 mg/kg in Lactarius deliciosus to 0.34 mg/kg in Suillus bellinii.[10] ...
Recreational use of tianeptine is rare[according to whom?] and thus far has only been seen in persons already using multiple substances for recreational purposes.[citation needed] In 2001, Singapore's Ministry of Health restricted tianeptine prescribing to psychiatrists due to its recreational potential,[49] In 2003, Bahrain classified it a controlled substance due to increasing reports of misuse and recreational use.[50] Between 1989 and 2004, in France 141 cases of recreational use were identified, correlating to an incidence of 1 to 3 cases per 1000 persons treated with tianeptine and 45 between 2006 and 2011. The main reason for recreational use is to achieve an anxiolytic effect. According to Servier, stopping of treatment with tianeptine is difficult, due to the possibility of withdrawal symptoms in a person. The severity of the withdrawal is dependent on the daily dose, with high doses being extremely difficult to quit.[51][better source needed][52][53] In 2007, according to French Health ...
... is very toxic to cats which cannot tolerate the therapeutic doses for dogs.[7] This is associated with UGT1A6 deficiency in cats, the enzyme responsible for metabolizing cypermethrin. As a consequence, cypermethrin remains much longer in the cat's organs than in dogs or other mammals and can be fatal in large doses. In male rats cypermethrin was shown to exhibit a toxic effect on the reproductive system. After 15 days of continual dosing, both androgen receptor levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly reduced. These data suggested that cypermethrin can induce impairments of the structure of seminiferous tubules and spermatogenesis in male rats at high doses.[8] Long-term exposure to cypermethrin during adulthood is found to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in rats, and postnatal exposure enhances the susceptibility of animals to dopaminergic neurodegeneration if rechallenged during adulthood.[9] If exposed to cypermethrin during pregnancy, rats give birth to ...
Biosynthesis of mevastatin is primarily accomplished via a type 1 PKS pathway it proceeds in the PKS pathway as seen in figure 1 until it reaches a hexaketide state where it undergoes a Diels-Alder cyclization. After cyclization it continues via the PKS pathway to a nonaketide after which it is released and undergoes oxidation and dehydration. It is presumed that the oxidations are preformed by a polypeptide that is similar to cytochrome p450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by mlcC within the mevastatin gene. Lastly the biosynthesis is completed by the PKS facilitating the addition of a diketide sidechain and a methylation by SAM.[7] Figure 1 shows mevastatin in its acid form but it can also be in the more commonly seen lactone form. This pathway was first observed in Penicillium cilrinum and was later discovered that another type of fungus, Penicillium brevicompaetum also produced mevastatin via a PKS pathway. ...
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It is commonly available without a prescription in various dosage forms, such as a topical cream, ointment, or vaginal suppository. It is also available as an oral troche or throat lozenge as a prescription only. Topically, clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. For vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection), clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in treatment of fungal infections of the scalp or nails.[citation needed] When using over-the-counter drug clotrimazole products, use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for athlete's foot or ringworm.[6] Throat lozenge preparations are used for oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or prevention of oral thrush in people with neutropenia.[6] Clotrimazole is usually used 5 times daily for 14 days for oral thrush, twice daily for 2 to 8 weeks for ...
... (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione,[1] as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.[2][3] It is also an intermediate in the synthesis of allopregnanolone and isopregnanolone from progesterone. 5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an affinity for this receptor that is regarded as relatively low (in comparison to 3α-hydroxylated progesterone metabolites such as allopregnanolone and pregnanolone)).[2][3][4][5] It has also been found to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA-rho receptor.[6] In addition, it is a weak agonist of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) (EC50 ,10,000 µM)), with approximately six-fold lower potency relative to its 5β-isomer, 5β-dihydroprogesterone.[7]. ...
In 2001, aurothioglucose was withdrawn from the Dutch market, where it had been the only injectable gold preparation available ... Aurothioglucose, also known as gold thioglucose, is a chemical compound with the formula AuSC6H11O5. This derivative of the ... Aurothioglucose has an interaction with the antimalarial medication hydroxychloroquine. Auranofin Shaw, III C. F. (1999). "Gold ... Efficacy and safety of therapy after switching from aurothioglucose to aurothiomalate (van Roon et al., J Rheumatol 2005) ...
Aurothioglucose Injection 50 mg/ml suspension (contains approximately 50% gold); in 10 ml vials; Solganal® (Schering); (Rx) ... The safety of aurothioglucose has not been established during pregnancy, it should only be used when the potential benefits ... Pharmacology - Aurothioglucose has anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, immunomodulating, and antimicrobial (in vitro) effects. ... Adverse Effects/Warnings - Veterinary experience with aurothioglucose is limited. Pain at the injection site is common and some ...
"Aurothioglucose Suspension adverse effects". Health Digest. "Gold sodium thiomalate (gold)". Archived from the original on 28 ... Auranofin (UK & US) Aurothioglucose (Gold thioglucose) (US) Disodium aurothiomalate Sodium aurothiosulfate (Gold sodium ... Beck RK (2002). "Auranofin and Aurothioglucose side effects & overdose". Drug Reference for EMS Providers. pp. 164-165. " ... "Aurothioglucose is a gold salt used in treating inflammatory arthritis". MedicineNet.com "About gold treatment: What is it? ...
Solganal Aurothioglucose contraindications, important information I should know about Solganal. ... Aurothioglucose alcohol, caffeine. Aurothioglucose dosage. Aurothioglucose overdose. Aurothioglucose dose. Aurothioglucose ... Solganal (Aurothioglucose) Links:. What is Aurothioglucose. Aurothioglucose over the counter or prescription?. Aurothioglucose ... Aurothioglucose effects & treatment. Aurothioglucose side effects. Aurothioglucose interactions. ...
Aurothioglucose * Levomethadyl Other Interactions Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or ...
Exfoliative dermatitis (ED) is a definitive term that refers to a scaling erythematous dermatitis involving 90% or more of the cutaneous surface. Exfoliative dermatitis is characterized by erythema and scaling involving the skins surface and often obscures the primary lesions that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the dis...
Detailed drug Information for Coartem. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
Aurothioglucose Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some ...
Increasing use of immunosuppressive biologic therapies poses a challenge for infectious diseases. Immunosuppressed patients have a high risk for influenza complications and an impaired immune response to vaccines. The total burden of immunosuppressive conditions in the United States, including those receiving emerging biologic therapies, remains unknown. We used the national claims database MarketScan to estimate the prevalence of immunosuppressive conditions and risk for acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). We studied 47.2 million unique enrollees, representing 115 million person-years of observation during 2012-2017, and identified immunosuppressive conditions in 6.2% adults 18-64 years of age and 2.6% of children &lt;18 years of age. Among 542,105 ARI hospitalizations, 32% of patients had immunosuppressive conditions. The risk for ARI hospitalizations was higher among enrollees with immunosuppression than among nonimmunosuppressed enrollees. Future efforts should focus on developing improved
Exfoliative dermatitis (ED) is a definitive term that refers to a scaling erythematous dermatitis involving 90% or more of the cutaneous surface. Exfoliative dermatitis is characterized by erythema and scaling involving the skins surface and often obscures the primary lesions that are important clues to understanding the evolution of the dis...
Aurothioglucose. Dihydrotachysterol. Basiliximab. Dinoprostone and its salts and derivatives. Bevacizumab. Docetaxel and its ...
Aurothioglucose; (G) Au(III) pincer-type complexes; (H) Gold(I)-triphenylphosphine compounds; (I) [Au(9-methylcaf-fein-8- ... Aurothioglucose (Figure 2F) has a strong inhibitory effect on the DNA binding activity of NF-κB, which is essential for its ...
Aurothioglucose. Approved, Withdrawn. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. Target. 0. Magnesium gluconate. Approved, ...
... or aurothioglucose (Solganal); imipenem-cilastatin (Primaxin); immune globulin (gamma globulin, BayGam, Carimmune, Gammagard, ...
... such as aurothioglucose and gold sodium thiomalate; and antiparasitic drugs, such as suramin and mebendazole. ...
Aurothioglucose. Aurothioglucose is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of early active adult and juvenile type rheumatoid ...
Aurothioglucose. Avanza. Mirtazapine. Belivon. Risperidone. Benutrex. Vitamin B; Vitamin C. Benutrex 1000. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine ...
Gold salts include aurothioglucose (Solganal), gold sodium thiomalate (Aurolate), and auranofin (Ridaura). ...
The medications aurothioglucose, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis; colchicine, prescribed to prevent gout attacks; and ...
Generic for Cuprimine (Penicillamine) is used for treating arthritis and wilsons disease. Order more than a months supply and save $44.00.
M01CB04 Aurothioglucose. M01CB05 Aurotioprol. M01CC Penicillamine and similar agents. M01CC01 Penicillamine. M01CC02 ...
... aurothioglucose, 50 mg/wk); or oral methotrexate (7.5 to 15 mg/wk). If adverse effects occurred, patients could only change ...
... or aurothioglucose (Solganal); imipenem-cilastatin (Primaxin); immune globulin (gamma globulin, BayGam, Carimmune, Gammagard, ...
Be sure to mention any of the following: gold compounds such as auranofin (Ridaura) and aurothioglucose (Solganol); ...
Use of corticosteroids and aurothioglucose in a pygmy goat with pemphigus foliaceus.. Penfigo foliaceo em cabra Boer ...
i,Background,/i,. Aurothioglucose- (ATG-) mediated inhibition of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) improves alveolarization in ... R. D. Britt Jr., M. Velten, M. L. Locy, L. K. Rogers, and T. E. Tipple, "The thioredoxin reductase-1 inhibitor aurothioglucose ... Within 12 h of birth, pups received either 25 mg/kg aurothioglucose (ATG) or saline (SA) intraperitoneally (i.p.). Pups were ... A. D. Smith, C. A. Guidry, V. C. Morris, and O. A. Levander, "Aurothioglucose inhibits murine thioredoxin reductase activity in ...
You started a combination therapy which is thought to be the therapy of choice in feline PF. The owner brings an almost completely cured cat after 4 weeks of therapy (picture 1), and also the PD/PU and incontinence are gone.
as dihydrolipoic acid) , aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (for. example thioredoxin, glutathione, cysteine, ... Aurothioglucose, Propylthiouracil und andere Thiole (z. B. Thioredoxin, Glutathion, Cystein, Cystin, Cystamin und deren ...
B. dihydrolipoic acid), aurothioglucose, propylthiouracil and other thiols (for. example thioredoxin, glutathione, cysteine, ... Aurothioglucose, Propylthiouracil und andere Thiole (z. B. Thioredoxin, Glutathion, Cystein, Cystin, Cystamin und deren ...
  • Only one gold drug remains in active clinical use for this purpose in the United States: auranofin although sodium aurothiomalate (gold sodium thiomalate) and aurothioglucose were still used until recently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auranofin (UK & US) Aurothioglucose (Gold thioglucose) (US) Disodium aurothiomalate Sodium aurothiosulfate (Gold sodium thiosulfate) Sodium aurothiomalate (Gold sodium thiomalate) (UK) Shaw CF (September 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Including but not limited to aurothioglucose, auranofin and sodium aurothiomalate, when sold for administration by injection. (napra.ca)
  • Generic Aur- drugs (Auranofin, Aurothioglucose) are gold compounds. (drmnemonics.com)
  • Other gold salts available include injectable aurothioglucose (Solganal) and oral auranofin ( Ridaura ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Solganal liver, heart and stomach possible problems, Solganal Aurothioglucose contraindications, important information I should know about Solganal. (medslook.com)
  • When injected gold is given as gold sodium thiomalate (brand name: Myochrysine) or as aurothioglucose (brand name: Solganal). (washington.edu)
  • One author (Kummel 1995) reports that four pemphigus canine cases treated with aurothioglucose that was given immediately after cessation of azathioprine, developed a fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis. (elephantcare.org)
  • Injections of weak solutions of sodium aurothiomalate or aurothioglucose are sometimes used to treat rheumatoid arthritis. (smore.com)
  • Aurothioglucose is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of early active adult and juvenile type rheumatoid arthritis that is not adequately controlled by other anti-inflammatory agents and conservative measures like salicylate, glucocorticoids, etc. (drugbank.ca)
  • Seventy-four Israeli patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were studied for possible association between HLA antigens and adverse reactions to gold treatment (aurothioglucose). (bmj.com)
  • His rheumatologist for the past 40 years had just retired, and he was searching for a doctor with expertise in the use of gold sodium aurothioglucose , the drug that had driven his rheumatoid arthritis (RA) into remission decades before. (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • Pharmacology - Aurothioglucose has anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, immunomodulating, and antimicrobial ( in vitro ) effects. (elephantcare.org)
  • Aurothioglucose has an interaction with the antimalarial medication hydroxychloroquine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, aurothioglucose was withdrawn from the Dutch market, where it had been the only injectable gold preparation available since 1943, forcing hospitals to change medication for a large number of patients to aurothiomalate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficacy and safety of therapy after switching from aurothioglucose to aurothiomalate (van Roon et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • From this screen, we identified two antirheumatoid gold compounds aurothioglucose and aurothiomalate (ATM) that inhibit PKCι binding to Par6 in vitro ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adverse Effects/Warnings - Veterinary experience with aurothioglucose is limited. (elephantcare.org)
  • Aurothioglucose- (ATG-) mediated inhibition of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) improves alveolarization in experimental murine bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). (hindawi.com)
  • The co-treatment of the TXNRD1 inhibitor aurothioglucose and menadione could significantly alleviate the efficiency of ROS generation in vitro and increase the viability of A549 cells. (rsc.org)
  • 3.Aurothioglucose treatment induced obesity with hyperplasia of islet beta-cells in control mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The islets in aurothioglucose-treated Reg I-deficient mice were significantly smaller than those of control, indicating that islets of Reg I-deficient mice have lower proliferation activity in response to a demand of beta-cell proliferation in adulthood. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Pyrimethamine should never be used concomitantly with aurothioglucose. (findatopdoc.com)
  • All mammalian thioredoxin reductase isozymes are homologous to glutathione reductase and contain a conserved C-terminal elongation with a cysteine-selenocysteine sequence forming a redox-active selenenylsulfide/selenolthiol active site and are inhibited by goldthioglucose (aurothioglucose) and other clinically used drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Chemistry - A water soluble gold salt, aurothioglucose contains approximately 50% gold. (elephantcare.org)
  • The safety of aurothioglucose has not been established during pregnancy, it should only be used when the potential benefits outweigh the risks involved. (elephantcare.org)