Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Aurora Kinase A: An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Aurora Kinase C: Aurora kinase C is a chromosomal passenger protein that interacts with aurora kinase B in the regulation of MITOSIS. It is found primarily in GERM CELLS in the TESTIS, and may mediate CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION during SPERMATOGENESIS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)PiperazinesCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Chondroma: A benign neoplasm derived from mesodermal cells that form cartilage. It may remain within the substance of a cartilage or bone (true chondroma or enchondroma) or may develop on the surface of a cartilage (ecchondroma or ecchondrosis). (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Blastodisc: A small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK where cleavage begins. Upon fertilization the cytoplasm streams from the vegetal pole away from the yolk to the animal pole where cleavage will occur. This germinal area eventually flattens into a layer of cells (BLASTODERM) that covers the yolk completely.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.QuinazolinesMAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Physiological Processes: Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Microtubule-Organizing Center: An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 2.7.1.107.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Chordata: Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PhosphoproteinsImidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.ThiazolesJanus Kinase 2: A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.

Incenp and an aurora-like kinase form a complex essential for chromosome segregation and efficient completion of cytokinesis. (1/287)

BACKGROUND: In animal cells, cytokinesis begins shortly after the sister chromatids move to the spindle poles. The inner centromere protein (Incenp)has been implicated in both chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, but it is not known exactly how it mediates these two distinct processes. RESULTS: We identified two Caenorhabditis elegans proteins, ICP-1 and ICP-2, with significant homology in their carboxyl termini to the corresponding region of vertebrate Incenp. Embryos depleted of ICP-1 by RNA-mediated interference had defects in both chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Depletion of the Aurora-like kinase AIR-2 resulted in a similar phenotype. The carboxy-terminal region of Incenp is also homologous to that in Sli15p, a budding yeast protein that functions with the yeast Aurora kinase Ipl1p. ICP-1 bound C. elegans AIR-2 in vitro, and the corresponding mammalian orthologs Incenp and AIRK2 could be co-immunoprecipitated from cell extracts. A significant fraction of embryos depleted of ICP-1 and AIR-2 completed one cell division over the course of several cell cycles. ICP-1 promoted the stable localization of ZEN-4 (also known as CeMKLP1), a kinesin-like protein required for central spindle assembly. CONCLUSIONS: ICP-1 and AIR-2 are part of a complex that is essential for chromosome segregation and for efficient completion of cytokinesis. We propose that this complex acts by promoting dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and the assembly of the central spindle.  (+info)

Alternative splicing in 5'-untranslational region of STK-15 gene, encoding centrosome associated kinase, in breast cancer cell lines. (2/287)

Centrosomes maintain genomic stability by establishing the bipolar spindles during cell division and, execute accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. In this study, we have demonstrated that there are three forms of STK-15 gene in breast cancer cell lines. Alternative splice positions are located in 5'-untranslated region of STK15 gene. The results of in vitro translation experiments revealed that the alternative splicing in the 5'-untranslated region of STK15 had no effect on protein translation. The differential expression patterns of these alternatively spliced STK15 in breast cell lines and primary tumors therefore suggest that STK15 gene transcription may be differentially regulated or stabilized in these cells.  (+info)

Tumour-amplified kinase BTAK is amplified and overexpressed in gastric cancers with possible involvement in aneuploid formation. (3/287)

Our recent analysis of gastric cancers using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a novel high frequent copy number increase in the long arm of chromosome 20. Tumour-amplified kinase BTAK was recently cloned from breast cancers and mapped on 20q13 as a target gene for this amplification in human breast cancers. In the study presented here, we analysed BTAK copy-number and expression, and their relation to the ploidy pattern in 72 primary gastric cancers. Furthermore, wild-type BTAK and its deletion mutants were transfected to gastric cancers to examine changes in cell proliferation and DNA ploidy pattern. Evaluation of 72 unselected primary gastric cancers found BTAK amplification in 5% and overexpression in more than 50%. All four clinical samples with BTAK amplification showed aneuploidy and poor prognosis. Transfection of BTAK in near-diploid gastric cancers induced another aneuploid cell population. In contrast, the c-terminal-deleted mutant of BTAK induced no effect in DNA ploidy pattern and inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation. These results suggest that BTAK may be involved in gastric cancer cell aneuploid formation, and is a candidate gene for the increase in the number of copies of the 20q, and thus may contribute to an increase in the malignant phenotype of gastric cancer.  (+info)

Downregulation of an AIM-1 kinase couples with megakaryocytic polyploidization of human hematopoietic cells. (4/287)

During the late phase of megakaryopoiesis, megakaryocytes undergo polyploidization, which is characterized by DNA duplication without concomitant cell division. However, it remains unknown by which mechanisms this process occurs. AIM-1 and STK15 belong to the Aurora/increase-in-ploidy (Ipl)1 serine/threonine kinase family and play key roles in mitosis. In a human interleukin-3-dependent cell line, F-36P, the expressions of AIM-1 and STK15 mRNA were specifically observed at G2/M phase of the cell cycle during proliferation. In contrast, the expressions of AIM-1 and STK15 were continuously repressed during megakaryocytic polyploidization of human erythro/megakaryocytic cell lines (F-36P, K562, and CMK) treated with thrombopoietin, activated ras (H-ras(G12V)), or phorbol ester. Furthermore, their expressions were suppressed during thrombopoietin-induced polyploidization of normal human megakaryocytes. Activation of AIM-1 by the induced expression of AIM-1(wild-type) canceled TPA-induced polyploidization of K562 cells significantly, whereas that of STK15 did not. Moreover, suppression of AIM-1 by the induced expression of AIM-1 (K/R, dominant-negative type) led to polyploidization in 25% of K562 cells, whereas STK15(K/R) showed no effect. Also, the induced expression of AIM-1(K/R) in CMK cells provoked polyploidization up to 32N. These results suggested that downregulation of AIM-1 at M phase may be involved in abortive mitosis and polyploid formation of megakaryocytes.  (+info)

Interaction and feedback regulation between STK15/BTAK/Aurora-A kinase and protein phosphatase 1 through mitotic cell division cycle. (5/287)

STK15 is an Aurora/Ipl-1 related serine/threonine kinase that is associated with centrosomes and induces aneuploidy when overexpressed in mammalian cells. It is well known that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of kinases are important for regulation of their activity. But mechanisms by which STK15 activity is regulated have not been elucidated. We report that STK15 contains two functional binding sites for protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), and the binding of these proteins is cell cycle-regulated peaking at mitosis. Activated STK15 at mitosis phosphorylates PP1 and inhibits PP1 activity in vitro. In vivo, PP1 activity co-immunoprecipitated with STK15 is also reduced. These data indicate that STK15 inhibits PP1 activity during mitosis. Also, PP1 is shown to dephosphorylate active STK15 and abolish its activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that non-binding mutants of STK15 for PP1 are superphosphorylated, but their kinase activities are markedly reduced. Cells transfected with these non-binding mutants manifest aberrant chromosome alignment during mitosis. Our results suggest that a feedback regulation through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events between STK15 kinase and PP1 phosphatase operates through the cell cycle. Deregulation of this balance may contribute to anomalous segregation of chromosomes during mitotic progression of cancer cells.  (+info)

Aurora-A kinase is required for centrosome maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans. (6/287)

Centrosomes mature as cells enter mitosis, accumulating gamma-tubulin and other pericentriolar material (PCM) components. This occurs concomitant with an increase in the number of centrosomally organized microtubules (MTs). Here, we use RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) to examine the role of the aurora-A kinase, AIR-1, during centrosome maturation in Caenorhabditis elegans. In air-1(RNAi) embryos, centrosomes separate normally, an event that occurs before maturation in C. elegans. After nuclear envelope breakdown, the separated centrosomes collapse together, and spindle assembly fails. In mitotic air-1(RNAi) embryos, centrosomal alpha-tubulin fluorescence intensity accumulates to only 40% of wild-type levels, suggesting a defect in the maturation process. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find that AIR-1 is required for the increase in centrosomal gamma-tubulin and two other PCM components, ZYG-9 and CeGrip, as embryos enter mitosis. Furthermore, the AIR-1-dependent increase in centrosomal gamma-tubulin does not require MTs. These results suggest that aurora-A kinases are required to execute a MT-independent pathway for the recruitment of PCM during centrosome maturation.  (+info)

Mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3: spatio-temporal regulation by mammalian Aurora kinases. (7/287)

Phosphorylation at a highly conserved serine residue (Ser-10) in the histone H3 tail is considered to be a crucial event for the onset of mitosis. This modification appears early in the G(2) phase within pericentromeric heterochromatin and spreads in an ordered fashion coincident with mitotic chromosome condensation. Mutation of Ser-10 is essential in Tetrahymena, since it results in abnormal chromosome segregation and extensive chromosome loss during mitosis and meiosis, establishing a strong link between signaling and chromosome dynamics. Although mitotic H3 phosphorylation has been long recognized, the transduction routes and the identity of the protein kinases involved have been elusive. Here we show that the expression of Aurora-A and Aurora-B, two kinases of the Aurora/AIK family, is tightly coordinated with H3 phosphorylation during the G(2)/M transition. During the G(2) phase, the Aurora-A kinase is coexpressed while the Aurora-B kinase colocalizes with phosphorylated histone H3. At prophase and metaphase, Aurora-A is highly localized in the centrosomic region and in the spindle poles while Aurora-B is present in the centromeric region concurrent with H3 phosphorylation, to then translocate by cytokinesis to the midbody region. Both Aurora-A and Aurora-B proteins physically interact with the H3 tail and efficiently phosphorylate Ser10 both in vitro and in vivo, even if Aurora-A appears to be a better H3 kinase than Aurora-B. Since Aurora-A and Aurora-B are known to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, our findings provide an attractive link between cell transformation, chromatin modifications and a specific kinase system.  (+info)

Cell-cycle-dependent regulation of human aurora A transcription is mediated by periodic repression of E4TF1. (8/287)

Human aurora A is a serine-threonine kinase that controls various mitotic events. The transcription of aurora A mRNA varies throughout the cell cycle and peaks during G(2)/M. To clarify the transcriptional mechanism, we first cloned the 1.8-kb 5'-flanking region of aurora A including the first exon. Transient expression of aurora A promoter-luciferase constructs containing a series of 5'-truncated sequences or site-directed mutations identified a 7-bp sequence (CTTCCGG) from -85 to -79 as a positive regulatory element. Electromobility shift assays identified the binding of positive regulatory proteins to the CTTCCGG element. Anti-E4TF1-60 antibody generated a supershifted complex. Furthermore, coexpression of E4TF1-60 and E4TF1-53 markedly increased aurora A promoter activity. Synchronized cells transfected with the aurora A promoter-luciferase constructs revealed that the promoter activity of aurora A increased in the S phase and peaked at G(2)/M. In addition, we identified a tandem repressor element, CDE/CHR, just downstream of the CTTCCGG element, and mutation within this element led to a loss of cell cycle regulation. We conclude that the transcription of aurora A is positively regulated by E4TF1, a ubiquitously expressed ETS family protein, and that the CDE/CHR element was essential for the G(2)/M-specific transcription of aurora A.  (+info)

In this report, we have shown that Aurora-A, a centrosome-associated oncogenic protein, is overexpressed in human ESCC. Using an immunochemical staining approach, we found about 69% (45 of 64 samples) of ESCC tumor tissues to strongly overexpress Aurora-A protein. In contrast, ,2% (1 of 61 samples) of normal adjacent tissues displayed high expression of Aurora-A (Fig. 1⇓ ; Table 1⇓ ). These findings were further confirmed by Western blot analysis (Fig. 2)⇓ . Interestingly, overexpression of Aurora-A was shown to associate with the grades of tumor differentiation and invasive capability. Additionally, we have also examined Aurora-A expression and cell migration in 12 human ESCC lines and found that levels of Aurora-A protein were correlated to the migrating potentials of tumor cells. Moreover, disruption of endogenous Aurora-A protein through siRNA knockdown technique was shown to substantially suppress cell migration (Fig. 4)⇓ , suggesting an association of Aurora-A with tumor cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of Aurora-A Kinase by Protein Partner Binding and Phosphorylation Are Independent and Synergistic. AU - Dodson, Charlotte. AU - Bayliss, Richard. PY - 2012/1/6. Y1 - 2012/1/6. N2 - Protein kinases are activated by phosphorylation and by the binding of activator proteins. The interplay of these two factors is incompletely understood. We applied energetic analysis to this question and characterized the activation process of the serine/threonine kinase Aurora-A by phosphorylation and by its protein partner, targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2). We discovered that these two activators act synergistically and without a predefined order: each can individually increase the activity of Aurora-A, and the effect of both bound together is the exact sum of their individual contributions to catalysis. Unexpectedly, the unphosphorylated enzyme has catalytic activity that is increased 15-fold by the binding of TPX2 alone. The energetic contribution of ...
Aurora kinase A inhibition with alisertib monotherapy may benefit a subset of patients with neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC).
Background: Aurora kinases are promising targets for cancer chemotherapy. Many reports have been published that some cancers overexpress Aurora kinases, which correlates with tumor grade and poor prognosis. Hence Aurora kinases were considered key genes for cancerogenesis and progression. Many Aurora kinase inhibitors(AKI,s) are in various phases of pre-clinical and clinical development and promising anticancer effects have been reported. Tumor resistance remains one of the major problems in chemotherapy.. Objectives: Our work is mainly aimed at identification of potential resistance mechanisms towards CYC116 (new small molecule pan Aurora kinase inhibitor) and ZM447439. The main aims include generation and selection of resistant tumor cell clones, characterization of resistance, cross resistance with other AKI,s and multidrug resistance. Further characterization of the resistant clones included cell cycle analysis, expression and DNA sequencing of Aurora kinases, cellular target inhibition, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aurora kinase A promotes inflammation and tumorigenesis in mice and human gastric neoplasia. AU - Katsha, Ahmed. AU - Soutto, Mohammed. AU - Sehdev, Vikas. AU - Peng, Dunfa. AU - Washington, M. Kay. AU - Piazuelo, M. Blanca. AU - Tantawy, Mohammed N.. AU - Manning, H. Charles. AU - Lu, Pengcheng. AU - Shyr, Yu. AU - Ecsedy, Jeffrey. AU - Belkhiri, Abbes. AU - El-Rifai, Wael. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Background & Aims Chronic inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric tumorigenesis. The aurora kinase A (AURKA) gene is frequently amplified and overexpressed in gastrointestinal cancers. We investigated the roles of AURKA in inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. Methods We used quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, luciferase reporter, immunoblot, co-immunoprecipitation, and in vitro kinase assays to analyze AGS and MKN28 gastric cancer cells. We also analyzed Tff1-/- mice, growth of ...
Aurora Kinase A Pipeline Review H2 Market 2019. Aurora Kinase A Pipeline Review H2 Market Size by Types, Applications, Major Regions and Major Manufacturers including the capacity, production, price, revenue, cost, gross margin, sales volume, sales revenue, consumption, growth rate, import, export, supply, future strategies.
OUTLINE: This is an open-label, dose-escalation, multicenter study.. Patients receive Aurora kinase inhibitor AT9283 (AT9283) IV over 24 hours on days 1 and 8 . Treatment repeats every 3 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.. Cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of AT9283 until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose at which at least 2 of 3 or 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. The dose preceding the MTD is the recommended phase II dose (RPTD). Up to 8 additional patients are treated at the RPTD.. Patients treated at the RPTD undergo skin and tumor tissue biopsy and blood collection at baseline and on days 2 and/or 3. Samples are examined by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, immunoenzyme techniques, flow cytometry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, for biological markers.. After completion of ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and tolerability of MK-0457(VX-680), an Aurora kinase inhibitor, in participants with advanced solid tumors. Bioavailability of the oral formulation will also be assessed. The primary study hypothesis is that administration of MK-0457 is sufficiently safe and tolerated to permit further study ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. aurora kinase inhibitor III ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The Aurora Kinase A polymorphisms are not associated with recurrencefree survival in prostate cancer patients. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Multiple proof-of-principle experiments suggest that targeting members of the Myc family of oncoproteins will have significant therapeutic benefit in human tumors. Deregulated expression of MYCN, one of the three family members implicated in human tumors, is prevalent in both pediatric and adult neuroendocrine tumors. We have shown previously that MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells depend on high levels of Aurora-A expression for maintaining N-Myc function. Similarly, Aurora-A and N-Myc bind each other and together drive an oncogenic gene expression program in neuroendocrine prostate tumors. Although stabilization of N-Myc does not require the catalytic activity of Aurora-A, we found that two inhibitors of Aurora-A disrupt the Aurora-A/N-Myc complex and promote degradation of N-Myc via the Fbxw7 ubiquitin ligase. Disruption of the Aurora-A/N-Myc complex inhibits N-Myc-dependent transcription, correlating with tumor regression and prolonged survival in a mouse model of MYCN-driven neuroblastoma, ...
Inhibitors,Activator,Agonist,antagonist,API,Aurora,Metabolic Disease,VEGFR-PDGFR,Other Intermediate,Others,MOF Chemicals,,Active Biopharma Corp
Although the MAPK pathway is frequently deregulated in cancer, inhibitors targeting RAF or MEK have so far shown clinical activity only in BRAF- and NRAS-mutant melanoma. Improvements in efficacy may be possible by combining inhibition of mitogenic signal transduction with inhibition of cell-cycle progression. We have studied the preclinical pharmacology of BI 847325, an ATP-competitive dual inhibitor of MEK and Aurora kinases. Potent inhibition of MEK1/2 and Aurora A/B kinases by BI 847325 was demonstrated in enzymatic and cellular assays. Equipotent effects were observed in BRAF-mutant cells, whereas in KRAS-mutant cells, MEK inhibition required higher concentrations than Aurora kinase inhibition. Daily oral administration of BI 847325 at 10 mg/kg showed efficacy in both BRAF- and KRAS-mutant xenograft models. Biomarker analysis suggested that this effect was primarily due to inhibition of MEK in BRAF-mutant models but of Aurora kinase in KRAS-mutant models. Inhibition of both MEK and Aurora ...
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AMG 900 is a potent and selective, orally available small molecule aurora kinase inhibitor. Buy Aurora Kinase inhibitor AMG 900 from AbMole BioScience.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
We describe a novel clinical phenotype associating T- and B-cell lymphopenia intermittent neutropenia and atrial septal flaws in 3 associates of the consanguineous kindred. with the STK4 ortholog DAF16 protects against cell loss of life induced by oxidative tension. Furthermore when DAF16 cannot perform the phosphorylation function living from the worms is normally measurably decreased. 19 Surprisingly Stk4-deficient mice experienced progressive loss of B and T cells because of excessive apoptosis. 20-22 STK4 could also possess a protective function maintaining cellular viability Thus. STK4 phosphorylates transcription elements within the FOXO family members including FOXO3 and FOXO1 within a stress-response pathway.19 21 STK4 participates in a number of other pathways. Binding of RASSF1A and NORE1A to STK4 homodimers inhibits STK4 kinase activity.20 23 Binding of RAPL to STK4 is vital for lymphocytes to polarize and adhere24 and potentially to regulate proper egress from thymus.22 Our ...
We describe a novel clinical phenotype associating T- and B-cell lymphopenia intermittent neutropenia and atrial septal flaws in 3 associates of the consanguineous kindred. with the STK4 ortholog DAF16 protects against cell loss of life induced by oxidative tension. Furthermore when DAF16 cannot perform the phosphorylation function living from the worms is normally measurably decreased. 19 Surprisingly Stk4-deficient mice experienced progressive loss of B and T cells because of excessive apoptosis. 20-22 STK4 could also possess a protective function maintaining cellular viability Thus. STK4 phosphorylates transcription elements within the FOXO family members including FOXO3 and FOXO1 within a stress-response pathway.19 21 STK4 participates in a number of other pathways. Binding of RASSF1A and NORE1A to STK4 homodimers inhibits STK4 kinase activity.20 23 Binding of RAPL to STK4 is vital for lymphocytes to polarize and adhere24 and potentially to regulate proper egress from thymus.22 Our ...
Senescence-inducing therapies can block proliferation of malignant cells and promote anti-tumor immune activity. However, the risk of tumor relapse remains high due to the long lifespan of senescence cells with potential to escape senescence. Here our preclinical studies demonstrate that combining a senescent-inducing aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) with an MDM2 antagonist [(-)-nutlin 3a] effectively induces robust p53 activation in senescent Tp53WT tumors accompanied by: 1) tumor cell proliferation arrest; 2) mitochondrial depolarization and tumor cell apoptosis; and 3) tumor cell clearance via CCL5-, CCL1- and CCL9-mediated recruitment of anti-tumor leukocytes. This combined therapy shows adequate bioavailability and low toxicity to the host in the mouse model. Moreover, the prominent preclinical response of patient-derived melanoma tumors to the co-targeting of MDM2 and AURKA provides rationale for further investigation of alisertib and MDM2 inhibitors.. Citation Format: ...
Integration of metabolic and immune system responses during pet advancement guarantees energy stability permitting both protection and development. energy death and imbalance. Hyperactive proinflammatory and tension signaling through NF-κB/Relish Jun N-terminal kinase and FOXO in mutants deregulates genes very important to immune defense digestive function and lipid fat burning capacity. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid gene and metabolism expression in mutants. The function of Atf3 is normally conserved as individual ATF3 averts a number of the mutant phenotypes enhancing their survival. The single Atf3 might incorporate the varied roles of two related mammalian proteins. INTRODUCTION Animal development and development depend on coordinated features of body organs to stability energy intake and storage space under optimum or challenging circumstances such as meals scarcity or pathogen strike. When unfortunate circumstances are temporary pets survive by ...
virulence, which reflects the events occurring in the murine illness model, renal M-1 cortical collecting duct epithelial cells were evaluated while the early suppliers of cytokines in response to cells capable of forming hyphae, producing chemokines KC and MIP-2, with levels correlating with epithelial cell damage. most important nosocomial infections in Europe and the US and is definitely connected with high mortality (40%) rates among hospitalized individuals, particularly those in extensive care models (ICU), people undergoing major surgery treatment and in immunocompromised individuals.2-6 Mucosal and systemic candidiasis is mainly studied in animal models.7-10 However, there are limitations to these choices; is definitely not a organic colonizer of small mammals10 and there are honest and cost ramifications.11,12 These disadvantages, as well as Societys want to reduce the figures of animals used in study, possess urged scientists to explore in vitro models to refine, reduce, or replace ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against partial recombinant human AURKA. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 1-157 of human AURKA. (MAB17869) - Products - Abnova
Xenografts were removed, minced into 1 mm pieces, and dissociated, 0. 8 unitsml Dispase, and 100 unitsml penicillin JNJ-7706621 Aurora Kinase inhibitor strepto
Javier Pinilla-Ibarz, MD, PhD, and Naval Daver, MD, describe some of the emerging therapies for chronic myeloid leukemia, such as aurora kinase inhibitors, and how treatment discontinuation is becoming a reality.
Expression of AURKA (AIK, ARK1, AurA, BTAK, PPP1R47, STK15, STK6, STK7) in lung tissue. Antibody staining with HPA002636 and CAB001454 in immunohistochemistry.
This is an open-label, multicenter, phase 1 study of alisertib in East Asian patients (eg, patients from countries including but not limited to Singapor
Aurora A antibody [1F8] (aurora kinase A) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF, WB. Anti-Aurora A mAb (GTX60391) is tested in Human, Monkey, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Aurora A (phospho Thr288) antibody (aurora kinase A) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Aurora A (phospho Thr288) pAb (GTX85609) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
3GZN: Substrate-assisted inhibition of ubiquitin-like protein-activating enzymes: the NEDD8 E1 inhibitor MLN4924 forms a NEDD8-AMP mimetic in situ.
Recently, Aurora kinases (A, B, and C/serine threonine kinases) gained much attention due to their implication in several types of cancers. Aurora kinases are involved in multiple functions in mitosis. Aurora A is involved in mitotic entry, separation of centriole pairs, accurate bipolar spindle assembly, alignment of metaphase chromosomes and completion of cytokinesis. Aurora B is a chromosomal passenger protein involved in the regulation of chromosomal orientation, and regulating the association between kinetochores and microtubules, and cytokinesis. Aurora C exhibits similar functions to those assigned to Aurora B and is required for cytokinesis. The above mentioned functions are directly involved in maintaining genomic stability. The relation between Aurora kinases overexpression and transformation has been reported in many cancers. Aurora A was shown to overexpress in colorectal, renal, melanoma, and breast cancers. Mainly Aurora B was shown to overexpress in colorectal cancer. Aurora B was ...
PURPOSE: Despite over 70,000 new cases of bladder cancer in the United States annually, patients with advanced disease have a poor prognosis due to limited treatment modalities. We evaluate the role of Aurora A, identified as an upregulated candidate molecule in bladder cancer, in regulating bladder tumor growth. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression in human bladder cancer samples was evaluated using RNA microarray and reverse-transcriptase PCR. The specific Aurora kinase A inhibitor MLN8237 (Millennium) was used to determine effects on bladder cancer cell growth using in vitro and in vivo models using malignant T24 and UM-UC-3 and papilloma-derived RT4 bladder cells. RESULTS: Urothelial carcinoma upregulates a set of 13 mitotic spindle associated transcripts, as compared to normal urothelium, including MAD2L1 (7.6-fold), BUB1B (8.8-fold), Aurora kinases A (5.6-fold) and Aurora kinase B (6.2-fold). Application of MLN8237 (10nM-1µM) to the human bladder tumor cell lines T24 and UM-UC-3 induced dose
Aurora B kinase is a protein that functions in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere. Chromosomal segregation during mitosis as well as meiosis is regulated by kinases and phosphatases. The Aurora kinases associate with microtubules during chromosome movement and segregation. Aurora kinase B localizes to microtubules near kinetochores, specifically to the specialized microtubules called K-fibers, and Aurora kinase A (MIM 603072) localizes to centrosomes (Lampson et al., 2004).[supplied by OMIM] In cancerous cells, over-expression of these enzymes causes unequal distribution of genetic information, creating aneuploid cells, a hallmark of cancer. In 1998, Aurora kinase B was identified in humans by a polymerase chain reaction screen for kinases that are overexpressed in cancers. In the same year, rat Aurora kinase B was identified in a screen designed to find kinases that altered S. cerevisiae proliferation when overexpressed. The expression and activity of Aurora B are regulated ...
Whether aurora A or aurora B is the better anticancer drug target is a matter of debate (8). At least two groups have directly addressed this question in the laboratory. Warner et al. (36) compared the effects of aurora A and aurora B antisense oligonucleotides in pancreatic cancer cells and found that aurora A-targeted therapy may be preferable to aurora B targeting, as shown by mitotic arrest and the rapid induction of apoptosis. Girdler et al. (37) compared the effects of RNA interference and small molecules targeting aurora A versus aurora B in colon cancer cells and found that the cells tested were extremely sensitive to aurora B inhibition. Interestingly, dual inhibition of aurora A and B results in phenotypes identical to inactivation of aurora B alone (28). Using RNA interference experiments, Yang et al. (38) showed that inactivation of aurora B indeed bypasses the requirement for aurora A and leads to polyploidy, indicating that aurora B is responsible for mitotic arrest in the absence ...
SAR156497 is an exquisitely selective Aurora A, B, and C inhibitor with in vitro and in vivo efficacy with IC50 = 0.5 nM (Aurora A); 1 nM (Aurora B / incenp); 3 nM (Aurora C / incenp) respectively SAR156497 combines high in vitro potency with satisfactory metabolic stability and limited CYP 3A4 and PDE3 inhibition. In vitro, SAR156497 displayed high antiproliferative activity on a large panel of tumor cell lines without correlation with any particular genetic signature or Aurora kinases expression. It induced significant modulation of Aurora A and Aurora B biomarkers (p-Aurora A and pHH3, respectively) and cell polyploidy, as expected from Aurora A/B inhibitors. In vivo efficacy has been demonstrated on relevant tumor models, but unfortunately, SAR156497 displayed a narrow therapeutic window.
Background: It is known that aurora B, a chromosomal passenger protein responsible for the proper progression of mitosis and cytokinesis, is overexpressed throughout the cell cycle in cancer cells. Overexpression of aurora B produced multinuclearity and induced aggressive metastasis, suggesting that overexpressed aurora B has multiple functions in cancer development. However, the detailed dynamics and functions of overexpressed aurora B are poorly understood. Results: We overexpressed GFP fused aurora B kinase in normal rat kidney epithelial cells. Using spinning disk confocal microscopy, we found that overexpressed aurora B-GFP was predominantly localized in the nucleus and along the cortex as a dot-like or short filamentous structure during interphase. Time-lapse imaging revealed that a cytoplasmic fraction of overexpressed aurora B-GFP was incorporated into the nucleus after cell division. Immunofluorescence showed that the nuclear fraction of overexpressed aurora B did not induce ectopic ...
Udayakumar T.S., Belakavadi M., Choi K.-H., Pandey P.K., Fondell J.D.. The TRAP/Mediator coactivator complex serves as a functional interface between DNA-bound transactivators and the RNA polymerase II-associated basal transcription apparatus. TRAP220/MED1 is a variably associated subunit of the complex that plays a specialized role in selectively targeting TRAP/Mediator to specific genes. Ablation of the Trap220/Med1 gene in mice impairs embryonic cell growth, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this report, we identified distinct cell growth regulatory genes whose expression is affected by the loss of TRAP220/MED1 by RNA interference. Among the down-regulated genes revealed by cDNA microarray analyses, we identified Aurora-A, a centrosome kinase that plays a critical role in regulating M phase events and is frequently amplified in several types of cancer. In general, we found that TRAP220/MED1 expression is required for high basal levels of Aurora-A gene expression and that ectopic ...
Aurora B is expressed at high level in primary human colorectal cancers and other cancer cell lines. Sino Biological offers Aurora B protein, Aurora B antibody, Aurora B gene and Aurora B ELISA kit.
ributed cell populations in G0 G1, S and G2 M phases. In contrast, OE33 and markedly OE19 and EPC hTERT cells selleck compound had a high G0 G1 phase population, with reduced S and G2 M phase populations. Aurora kinases in normal esophageal epithelial cells and esophageal cancer cells For Aurora A, fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed chromosome 20 polysomy with concomitantly elevated Aurora A gene copy num bers in OE21, OE33 and OE19 cells and an Aurora A gene amplification with up to nine Aurora A gene copies in Kyse 410 cells. In view of their Aurora A gene amplification, Kyse 410 cells also showed highest Aur ora A mRNA and high protein expression. In contrast, OE21, OE33 and OE19 cells exhibited lower Aurora A mRNA expression, despite chromosome 20 polysomy.. Still, high Aurora A protein expression was seen in OE33, but not OE21 and OE19 cells. Active Aurora A was hardly detectable in Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries immunoblot analysis, but weak Aur ora A phosphoT288 levels were seen ...
03); **represents significant difference between. group 1%FBS + 10 ng/ml TGF-β1′ and group 1%FBS (P = 0.044). Figure 6 The effects of TGF-β1 on expression levels of PKCα and p38 MAPK. BxPC3 cells were treated with 0.1, 1 and 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 for 10 min, 30 min and 24 h. Total cellular protein was extracted and subjected to western blotting analysis to detect expression of PKCα, phosphorylated-p38/total p38 MAPK and phosphorylated-ERK1/2/total ERK1/2. Bx represents BxPC3 cells and Bx/T represents the stably transfected BxPC3 cells with TGF-β1 plasmid. To determine whether the induced PKCα activity is responsible for the TGF-β1-induced decrease in the sensitivity of BxPC3 cells to cisplatin, we treated the cells with a selective PKCα inhibitor, Gö6976, and assessed TGF-β1-induced drug resistance. We found that inhibition of PKCα. activity could partially reverse TGF-β1-induced drug resistance of BxPC3 cells to cisplatin PLX4032 in vivo (Figure 7). Figure 7 MTT assay. (A) BxPC3 ...
AURKA (Aurora A) is a serinethreonine kinase that regulates mitosis by association in vivo with centrosomes. Overexpression of AURKA is observed in many types of cancer.
Once the dose levels reached 190 mg/m2, tests on skin biopsies showed that the drug was inhibiting the aurora B protein - in other words it was beginning to do what we expected it to.. "The aurora B protein is responsible for phosphorylating histone H3 - a protein involved in the structure of chromatin (the strands of DNA that make up chromosomes) in cells. Inhibition of aurora B results in the inhibition of phosphorylation of histone H3, thereby blocking that step in cell division. This study shows, for the first time, that the aurora kinase inhibitor PHA-739358 inhibits phosphorylation of histone H3 in the skin of patients, and therewith provides a proof for its (or one of its) mechanisms of action.". The researchers are continuing to recruit patients in order to define the safety of the drug and the recommended dose for subsequent studies. However, they believe the results so far are promising.. "The clinical trial has proved the concept that inhibition of the aurora protein disrupts an ...
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system. This system configures binary tools and library paths for you in a very flexible way. Read more about it in Lunarc documentation here: http://lunarc-documentation.readthedocs.io/en/latest/aurora_modules/ If you are in need of a module that is not installed, please check this list: https://github.com/hpcugent/easybuild-easyconfigs/tree/master/easybuild/easyconfigs If the software you need is in the list but NOT in Aurora, report to Florido, and he will coordinate with Lunarc to provide such software. If that module does not exist in the system nor in the above list, you will have to build it and configure yourself. Read more about it in the Custom software paragraph. ...
Encontre endereços e telefones de médicos homeopatas, farmácias e drogarias em Aurora do Pará que podem te ajudar com plantas medicinais.
ZM447439 does not prevent localization of Aurora B to centromeres. Immunofluorescence images of prometaphase DLD-1 cells stained to detect Aurora B (green), Sur
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How can we prevent mass killings like Aurora? - AP News: AURORA, Colo. (AP) - On the morning of the latest .12/12/2017 19:16:42PM EST.
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Browse: Home > 2016 > September > 15 > Aurora Diagnostics Welcomes Dr. Annie O. Morrision, Dermatopathologist to Our LMC Pathology Staff ...
Aurora - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: Aurora is making my computer life a misery.Here is my Hijack file... I hope you are able to help. I have run adaware and spybot, to no avail. Ive tried following the advice youve offered to other sufferers, but the file names are different in each case and I dont want to delete anything crucial. Thanks, Moggo... btw, I hope you know the geeks2go is very popular over here in England as well as in The States.Logfile of HijackThis v1.99.1Sca...
Bella Aurora Labs celebrates World Science Day by announcing the opening of its new cell culture laboratory. According to the Director of Research and Deve
Plasmid AURKB A4.1 gRNA from Dr. Iain Cheesemans lab contains the insert AURKB (Guide Designation A4.1) and is published in Dev Cell. 2017 Feb 27;40(4):405-420.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.01.012. Epub 2017 Feb 16. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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Novel inhibitor of Ark1, the fission yeast member of the conserved Aurora kinase family; High Quality Biochemicals for Research Uses
Auroral events have been thin on the ground for a while here in Australia, but the South Pole Station All Sky Imager is back on line and has been capturing polar auroras for us to enjoy. Check out the Near-real time images ...
If you happen to be reasonably close to one of the Earths magnetic poles, the next time theres a particularly intense aurora, go outside. Get as far as y
Bella Aurora answers FAQ about skin ageing, environmental factors and time passing which together cause loss of density, flexibility, radiance and tone
Yes, thats little one-eyed Aurora undergoing a CT scan on her neck last week at Peak in Burlington. We have a mystery here. As a result, this post might end up being the length of a mystery novel. Sorry! Several...
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AURORA - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: Ive tried adaware and spybot but I cant seem to get rid of it, help please. Logfile of HijackThis v1.99.1Scan saved at 10:59:15 AM, on 15/05/2005Platform: Windows XP SP2 (WinNT 5.01.2600)MSIE: Internet Explorer v6.00 SP2 (6.00.2900.2180)Running processes:C:\WINDOWS\System32\smss.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\winlogon.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\services.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\lsass.exeC:...
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Learn more about Why Does This Database Depend on Double-blind Studies? at The Medical Center of Aurora Confounding Effects: Why Treatments Can Appear Effective ...
Auroras municipal utilities have withdrawn from IURC oversight. The City Council now has jurisdiction over gas, water, and sewer rates.. ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Aurora A protein (ab86846). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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Recent releases in Mobile have including a lot of code changes in the Aurora channel. We plan to start doing less of this in the future and the future is now. The Aurora merge is on June 4 and we need to plan to have as much Fx15 feature work landed as possible. Yes, we still plan to do some work while in Aurora, but we have to start cutting back. Lets try to get some of the larger chunks of new features reviewed and landed this week. Make sure we can disable/backout features that wont make it fully in Aurora ...
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helps the cell to divide successfully, even if it takes slightly longer", Gerlich explains.. Aurora B delays cell division until chromosome bridges resolve. The researchers identified the already known enzyme Aurora B as an important player in the process. "We noticed that Aurora B ...
I haven't written in a while as James has been on a sarcoma rollercoaster. First, we went to Bethesda, MD for the NY-ESO-1 immunotherapy study after he was weaned from chemo for 3 weeks. He had extensive lab work and stu…
|P>PKA (Protein Kinase-A) is an enzyme that regulates processes as diverse as growth, development, memory, and metabolism. In its inactivated state, PKA exists as a tetrameric complex of two Catalytic subunits (PKA-C) and a Regulatory (PKA-R) subunit dimer. To date, [...]
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vikas Sehdev, Ahmed Katsha, Janet Arras, Dunfa Peng, Mohammed Soutto, Jeffrey Ecsedy, Alexander Zaika, Abbes Belkhiri, Wael El-Rifai].
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Shit! Bring the…help me!". The words floated down to her from the ceiling of the night. As she was carried on, Cassandra thought that she should be more concerned about what she was managing to hear. It certainly didnt sound good, but…well, she just couldnt bring herself to care. She knew Aurora would patch her up, so why be worried? She wouldnt die here; she had too much she was looking forward to, and certainly had too much left to do. She refused to believe that childbirth would kill her when her foes had failed. As ironic as that death would be, it wouldnt be hers. It just didnt fit. She wished she could tell the doctor that, but her mouth wasnt working and Aurora wasnt a telepath. So that was a lost cause.. Not that it mattered, really. Cassandra felt like shed earned a break from the chaos, so she was going to enjoy her nap. Let the others fret over her; for now, she was done with fighting. Instead she drifted through her mindscapes, traveling over seas of grasses and rolling ...
Theres a medical process that will happen to each of us: Death. Its not the same for everyone, but there are commonalities. What everyone should know.
The outdoor activity industry is saturated with specialised, performance driven products, appealing to those who either are, or aspire to be, extreme users. Backpacks are one example of such products. Whilst functional, high quality packs designed for s…
We should fix our race and poverty problems -- wed have fewer frustrated, frightened, angry people reaching for the gun in the drawer.
This trial was aim to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of alisertib [MLN8237] in patients with advanced or metastatic sarcoma.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase II study of MLN8237 (alisertib), an investigational Aurora A kinase inhibitor, in patients with platinum-resistant or -refractory epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. AU - Matulonis, Ursula A.. AU - Sharma, Sudarshan. AU - Ghamande, Sharad A. AU - Gordon, Michael S.. AU - Del Prete, Salvatore A.. AU - Ray-Coquard, Isabelle. AU - Kutarska, Elzbieta. AU - Liu, Hua. AU - Fingert, Howard. AU - Zhou, Xiaofei. AU - Danaee, Hadi. AU - Schilder, Russell J.. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Objectives: Aurora A kinase (AAK), a key mitotic regulator, is implicated in the pathogenesis of several tumors, including ovarian cancer. This single-arm phase II study assessed single-agent efficacy and safety of the investigational AAK inhibitor MLN8237 (alisertib), in patients with platinum-refractory or -resistant epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods: Adult women with malignant, platinum-treated disease received ...
Hesperadin is a human Aurora B inhibitor with an IC50 of 40 nM for the prevention of the phosphorylation of substrate. Find all the information about Hesperadin for cell signaling research.
Aurora A (serine/threonine kinase 6) is overexpressed in many pre-invasive and invasive breast carcinomas. High expression of Aurora A is strongly associated with decreased survival in patients with breast cancer, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie Aurora-A-associated malignancy are poorly understood. Here, Kavita Shah and co-workers (p. 2711) use a new chemical genetic approach to identify the pleckstrin-homology-like domain protein PHLDA1 as a putative Aurora A target. The authors confirm previous reports that PHLDA1 is frequently downregulated in primary breast cancers and, in addition, show that PHLDA1 downregulation is associated with oestrogen receptor expression in breast carcinoma. Aurora A directly phosphorylates PHLDA1, which leads to its degradation, but PHLDA1 also negatively regulates Aurora A, thereby setting up a feedback loop. Finally, they show that PHLDA1 upregulation and Aurora A inhibition act synergistically to promote cell death, and that PHLDA1 strongly inhibits ...
The Aurora family of serine-threonine kinases are essential regulators of cell division in mammalian cells. Aurora-A and -B expression and kinase activity is elevated in a variety of human cancers and is associated with high proliferation rates and poor prognosis. AMG 900 is a highly potent and selective pan-aurora kinase inhibitor that has entered clinical evaluation in adult patients with advanced cancers. In mice, oral administration of AMG 900 blocks the phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine-10 (p-Histone H3), a proximal substrate of aurora-B and inhibits the growth of multiple human tumor xenografts, including multidrug-resistant models. In order to establish a preclinical pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationship for AMG 900 that could be translated to the clinic, we used flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry detection platforms to assess the effects on p-Histone H3 inhibition in terms of sensitivity, precision, and specificity, in human tumor xenografts in conjunction with
We present an analysis of flickering (2-10 Hz) auroras observed with a state-of-the-art multispectral imaging system, Auroral Structure and Kinetics, located in Tromso, Norway. Short (1-2 s) periods of flickering aurora have been identified in which the frequency of the brightness oscillations decreases or increases smoothly over time. To the authors knowledge this is the first detailed analysis of such "chirps" in flickering aurora or field-aligned bursts. We have found that the electron precipitation energy is strongly anticorrelated with the flickering frequency during all identified chirps. This result is consistent with the theory that flickering aurora is caused by the resonance interaction between electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves and precipitating electrons and that the wave parallel phase velocity is the primary factor determining the electron acceleration produced by this mechanism. Other current theories known to the authors cannot completely explain our observations.. ...
We have characterised the role played by the aurora-related kinase Ark1 in regulating mitotic progression in fission yeast. In contrast to metazoans, where aurora A is required for spindle formation and aurora B required for both chromosome condensation and cytokinesis, a single aurora kinase, Ark1, is required for mitosis in S. pombe. The phenotypes arising in cells that lack Ark1 suggest that this single kinase is performing functions that are related to the functions of each of the two isoforms in higher systems. The spindle formation defects of ark1.Δ1 cells resemble the consequences of perturbing aurora A function in Drosophila and Xenopus (Glover et al., 1995; Roghi et al., 1998), while the lack of chromosome resolution during anaphase resembles aurora B deficiencies in C. elegans and Drosophila (Adams et al., 2001b; Giet and Glover, 2001; Kaitna et al., 2000; Severson et al., 2000b). Although we failed to detect a requirement for Ark1 during cytokinesis, it remains a possibility that, ...
Key cells divide asymmetrically during the development of multicellular organisms to give rise to offspring with different fates. In the Drosophila external sensory organ, asymmetrical division depends on polarization of the precursor cells during interphase and the consequent unequal distribution during mitosis of the protein Numb, which determines cell fate. Gonzalez discusses recent research implicating the mitotic kinase Aurora-A in the asymmetric localization of Numb in sensory organ pI precursor cells, a new function that appears to be independent of Aurora-As known roles in regulating centrosomal maturation and the organization of mitotic spindle microtubules.. ...
...[T]he [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center & Baylor College of Medicine] researchers concluded that [Aurora kinase] AK inhibition [produced by MK-0457] significantly reduces ovarian cancer tumor burden and cell proliferation, and increases tumor cell apoptosis in preclinical ovarian cancer mouse models. The researchers noted that the role of Aurora kinase inhibition in ovarian cancer merits further…
https://www.aurora-clinics.co.uk/news/pip-breast-implants-news-flash/ Visit the Aurora Clinics website for the latest news on PIP breast implants. This surgery information video is all about PIPs and what the rate of rupture is within them. The statistics at the disposal of Aurora only refers to the patients Aurora has treated with PIP implants. This statistic could well be higher […]. ...
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También conocida como Aurora Boreal o Aurora Austral. Es un espectáculo natural de luz visible en los cielos nocturnos próximos a los polos. Las auroras están causadas por las partículas cargadas en el viento solar que chocan con los átomos de la atmósfera y provocan la emisión de luz. El color depende del tipo de átomo con el que colisionan: luz verde si son átomos de oxígeno, y roja si se trata de átomos de nitrógeno.. ...
Enzyme Inhibitors - Compounds of formula (I), are aurora kinase inhibitors: wherein X is -N-, -CH2-N-, -CH2-CH-, or -CH-; R1 is a radical of formula (IA) wherein Z is -CH2-, -NH-, -0-, -S(O)- -S-, -S(O)2 or a divalent monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic radical having 3-7 ring atoms; Alk is an optionally substituted divalent C1-C6 alkylene radical; A is hydrogen or an optionally substituted monocyclic carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring having 5-7 ring atoms; r, s and t are independently 0 or 1, provided that when A is hydrogen then at least one of r and s is 1; R2 is halogen, -CN, -CF3, -OCH3, or cyclopropyl; and R3 is a radical of formula (IB) wherein Q is hydrogen or an optionally substituted phenyl or monocyclic heterocyclic ring with 5 or 6 ring atoms; Z&It;1, is -S-, -S(O)-, -S(O)2-, -O-, -SO2NH-, -NHSO2-, NHC(═O)NH, -NH(C═S)NH-, Or -N(R4)-wherein R4 is hydrogen, C1-C3 alkyl, cycloalkyl, or benzyl; and Alk&It;1, and Alk&It;2, are, independently, optionally substituted divalent C1-C3 ...
Takeda Remains Committed to Continuing the Ongoing Alisertib Clinical Development Program Cambridge, MA, May 12, 2015 and Osaka, Japan, May 13, 2015 - Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited...
Aurora Jolie Net Worth: Aurora Jolie is an African-American pornographic actress who has a net worth of $2 million. Born Nicara Corteza Caston on
Find the flavor that satisfies your sweet tooth at Deri Delite, a lovely ice cream shop in the Aurora region of Aurora. At Deri Delite, theres no need to confine your meal to a traditional dining room ? outdoor seating is available when the weather is warm.Dining out isnt your only option here ? pickup is available, too.If parking is a concern, youll be happy to hear that there are many convenient options in the area. Store your bike safely at one of the main bike racks near Deri Delite.With prices generally staying under $15, you can easily afford to treat a pal or a date at Deri Delite. Everyone will scream for the ice cream at Deri Delite. Head there tonight for quite the treat!
"Cyclin Dependent Kinase (CDK) and Aurora Kinase (AK) inhibitors , Cyclacel R&D for anticancer drugs acting on cell cycle". www. ...
... strong interest has shifted towards the aurora kinase proteins. The kinase gene Aurora A when amplified acts as an oncogene ... The localization of MAD2 and BubR1 to the kinetochore may also be dependent on the Aurora B kinase. Cells lacking Aurora B fail ... Aurora-B/Ipl1 kinase of the chromosomal passenger complex functions as the tensions sensor in improper kinetochore attachments ... The Aurora-B/Ipl1 kinase is also critical in correcting merotelic attachments, where one kinetochore is simultaneously attached ...
"NEDD9 depletion destabilizes Aurora A kinase and heightens the efficacy of Aurora A inhibitors: implications for treatment of ... Interaction of NEDD9 with Aurora A kinase may also play a role in tumor invasion. NEDD9 binds to and regulates acetylation of ... NEDD9 binds directly to the Aurora-A mitotic kinase at the centrosome, and promotes its activity, allowing cells to enter ... Other phosphorylation events in this region are imposed by the kinase Aurora-A, which phosphorylates residue S296, for ...
Disassembly of cilia requires the action of the Aurora A kinase . Exceptions where IFT is not present include Plasmodium ... Pugacheva EN, Jablonski SA, Hartman TR, Henske EP, Golemis EA (June 2007). "HEF1-dependent Aurora A activation induces ...
Other kinases that have interested Sebti include Rho-associated kinase and Aurora kinase. STAT3. In 2003 the Sebti lab ... May 30, 2014). "Dual Aurora A and JAK2 kinase blockade effectively suppresses malignant transformation". Oncotarget. 5 (10): ... Kinases. Sebti's work on the kinase Akt led to his interest in Triciribine. ... October 1, 2012). "RKI-1447 is a potent inhibitor of the Rho-associated ROCK kinases with anti-invasive and antitumor ...
Aurora kinase has two forms which are designated Aurora kinase A and Aurora kinase B. These proteins play a key role in mitosis ... In some human cancers, the expression and kinase activity of Aurora kinases have been up-regulated and has been looked into as ... A possible causes of multipolar spindle formation involve regulation of protein kinase family known as Aurora kinase. ... Jingyan Fu, Fu (26 January 2007). "Roles of Aurora Kinases in Mitosis and Tumorigenesis". Molecular Cancer Research. 5 (1): 1- ...
The CAS family member NEDD9 has also been shown to interact directly with AURKA (encoding Aurora-A kinase) to regulate cell ... it is possible that CASS4 may similarly interact with aurora-A kinase. CASS4 signaling may contribute to platelet activation ... "The focal adhesion scaffolding protein HEF1 regulates activation of the Aurora-A and Nek2 kinases at the centrosome". Nature ... These include association with FAK and Src family kinases at focal adhesions to transmit integrin-initiated signals to ...
"Drugging MYCN through an Allosteric Transition in Aurora Kinase A". Cancer Cell. 26: 414-27. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.07.015. PMC ... N-Myc is also stabilized by aurora A which protects it from degradation. Drugs that target this interaction are under ... development, and are designed to change the conformation of aurora A. Conformational change in Aurora A leads to release of N- ... "Stabilization of N-Myc is a critical function of Aurora A in human neuroblastoma". Cancer Cell. 15 (1): 67-78. doi:10.1016/j. ...
"Expression of Aurora-B kinase and phosphorylated histone H3 in hepatocellular carcinoma". Anticancer Research. 26 (5A): 3585-93 ...
2002). "Human TPX2 is required for targeting Aurora-A kinase to the spindle". J. Cell Biol. 158 (4): 617-23. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... TPX2 has been shown to interact with Aurora A kinase , KIF15, and Ran. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000088325 - Ensembl, ... "Human TPX2 is required for targeting Aurora-A kinase to the spindle". J. Cell Biol. United States. 158 (4): 617-23. doi:10.1083 ... Bayliss R, Sardon T, Vernos I, Conti E (2003). "Structural basis of Aurora-A activation by TPX2 at the mitotic spindle". Mol. ...
"Survivin enhances Aurora-B kinase activity and localizes Aurora-B in human cells". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (1): 486-90. doi:10.1074/ ... Survivin has been shown to interact with: Aurora B kinase, CDCA8, Caspase 3, Caspase 7, Diablo homolog and INCENP. GRCh38: ...
Stabilization of DGL7 in cell occurs due to phosphorylation by Aurora A kinase. Expression of DGL7 is found in cancer and stem ... 2005). "Phosphorylation and stabilization of HURP by Aurora-A: implication of HURP as a transforming target of Aurora-A". Mol. ... Yu CT, Hsu JM, Lee YC, Tsou AP, Chou CK, Huang CY (July 2005). "Phosphorylation and stabilization of HURP by Aurora-A: ... implication of HURP as a transforming target of Aurora-A". Mol. Cell. Biol. 25 (14): 5789-800. doi:10.1128/MCB.25.14.5789- ...
... has been shown to interact with INCENP, Survivin and Aurora B kinase. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000134690 - ... "Phosphorylation and activation of cell division cycle associated 8 by aurora kinase B plays a significant role in human lung ...
Aurora kinases are required for proper spindle assembly and separation. Aurora A associates with centrosomes and is believed to ... Spindle assembly is largely regulated by phosphorylation events catalyzed by mitotic kinases. Cyclin dependent kinase complexes ... with many of these proteins serving as Aurora and Polo-like kinase substrates. In a properly formed mitotic spindle, bi- ... Polo-like kinase, also known as PLK, especially PLK1 has important roles in the spindle maintenance by regulating microtubule ...
"Phosphorylation of HsMis13 by Aurora B kinase is essential for assembly of functional kinetochore". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (39): ...
... has been shown to interact with: Aurora A kinase, CD29 NME3, Protein SET, RAR-related orphan receptor alpha, RAR-related ... "The centrosomal kinase Aurora-A/STK15 interacts with a putative tumor suppressor NM23-H1". Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (24): 5465-75 ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NME1 gene. It is thought to be a metastasis ... Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) exists as a hexamer composed of 'A' (encoded by this gene) and 'B' (encoded by NME2) ...
He S, Yang S, Deng G, Liu M, Zhu H, Zhang W, Yan S, Quan L, Bai J, Xu N (2010). "Aurora kinase A induces miR-17-92 cluster ... "miR-17-5p Promotes migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-heat ...
... (MLN8237) is an orally available selective aurora A kinase inhibitor developed by Takeda. It was investigated as a ... a selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor, in relapsed and refractory aggressive B- and T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas". Journal of ...
"Arabidopsis α Aurora Kinases Function in Formative Cell Division Plane Orientation". The Plant Cell. 23 (11): 4013-4024. doi: ... Another midline-localized protein, "two-in-on" (TIO), is a putative kinase and is also required for cytokinesis as shown by ... "Microtubule-Associated Kinase-like Protein RUNKEL Needed for Cell Plate Expansion in Arabidopsis Cytokinesis". Current Biology ... Oh, Sung Aeong; Bourdon, Valérie; Dickinson, Hugh G.; Twell, David; Park, Soon Ki (2014-03-01). "Arabidopsis Fused kinase TWO- ...
"Bora and the Kinase Aurora A Cooperatively Activate the Kinase Plk1 and Control Mitotic Entry". Science. 320 (5883): 1655-1658 ... These kinases phosphorylate and activate the effector kinases Chk2 and Chk1, respectively, which in turn phosphorylate the ... Plk1 is activated at the G2/M transition by the Aurora A and Bora, which accumulate during G2 and form an activation complex. ... The cell is once more examined for sites of DNA damage or incomplete replication, and the kinases ATR and ATM recruited to ...
2006). "The GIT-associated kinase PAK targets to the centrosome and regulates Aurora-A". Mol. Cell. 20 (2): 237-49. doi:10.1016 ...
BI811283 is a small molecule inhibitor of the aurora B kinase protein being developed by Boehringer Ingelheim for use as an ... a novel inhibitor of Aurora B kinase, on tumor senescence and apoptosis". J. Clin. Oncol. 28 (15 Suppl e13632). Rein DT, ... Sutendra, G; Michelakis, ED (2013). "Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase as a novel therapeutic target in oncology". Frontiers in ... studies with introducing thymidine kinase in gliomas, making them susceptible to aciclovir, are in their experimental stage. ...
"Aurora kinase A is a target of Wnt/beta-catenin involved in multiple myeloma disease progression". Blood. 114 (13): 2699-708. ...
2006). "Analysis of Aurora-A and hMPS1 mitotic kinases in mantle cell lymphoma". Int. J. Cancer. 118 (2): 357-63. doi:10.1002/ ... "Entrez Gene: TTK TTK protein kinase". Hanks SK, Quinn AM (1991). "Protein kinase catalytic domain sequence database: ... Dual specificity protein kinase TTK also known as Mps1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TTK gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2003). "Human MPS1 Kinase Is Required for Mitotic Arrest Induced by the Loss of CENP-E from Kinetochores". Mol. Biol. Cell. 14 ...
Plays an important role in regulation of the kinase activity of AURKA/Aurora-A for mitotic commitment. JUB (gene) has been ... Hirota T, Kunitoku N, Sasayama T, Marumoto T, Zhang D, Nitta M, Hatakeyama K, Saya H (2003). "Aurora-A and an interacting ... Augments Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Activity in Fibroblasts, and Promotes Meiotic Maturation of Xenopus Oocytes in a Grb2 ... Protein Ajuba Influences Interleukin-1-Induced NF-κB Activation by Affecting the Assembly and Activity of the Protein Kinase Cζ ...
The mitotic kinase aurora B phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering a cascade of changes that mediate mitotic ... Ahn SH, Cheung WL, Hsu JY, Diaz RL, Smith MM, Allis CD (Jan 2005). "Sterile 20 kinase phosphorylates histone H2B at serine 10 ... SLBP are marked for degradation by phosphorylation at two threonine residues by cyclin dependent kinases, possibly cyclin A/ ... "Apoptotic phosphorylation of histone H2B is mediated by mammalian sterile twenty kinase". Cell. 113 (4): 507-17. doi:10.1016/ ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Aurora Kinase C Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Aurora Kinase C Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... aurora kinase C , ARK-3 , aurora 3 , aurora-related kinase 3 , aurora/IPL1-related kinase 3 , aurora/IPL1/EG2 protein 2 , ... serine/threonine-protein kinase aurora-C , aurora B , aurora/Ipl1/Eg2 protein 1 , serine/threonine kinase 13 (aurora/IPL-like) ...
... Posted on February 5, 2018 at 10:38 pm.. Aurora C kinase ... Since overexpression of Aurora C kinase is normally linked with many types of cancers with high proliferative PF-03814735 ... Aurora C localization in midbody is required and important for controlling abscission time. In this model, Aurora C ... Amount?7. Model for mitotic regulations of Aurora C in cells by FBXL2 and Camera. (A) In the event of a chromosome connection ...
Apart from Aurora kinases, (Aurora A - 44 nM, Aurora B - 19 nM, Aurora C- 65 nM) CYC116 also inhibits other oncogenic kinases ... Apart from this, Aurora kinases were shown to overexpress in many other advanced solid carcinomas. Aurora kinases ... Recently, Aurora kinases (A, B, and C/serine threonine kinases) gained much attention due to their implication in several types ... Aurora kinases are involved in multiple functions in mitosis. Aurora A is involved in mitotic entry, separation of centriole ...
As mentioned above, there are three classes of aurora kinases: Aurora A (a.k.a. Aurora 2) functions during prophase of mitosis ... Aurora kinases are serine/threonine kinases that are essential for cell proliferation. The enzyme helps the dividing cell ... Aurora inhibitor Bolanos-Garcia V M. Aurora kinases. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 37 (2005) 1572- ... Giet R, Prigent C. Aurora/Ipl1p-related kinases, a new oncogenic family of mitotic serine-threonine kinases. Journal of Cell ...
The human genome contains three members the Aurora kinase family: Aurora A kinase, Aurora B kinase and Aurora C kinase. The ... Aurora A and Aurora B kinases play important roles in mitosis. The Aurora A kinase is associated with centrosome maturation and ... Aurora A phosphorylation directs the cytoplasmic polyadenylation translation of mRNAs, like the MAP kinase kinase kinase ... contain orthologues only to Aurora A and Aurora B. In all studied species, the three Aurora mitotic kinases localize to the ...
Aurora B kinase has been shown to interact with: BARD1, BIRC5, and CDCA8 TACC1. Abnormally elevated levels of Aurora B kinase ... Phosphorylation of CENP-A at serine 7 by Aurora A kinase recruits Aurora B to the centromere. Aurora B, itself, can also ... The Aurora kinases associate with microtubules during chromosome movement and segregation. Aurora kinase B localizes to ... In 1998, Aurora kinase B was identified in humans by a polymerase chain reaction screen for kinases that are overexpressed in ...
Aurora kinase-induced phosphorylation excludes transcription factor RUNX from the chromatin to facilitate proper mitotic ... A high-throughput small molecule screen identifies synergism between DNA methylation and Aurora kinase pathways for X ... Activation loop phosphorylation of a protein kinase is a molecular marker of organelle size that dynamically reports flagellar ...
B kinase with putative anti-tumoral activity. Inhibitors of aurora kinases were shown to induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo ... Aurora kinase inhibitor ZM447439 induces apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways.. Li M1, Jung A, Ganswindt U, Marini P, Friedl A ... ZM447439 (ZM) is a potent and selective inhibitor of aurora-A and - ...
AURORA KINASE A. A. 287. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: AURKA, AIK, AIRK1, ARK1, AURA, AYK1, BTAK, IAK1, STK15, STK6 ... Sar156497, an Exquisitely Selective Inhibitor of Aurora Kinases.. Carry, J., Clerc, F., Minoux, H., Schio, L., Mauger, J., Nair ... The Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases is essential for mitosis. Their crucial role in cell cycle regulation and ... The Aurora family of serine/threonine kinases is essential for mitosis. Their crucial role in cell cycle regulation and ...
Aurora kinase B. Q96GD4. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. Pharmacological action?. ... Aurora kinase B. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. Polypeptides. Name. UniProt ID. ...
Compare Aurora Kinase B ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... Aurora Kinase B ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 58 Aurora Kinase B ELISA ELISA Kit across 7 suppliers. ... Mouse/Human/Rat Phospho-AURKB / Aurora-B (Thr232) ELISA Kit (Cell-Based Phosphorylation ELISA) ...
... pyrazine-based Aurora kinase inhibitors are described. The X-ray crystal structure of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine Aurora inhibitor ... pyrazine-based Aurora kinase inhibitors are described. The X-ray crystal structure of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine Aurora inhibitor ... Discovery of imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine-based Aurora kinase inhibitors.. Belanger, D.B., Curran, P.J., Hruza, A., Voigt, J., Meng, ... Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrazine-based Aurora Kinase Inhibitors. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3NRM/pdb ...
VX-680 inhibits Aurora A and Aurora B kinase activity in human cells.. Tyler RK1, Shpiro N, Marquez R, Eyers PA. ... VX-680, also known as MK-0457, is a member of a diverse group of small molecules that inhibit the Aurora kinases, and has shown ... Taken together, these data identify Aurora A and Aurora B as dual intracellular targets of VX-680. ... consistent with inhibition of the mitotic protein kinase Aurora B. In this study, we have investigated the effects of VX-680 in ...
MLN8054 inhibits recombinant Aurora A kinase activity in vitro and is selective for Aurora A over the family member Aurora B in ... B) IC50 values of MLN8054 against recombinant Aurora A, Aurora B, and a panel of other selected kinases. Kinase activity was ... Aurora A and Aurora B are structurally related serine/threonine protein kinases that function during mitosis. In humans, these ... The selectivity of MLN8054 for Aurora A over the structurally related Aurora B kinase was evaluated in HCT-116 tumor cells by ...
... aurora kinases as essential regulators of cell division has led to intense interest in identifying small molecule aurora kinase ... Discovery of a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable pyridinyl-pyrimidine phthalazine aurora kinase inhibitor.. Cee VJ1, ... A high-throughput screening effort identified pyridinyl-pyrimidine 6a as a moderately potent dual inhibitor of aurora kinases - ... In a COLO 205 tumor pharmacodynamic assay measuring phosphorylation of the aurora-B substrate histone H3 at serine 10 (p- ...
... aurora kinase inhibitors as a promising therapeutic option in myeloma can be tailoredly given to patients expressing aurora-A, ... Inhibition of aurora kinases for tailored risk-adapted treatment of multiple myeloma.. Hose D1, Rème T, Meissner T, Moreaux J, ... A1) Inhibition of proliferation of 20 myeloma cell lines by the pan-Aurora-kinase inhibitor VX680 in graded concentrations vs. ... Inhibition of aurora kinases for tailored risk-adapted treatment of multiple myeloma ...
Hesperadin is a human Aurora B inhibitor with an IC50 of 40 nM for the prevention of the phosphorylation of substrate. Find all ... The Aurora B kinase assay:. For the Aurora B kinase assay, HeLa cells are lysed in a buffer containing 50 mM NaCl. The whole ... less potent towards Aurora B/Aurora C and 100-fold more selective for Aurora A than 55 other kinases. Phase 2. ... Danusertib (PHA-739358) is an Aurora kinase inhibitor for Aurora A/B/C with IC50 of 13 nM/79 nM/61 nM in cell-free assays, ...
... and its effect can be mimicked by nondegradable Aurora kinase.. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting of Aurora kinases at anaphase by APC/C( ... APC/C Cdh1 targets aurora kinase to control reorganization of the mitotic spindle at anaphase.. Floyd S1, Pines J, Lindon C. ... no effect on destruction of many APC/C substrates during mitotic exit but strongly and specifically stabilize Aurora kinases. ... The effect of Cdh1 siRNA on anaphase spindle dynamics requires Aurora A, ...
Aurora kinase selective inhibitors identified using a Taxol-induced checkpoint sensitivity screen.. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3ZTX/pdb ... Selective Aurora Kinase Inhibitors Identified Using a Taxol- Induced Checkpoint Sensitivity Screen.. Kwiatkowski, N., Deng, X. ... The members of the Aurora kinase family play critical roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and mitotic spindle assembly ... The members of the Aurora kinase family play critical roles in the regulation of the cell cycle and mitotic spindle assembly ...
Aurora kinase (Aur) family - overview and references - Guide to Pharmacology. *aurora kinase C - data and references - Guide to ... recruit INCENP and Aurora-C) to meiotic chromosomes, while Aurora-C may either work alone or cooperate with Aurora-B to ... Aurora-C was first identified during screening for kinases expressed in mouse sperm and eggs. Herein, we report for the first ... Dynamic localization and functional implications of Aurora-C kinase during male mouse meiosis.. Tang CJ1, Lin CY, Tang TK. ...
Aurora-A/STK15/BTAK, which encodes a centrosome-associated kinase, is amplified and overexpressed in multiple types of human ... Overexpression of aurora kinase A in mouse mammary epithelium induces genetic instability preceding mammary tumor formation.. ... To investigate this, we generated a mouse strain that carries an MMTV-Aurora-A transgene. We showed that all the MMTV-Aurora-A ... These data establish Aurora-A as an oncogene that causes malignant transformation through inducing genetic instability and ...
Mutants of protein kinase A that mimic the ATP-binding site of Aurora kinase. Pflug, A., de Oliveira, T.M., Bossemeyer, D., ... We demonstrate the utility of the Aurora-chimaeric PKA by measuring binding kinetics for three Aurora kinase-specific ... Protein kinase A sixfold mutant model of Aurora B with inhibitor JNJ-7706621. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3AMA/pdb ... Furthermore, the high affinity for Aurora kinase-specific inhibitors, combined with the favourable crystallizability properties ...
The human aurora kinase family comprises three members: Aurora A, B and C (AURKA, AURKB and AURKC). Aurora A is important in ... Aurora kinases are a highly conserved family of enzymes which add phospho-groups to Serine/Threonine residues of substrate ... The involvement of these kinases in cell division and deregulated expression of aurora A and B in tumor cells (often resulting ... BioVision proudly offers several aurora kinase inhibitors including the ones mentioned above and more. ...
Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapy » Blog Archives Menu Not Found. Skip to content *Home ...
Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapy » Blog Archives Menu Not Found. Skip to content *Home ... Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)by the 5-kinase Fab1g in fungus [4,5] and its February 12, 2018. Published ... Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)by the 5-kinase Fab1g in fungus [4,5] and its homologue PIKfyve in pets [6 ... which comes from the stalling of PI 3-kinase-dependent trafficking at the early endosome [40,41]. Yet, TNFAIP3 no depletion of ...
  • Kinome Cyclin-dependent kinase Signal transduction Andrews PD, Knatko E, Moore WJ, Swedlow JR. Mitotic mechanics: the auroras come into view. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential mechanism of MAPK cascade for phragmoplast expansion is suppressed by cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activity before telophase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seliciclib (CYC202 or R-roscovitine), a CDK (cyclin dependent kinase) inhibitor, is in Phase 2 studies for the treatment of lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer and in a Phase 1 trial in combination with sapacitabine. (wikipedia.org)
  • We confirmed that HMGN2 is a bona fide Aurora B substrate in vivo and show that its dynamic association to chromatin is controlled by Aurora B. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to predicting previously unknown functions, this work establishes additional substrate-recognition motifs for these kinases and provides an analytical template for further use in dissecting kinase signaling events in other areas of cellular signaling and systems biology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the consensus sequence residues of a target substrate only make contact with several key amino acids within the catalytic cleft of the kinase (usually through hydrophobic forces and ionic bonds), a kinase is usually not specific to a single substrate, but instead can phosphorylate a whole "substrate family" which share common recognition sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most kinases are inhibited by a pseudosubstrate that binds to the kinase like a real substrate but lacks the amino acid to be phosphorylated. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suspected oncogenic role of Aurora A, in addition to its essential role in mitotic progression, make it an attractive target for anticancer therapy. (pnas.org)