Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Staphylococcal VaccinesMethicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Mupirocin: A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Pneumonia, Staphylococcal: Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Nafcillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 3.4.24.75.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.OsteomyelitisAcetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Floxacillin: Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Superantigens: Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Ecthyma: An ulcerative pyoderma usually caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection at the site of minor trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Mice, Inbred BALB CGentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Mice, Inbred C57BLCatheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.MarylandDNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Toll-Like Receptor 2: A pattern recognition receptor that forms heterodimers with other TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS. It interacts with multiple ligands including PEPTIDOGLYCAN, bacterial LIPOPROTEINS, lipoarabinomannan, and a variety of PORINS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Mice, Inbred ICRPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.United StatesHospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Exfoliatins: Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.PeptidoglycanCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Mastitis: INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Furunculosis: A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
... should not be used on its own to treat S. aureus infections when used at low drug dosages. However, it may be ... aureus infections. However, at least in Canadian hospitals, data collected between 1999-2005 showed rather low rate of ... In vitro susceptibility studies of U.S. strains of several bacterial species such as S. aureus, including MRSA and coagulase ... Fusidic acid is being tested for indications beyond skin infections. There is evidence from compassionate use cases that ...
Lowy, Franklin D. (1998-08-20). "Staphylococcus aureus Infections". New England Journal of Medicine. 339 (8): 520-532. doi: ... causing infections away from the original site of infection, such as endocarditis or osteomyelitis. Treatment for bacteremia is ... Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia in North and South America and is also an ... Salmonella infection, despite mainly only resulting in gastroenteritis in the developed world, is a common cause of bacteremia ...
Infections include by fungi such as Candida albicans and bacteria such as Staph. aureus. Irritants include poorly fitting ... If Staphylococcus aureus infection is demonstrated by microbiological culture to be responsible (or suspected), the treatment ... a polymicrobial infection) with about 60% of cases involving both C. albicans and S. aureus. Candida can be detected in 93% of ... If Staphylococcus aureus is involved, the lesion may show golden yellow crusts. In chronic angular cheilitis, there may be ...
"Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections". cdc.gov. September 10, 2013. Retrieved 15 February 2015. Vetter ... may think that a wound is a spider bite when it is actually an infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA ... Signs of a bacterial infection due to a spider bite occur infrequently (0.9%). A study of 750 definite spider bites in ... antibiotics are not recommended unless there is also a bacterial infection present. Black widow post-envenomation treatment ...
"Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-01. "Ringworm: MedlinePlus ... The infection grows while in warm moist places and tends to be itchy. One can contract the infection by touching the area that ... This infection can be spread by coming into contact with a person who has the infection. Another way to contract impetigo is by ... Injuries and infections are not uncommon in the sport of wrestling since there is so much contact. Also, infections occur ...
S. aureus can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections to Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning enteritis. Since ... "Molecular epidemiology of enteritis-causing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". Journal of Hospital Infection. 62 (1 ... Staphylococcus aureus is a true food poisoning organism. It produces a heat stable enterotoxin when allowed to grow for several ... Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe, coccal (round shaped) bacteria that appears in grape-like ...
Infection is usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Infectious pathogens commonly associated with mastitis are Staphylococcus ... Most breast infections occur within the first or second month after delivery or at the time of weaning. However, in rare cases ... "Breast Infection Symptoms". Retrieved 2010-04-20. Segura-Sampedro JJ, Jiménez-Rodríguez R, Camacho-Marente V, Pareja-Ciuró F, ... When infection is present, antibiotics such as cephalexin may be recommended. Breastfeeding should typically be continued, as ...
Long lasting infections of S. aureus includes pneumonia, meningitis, and osteomyelitis. S. aureus is commonly contracted in ... Staphylococcus aureus was first identified in 1880. It is responsible for different infections stemming from an injury. The ... Different types of diseases and infections typically have pathogens from mesophilic bacteria such as the ones listed above. ... Some notable mesophiles include Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Other examples of species ...
"Nose picking and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 27 (8): 863-7. doi: ... and thus infection or illness), or occasional nosebleeds. One case of rhinotillexomania resulted in perforation of the nasal ... Picking one's nose with dirty fingers or fingernails may increase risks of infection that may include an increase in the ...
Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Eikenella corrodens. Lemierre's syndrome begins with an infection of the ... During the primary infection, F. necrophorum colonizes the infection site and the infection spreads to the parapharyngeal space ... Usually this infection is a pharyngitis (which occurred in 87.1% of patients as reported by a literature review), but it can ... Spread of infection to the nearby internal jugular vein provides a gateway for the spread of bacteria through the bloodstream. ...
Tong SY; Davis JS; Eichenberger E; Holland TL; Fowler VG (July 2015). "Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, ... "Highly effective regimen for decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers". Infection Control and ... S. aureus is particularly common, and asymptomatically colonizes about 30% of the human population; attempts to decolonize ... Bacteria which form spores can survive longer, with Staphylococcus aureus surviving potentially for weeks or, in the case of ...
... is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus, or ... Cefalexin does not treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Cefalexin is a useful alternative to ... bone and joint infections, pneumonia, cellulitis, and urinary tract infections. It may be used to prevent bacterial ... Allergic reactions or infections with Clostridium difficile, a cause of diarrhea, are also possible. Use during pregnancy or ...
... nosocomial infections, and food poisoning due to its tropism for human skin and soft tissue. The S. aureus clonal complex CC121 ... In adults, infection by the Zika virus may lead to Zika fever; and if the infection occurs during the first trimester of ... "Staphylococcus aureus Infections: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management". Clinical ... When the virus is able to use the cell to replicate its genetic information, the virus can spread infection throughout the body ...
... aggressive treatment of acute infection can prevent chronic infection. When the risk of anaerobic infection is high, as with ... This includes streptococcus species, and staphylococcus aureus. Peptostreptococcus micros has a moderate association with ... aggressive treatment of acute infection can prevent chronic infection. When the risk of anaerobic infection is high, as with ... CNS infections can be isolated from subdural empyema and brain abscesses which are a result of chronic infections. Also ...
The cause is usually from a spreading infection in the nose, sinuses, ears, or teeth. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus ... and dental infections (10%). Less common primary sites of infection include tonsils, soft palate, middle ear, or orbit (orbital ... "Cavernous sinus thrombosis and meningitis from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection". ... Staphylococcus aureus is the most common infectious microbe, found in 70% of the cases. Streptococcus is the second leading ...
They rarely can be caused by distant infection or an infected cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Staphylococcus aureus is the ... Akalan, N; Ozgen, T (2000). "Infection as a cause of spinal cord compression: a review of 36 spinal epidural abscess cases". ... These typically arise (along with osteomyelitis of a cranial bone) from infections of the ear or paranasal sinuses. ...
It is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It may be secondary to chronic rhinorrhea, nose picking or viral infections. In ...
... bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus; as well as fungal infections of the mouth or skin with Candida. Eczema is common, and ... The cutaneous or skin infections are distinctive and include severe and difficult to treat viral infections, such as herpes ... Recurrent lung infections may lead to bronchiectasis or damage to the airways leaving them widened and scarred. ... Together, these skin infections can become disfiguring. DOCK8 immunodefiency patients frequently have allergies to many food ...
... is most often caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The infection can affect any skeletal muscle, but most ... Most patients are aged 2 to 5 years, but infection may occur in any age group. Infection often follows minor trauma and is more ... Pyomyositis, also known as tropical pyomyositis or myositis tropicans, is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscles which ... Antibiotics are given for a minimum of three weeks to clear the infection. ...
... and healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of ... In humans, S. aureus is part of the normal microbiota present in the upper respiratory tract, and on skin and in the gut mucosa ... S. aureus, along with similar species that can colonize and act symbiotically but can cause disease if they begin to take over ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Burkholderia cepacia are found most often in cystic fibrosis patients. High- ...
Xia, Guoqing; Wolz, Christiane (2014-01-01)."Phages of Staphylococcus aureus and their impact on host evolution". Infection, ... φ12 and φ13 of Staphylococcus aureus 8325". Gene 289 (1-2): 109-118.doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(02)00481-X. Loessner, M. J.; Gaeng, ... S.; Wendlinger, G.; Maier, S. K.; Scherer, S. (1998-05-15). "The two-component lysis system of Staphylococcus aureus ... "Molecular analysis of lytic genes of bacteriophage 80 alpha of Staphylococcus aureus". Canadian Journal of Microbiology 43 (7 ...
"The psmα locus regulates production of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin during infection". Infection and Immunity. 82 (8): ... MRSA production of PSMs is thought to be a possible cause of severe infections. PSM production is higher in community-acquired ... "Phenol-soluble modulins and staphylococcal infection" (PDF). Graves, S. F.; Kobayashi, S. D.; Deleo, F. R. (2010). "Community- ... In all species of Staphylococcus, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), they are encoded within the ...
... commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis. The bacterial infection leads ... Staphylococcus aureus has recently also been implicated in pediatric WFS. It can also be associated with Haemophilus influenzae ... Fulminant infection from meningococci bacteria in the bloodstream is a medical emergency and requires emergent treatment with ... Ebola virus infection may also cause similar acute adrenal failure.[citation needed] Leukocytosis Acidosis Hyperkalemia ...
... is an infection of the lacrimal sac, secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct at the junction of ... Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterial pathogen causing infectious dacrocystitis. Sometimes, especially in women, stones ... Most notably, obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct leads to stasis of the nasolacrimal fluid, which predisposes to infection. ... It is most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The most common complication is corneal ...
The toxin in S. aureus infections is TSS Toxin-1, or TSST-1. The TSST-1 is secreted as a single polypeptide chain. The gene ... TSS resulting from infection with the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus typically manifests in otherwise healthy individuals via ... aureus) Negative serology for Rickettsia infection, leptospirosis, and measles Cases are classified as confirmed or probable ... Even though S. aureus was isolated from mucosal sites in the patients, bacteria could not be isolated from the blood, ...
Infection[edit]. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ... S. pneumoniae infection stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) to produce an oxidative burst that is ... Sepsis is caused by overwhelming response to an infection and leads to tissue damage, organ failure, and even death. The ...
Canine influenza virus Feline hypertension and CKD Heartworm resources Infection prevention and biosecurity Lifetime care ... Environmental methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus in a veterinary teaching hospital during a nonoutbreak period. Vector ... Infection control practices and zoonotic disease risks among veterinarians in the United States. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232(12 ... Infection Control Hosp Epidemiol 2009;30(7):611-22.. *Hoet AE, Johnson A, Nava-Hoet RC, et al. ...
... aureus in NICUs. Includes recommendations, methods and evidence summaries. ... Guideline: NICU - S. aureus pdf icon[PDF - 29 pages] (print version). Appendix: NICU - S. aureus pdf icon[PDF -142 pages] ( ... Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Patients: Staphylococcus aureus (2020) ... The use of active surveillance testing for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) colonization in neonatal intensive care unit ...
Introduction for Recommendations for infection control of S. aureus in NICUs. ... aureus infection, or in an outbreak setting. However, no discrete benchmark or threshold for S. aureus or MRSA infection rates ... Neonates who acquire S. aureus colonization are at increased risk of S. aureus infection.[21] The ultimate goal driving efforts ... aureus infections are high in neonates, especially in preterm and low birthweight infants.[26] Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ...
Patients with infections due to Staphylococcus aureus often need antibiotics. Infections due to normal strains of ... and cause infections. These infections may be mild (eg pimples or boils) or serious (eg infection of the bloodstream, bones or ... The treatment of infections due to Staphylococcus aureus was revolutionised in the 1940s by the introduction of the antibiotic ... MRSA infections are a particular problem in hospitals. As with ordinary strains of Staphylococcus aureus, some patients harbour ...
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria may cause these symptoms and signs: boils, furuncles, pain, rash, pus drainage, redness, ... Read about staph infection treatment and complications: impetigo and cellulitis. ... Is a Staph Infection Contagious?. A staph infection is caused by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Staph can cause boils, ... Staph Infection - Length Symptoms Lasted How long did the symptoms of your staph infection (Staphylococcus aureus) last? ...
... methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and, more recently, vancomycin-resistant strains. An example of radiographic fi... ... Both community-associated and hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus have increased in the past 20 years, and ... encoded search term (Staphylococcus Aureus Infection) and Staphylococcus Aureus Infection What to Read Next on Medscape. ... A portal of infection is almost never found, and the infection is nearly always unilateral. Patients with infection of the ...
Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants in prosthetic joint infection.. Sendi P1, Rohrbach M, Graber P, Frei R, Ochsner PE ... Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants: difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat. [Clin Infect Dis. 2006] ... We analyzed 5 cases of hip prosthesis-associated infections due to small colony variants, including their course prior to ... In the case of a poor response to adequate antimicrobial and surgical treatment in implant-associated staphylococcal infections ...
Staphylococcus Aureus Type 80 and Human Infections in Uganda Br Med J 1958; 2 :893 ... Staphylococcus Aureus Type 80 and Human Infections in Uganda. Br Med J 1958; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5101.893 ( ...
... Dimitrios Stoimenis, Christina ... "Transient monoclonal hypergammaglobulinemia during the course of a Rickettsia infection," Infection, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 249- ... N. Mohandasa, M. Singha, R. B. S. Singha, and J. Damodharana, "Monoclonal gammopathy in HIV and hepatitis B co-infection: a ... R. Ning, X. Zhang, X. Guo, and Q. Li, "Staphylococcus aureus regulates secretion of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant ...
Care guide for Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard ... What is vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus infection?. A vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) infection is ... The infection can spread easily from person to person.. What increases my risk for a VRSA infection?. *Surgery or a hospital ... Learn more about Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection. Micromedex® Care Notes. *Vancomycin Intermediate ...
... aureus infections pose a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Although the incidence of complex S. aureus infections is ... Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. Strains of S. aureus that are resistant to ... S. aureus bacteremias are particularly problematic because of the high incidence of associated complicated infections, ... S. aureus is a common pathogen in skin, soft-tissue, catheter-related, bone, joint, pulmonary, and central nervous system ...
... provides an overview of the Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection ... Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2014, ... Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecium Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2014. - Staphylococcus Aureus Infections - Pipeline ... Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA) - Pipeline Review, H1 2014. - Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ...
... aureus) is the most prevalent infectious microorganism affecting dairy cattle worldwide, and its pathogenic characteristics ... S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI) are mainly subclinical, and associated losses can exceed average herd losses where the ... Fat yield from infected quarters decreased, but losses due to the infection caused by S. aureus were not associated with ... S. aureus has increased somatic cell counts at quarter level; however, no effect of S. aureus IMI on milk lactose, fat, and ...
Population-based epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection in Canterbury, New Zealand.. Huggan PJ1, Wells JE ... Few contemporary reports describe population-based incidence of Staphylcoccus aureus bloodstream infection (SABSI). ... Blood cultures growing S. aureus were identified from hospital laboratories between 1 July 1998 and 30 June 2006. Record ... 779 patients with SABSI were identified (482/779 (62%) male, 297/779 (38%) female). The crude incidence of S. aureus ...
nasal swabs to detect Staphylococcus aureus skin infection to detect Staphylococcus aureus ... Staphylococcus Aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate strategies to prevent Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in ... Evaluating Strategies to Prevent Staphylococcus Aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Soldiers During Infantry Training. ...
Staphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and ... Staphylococcus aureus infection - Homo sapiens (human) [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ... life-threatening infections. The organism has several ways to divert the effectiveness of the immune system: secreting immune ...
... aureus+infection+of+the+sinuses? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when ... used to treat or reduce the symptoms of acute+staphylococcus+aureus+infection+of+the+sinuses ... Considering taking medication to treat acute+staphylococcus+aureus+infection+of+the+sinuses? Below is a list of common ... medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of acute+staphylococcus+aureus+infection+of+the+sinuses. Follow the links to ...
... Mohamed ... Mohamed Abdel-Maksoud, Mona El-Shokry, Ghada Ismail, et al., "Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from ... Healthcare- and Community-Associated Infections in Egypt," International Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 2016, Article ID 5751785 ...
... and reduced risks of potentially fatal healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus infection, according to new research being ... aureus infection declined by 15%. Overall, average rates of S. aureus infection fell from 1.27 new cases per 10,000 bed-days in ... aureus infection at the hospital level (especially for the largest hospitals), suggests that declines in S. aureus infection ... "Hospital-acquired infections are a major concern for hospitals around the world and S. aureus is among the most dangerous," ...
Background Vancomycin is commonly used to treat staphylococcal infections, but there has not been a definitive analysis of the ... Staphylococcus aureus infections. N Engl J Med 1998; 339(8): 520-32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... We investigated all patients with a Staphylococcus aureus lower respiratory tract infection at a 300-bed teaching hospital in ... The development of vancomycin resistance in a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. N Engl J Med ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in people living and working in pig farms - Volume 137 Issue 5 - I. V. F. VAN DEN ...
We focused specifically on staphylococcal infection of bone, one of the most common sites of invasive S. aureus infection and a ... aureus infection, osteomyelitis (OM) is a paradigm for invasive staphylococcal disease (4). Bone infections cause significant ... Genes contributing to Staphylococcus aureus fitness in abscess- and infection-related ecologies. MBio 5, e01729-14 (2014).. ... Brain infection with Staphylococcus aureus leads to high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ...
... aureus+bacteria? Find a list of current medications, their possible side effects, dosage, and efficacy when used to treat or ... reduce the symptoms of complicated+skin+infection+due+to+staphyloccus+aureus+bacteria ... Considering taking medication to treat complicated+skin+infection+due+to+staphyloccus+aureus+bacteria? Below is a list of ... 43 medications found for complicated+skin+infection+due+to+staphyloccus+aureus+bacteria ...
... aureus infections [2, 4]. The frequency of S. aureus infections, and the frequency of those infections acquiring methicillin- ... Staphylococcus aureus infections can be categorized into five main types: localized skin infection, diffuse skin infection, ... S. aureus produces toxins that can lead to toxinosis when ingested. The other infections S. aureus can cause include ... A distinction between acute and chronic S. aureus infection has been hypothesized to result from the infections biofilm ...
  • Guidelines for preventing health-care-associated pneumonia, 2003: Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. (aaha.org)
  • CHICAGO, Sept. 16, 2011 /CHICAGOPRESSRELEASE.COM/ - GlycoVaxyn AG, a leader in the development of innovative vaccines, today announced an abstract to be presented on a glycoprotein vaccine based on recombinant DNA technology to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC) , September 17 to 20, 2011, in Chicago. (chicagopressrelease.com)
  • ABSTRACT: The prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus was investigated among 200 participants working in three different food processing plants in Egypt. (scirp.org)
  • Perform active surveillance testing for S. aureus colonization in neonatal intensive care unit patients when there is an increased incidence of S. aureus infection or in an outbreak setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Consider targeted decolonization for S. aureus- colonized neonatal intensive care unit patients in addition to the implementation of, and adherence to, appropriate infection prevention and control measures in an outbreak setting, or when there is ongoing healthcare-associated transmission, or an increase in the incidence of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • This document makes specific recommendations about interventions to be implemented when there is evidence of ongoing transmission of S. aureus , an increased incidence of S. aureus infection, or in an outbreak setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of high incidence, morbidity, and antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. (aafp.org)
  • Although the incidence of complex S. aureus infections is rising, new antimicrobial agents, including daptomycin and linezolid, are available as treatment. (aafp.org)
  • All hand hygiene compliance auditing was done by direct observation three times a year (measured as a percentage of observed moments), and the clinical impact of the programme was assessed by linking data on hospital-level incidence of S. aureus infection with hospital-level hand hygiene compliance. (news-medical.net)
  • Finally, they note that while a strong link between improved hand hygiene compliance and declining incidence of S. aureus infection was found, other factors such as viral respiratory outbreaks or antimicrobial stewardship programmes may have had some impact. (news-medical.net)
  • The increases in incidence we describe may reflect the emergence of virulent S. aureus strains in the community or changes in host risk factors. (mja.com.au)
  • Analysis of risk factors implicated in skin carriage of S. aureus as age, gender, marital status, education, duration in employment, frequency and method of hand wash and incidence of chronic skin infection revealed insignificant association with staphylococcal skin carriage. (scirp.org)
  • in individuals with HIV infection at an incidence rate of 7.8 (95% CI 4.7 to 10.9)/100 person-years compared with 2.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.2)/100 person-years for individuals without HIV. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we analyzed the role and the crosstalk of the global S. aureus regulators agr, sarA and SigB by generating single, double and triple mutants, and testing them with proteome analysis and in different in vitro and in vivo infection models. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro studies from the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that pathogenic strains of S. aureus could survive for long periods of time inside both PMN and monocytes isolated from different animals and humans ( 12 , 13 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Through different pathogenic in vivo and in vitro models we investigated the behavior of S. aureus most relevant clonal complexes (CCs) causing endovascular complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that the tet regulatory system functions efficiently in S. aureus and induced antisense RNA can effectively downregulate chromosomal gene expression both in vitro and in vivo. (asm.org)
  • ML:8 (1% [vol/vol]) and Citrox (1% [vol/vol]), containing caprylic acid and flavonoids, respectively, were used to treat S. aureus biofilms grown in vitro using newly described static and flow biofilm assays. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Antibodies derived from vaccinated animals promoted killing of S. aureus in an in vitro opsonophagocytic killing assay. (chicagopressrelease.com)
  • have demonstrated that in vitro transcription from this promoter by S. aureus RNA polymerase is ς B dependent ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Similarly, neutrophils from diabetic mice stimulated with S. aureus in vitro underwent apoptosis to a lower degree compared to non-diabetic controls whereas spontaneous induction of apoptosis was not significantly altered. (egms.de)
  • Moreover, a global regulator mutant of S. aureus ( sar −) that lacks the expression of several virulence factors is less able to survive and/or avoid clearance in the presence of PMN. (jimmunol.org)
  • Pathogenic strains often promote infections by producing virulence factors such as potent protein toxins, and the expression of a cell-surface protein that binds and inactivates antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its implementation in 2009, the National Australian Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) has seen significant, sustained improvements in hand hygiene compliance among Australian healthcare workers, and reduced risks of potentially fatal healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus infection, according to new research being presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (13-16 April), and published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases . (news-medical.net)
  • These studies led investigators at the time to speculate that both intracellular survival and extracellular multiplication play important roles in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The ability to titrate down a gene product either under culture conditions or in an animal model of infection would provide a powerful, additional approach for studying gene essentiality and pathogenesis in this organism. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, these findings highlight a B lymphocyte/antibody-dependent role of Sbi in the pathogenesis of S. aureus SSTI, and demonstrate that neither Sbi nor SpA interfered with elicited antibody-mediated immunity. (mdpi.com)
  • In mice, S. aureus mutants lacking adsA exhibit diminished survival in host tissues and defects in the pathogenesis of bloodstream infections ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • However, endovascular complications remain commonplace in spite of appropriate management and treatment ( Naber, 2009 ) suggesting that the intrinsic pathogenicity of the S. aureus strains involved may play a role in determining clinical outcome and development of endovascular complications. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have constructed, by allelic replacement, a deletion mutation of the S. aureus sigB gene in the clinical isolate WCUH29 and examined the phenotypic effects of the mutation on the strain and its ability to cause infection in three distinct animal infection models. (asm.org)
  • A phage 85 lysate of one of the mutants was transduced into S. aureus clinical strain WCUH29. (asm.org)
  • We reviewed the clinical features, therapy, and outcome of 25 patients with serious infections due to SA-RVS in Australia and New Zealand. (edu.au)
  • Flawed self-assessment in hand hygiene: a major contributor to infections in clinical practice? (ahrq.gov)
  • This essential role for PMN in an experimental model of S. aureus -induced septic arthritis was recently confirmed by depleting mice of granulocytes before the establishment of infection ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We previously reported that S. aureus skin infection (SSTI) elicited antibody-mediated immunity against secondary SSTI in BALB/c mice. (mdpi.com)
  • We found that B lymphocyte-deficient μMT mice were highly susceptible to infection, compared with congenic BALB/c mice. (mdpi.com)
  • The C57BL/6 mice were injected with S. aureus (10 6 CFU/ml, 100 μl) or with the same amount of vehicle (control) via the tail vein. (clinsci.org)
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis confirmed an increased level of G-CSF in the bone marrow and serum from S. aureus infected mice, which might have been due to the increased amount of F4/80 + macrophages. (clinsci.org)
  • The biodistribution of those labeled proteins in mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus at the femoral muscle was investigated and test ratios of 3.43 and 3.71 were obtained after 60 min for the camel and the human Lactoferrin, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Finally, immunization of mice with S. aureus-derived MVs induced production of IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b resulting in protection against subcutaneous and systemic S. aureus infection. (diva-portal.org)
  • We used age-matched diabetic and non-diabetic NOD mice challenged with S. aureus i.p. as an animal model of systemic infection to study neutrophil apoptosis during infection (as measured by nuclear condensation, Annexin binding and TUNEL staining). (egms.de)
  • Neutrophils isolated from diabetic mice infected with S. aureus displayed enhanced viability and a 11-35% lower rate of apoptosis in all assays used. (egms.de)
  • Gene expression-based classifiers identify Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice and humans. (duke.edu)
  • The approach described here lends insight into the conserved and disparate pathways utilized by mice and humans in response to these infections. (duke.edu)
  • Hospitalized patients with S. aureus infection have five times the risk of in-hospital mortality compared with inpatients without this infection. (aafp.org)
  • An established experimental mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus-Candida albicans intra-abdominal infection results in ∼60% mortality within 48 h postinoculation, concomitant with amplified local inflammatory responses, while monomicrobial infections are avirulent. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, coinfection with the yeast-locked C. albicans mutant given intravenously (i.v.) and S. aureus given intraperitoneally (i.p.) failed to induce mortality. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inaddition to bloodstream infections with a mortality rate of up to 35%,infections of bone, heart and other inner organs are leading to serious healthcomplications, death and economic burden. (medindia.net)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rate and risk of reinfection associated with SAB in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to individuals without HIV-1 infection. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality after SAB and a very high rate of reinfection. (bmj.com)
  • Objective To evaluate the impact of the Cleanyourhands campaign on rates of hospital procurement of alcohol hand rub and soap, report trends in selected healthcare associated infections, and investigate the association between infections and procurement. (bmj.com)
  • Similarly, induction of hla antisense RNA in vivo dramatically reduced alpha-toxin expression in two different murine models of S. aureus infection. (asm.org)
  • Applying a highly saturated Tn-seq mutant library to analyze fitness and growth requirements in a murine abscess and in various infection-relevant fluids, we identified S. aureus traits that enable it to survive and proliferate during infection. (asm.org)
  • In two murine and one rat infection model the mutant showed no reduction in virulence. (asm.org)
  • This study uses Bayesian sparse factor modeling and penalized binary regression to define peripheral blood gene-expression classifiers of murine and human S. aureus infection. (duke.edu)
  • Murine and human responses to S. aureus infection share common biological pathways, allowing the murine model to classify S. aureus BSI in humans (AUC 0.84). (duke.edu)
  • Both murine and human S. aureus classifiers were validated in an independent human cohort (AUC 0.95 and 0.92, respectively). (duke.edu)
  • The use of universal decolonization for S. aureus- colonized neonatal intensive care unit patients is an unresolved issue. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular testing identified strains historically associated with community-associated disease outbreaks recovered from cultures in both hospital-onset and community-onset health care-associated infections in all surveillance areas. (nih.gov)
  • Any neonatal infection can be associated with long-term sequelae, including negative long-term neurocognitive outcomes and poor prognosis. (cdc.gov)