Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.GATA5 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and is involved in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. In the developing heart, GATA5 becomes restricted to the ENDOCARDIUM and regulates transcription of genes such as cardiac TROPONIN C.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Mice, Inbred C57BLSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.High Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.NF-E2 Transcription Factor: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Transcription Factor Brn-3: A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.SOXE Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.

*T helper cell

The key Th2 transcription factors are STAT6 and GATA3. IL-4 is the positive feedback cytokine for Th2 cells differentiation. ... There are also other types of T cells that can influence the expression and activation of helper T cells, such as natural ... "T-BAM/CD40-L on helper T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells ... The key Th1 transcription factors are STAT4 and T-bet. IFN-γ secreted by CD4 T cells can activate macrophages to phagocytose ...

*T helper cell

The key Th2 transcription factors are STAT6 and GATA3.[10] IL-4 is the positive feedback cytokine for Th2 cells differentiation ... Hu, Wanchung (2007). Microarray analysis of PBMC gene expression profiles after Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection (Ph.D ... "T-BAM/CD40-L on helper T lymphocytes augments lymphokine-induced B cell Ig isotype switch recombination and rescues B cells ... The key THαβ transcription factors are STAT1 and STAT3 as well as IRFs. IL-10 from CD4 T cells activate NK cells' ADCC to ...

*Deoxyribozyme

By targeting the transcription factor, GATA3, of the Th2 pathway, with DNAzyme it may be possible to negate the inflammation. ... The development of a 10-23 DNAzyme that can block the expression of IGF-I (Insulin-like growth factor I, a contributor to ... "Nucleic acid-mediated cleavage of M1 gene of influenza A virus is significantly augmented by antisense molecules targeted to ... The transcription factor GATA-3 is also an interesting target, of the DNAzyme topical formulation SB012, for a novel ...
Looking for online definition of winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 in the Medical Dictionary? winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 explanation free. What is winged-helix transcription factor RFX4? Meaning of winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 medical term. What does winged-helix transcription factor RFX4 mean?
Looking for online definition of heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 in the Medical Dictionary? heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 explanation free. What is heat-shock transcription factor family member 5? Meaning of heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 medical term. What does heat-shock transcription factor family member 5 mean?
Didier Picard, January 2015 Current list of HBD fusion proteins_ Protein X a HBD b regulated as c Refs. transcription factor in Arabidopsis transcription factor Arabidopsis transcription factor in tobacco coactivator transcription factor 1 2 3 transcription factor transcription factor, differentiation factor transcription factor putative transcription factor in arabidposis transcription factor oncoprotein transcription factor transcription factor oncoprotein oncoprotein oncoprotein transcription factor oncoprotein, transcription factor 6 7 ...
387448814 - EP 0851912 A4 2000-01-05 - NOVEL FACTORS WHICH MODIFY GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND METHODS OF USE THEREFOR - [origin: WO9708301A1] Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II holoenzymes that contain RNA polymerase II and one or more regulatory proteins are described. These holoenzymes selectively initiate transcription in vitro when supplemented with general transcription factors. The regulatory proteins act positively and negatively to regulate transcription initiation, at least in part, via functional interactions with RNA polymerase II.[origin: WO9708301A1] Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II holoenzymes that contain RNA polymerase II and one or more regulatory proteins are described. These holoenzymes selectively initiate transcription in vitro when supplemented with general transcription factors. The regulatory proteins act positively and negatively to regulate ...
Yeast RNA polymerase II initiation factor b copurifies with three polypeptides of 85, 73, and 50 kilodaltons and with a protein kinase that phosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit. The gene that encodes the 73-kilodalton polypeptide, designated TFB1, was cloned and found to be essential for cell growth. The deduced protein sequence exhibits no similarity to those of protein kinases. However, the sequence is similar to that of the 62-kilodalton subunit of the HeLa transcription factor BFT2, suggesting that this factor is the human counterpart of yeast factor b. Immunoprecipitation experiments using antibodies to the TFB1 gene product demonstrate that the transcriptional and CTD kinase activities of factor b are closely associated with an oligomer of the three polypeptides. Photoaffinity labeling with 3-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (adenosine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of human and rat islet β-cell proliferation with retention of function by the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1. AU - Schisler, Jonathan C.. AU - Fueger, Patrick T.. AU - Babu, Daniella A.. AU - Hohmeier, Hans E.. AU - Tessem, Jeffery S.. AU - Lu, Danhong. AU - Becker, Thomas C.. AU - Naziruddin, Bashoo. AU - Levy, Marlon. AU - Mirmira, Raghu. AU - Newgard, Christopher B.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1 plays an important role in pancreatic islet β-cell development, but its effects on adult β-cell function, survival, and proliferation are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that treatment of primary rat pancreatic islets with a cytomegalovirus promoter-driven recombinant adenovirus containing the Nkx6.1 cDNA (AdCMV-Nkx6.1) causes dramatic increases in [methyl-3H] thymidine and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and in the number of ...
Divergence of transcription factor binding sites is considered to be an important source of regulatory evolution. The associations between transcription factor binding sites and phenotypic diversity have been investigated in many model organisms. However, the understanding of other factors that contribute to it is still limited. Recent studies have elucidated the effect of chromatin structure on molecular evolution of genomic DNA. Though the profound impact of nucleosome positions on gene regulation has been reported, their influence on transcriptional evolution is still less explored. With the availability of genome-wide nucleosome map in yeast species, it is thus desirable to investigate their impact on transcription factor binding site evolution. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the role of nucleosome positioning in the evolution of ...
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors.
Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes a protein that is similar to one of the small subunits of TFIID, TBP-associated factor 9, and is ...
The single spanning INM protein emerin is encoded by the EMD gene, which, when mutated, produces the X‐linked form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD; Gruenbaum et al, 2005). The lamin‐associated protein LAP2β was originally identified as a single spanning INM protein with a nucleoplasmic binding region for lamin B and chromatin (Foisner & Gerace, 1993). Both emerin and LAP2β associate with several transcriptional regulators, and this association invariably coincides with repression of the transcription factor target genes. In most instances, the mechanism of repression is not clear because it is uncertain whether the transcription factor acts as an activator or repressor of transcription-often transcription factors can do both. If the transcription factor acts as an activator, sequestering the transcription ...
The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are members from the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily and function in transcriptional regulation of a multitude of genes. of the ovalbumin gene (Bagchi et al., 1987; Pastorcic et al., 1986; Wang et Procyanidin B3 inhibitor Mouse monoclonal to Human Albumin al., 1987). It was found to bind an element (COUP) between C90 and C70 within the ovalbumin promoter that is much like thyroid and estrogen response elements (Pastorcic et al., 1986). The COUP-TF has also been shown to bind cis-elements involved in positive transcription rules in the rat insulin II (Hwung et al., 1988; Hwung et al., 1988b), chicken VLDL II (Wijnholds et Procyanidin B3 inhibitor al., 1988), and human being apolipoprotein AI and CIII genes (Ladias and Karathanasis, 1991). It was also reported to bind to bad regulatory elements in the proopiomelanocortin (Drouin et al., 1989a; Drouin et al., ...
GO Terms Descrition:, periodic partitioning by pair rule gene, central nervous system development, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, trunk segmentation, cell fate specification, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription, regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, blastoderm segmentation, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, regulation of transcription, DNA-templated, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, nucleus, sequence-specific DNA binding, ...
How is B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein abbreviated? BLIMP stands for B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein. BLIMP is defined as B Lymphocyte-Induced Maturation Protein somewhat frequently.
APECED gained a unique position among the autoimmune diseases, because it is the only known monogenetic autoimmune diseases with full gene penetration.. The AIRE gene (autoimmune regulator) is 13 kb long and has 14 exons. The main protein coded by this gene contains 545 amino acids and was named the AIRE protein. The AIRE protein seems to function predominantly as a transcriptional activator and it may control autoimmunity by promoting ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus. Even though the relationship between AIRE gene and APECED is clear, other factors may play a role in a patients phenotype as well. HLA II class, CTLA-4 polymorphism, and APECED association were suggested by recent research, which has also found several examples of AIRE mutations behaving in a dominant fashion.. The following is the circumstantial and indirect evidence that APECED is an autoimmune disease:. Circumstantial ...
The gain and loss of functional transcription factor binding sites has been proposed as a major source of evolutionary change in cis-regulatory DNA and gene expression. We have developed an evolutionary model to study binding-site turnover that uses multiple sequence alignments to assess the evolutionary constraint on individual binding sites, and to map gain and loss events along a phylogenetic tree. We apply this model to study the evolutionary dynamics of binding sites of the Drosophila melanogaster transcription factor Zeste, using genome-wide in vivo (ChIP-chip) binding data to identify functional Zeste binding sites, and the genome sequences of D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. erecta, and D. yakuba to study their evolution. We estimate that more than 5% of functional Zeste binding sites in D. melanogaster were gained along the D. melanogaster lineage or lost along one of the other lineages. We find that Zeste-bound ...
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, microRNA and signaling molecules have also been found to play important roles in preserving pluripotency. Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the central position and appears to be dominant over other regulatory controls. In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new transcription factors that play a critical role in controlling both pluripotency network and ESC identity.
GO Terms Descrition:, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, anterior/posterior axis specification, cell fate specification, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, transcription, DNA-templated, compound eye development, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, torso signaling pathway, terminal region determination, Bolwigs organ morphogenesis, DNA binding, sequence-specific DNA binding, sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, zinc ion binding, nucleus, regulation of cell cycle, intracellular receptor signaling pathway, steroid hormone mediated signaling pathway, steroid hormone receptor activity, regulation of transcription, DNA-templated, neuroblast division, optic lobe placode development, ring ...
Artificial transcription factors can be engineered to interact with specific DNA sequences to modulate endogenous gene expression within cells. A significant hurdle to implementation of this approach is the selection of the appropriate DNA sequence for targeting. We reasoned that a good target site should be located in chromatin, where it is accessible to DNA-binding proteins, and it should be, in the close vicinity of known transcriptional regulators of the gene. Here we have explored the efficacy of these criteria to guide our selection of potential regulators of gamma-globin expression. Several zinc finger-based transcriptional activators were designed to target the sites proximal to the -117-position of the gamma-globin promoter. This region is proximal to the binding sites of known and potential natural transcription factors. Design and study of three ...
... is a protein database which contains information on transcription factors (TFs) of silkworm.
TY - GEN. T1 - Identification of over-represented combinations of transcription factor binding sites in sets of co-expressed genes. AU - Huang, Shao-Shan. AU - Fulton, Debra L.. AU - Arenillas, David J.. AU - Perco, Paul. AU - Ho Sui, Shannan J.. AU - Mortimer, James R.. AU - Wasserman, Wyeth W.. PY - 2006/12/1. Y1 - 2006/12/1. N2 - Transcription regulation is mediated by combinatorial interactions between diverse trans-acting proteins and arrays of cis-regulatory sequences. Revealing this complex interplay between transcription factors and binding sites remains a fundamental problem for understanding the flow of genetic information. The oPOSSUM analysis system facilitates the interpretation of gene expression data through the analysis of transcription factor binding sites shared by sets of co-expressed genes. The system is based on cross-species sequence comparisons for ...
Purpose : The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist fenofibrate prevents progression of diabetic retinopathy, yet its mechanism of protective action is not known. Here, we tested the hypothesis that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists promote retinal health in the setting of diabetes by inducing a unique transcriptional signature in the eye. Methods : First, we induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity in the retina using systemically- or locally-introduced agonists and measured changes in canonical transcriptional targets. Second, we investigated retinal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor responsiveness using a transgenic reporter system. Third, we performed a microarray analysis of transcript changes in whole retina after intravitreous delivery of several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists and validated putative targets. Results : Canonical genes involved in lipid metabolism and ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
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Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. May play a role as a target recruitment subunit in E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and thus in ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins.
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. May be part of a complex containing NF2/merlin that participates in cellular signaling to the actin cytoskeleton downstream of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.
Has anyone ever worked with tagetitoxin, a selective transcription inhibitor of chloroplast with arabidopsis? I would like to know who sells tagetitoxin, and at which concentrations it is recommendable to work with on Arabidopsis. I would appriciate very much any info on this subject. Diana ,http://bgumail.bgu.ac.il/agent/[email protected], leicaj at bgumail.bgu.ac.il ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for the maintenance of the hematopoietic system. However, these cells cannot be maintained or created in vitro, and very little is known about their generation during embryogenesis. Many transcription factors and signaling pathways play essential roles at various stages of HSC development. Members of the ETS (E twenty-six) family of transcription factors are recognized as key regulators within the gene regulatory networks governing hematopoiesis, including the ontogeny of HSCs. Remarkably, although all ETS transcription factors bind the same DNA consensus sequence and overlapping tissue expression is observed, individual ETS transcription factors play unique roles in the development of HSCs. Also, these transcription factors are recurrently used throughout development and their ...
The Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcription Factor Pap1 Confers DNA Damage Resistance on Checkpoint-Deficient Fission Yeast Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This unit describes how to use the Transcription Element Search System (TESS). This Web site predicts transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA sequence using two different kinds of models of sites, strings and positional weight matrices. The binding of transcription factors to DNA is a major part of the control of gene expression. Transcription factors exhibit sequence-specific binding; they form stronger bonds to some DNA sequences than to others. Identification of a good binding site in the promoter for a gene suggests the possibility that the corresponding factor may play a role in the regulation of that gene. However, the sequences transcription factors recognize are typically short and allow for some amount of mismatch. Because of this, binding sites for a factor can typically be found at random ...
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with ...
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid ...
Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a mediator of the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids. However, GILZ deletion does not impair the anti-inflammatory activities of exogenous glucocorticoids in mice arthritis models and GILZ could also mediate some glucocorticoid-related adverse events. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a metabolic disorder that is partly attributed to adipokines such as leptin, and we previously observed that glucocorticoids induced leptin secretion in OA synovial fibroblasts. The purpose of this study was to position GILZ in OA through its involvement in the anti-inflammatory activities of glucocorticoids and/or in the metabolic pathway of leptin induction. The influences of mineralocorticoids on GILZ and leptin expression were also investigated. Human synovial fibroblasts were isolated from OA patients during knee replacement surgery. Then, the cells were treated with a glucocorticoid (prednisolone), a mineralocorticoid (aldosterone), a glucocorticoid ...
In vitro studies using highly purified calf thymus RNA polymerase II and a fragment spanning the first intron of H3.3 as template DNA have demonstrated the existence of a strong transcription termination site consisting of thymidine stretches. In this study, nuclear run-on experiments have been performed to assess the extent to which transcription elongation is blocked in vivo using DNA probes corresponding to region 5 and 3 of the in vitro termination sites. These studies suggest that H3.3 expression is stimulated following the inhibition of DNA synthesis through the elimination of the transcription elongation block. Interestingly, both the in vivo and in vitro experiments have revealed that the transcriptional block/termination sites are positioned immediately downstream of a 73 bp region that has been over 90% conserved between the chicken and human H3.3 genes. The extreme conservation of this intronic region suggests a ...
This proposed research project seeks to understand environmental stress-responsive gene expression mediated through Heat Shock Transcription Factor (HSF). This project will involve the following three components: 1) a study of the DNA-binding properties of HSF to different stress-responsive promoters using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay to determine the relative binding affinity, and chemical cross linking reagents to determine the multimerization state of HSF; 2) map the sites of phosphorylation on HCF in response to different cellular stress; 3) determine the importance of the phosphorylation of HCF in regulating stress-responsive gene expression in vivo by constructing site directed mutations in the HCF phosphorylation sites and replacing the endogenous copy of HCF with each mutated HCF. Cells expressing the mutationally altered HCF molecules will be tested for their ability to activate CUP transcription in ...
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Early Growth Response Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that are induced by GROWTH FACTORS and contain a highly conserved DNA-binding domain composed of three ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
DNA-binding activity of a maize heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock of a whole cell extract at 44°C. Addition of the calcium ion chelator EGTA reduced the binding of the HSF to heat shock element (HSE) in vitro. Re-addition of CaCl2 to the sample pretreated with EGTA restored the ability of the HSF to bind to DNA. DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaCl2 to a whole cell extract at non-heat-shock temperature, but not by MgCl2. During HS at 44°C, calmodulin (CaM) antagonists chlorpromazine (CPZ) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W7) inhibited DNA-binding activity of the HSF in a concentration-dependent manner, but N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W5), an inactive structural analogue of W7, did not. Addition of antiserum specific to CaM reduced the binding of the HSF to HSE. Re-addition of CaM to the sample pretreated with antiserum could restore the binding activity of the HSF. ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that Aire-deficient mice represent a model for autoimmune dry eye and have further characterized the autoimmune response. Of note, previous work in the model has suggested that the Aire-deficient autoimmune response to the salivary and lacrimal glands is directed against the known autoantigen α-fodrin (7). To carefully assess the Ags potentially targeted in the model, we performed immunoblot analysis with sera from multiple NOD and BALB/c Aire-deficient mice on lacrimal gland extracts and identified a novel molecular target of 18 kDa that proved to be OBP1a. Interestingly, OBP1a is expressed in the thymus in an Aire-dependent fashion, suggesting that defective thymic expression of OBP1a may play a role in the spontaneous dacryoadenitis that develops in the Aire-deficient mouse model.. Previous work on the Aire-deficient model has suggested that α-fodrin is a likely prominent autoantigen associated with SS; however, our data provides evidence for other ...
The wheat bZip transcription factor TaABF1 mediates both abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and ABA-suppressed gene expression. As levels of TaABF1 protein do not change in response to ABA, and TaABF1 is in a phosphorylated state in vivo, we investigated whether TaABF1 could be regulated at the post-translational level. In bombarded aleurone cells, a TaABF1 protein carrying phosphomimetic mutations (serine to aspartate) at four sites (S36D, S37D, S113D, S115D) was three to five times more potent than wild-type TaABF1 in activating HVA1, an ABA-responsive gene. The phosphomimetic mutations also increased the ability of TaABF1 to downregulate the ABA-suppressed gene Amy32b. These findings strongly suggest that phosphorylation at these sites increases the transcriptional regulatory activity of TaABF1. In contrast to the activation observed by the quadruple serine to aspartate mutation, a single S113D mutation completely eliminated the ability of ...
RNA polymerase III is important for the transcription of non-protein coding RNAs which are important for protein synthesis, RNA processing and protein trafficking. In recent studies, enhanced RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription was shown to be important for cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Early studies also showed that hypoxia is a common feature in developing tumors, particularly in solid tumors. Under hypoxic conditions, protein synthesis is decreased. As RNA pol III transcribed products, tRNAs and 5S rRNA are important for translation, we were interested in whether RNA pol III transcription is affected under hypoxic conditions. Our studies determined that tRNA, but not U6 RNA gene transcription, was decreased under prolonged hypoxic conditions in cancer cells. We further examined potential change in the transcription factors that might account for the reduction of RNA pol III ...
Members of the GATA transcription factor family have been used in many transfection studies to investigate their roles in the regulation of gene expression. To correct for variations in transfection efficiency, the Renilla luciferase encoding plasmids pRL-TK and pRL-SV40 are commonly used as normalization controls. We report here that plasmids expressing GATA-4 or GATA-6 transcription factor increased Renilla luciferase gene expression by 2 to 8 fold when co-transfected with pRL-TK or pRL-SV40. This alteration of the control reporter gene activity was shown to cause erroneous normalization of transfection efficiency and thus misinterpretation of results in a transactivation assay. To circumvent the problem, we generated two mutant control plasmids from which putative GATA response elements were deleted. These deletions rendered pRL-SV40 ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex". In the "closed complex" the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "open complex". In the "open complex" the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the "transcription bubble."[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a transcription start site in the transcription bubble, binds to an initiating NTP and an extending NTP (or a short RNA primer and an ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a "promoter" to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "closed complex". In the "closed complex" the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter "open complex". In the "open complex" the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the "transcription bubble."[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a transcription start site in the transcription bubble, binds to an initiating NTP and an extending NTP (or a short RNA primer and an ...
The genes required for replication of the temperate bacteriophage P4, which are coded by the phage left operon, are expressed from a constitutive promoter (P(LE)). In the lysogenic state, repression of the P4 replication genes is achieved by premature transcription termination. The leader region of the left operon encodes all the genetic determinants required for prophage immunity, namely: (i) the P4 immunity factor, a short, stable RNA (CI RNA) that is generated by processing of the leader transcript; (ii) two specific target sequences that exhibit complementarity with the CI RNA. RNA-RNA interactions between the CI RNA and the target sites on the mRNA leader region are essential for transcription termination. To understand how transcription termination is elicited by the P4 immunity mechanism, it is relevant to identify the transcription termination site. This, however, could not be directly inferred from the 3-end of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of exons 1a and 1c in mRNAs for sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 in human and mouse organs and cultured cells. AU - Shimomura, Iichiro. AU - Shimano, Hitoshi. AU - Horton, Jay D.. AU - Goldstein, Joseph L.. AU - Brown, Michael S.. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - The 5 end of the mRNA-encoding sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) exists in two forms, designated 1a and 1c. The divergence results from the use of two transcription start sites that produce two separate 5 exons, each of which is spliced to a common exon 2. Here we show that the ratio of SREBP-1c to 1a transcripts varies markedly among organs of the adult mouse. At one extreme is the liver, in which the 1c transcript predominates by a 9:1 ratio. High 1c:1a ratios are also found in mouse adrenal gland and adipose tissue and in human liver and adrenal gland. At the other extreme is the spleen, which shows a reversed 1c:1a ratio (1:10). In five ...
5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, 5-R(*UP*AP*GP*AP*UP)-3, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION PROTEIN MTRB, TRANSCRIPTION ATTENUATION ...
The microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), a basic-helix-loop-helix zipper factor, regulates distinct target genes in several cell types. We hypothesized that interaction with the Ets family factor PU.1, whose expression is limited to hematopoietic cells, might be nec- essary for activation of target genes like tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in osteoclasts. Several lines of evidence were consistent with this model. The combination of MITF and PU.1 synergistically activated the TRAP promoter in transient assays. This activation was dependent on intact binding sites for both factors in the TRAP promoter. MITF and PU.1 physically interacted when coexpressed in COS cells or in vitro when purified recombinant proteins were studied. The minimal regions of MITF and PU.1 required for the interaction were the basic-helix-loop-helix zipper domain and the Ets DNA binding domain, respectively. ...
Embryonic differentiation depends upon tissue-specific gene expression programs, created by temporally and spatially regulated transcription. Production of specific mRNAs can be stimulated or repressed via regulation of transcription initiation. Transcript production can also be controlled through a rate-limiting step of transcription elongation (Lis, 1998). For example, heat shock response genes, such as hsp70, are constitutively occupied by a RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex that is paused proximal to the promoter after transcription initiation (Rougvie and Lis, 1988; Rasmussen and Lis, 1993). Transcription elongation is inhibited until heat shock stimulation occurs, at which time the paused Pol II becomes hyperphosphorylated and transcript synthesis proceeds. Several factors have been implicated in the stimulation or repression of transcription elongation (Conaway et ...
Transcription steps are marked by different modifications of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Phosphorylation of Ser5 and Ser7 by cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) as part of TFIIH marks initiation, whereas phosphorylation of Ser2 by CDK9 marks elongation. These processes are thought to take place in localized transcription foci in the nucleus, known as transcription factories, but it has been argued that the observed clusters/foci are mere fixation or labeling artifacts. We show that transcription factories exist in living cells as distinct foci by live-imaging fluorescently labeled CDK9, a kinase known to associate with active RNAPII. These foci were observed in different cell types derived from CDK9-mCherry knock-in mice. We show that these foci are very stable while highly dynamic in exchanging CDK9. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) data show ...
Here, we report our effort in generating an ORFeome collection for the Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) genes. In total, ORFeome clones representing 1,282 Arabidopsis TF genes have been obtained in the Gateway high throughput cloning pENTR vector, including 411 genes whose annotation lack cDNA support. All the ORFeome inserts have also been mobilized into a yeast expression destination vector, with an estimated 85% rate of expressing the respective proteins. Sequence analysis of these clones revealed that 34 of them did not match with either the reported cDNAs or current predicted open-reading-frame sequences. Among those, novel alternative splicing of TF gene transcripts is responsible for the observed differences in at least five genes. However, those alternative splicing events do not appear to be differentially regulated among distinct Arabidopsis tissues examined. Lastly, expression of those TF genes in 17 distinct Arabidopsis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of class II histone deacetylases with heterochromatin protein 1. T2 - Potential role for histone methylation in control of muscle differentiation. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. AU - McKinsey, Timothy A.. AU - Olson, Eric N.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - Class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, 7, and 9 repress muscle differentiation through associations with the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor. MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) is an amino-terminal splice variant of HDAC9 that also potently inhibits MEF2 transcriptional activity despite lacking a catalytic domain. Here we report that MITR, HDAC4, and HDAC5 associate with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), an adaptor protein that recognizes methylated lysines within histone tails and mediates transcriptional repression by recruiting histone methyltransferase. Promyogenic signals provided by calcium/ ...
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) triggers a wide range of effects on vertebrate development by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. ATRA activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs) which heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). RAR/RXR heterodimers function as ATRA-dependent transcriptional regulators by binding to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs). To identify RAR/RXR heterodimer-binding sites in the human genome, we performed a modified yeast one-hybrid assays and identified 193 RAR/RXR heterodimer-binding fragments in the human genome. The putative target genes included genes involved in development process and cell differentiation. Gel mobility shift assays indicated that 160 putative RAREs could directly interact with the RAR/RXR heterodimer. Moreover, 19 functional regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs) on the RAR/RXR-binding sequences were identified by analyzing the difference in the DNA-binding affinities. These results provide insights ...
Developmental and Growth Hormone Regulation of the Expression of Liver-Enriched Transcription Factors in the Bovine Liver Satyanarayana Eleswarapu ABSTRACT Liver gene expression changes during development and is affected by growth hormone (GH). These changes in gene expression may be due to the differential expression of the liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs). To study the potential involvement of LETFs in the regulation of gene expression in the bovine liver, we cloned the cDNA fragments of nine bovine LETFs, including hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1Æ Ã , 1Æ Ã , 3Æ Ã , 3Æ Ã , 3Æ Ã , 6, albumin D-element binding protein (DBP), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) -Æ Ã and Æ Ã , and compared the expression levels of them between adult and fetal bovine liver and between GH-treated and untreated adult bovine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FTF and LRH-1, two related but different transcription factors in human Caco-2 cells. T2 - Their different roles in the regulation of bile acid transport. AU - Pan, Debra H.. AU - Chen, Frank. AU - Neimark, Ezequiel. AU - Li, Xiaoping. AU - Shneider, Benjamin L.. PY - 2005/12/30. Y1 - 2005/12/30. N2 - The apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mediates ileal bile acid reabsorption. The transcription factors, liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1:mouse) and fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF:human), are presumably orthologues. Bile-acid induced negative feedback regulation of mouse (m) and human (h) ASBT occurs via LRH-1 and RAR/RXR, respectively. hASBT has a potential FTF cis-element, although its functional role is unknown. hASBT and mASBT promoter constructs and an FTF cis-element mutated hASBT (hASBT/FTFμ) were assessed in human Caco-2 cells treated with chenodeoxycholic acid ...
A zinc finger motif is an element of proteins that can specifically recognize and bind to DNA. Because they contain multiple cysteine residues, zinc finger motifs possess redox properties. Ionizing radiation generates a variety of free radicals in organisms. Zinc finger motifs, therefore, may be a target of ionizing radiation. The effect of gamma radiation on the zinc finger motifs in transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA), a zinc finger protein, was investigated. TFIIIA was exposed to different gamma doses from 60Co sources. The dose rates were 0.20 Gy/min and 800 Gy/h, respectively. The binding capacity of zinc finger motifs in TFIIIA was determined using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We found that 1000 Gy of gamma radiation impaired the function of the zinc finger... motifs in TFIIIA. The sites of radiation-induced damage in the zinc finger were the thiol groups of cysteine residues and zinc (II) ions. The thiol groups were oxidized to form disulfide bonds and the ...
Focused transcription typically initiates within the Inr, and the A nucleotide in the Inr consensus is usually designed as the "+ 1" position, whether or not transcription actually initiates at that particular nucleotide. This convention is useful because other core promoter motifs, such as the MTE and DPE, function with the Inr in a manner that exhibits a strict spacing dependence with the Inr consensus sequence (and hence, the A + 1 nucleotide) rather than the actual transcription start site (Burke and Kadonaga, 1997, Kutach and Kadonaga, 2000 and Lim et al., 2004)."[2]. "NC2 (negative cofactor 2; also known as Dr1-Drap1) [...] was identified as repressor of TATA-dependent transcription [...]."[2]. "Several core promoter elements have been previously identified in eukaryotes, but those cannot account for transcription from most RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes."[1]. ...
The TBP gene encodes TATA Box-Binding Protein, the DNA-binding subunit of the RNA polymerase II transcription factor D (TFIID). As the name suggests, the TBP subunit attaches to the DNA promoter at its TATA box, to initiate transcription. Binding of the TFIID complex at the promoter helps in positioning of RNA Polymerase II and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of other polypeptides to the transcription complex. It also acts as a channel for regulatory signals.. Mutations in the TBP gene have been associated with Spinocerebellar Ataxia 17 (SCA17), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by gait and limb ataxia, intention tremors, cerebellar atrophy and behavioural manifestations such as psychosis, disorientation and aggression. The gene has also been associated with an increased susceptibility to Late-Onset Parkinson Disease. ...
The autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. Immune deficiency, hypoparathyroidism and Addisons disease due to autoimmune dysfunction are the major clinical signs of APECED. We report on a 21-year-old female APECED patient with two inactivating mutations in the AIRE gene. She presented with sudden onset of periodic nausea. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed by means of the ACTH stimulation test. Despite initiation of hormone replacement therapy with hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, nausea persisted and the patient developed cognitive deficits and a loss of interest which led to the diagnosis of depression. She was admitted to the psychiatric department for further diagnostic assessment. An EEG showed a focal epileptic pattern. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies, which had been negative eight years earlier, were now elevated in serum and in the cerebrospinal ...
WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52, from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic ...
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder of respiratory control characterized by ventilatory impairment that results in arterial hypoxemia. This condition worse during sleep and occurs in patients with normal mechanical properties of the lung. It is diagnosed in the absence of primary neuromuscular disease, identifiable brainstem lesions, and other sleep disturbances or substance use.. Amiel et al. (2003) identified a mutation in the Phox2B gene associated with CCHS, characterized by 5 to 9 alanine expansions within a 20-residue polyalanine region in exon 3 of the Phox2B gene. Several reports confirmed the findings of Amiel et al., supporting the view that this gene is a master switch for the development of the autonomic nervous system network linked to respiratory control. Transgenic animals carrying the human Phox2B mutation develop a similar phenotype and lack glutamatergic neurons located in the parafacial region in the brainstem, which are involved in breathing ...
Definition of octamer transcription factor-3 in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of octamer transcription factor-3. What does octamer transcription factor-3 mean? Information and translations of octamer transcription factor-3 in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
In vitro, the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mimics the positive effects of insulin on hepatic genes involved in glucose utilization, such as glucokinase (GK) and enzymes of the lipogenic pathway, suggesting that it is a key factor in the control of hepatic glucose metabolism. Decreased glucose utilization and increased glucose production by the liver play an important role in the development of the hyperglycemia in diabetic states. We thus reasoned that if SREBP-1c is indeed a mediator of hepatic insulin action, a hepatic targeted overexpression of SREBP-1c should greatly improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic mice. This was achieved by injecting streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a recombinant adenovirus containing the cDNA of the mature, transcriptionally active form of SREBP-1c. We show here that overexpressing SREBP-1c specifically in the liver of diabetic mice ...
casSAR Dugability of D3ZYB7 | Taf1b | TATA box-binding protein-associated factor RNA polymerase I subunit B - Also known as TAF1B_RAT, Taf1b. Component of RNA polymerase I core factor complex that acts as a GTF2B/TFIIB-like factor and plays a key role in multiple steps during transcription initiation such as pre-initiation complex (PIC) assembly and postpolymerase recruitment events in polymerase I (Pol I) transcription. Binds rDNA promoters and plays a role in Pol I recruitment as a component of the SL1/TIF-IB complex and, possibly, directly through its interaction with RRN3 (By similarity). Interacts with FLNA (via N-terminus) (By similarity). Component of the transcription factor SL1/TIF-IB complex, composed of TBP and at least TAF1A, TAF1B, TAF1C and TAF1D. In the complex interacts directly with TBP, TAF1A and TAF1C. Interaction of the SL1/TIF-IB subunits with TBP excludes interaction of ...
Mitochondria depend on a nucleus-encoded transcription machinery to express their genome. The present study examined the transcription of mitochondrial genes by two nucleus-encoded phage-type RNA polymerases, RpoTm and RpoTmp, in the plant Arabidopsis. For selected mitochondrial genes in Arabidopsis, transcription initiation sites were determined. Most genes were found to possess multiple promoters. The identified promoters displayed diverse sequence elements and mostly deviated from a nonanucleotide consensus derived previously for dicot mitochondrial promoters. Several promoters were detected that activate transcription of presumably non-functional sequences. Promoter architecture, distribution and utilization suggest a non-stringent control of transcription initiation in Arabidopsis mitochondria. An in vitro transcription system was set up to elucidate the roles of RpoTm and RpoTmp. Since RpoT enzymes ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ or PPARG), also known as the glitazone receptor, or NR1C3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group C, member 3) is a type II nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the PPARG gene. PPARG is mainly present in adipose tissue, colon and macrophages. Two isoforms of PPARG are detected in the human and in the mouse: PPAR-γ1 (found in nearly all tissues except muscle) and PPAR-γ2 (mostly found in adipose tissue and the intestine). PPARG regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. PPARG knockout mice fail to generate adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Four subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, ...
Dietary nutrients interact with gene networks to orchestrate adaptive responses during metabolic stress. Here, we identify Baf60a as a diet-sensitive subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in the mouse liver that links the consumption of fat- and cholesterol-rich diet to elevated plasma cholesterol levels. Baf60a expression was elevated in the liver following feeding with a western diet. Hepatocyte-specific inactivation of Baf60a reduced bile acid production and cholesterol absorption, and attenuated diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in mice. Baf60a stimulates expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis, modification, and transport through a CAR/Baf60a feedforward regulatory loop. Baf60a is required for the recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to facilitate an activating epigenetic switch on target genes. These studies elucidate a regulatory pathway that mediates the hyperlipidemic and atherogenic effects of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a family of related cellular transcription factors which can modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in vitro. AU - Yoon, Jong-Bok. AU - Li, Gen. AU - Roeder, Robert G.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - LBP-1 is a cellular protein which binds strongly to sequences around the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiation site and weakly over the TATA box. We have previously shown that LBP-1 represses HIV-1 transcription by inhibiting the binding of TFIID to the TATA box. Four similar but distinct cDNAs encoding LBP-1 (LBP-1a, -b, -c, and -d) have been isolated. These are products of two related genes, and each gene encodes two alternatively spliced products. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of LBP- 1 with entries in the available protein data bases revealed the identity of LBP-1c to α-CP2, an α-globin transcription factor. These proteins ...
We have shown that LEF1 played critical and nonredundant roles in iNKT cell expansion and iNKT2 effector fate differentiation. We showed that in the absence of LEF1, iNKT cell expansion at ST0 and ST1 failed to occur and that LEF1 directly regulated expression of the CD127 component of the IL-7 receptor and the transcription factor c-myc, both of which are required for this phase of expansion (Dose et al., 2009; Mycko et al., 2009; Tani-ichi et al., 2013). LEF1 was also required for the development of iNKT2 cells, which include both IL-4 only and IL-4 plus IFNγ-producing iNKT cells, and LEF1 directly regulated the expression of the iNKT2 signature transcription factor GATA3. Our findings are particularly striking given that LEF1 deficiency has only subtle effects on conventional T cells during their differentiation and in the periphery during their activation and acquisition of the memory ...
Homeodomain transcription factors regulate development of embryos and cellular physiology in adult systems. Paired-type homeodomain genes constitute a subclass that has been particularly implicated in establishment of neuronal identity in the mammalian nervous system. We isolated fragments of eight homeodomain genes of this subclass expressed in the stellate ganglion of ... read more the North Atlantic long finned squid Loligo pealei (lp) [Note: Loligo pealei has been officially renamed Doryteuthis pealei. For reasons of uniformity and clarity Loligo pealei (lp) is used here]. Of the most abundant ones, we cloned a full length cDNA which encoded the squid ortholog of the paired-type homeodomain proteins Phox2a/b. The homology of lpPhox2 to invertebrate and mammalian Phox2 was limited to the homeodomain. In contrast to mouse Phox2b, lpPhox2 was unable to transactivate the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) promoter in a heterologous mammalian transfection system. In vivo, ...
Trieu M., Ma A., Eng S.R., Fedtsova N., Turner E.E.. Brn3a is a POU-domain transcription factor expressed in peripheral sensory neurons and in specific interneurons of the caudal CNS. Sensory expression of Brn3a is regulated by a specific upstream enhancer, the activity of which is greatly increased in Brn3a knockout mice, implying that Brn3a negatively regulates its own expression. Brn3a binds to highly conserved sites within this enhancer, and alteration of these sites abolishes Brn3a regulation of reporter transgenes. Furthermore, endogenous Brn3a expression levels in the sensory ganglia of Brn3a(+/+) and Brn3a(+/-) mice are similar, demonstrating that autoregulation can compensate for the loss of one allele by increasing transcription of the remaining gene copy. Conversely, transgenic overexpression of Brn3a in the trigeminal ganglion suppresses the expression of the ...
During exercise, children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) demonstrate coupling of VE to exercise load, despite the absence of a VE response to changes in FICO2. To assess the effect of movement on VE, we studied six CCHS patie
Component of the general transcription and DNA repair factor IIH (TFIIH) core complex, which is involved in general and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (NER) of damaged DNA and, when complexed to TFIIK, in RNA transcription by RNA polymerase II. In NER, TFIIH acts by opening DNA around the lesion to allow the excision of the damaged oligonucleotide and its replacement by a new DNA fragment. In transcription, TFIIH has an essential role in transcription initiation. When the pre-initiation complex (PIC) has been established, TFIIH is required for promoter opening and promoter escape. Phosphorylation of the C-terminal tail (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II by the kinase module TFIIK controls the initiation of transcription.
According to the prediction of the involvement of bZIP transcription factors in the ER stress response, AtbZIP60 was identified by genome-wide screening based on genomic information on Arabidopsis. Tunicamycin and other reagents activating the ER stress response induced transcripts of AtbZIP60. From these results, we predicted that AtbZIP60 plays a role in the ER stress response. Because the expression profile of AtbZIP60 was close to that of BiP, induction of AtbZIP60 transcript was not considered to be the first trigger of activation for BiP expression. Instead, it was assumed that a conformational change of AtbZIP60 activates the expression of chaperone genes, such as BiP. This prediction was based on the fact that AtbZIP60 contains a putative TMD like that of ATF6 in mammalian cells. Specifically, it was hypothesized that AtbZIP60 is converted to a soluble form by ER stress and becomes localized to the nucleus, resulting ...
In order to preserve a balance between the requirement for iron and its toxicity, plants likely maintain tight control over iron homeostasis. We are interested in identifying factors involved in the regulation of iron uptake and have examined this response in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Work presented in this thesis examines the role of an essential transcription factor that controls iron uptake responses in the Arabidopsis root. Because iron is an essential nutrient for plant and human nutrition, improvements in our understanding of how plants assimilate iron from the soil will have implications for both agriculture and human health. We report the identification of the transcription factor FIT1 ( Fe-deficiency Induced Transcription factor 1 ), which is required for a proper iron deficiency response. fit1 loss of function plants exhibit severe chlorosis indicative of iron ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outfoxing FoxO transcription factors. T2 - HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein inactivates FoxO4 via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. AU - Shembade, Noula. AU - Harhaj, Edward. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Evaluation of: Oteiza A, Mechti N. The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 oncoprotein tax controls forkhead box O4 activity through degradation by the proteasome. J. Virol. 85(13), 6480-6491 (2011). This study examines downstream signaling events of PI3K/AKT in the context of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The authors have demonstrated that the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein triggers the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of the FoxO4 transcription factor. Phosphorylation by AKT is requisite for Tax-induced FoxO4 degradation since mutation of the AKT phosphorylation sites abrogates FoxO4 degradation. Furthermore, Tax enhances the interaction between FoxO4 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 which presumably ...
In order for cells to proliferate, a certain size has to be reached, which depends primarily on the rate of translation. RNA polymerase (pol) III plays a key role in protein synthesis by catalysing the production of small, untranslated RNA molecules such as transfer (tRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA). Indeed, recent evidence suggests that tRNAiMet production is limiting for translation and proliferation in some cell types. Therefore, the rate of pol III transcription plays a fundamental role in cellular growth and proliferation. Regulation of pol III output is mediated via a number of different mechanisms that can alter the activities of the transcription factors which are responsible for directing pol III transcription. Work presented in this thesis aimed at investigating the mechanisms behind the regulation of pol III transcription by the protein kinase CK2.. ...
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Faithful transcription initiation is critical for accurate gene expression, yet the mechanisms underlying specific transcription start site (TSS) selection in mammals remain unclear. Here, we show that the histone-fold domain protein NF-Y, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, controls the fidelity of transcription initiation at gene promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. We report that NF-Y maintains the region upstream of TSSs in a nucleosome-depleted state while simultaneously protecting this accessible region against aberrant and/or ectopic transcription initiation. We find that loss of NF-Y binding in mammalian cells disrupts the promoter chromatin landscape, leading to nucleosomal encroachment over the canonical TSS. Importantly, this chromatin rearrangement is accompanied by upstream relocation of the transcription pre-initiation complex and ectopic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retinoblastoma protein disrupts interactions required for RNA polymerase III transcription. AU - Sutcliffe, Josephine E.. AU - Brown, T. R P. AU - Allison, S. J.. AU - Scott, Pamela H.. AU - White, R. J.. PY - 2000/12. Y1 - 2000/12. N2 - The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has been shown to suppress RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription in vivo (R. J. White, D. Trouche, K. Martin, S. P. Jackson, and T. Kouzarides, Nature 382:88-90, 1996). This regulation involves interaction with TFIIIB, a multisubunit factor that is required for the expression of all Pol III templates (C. G. C. Larminie, C. A. Cairns, R. Mital, K. Martin, T. Kouzarides, S. P. Jackson, and R. J. White, EMBO J. 16:2061-2071, 1997; W.-M. Chu, Z. Wang, R. G. Roeder, and C. W. Schmid, J. Biol. Chem. 272:14755-14761, 1997). However, it has not been established why RB binding to TFIIIB results in transcriptional repression. For several Pol ...
Giardia lamblia is an early branching eukaryote, and although distinctly eukaryotic in its cell and molecular biology, transcription and translation in G. lamblia demonstrate important differences from these processes in higher eukaryotes. The cyclic octapeptide amanitin is a relatively selective inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and is commonly used to study RNAP II transcription. Therefore, we measured the sensitivity of G. lamblia RNAP II transcription to alpha-amanitin and found that unlike most other eukaryotes, RNAP II transcription in Giardia is resistant to 1 mg/ml amanitin. In contrast, 50 microg/ml amanitin inhibits 85% of RNAP III transcription activity using leucyl-tRNA as a template. To better understand transcription in G. lamblia, we identified 10 of the 12 known eukaryotic rpb subunits, including all 10 subunits that are required for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
1GTF: The structure of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) bound to a 53-nucleotide RNA molecule containing GAGUU repeats
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator of p53-mediated transcription and cell death. AU - Xu, Risheng. AU - Sen, Nilkantha. AU - Paul, Bindu D.. AU - Snowman, Adele M.. AU - Rao, Feng. AU - Vandiver, M. Scott. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Snyder, Solomon H.. PY - 2013/4/2. Y1 - 2013/4/2. N2 - The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a critical stress response transcription factor that induces the expression of genes leading to cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and tumor suppression. We found that mammalian inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) stimulated p53-mediated transcription by binding to p53 and enhancing its acetylation by the acetyltransferase p300 independently of its inositol phosphate and lipid kinase activities. Genetic or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of IPMK resulted in decreased activation of p53, decreased recruitment of p53 and p300 to target gene promoters, abrogated ...
A retroviral vector-rescue system in which co-packaging of the two co-expressed vectors is required for transduction of one of the vectors has been established previously. By using this rescue system, two distinct packaging-cell populations have been generated. One cell population expressed retroviral RNA from co-localized transcription sites, resulting in local and overlapping accumulation of both RNA transcripts. In the other cell population, the two transcription cassettes were introduced separately, leading to distinct transcription sites of the two RNAs and no significant co-localization of the RNAs. Titre measurements from the two distinct cell populations showed large differences in rescue titre, which is an indirect measure of co-packaging efficiency. Thus, the cell populations with overlapping RNA accumulation gave rise to 15-80-fold-higher rescue titres than cell populations with non-overlapping RNA accumulation. These data show that the spatial ...
Transcription elongation elements in the NusG family members are ubiquitous from bacterias to human beings and play diverse assignments in the legislation of gene appearance. than facilitates transcript elongation by its cognate RNAP. Alternatively much like the regulators Tth NusG evidently binds close to the upstream end from the transcription bubble competes with σA Cdh13 and mementos forwards translocation by RNAP. Our data claim that the system of NusG recruitment to RNAP is normally universally conserved despite the fact that the regulatory final results among its homologs can happen distinct. Launch The transcription elongation aspect NusG continues to be identified in based on its requirement of phage λ N-dependent gene appearance and thus called N utilization product G (1). Following studies showed that (Eco) NusG impacts Rho-dependent termination (2) transcriptional arrest by HK022 Nun proteins (3) RNA string elongation (4) and ...
Detects differential transcription between pairs of samples or between groups of replicates. FDM is based on a statistical method for performing a permutation test on ACT-Graphs that does not depend on annotations or an underlying transcripts inference. The application first align RNA-seq reads to a reference genome and determines the regions of differential RNA transcript expression between pairs of splice graphs for finally assess the significance of differential transcription.
Hypersensitive site 2 located in the beta-globin locus control region confers high levels of expression to the genes of the beta-globin cluster. A tandem repeat of the consensus sequence for the transcription factors AP1 and NF-E2 (activating protein 1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2, respectively) is present within hypersensitive site 2 and is absolutely required for strong enhancer activity. This sequence binds, in vitro and in vivo, to ubiquitous proteins of the AP1 family and to the recently cloned erythroid-specific transcription factor NF-E2. Using the tandem repeat as a recognition site probe to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library from K562 cells, we isolated several DNA binding proteins. Here, we report the characterization of one of the clones isolated. The gene, which we named Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2), is encoded within a 2.2-kb transcript and predicts ...
hypothetical protein, transcription factor protein, A306_09622, anon-WO03040301.171, avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, avian myelocytomatosis viral (v-myc) oncogene homolog, bHLHe39, bHLHe57, cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene, CG10798 gene product from transcript CG10798-RB, CG10798-PA, CG10798-PB, class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 39, cmyc, c-MYC, c-myc20, c-Myc-a, c-Myc-b, c-myc-like protein, c-myc proto-oncogene, diminuitive, diminutive, DM, dm/dMyc, Dmel_CG10798, dm/myc, d-myc, dMYC, dmyc1, EG:BACN5I9.1, EGK_19271, lethal (1) G0354, lethal (1) G0359, MDA_GLEAN10014535, mMyc, MRTL, Myc2, myc-a, myc-b, MYCC, Myc-PA, Myc-PB, myc proto-oncogene protein, myc-related translation/localization regulatory factor, myelocytomatosis oncogene, myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, N303_07797, N307_12984, N309_06569, Niard, Nird, oncoprotein myc, PAL_GLEAN10003365, Proto-oncogene c-Myc, RNCMYC, transcription ...
Nuclear receptor coactivator that directly binds nuclear receptors and stimulates the transcriptional activities in a hormone-dependent fashion. Involved in the coactivation of different nuclear receptors, such as for steroids (PGR, GR and ER), retinoids (RXRs), thyroid hormone (TRs) and prostanoids (PPARs). Also involved in coactivation mediated by STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B and STAT6 transcription factors. Displays histone acetyltransferase activity toward H3 and H4; the relevance of such activity remains however unclear. Plays a central role in creating multisubunit coactivator complexes that act via remodeling of chromatin, and possibly acts by participating in both chromatin remodeling and recruitment of general transcription factors. Required with NCOA2 to control energy balance between white and brown adipose tissues. Required for mediating steroid hormone response. Isoform 2 has a higher thyroid hormone-dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Components of the SMRT corepressor complex exhibit distinctive interactions with the POZ domain oncoproteins PLZF, PLZF-RAR∅, and BCL-6. AU - Wong, Chi Wai. AU - Privalsky, Martin L.. PY - 1998/10/16. Y1 - 1998/10/16. N2 - Many transcription factors function by repressing gene transcription. For a variety of these transcription factors the ability to physically recruit auxiliary proteins, denoted corepressors, is crucial for the ability to silence gene expression. We and others have previously implicated the SMRT corepressor in the actions of the PLZF transcription factor and in the function of its oncogenic derivative, PLZF-retinoic acid receptor (RARα), in promyelocytic leukemia. We report here that PLZF, and a structurally similar transcriptional repressor, BCL-6, can interact with a variety of corepressor proteins in addition to SMRT, ...
Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
Substance P is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides that plays an important role in pain transmission, neurogenic inflammatory diseases and the adaptive response to stress. Substance P exerts its biological activities via binding to a G-protein coupled receptor of the neurokinin (NK) receptor family. Here, we show by Western blot experiments that substance P induced a transient synthesis of the zinc finger transcriptional regulator Egr-1 in human glioma cells. Substance P-induced stimulation of Egr-1 biosynthesis was completely inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 and by AG1487, an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor. These results indicate that transactivation of the EGF receptor as well as stimulation of the mitogen activated/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) are essential for substance P/NK-1 receptor-induced activation of Egr-1 biosynthesis. Moreover, we show that ...
TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 plays a pivotal role in a myriad of processes including cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis and here we provide a detailed mechanism to show that it is a direct and biologically relevant target of TBX3. Using a combination of luciferase reporter gene assays and in vitro and in vivo binding assays we show that TBX3 directly represses the p21WAF1 promoter by binding a T-element close to its initiator. Furthermore, we show that the TBX3 DNA binding domain is required for the ...
Background: ChREBP (carbohydrate response element binding protein) is a glucose-responsive transcription factor that is known to be an important regulator of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in response to glucose. We hypothesized that activation of ChREBP could be relevant to anoxia survival by the anoxia-tolerant turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans. Methods: Expression of ChREBP in response to 5 and 20 h of anoxia was examined using RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting. In addition, subcellular localization and DNA-binding activity of ChREBP protein were assessed and transcript levels of liver pyruvate kinase (LPK), a downstream gene under ChREBP control were quantified using RT-PCR. Results: ChREBP was anoxia-responsive in kidney and liver, with transcript levels increasing by 1.2-1.8 fold in response to anoxia and protein levels increasing by 1.8-1.9 fold. Enhanced nuclear presence under anoxia was also observed in both tissues by 22-2.8 fold. A 4.2 fold ...
Chronic alcohol consumption induces multi-organ damage, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), pancreatitis and hypertension. Ethanol and ethanol metabolic products play a significant role in the manifestation of its toxicity. Ethanol metabolizes to acetaldehyde and produces reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetaldehyde, increased redox cellular state and ROS activate transcription factors, which in turn activate genes for lipid biosynthesis and offer protection of hepatocytes from alcohol toxicity. Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) and peroxisome proliferator activated-receptors (PPARs) are two key lipogenic transcription factors implicated in the development of fatty liver in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. SREBP-1 is ...
Liver X receptor beta (LXR-β) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. LXR-β is encoded by the NR1H2 gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 2). The liver X receptors (LXRs) were originally identified as orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily because their ligands were unknown. Like other receptors in the family, LXRs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptor and bind to specific response elements (LXREs) characterized by direct repeats separated by 4 nucleotides. Two genes, alpha (LXRA) and beta, are known to encode LXR proteins. Crystal structure of human liver X receptor β(LXRβ) forming heterodimer with its partner retinoid X receptor α(RXRα) on its cognate element, an AGGTCA direct repeat spaced by 4 nt shows an extended X-shaped arrangement, with DNA- and ligand-binding domains crossed. The LXRβ core binds DNA via canonical contacts and auxiliary DNA contacts that enhance affinity for the response element. Liver X ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - COL5a1. T2 - fine genetic mapping and exclusion as candidate gene in families with nail-patella syndrome, tuberous sclerosis 1, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II. AU - Greenspan, Daniel S.. AU - Northrup, Hope. AU - Au, Kit Sing. AU - McAllister, Kimberly A.. AU - Francomano, Clair Ann. AU - Wenstrup, Richard J.. AU - Marchuk, Douglas A.. AU - Kwiatkowski, David J.. PY - 1995/2/10. Y1 - 1995/2/10. N2 - COL5A1, the gene for the α1 chain of type V collagen, has been considered a candidate gene for certain diseases based on chromosomal location and/or disease phenotype. We have employed 3′-untranslated region RFLPs to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in families with tuberous sclerosis 1, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type II, and nail-patella syndrome. In addition, we describe a polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) within a COL5A1 intron. This SSR is used to exclude COL5A1 as a candidate gene in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia ...
Author Summary The transcription of eukaryotic genes involves a highly ordered series of events, including the recruitment of RNA polymerase to promoters, the production of the RNA transcript, and termination. These events are coordinated with changes in chromatin structure that allow regulatory proteins and RNA polymerase to access the DNA template. The recruitment of RNA polymerase II to promoters is rate-limiting for the expression of most eukaryotic genes. However, RNA polymerase often pauses or stalls a short distance downstream of promoters, providing an additional step at which transcription can be regulated. In this study, we present evidence suggesting that a chromatin-remodeling factor, KIS-L, activates transcription by counteracting promoter-proximal pausing in Drosophila. KIS-L also counteracts histone H3 lysine 27 methylation-a covalent modification of chromatin involved in hereditable gene silencing. Our ...

Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4+ T cells...Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4+ T cells...

GATA3, and T-bet in brain tissue compared with CGS-treated and BTBR control mice. The augmented levels of IL-21/IL-22 and GATA3 ... Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4+ T cells ... T-box transcription factor (T-bet), GATA3 (GATA Binding Protein 3), and CD152 (CTLA-4) expression in BTBR mice. Our results ... An imbalance in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors plays a role in ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/28807491

Gary Peltz | Stanford Medicine ProfilesGary Peltz | Stanford Medicine Profiles

The proximal IL-4 promoter is only moderately augmented by GATA-3, but certain genomic regions significantly enhanced GATA-3 ... Transcription factors in immune-mediated disease CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Peltz, G. 1997; 8 (4): 467-473 Abstract. A ... Correlating levels of gene expression in tissues established to be mechanistically implicated in the expression of specific ... which contained the binding sites for YY1 and a second transcription factor that is probably serum response factor, is located ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/gary-peltz

Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4(+) T...Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4(+) T...

GATA3, and T-bet in brain tissue compared with CGS-treated and BTBR control mice. The augmented levels of IL-21/IL-22 and GATA3 ... Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4(+) T ... T-box transcription factor (T-bet), GATA3 (GATA Binding Protein 3), and CD152 (CTLA-4) expression in BTBR mice. Our results ... An imbalance in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors plays a role in ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/adenosine-a2a-receptor-signaling-affects-il-21il-22-cytokines-and-gata3t-bet-transcription-factor-expression-in-cd4-t-cells-from-a-btbr-t-itpr3tfj-mouse-model-of-autism/

Paul Utz | Stanford Medicine ProfilesPaul Utz | Stanford Medicine Profiles

TGF-beta failed to inhibit IL-4-mediated upregulation of the Th2 transcription factor GATA-3. Addition of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL- ... Skin biopsies were obtained for differential gene expression and pathway enrichment analyses and intrinsic gene expression ... Nicotine acts on endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to activate endothelial cells and to augment ... Polymorphisms in the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) are strongly associated in human genetic studies with ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/paul-utz

The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector...The transcription factor lymphoid enhancer factor 1 controls invariant natural killer T cell expansion and Th2-type effector...

LEF1 also directly augments expression of the effector fate-specifying transcription factor GATA3, thus promoting the ... A recent study revealed that activating transcription factor 2 family transcription factors (ATF2) can promote transcription ... 5 A). When compared with other transcription factors, LEF1 expression was proportional to GATA3 and PLZF and was largely ... T cell factor 1 initiates the T helper type 2 fate by inducing the transcription factor GATA-3 and repressing interferon-γ. Nat ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/early/2015/04/14/jem.20141849

Frontiers | Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan...Frontiers | Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan...

The expression of (A) Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 and (B) Th1 transcription factor T-bet in peripheral blood mononuclear ... sites by augmenting secretary IgA, systemic IgG, and T cell responses against highly variant IAVs. This augmented virus- ... The expression of Th2-specific transcription factor GATA-3 mRNA in PBMCs of pigs at DPV 35/DPC 0 was 4- and 1.5-fold higher in ... The expression of Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 mRNA was not increased in TBLN (Figure 9F). ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00934/full

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

... and reduced cytokine and GATA-3 transcription factor protein expression in Th2 CD4 T cells. These observations were further ... To our knowledge, this is the first report that triclosan can induce TSLP expression as a possible mechanism for augmenting ... Dermal exposure to the antimicrobial chemical triclosan augments allergic responses by inducing expression of thymic stromal ... Mice exposed dermally to triclosan have also shown augmented allergic responses, however the mechanisms behind these effects ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=mead&f1=AU&Startyear=&terms=3&Adv=1&ct=&B1=Search&Limit=500&Sort=DP+DESC&whichdate=DP&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=4&RecNo=40&View=f&

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

... and reduced cytokine and GATA-3 transcription factor protein expression in Th2 CD4 T cells. These observations were further ... To our knowledge, this is the first report that triclosan can induce TSLP expression as a possible mechanism for augmenting ... Dermal exposure to the antimicrobial chemical triclosan augments allergic responses by inducing expression of thymic stromal ... Mice exposed dermally to triclosan have also shown augmented allergic responses, however the mechanisms behind these effects ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=+%27ultrafine%2A%27+OR+%28%27nano%2A%27+AND+%27particle%2A%27%29+OR+%27nanotech%2A%27+OR+%27nanomaterial%2A%27+OR+%27nanoparticle%2A%27+OR+%27nanotube%2A%27+&f1=%2A&Startyear=&terms=3&Adv=1&ct=&B1=Search&Limit=25000&Sort=DP+DESC&whichdate=DP&D1=10&EndYear=&PageNo=61&RecNo=604&View=f&

P47 Mice Are Compromised in Expansion and Activation of CD8 T Cells and Susceptible to  Infection | proLékaře.czP47 Mice Are Compromised in Expansion and Activation of CD8 T Cells and Susceptible to Infection | proLékaře.cz

Th1-specific transcription factor) versus GATA-3 (Th2-specfic transcription factor), consistent with a Th1 skewing of naïve T ... T cells from p47phox deficient mice exhibit augmented IFN-γ and diminished IL-4 production and an increased ratio of expression ... ShatynskiKE, ChenH, KwonJ, WilliamsMS (2012) Decreased STAT5 phosphorylation and GATA-3 expression in NOX2-deficient T cells: ... After reverse transcription of 2 µg RNA with poly(dT)18, first-strand cDNA was used as a template in a real-time PCR on an ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2014-12/p47-mice-are-compromised-in-expansion-and-activation-of-cd8-t-cells-and-susceptible-to-infection-53659

IL-27 Signaling Compromises Control of Bacterial Growth in Mycobacteria-Infected Mice | The Journal of ImmunologyIL-27 Signaling Compromises Control of Bacterial Growth in Mycobacteria-Infected Mice | The Journal of Immunology

... is likely that IL-27 thus serves to suppress IL-4-induced expression of the Th2-specific zinc-finger transcription factor GATA-3 ... IL-27 is thought to augment the polarization of Th1 T cells by inducing Th1 transcription factor T-bet via TCCR/WSX-1 receptor- ... augments differentiation of naive T cells toward an IFN-γ-producing phenotype by up-regulating the transcription factor T-bet ... IL-27 signaling via the TCCR (WSX-1) receptor increases T-bet expression (18, 19) and augments IL-12p70-mediated IFN-γ ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/173/12/7490?ijkey=1a278362af6cc9938f09eff83cc0bbc24677f5bf&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Epigenetic changes associated with disease progression in a mouse model of childhood allergic asthma | Disease Models &...Epigenetic changes associated with disease progression in a mouse model of childhood allergic asthma | Disease Models &...

At day 49, notable genes predicted to be upregulated included Gata3, the transcription factor associated with Th2 ... We have previously shown that, in this setting, it is possible for substantially increased expression of growth factors by a ... Our previously published studies had shown that development of an augmented Th2-biased immunological response required both ... as well as of the transcription factor GATA-3 (Siegle et al., 2010), which is crucially associated with Th2 differentiation and ...
more infohttp://dmm.biologists.org/content/6/4/993

Lymphoid Hematopoiesis and Lymphocytes Differentiation and Maturation | IntechOpenLymphoid Hematopoiesis and Lymphocytes Differentiation and Maturation | IntechOpen

... independent induction the transcription factor PU.1 in the generation of IL‐9‐secreting T cells. Although the GATA3 expression ... and augmenting leukocyte immune function. Besides that, the production of IL‐9 by Th9 cells impairs tissue repair process ... specific transcription factor encoded by T‐box transcription factor-TBX21 (T‐bet) [83]. IL‐27, a cytokine from IL‐12 family, ... specific transcription factor for Th9 development may be the activator protein 1 family transcription factor, BATF, leading to ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/lymphocyte-updates-cancer-autoimmunity-and-infection/lymphoid-hematopoiesis-and-lymphocytes-differentiation-and-maturation/

Items where Author is FEN, WONG WON - UM RepositoryItems where Author is "FEN, WONG WON" - UM Repository

The Runx3 transcription factor augments Th1 and down-modulates Th2 phenotypes by interacting with and attenuating GATA3. The ... FEN, WONG WON (2015) The artificial loss of Runx1 reduces the expression of quiescence-associated transcription factors in CD4+ ... FEN, WONG WON (2010) Over-expression of Runx1 transcription factor impairs the development of thymocytes from the double- ... FEN, WONG WON (2011) Interplay of transcription factors in T-cell differentiation and function: the role of Runx. Immunology. ...
more infohttp://repository.um.edu.my/view/creators/FEN=3AWONG_WON=3ANULL=3ANULL.html

Gary Peltz | Stanford Medicine ProfilesGary Peltz | Stanford Medicine Profiles

The proximal IL-4 promoter is only moderately augmented by GATA-3, but certain genomic regions significantly enhanced GATA-3 ... Transcription factors in immune-mediated disease CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Peltz, G. 1997; 8 (4): 467-473 Abstract. A ... Correlating levels of gene expression in tissues established to be mechanistically implicated in the expression of specific ... which contained the binding sites for YY1 and a second transcription factor that is probably serum response factor, is located ...
more infohttps://bipolar.stanford.edu/profiles/gary-peltz

STAT5-Induced Lunatic Fringe during Th2 Development Alters Delta-like 4-Mediated Th2 Cytokine Production in Respiratory...STAT5-Induced Lunatic Fringe during Th2 Development Alters Delta-like 4-Mediated Th2 Cytokine Production in Respiratory...

... at least in part due to Notch-induced transcription of Gata3, a Th2-specific transcription factor (11, 13). The activation of ... Increased expression of Lfng in Th2-skewed T cells augments Th2 cytokine production in the presence of exogenous Dll4. Previous ... and the two most important transcription factors are GATA3 and STAT5 (33). Although early Th2 differentiation requires GATA3, ... proteins and the transcription factor CSL/RBP-Jk (encoded by Rbpj) to induce target gene transcription HES genes in mammals. ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/192/3/996

Similar articles for PubMed (Select 22685315) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 22685315) - PubMed - NCBI

The Runx3 transcription factor augments Th1 and down-modulates Th2 phenotypes by interacting with and attenuating GATA3. ... Downregulation of Hlx closely related to the decreased expressions of T-bet and Runx3 in patients with gastric cancer may be ... The transcription factor GATA3 actively represses RUNX3 protein-regulated production of interferon-gamma. ... The transcription factors T-bet and Runx are required for the ontogeny of pathogenic interferon-γ-producing T helper 17 cells. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?linkname=pubmed_pubmed&from_uid=22685315

Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity | Springer for Research & DevelopmentMechanisms of Hypersensitivity | Springer for Research & Development

Th17 cells are characterized by expression of distinct transcription factors RORγT, STAT3, and IRF-4 and the production of pro- ... Th2 differentiation is the result of IL-4 cytokine and GATA-3 and STAT6 transcription factor involvement that drives production ... Activity of the autoantibodies was later shown to be augmented by complement activation with a critical role for component C5a ... Phosphorylation of the transcription factors activating protein-1 (AP-1), nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), and ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-7261-2_3

Immune Regulation in Human Health and DiseaseImmune Regulation in Human Health and Disease

2007) GATA3‐driven Th2 responses inhibit TGF‐beta1‐induced FOXP3 expression and the formation of regulatory T cells. PLoS ... FOXP3+ Treg cells are thought to be plastic as they are capable of upregulating other lineage defining transcription factors ... 2012) Rapamycin/IL‐2 combination therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes augments Tregs yet transiently impairs beta‐cell ... Hori S, Nomura T and Sakaguchi S (2017) Pillars article: Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0000952.html

Plus itPlus it

... dh-iGb3 and iGb3 and expression of key transcription factors by NKT cells. ... Regulation of Th2 cytokine expression in NKT cells: unconventional use of Stat6, GATA-3, and NFAT2. J Immunol 2006;176:880-8. ... Stability and affinity of the CD1d/4‴-dh-iGb3/Vα14TCRβ complexes are augmented. It has been reported that the structural ... T-bet has been identified as a key transcription factor for the development of Th1 cells and the induction of IFN-γ production ...
more infohttps://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/10/8/1375

TSLP signaling in CD4+ T cells programs a pathogenic T helper 2 cell state | Science SignalingTSLP signaling in CD4+ T cells programs a pathogenic T helper 2 cell state | Science Signaling

... induces the expression of GATA3, which encodes a key TH2 cell-specific transcription factor. STAT6 and GATA3 (GATA binding ... 5 TSLP augments activating chromatin modifications in TH2 cytokine loci.. (A and B) Naïve CD4+ T cells were activated as ... including activation of the transcription factor STAT5 through the kinase JAK2 and repression of the transcription factor BCL6 ... S1, D and E) nor the induction of interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) (fig. S1F), which is an essential transcription factor ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/11/521/eaam8858

Expression of GATA family of transcription factors in T-cells, monocytes and bronchial biopsies | European Respiratory SocietyExpression of GATA family of transcription factors in T-cells, monocytes and bronchial biopsies | European Respiratory Society

The increased expression of GATA-3 in asthmatic T-cells, but not in bronchial epithelial cells, may underlie the augmented Th2- ... The transcription factor GATA-3 is necessary and sufficient for Th2 cytokine gene expression in CD4 T-cells. Cell 1997;89:587- ... Nakamura Y, Ghaffar O, Olivenstein R, et al. Gene expression of the GATA-3 transcription factor is increased in atopic asthma. ... GATA-3 protein expression in T-cells of normal and asthmatic subjects. a) shows GATA-3 expression in T-cells isolated from ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/18/3/466?ijkey=f20ad3f78d6f4421fea65a80f31e64789a89faeb&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung CancerThe Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

as critical transcription factors [71]. STAT3 regulates IL-6-induced expression of RORgt and RORa and IL-17 production [72]. In ... whereas the transcription factors STAT-6, c-maf, GATA-3, and NFAT are master regulators of Th2 development and function [14, 25 ... these findings support the implication of enhanced Th1 cells in augmenting antitumor responses but enhanced Th2 cells in ... t expression is further upregulated, whereas FoxP3 expression and function are inhibited. This evidence shows the importance of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/730380/

Methods and compositions for inhibition of Treg cells - Patent applicationMethods and compositions for inhibition of Treg cells - Patent application

2D is the expression of the transcription factors FoxP3, Tbet and GATA-3 was determined in CD4+CD25- CD62L+ T cells cultured ... 2A and 2B). Furthermore, the number of activated effector (CD25+FoxP3-) cells were augmented by the allogeneic emTh-1 ... The expression of the transcription factors Tbet and Gata-3 (expressed by Th-1 and Th-2 cells, respectively) were evaluated by ... 2D is a dot plot showing the expression of transcription factors FoxP3, Tbet, and GATA-3 in cells cultured as described in FIG ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110250173

The Current Concept of T H 17 Cells and Their Expanding Role in  Systemic Lupus ErythematosusThe Current Concept of T H 17 Cells and Their Expanding Role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Similarly, the upregulation of GATA-3 transcription factor of TH2 cells by IL-4/5/13 could also restrict the expansion of TH17 ... activation and results in the expression of the transcription factor T-bet. TH2 cells predominantly produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL- ... This augmented IL-17 response was associated with increased GC development and stability in BXD2 spleens as compared to B6 ... transcription factor induced by IL-6 and TGF-β [12, 13]. In addition to RORγt, other transcription factors also play critical ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2011/810649/

Early-life exposure to three size-fractionated ultrafine and fine atmospheric particulates in Beijing exacerbates asthma...Early-life exposure to three size-fractionated ultrafine and fine atmospheric particulates in Beijing exacerbates asthma...

Oxidative stress and expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were then examined in vitro and in the lungs of mouse pups 48 ... decreased the mRNA expression of DNMTs in vitro and in vivo the most significantly. In an asthma model of adult mice, previous ... which might be associated with the persistent effects resulting from the oxidative stress and decreased gene expression of ... Although late-onset adult asthma seems to be more attributable to environmental risk factors, limited data is available on the ...
more infohttps://particleandfibretoxicology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12989-018-0249-1
  • In the nucleus, DNA-binding proteins of the T-cell factor (Tcf) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef-1) family are bound by transcriptional repressors such as transducin-like enhancer proteins (Tle) and C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). (aacrjournals.org)
  • IL-33 was initially described in 2003 by Girard's group as a nuclear protein abundantly expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs), specialized blood vessels that mediate the entry of lymphocytes into lymphoid organs and therefore named "nuclear factor from high endothelial venules" (NF-HEV) ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report that triclosan can induce TSLP expression as a possible mechanism for augmenting allergic diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • IFN-γ is the most potent inducer of transglutaminasa2 (TG2) expressions, acts synergistically with TNF-α, and triggers the upregulation of HLA expression, the secretion of tissue-damaging Metalloproteinases (MMPs) from fibroblasts, the heightened cytotoxicity of Intraepithelial Lymphocytes (IELs) against enterocytes with increased apoptosis and villous flattening. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Upregulation of IL-15 expression by epithelial cells and Dendritic Cells (DCs) in the lamina propria seems to contribute to alter signalling properties of the CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes and provokes the resistance of human T cells to the suppression by regulatory T cells. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Some racial groups like Pima Indians and Asian Indians have strong genetic factor in their increased susceptibility to develop diabetes [ 19 - 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In DQ2 negative patients, the IL6 -174GG genotype (homozygous) may be an additional risk marker for CD, represented a susceptibility factor for the disease when TNF-308A is negative . (ommegaonline.org)
  • Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of gene function by measuring transcription of large number of genes in an array. (hindawi.com)
  • Microarray is a powerful technique of assessment of expression of genes in a tissue at any time at genomewide scale and has been applied in understanding role of adipose tissue in insulin resistance [ 28 - 31 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Expression of the semi-invariant iNKT cell TCR, comprised of an invariant TCRα chain (Vα14Jα18) paired with a biased TCR Vβ repertoire (Vβ8, -7, and -2), allows for recognition of glycolipid-CD1D complexes on neighboring cortical DP thymocytes, which results in their selection into the iNKT cell lineage. (rupress.org)
  • To further elucidate these mechanisms, the ear skin and draining lymph nodes at the site of dermal exposure were examined in BALB/c mice to identify early immunological changes induced by triclosan (0, 0.75 and 3% w/v). We discovered significant increases in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) expression at the transcript and protein levels in the ear, but not in the lymph nodes or blood serum. (cdc.gov)