Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/1597)Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli. (+info)
Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (2/1597)We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences. (+info)
Coding of sound envelopes by inhibitory rebound in neurons of the superior olivary complex in the unanesthetized rabbit. (3/1597)Most natural sounds (e.g., speech) are complex and have amplitude envelopes that fluctuate rapidly. A number of studies have examined the neural coding of envelopes, but little attention has been paid to the superior olivary complex (SOC), a constellation of nuclei that receive information from the cochlear nucleus. We studied two classes of predominantly monaural neurons: those that displayed a sustained response to tone bursts and those that gave only a response to the tone offset. Our results demonstrate that the off neurons in the SOC can encode the pattern of amplitude-modulated sounds with high synchrony that is superior to sustained neurons. The upper cutoff frequency and highest modulation frequency at which significant synchrony was present were, on average, slightly higher for off neurons compared with sustained neurons. Finally, most sustained and off neurons encoded the level of pure tones over a wider range of intensities than those reported for auditory nerve fibers and cochlear nucleus neurons. A traditional view of inhibition is that it attenuates or terminates neural activity. Although this holds true for off neurons, the robust discharge when inhibition is released adds a new dimension. For simple sounds (i.e., pure tones), the off response can code a wide range of sound levels. For complex sounds, the off response becomes entrained to each modulation, resulting in a precise temporal coding of the envelope. (+info)
The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (4/1597)Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem. (+info)
Early visual experience shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain gaze fields of the barn owl. (5/1597)Auditory spatial information is processed in parallel forebrain and midbrain pathways. Sensory experience early in life has been shown to exert a powerful influence on the representation of auditory space in the midbrain space-processing pathway. The goal of this study was to determine whether early experience also shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain. Owls were raised wearing prismatic spectacles that shifted the visual field in the horizontal plane. This manipulation altered the relationship between interaural time differences (ITDs), the principal cue used for azimuthal localization, and locations of auditory stimuli in the visual field. Extracellular recordings were used to characterize ITD tuning in the auditory archistriatum (AAr), a subdivision of the forebrain gaze fields, in normal and prism-reared owls. Prism rearing altered the representation of ITD in the AAr. In prism-reared owls, unit tuning for ITD was shifted in the adaptive direction, according to the direction of the optical displacement imposed by the spectacles. Changes in ITD tuning involved the acquisition of unit responses to adaptive ITD values and, to a lesser extent, the elimination of responses to nonadaptive (previously normal) ITD values. Shifts in ITD tuning in the AAr were similar to shifts in ITD tuning observed in the optic tectum of the same owls. This experience-based adjustment of binaural tuning in the AAr helps to maintain mutual registry between the forebrain and midbrain representations of auditory space and may help to ensure consistent behavioral responses to auditory stimuli. (+info)
Auditory perception: does practice make perfect? (6/1597)Recent studies have shown that adult humans can learn to localize sounds relatively accurately when provided with altered localization cues. These experiments provide further evidence for experience-dependent plasticity in the mature brain. (+info)
Expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in hypothyroid rat brain indicates an important role of thyroid hormone in the development of specific primary sensory systems. (7/1597)Thyroid hormone is an important epigenetic factor in brain development, acting by modulating rates of gene expression. The active form of thyroid hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is produced in part by the thyroid gland but also after 5'-deiodination of thyroxine (T4) in target tissues. In brain, approximately 80% of T3 is formed locally from T4 through the activity of the 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2), an enzyme that is expressed mostly by glial cells, tanycytes in the third ventricle, and astrocytes throughout the brain. D2 activity is an important point of control of thyroid hormone action because it increases in situations of low T4, thus preserving brain T3 concentrations. In this work, we have studied the expression of D2 by quantitative in situ hybridization in hypothyroid animals during postnatal development. Our hypothesis was that those regions that are most dependent on thyroid hormone should present selective increases of D2 as a protection against hypothyroidism. D2 mRNA concentration was increased severalfold over normal levels in relay nuclei and cortical targets of the primary somatosensory and auditory pathways. The results suggest that these pathways are specifically protected against thyroid failure and that T3 has a role in the development of these structures. At the cellular level, expression was observed mainly in glial cells, although some interneurons of the cerebral cortex were also labeled. Therefore, the T3 target cells, mostly neurons, are dependent on local astrocytes for T3 supply. (+info)
Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses. (8/1597)The common occurrence of hearing loss in both humans and mice, and the anatomical and functional similarities of their inner ears, attest to the potential of mice being used as models to study inherited hearing loss. A large-scale, auditory screening project is being undertaken at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) to identify mice with inherited hearing disorders. To assess hearing sensitivity, at least five mice from each inbred strain had auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds determined. Thus far, we have screened 80 inbred strains of mice; 60 of them exhibited homogeneous ABR threshold values not significantly different from those of the control strain CBA/CaJ. This large database establishes a reliable reference for normal hearing mouse strains. The following 16 inbred strains exhibited significantly elevated ABR thresholds before the age of 3 months: 129/J, 129/ReJ, 129/SvJ, A/J, ALR/LtJ, ALS/LtJ, BUB/BnJ, C57BLKS/J, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, and SKH2/J. These hearing impaired strains may serve as models for some forms of human non-syndromic hearing loss and aid in the identification of the underlying genes. (+info)
Analogue VLSI building blocks for an electronic auditory pathway - Infoscience
This thesis gives an overview of my work over the last four years on the development of analogue electronic building blocks for the auditory pathway, and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is presented, and is decomposed into three key elements, i.e., the basilar membrane band-pass filters, the transduction into a neural signal performed by the inner hair cells, and the mechanical feedback introduced by the outer hair cells. An electronic model for the first two of these elements is presented and measurement results are shown to compare these circuits with their biological counterparts. The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a good spiking neuron model is essential. The electrophysiology and anatomy needed to understand the
Epression of Ion Channels in the Auditory System - Leonard Kaczmarek
Development of Neuronal Circuits In The Auditory Systems - Karl Kandler
Foxj1 auditory system gene expression
Chst9 auditory system gene expression
Frontiers | Developmental Profile of Ion Channel Specializations in the Avian Nucleus Magnocellularis | Frontiers in Cellular...
Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
NMDA Currents Modulate the Synaptic Input-Output Functions of Neurons in the Dorsal Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus in...
Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an "integration-based" mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five ...
Glutamate receptor phenotypes in the auditory brainstem and mid-brain of the developing rat - Caicedo - 1999 - European Journal...
Glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in the adult vertebrate brain, but their activation in developing neurons also influences developmental processes. However, little is known about the developmental regulation of the subunits composing these receptors. Here we have studied age-dependent changes in the expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in the cochlear nucleus complex (CN), the superior olivary complex (SOC), the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and the inferior colliculus of the developing rat. In the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the distribution of AMPA receptor subunits changed drastically with age. While GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were highly expressed in the first 2 postnatal weeks, GluR4 staining was detectable only thereafter. GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities rapidly decreased during the third ...
Pap 0111 | Auditory System | Brainstem
Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. Finally, there is topographically patterned input to the superior colliculus and to the cerebellum, the latter receiving some of its input from the pontine nuclei activated by acoustic stimulation. Cochlear Nuclei All auditory ...
ModelDB: MNTB Neuron: Kv3.1 currents (Wang et al 1998)
Model of Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body (MNTB) neurons described in Lu-Yang Wang, Li Gan, Ian D. Forsythe and Leonard K. Kaczmarek. Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neurones. J. Physiol (1998) 509.1 183-194. Created by David Kornfeld, Byram Hills High School, Armonk NY. Please email [email protected] for questions about the model. See Readme.txt below for more info ...
Olivary complex legal definition of olivary complex
[email protected]: Response properties of neighboring neurons in the auditory midbrain
The inferior colliculus, the primary nucleus in the mammalian auditory midbrain, occupies a central position in the ascending auditory pathway. Nearly all ascending neural pathways converge and synapse in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Further, the anatomical arrangement of axons and neurons in the ICC suggests the existence of functional regions which may play a role in organizing different types of physiological information. To investigate this organization, we characterized the response properties of neighboring neurons in the ICC. To record reliably from neighboring neurons, we adopted a relatively new electrophysiological technique, tetrode recordings. Tetrodes have four closely spaced recording sites (,20[mu]m) which record multi-unit activity from a small number of neighboring neurons. The recorded signals contain action potentials originating from more than one neuron. Based on action potential wave shape differences across the four channels, we can reconstruct the ...
The development of synaptic function and integration in the central auditory system<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The development of synaptic function and integration in the central auditory system. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The development of inhibitory synaptic transmission is difficult to assess because the afferents usually arise from intrinsic neurons that are difficult to stimulate independently. The postnatal maturation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic function was compared in the gerbil lateral superior olive (LSO), where it is possible to stimulate physically discrete afferent projections. Intracellular recordings obtained in a brain slice preparation revealed that transmission was prominent at birth. The EPSPs and IPSPs were up to 2 orders of magnitude longer than in more mature animals. Brief trains of electrical stimulus pulses led to a temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in 1-14 d animals resulting in prolonged depolarizations or hyperpolarizations. In neonates, the depolarization could exceed 1 sec following a 70 msec stimulus train. The ...
Cochlea and Auditory Pathways - [PDF Document]
9780387989037 isbn/isbn13 $$ Compare Prices at 110 Bookstores! Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway ...
Both avian and crocodilian auditory circuits appear to conform to the requirements of the Jeffress model (Jeffress, 1948; Joris et al., 1998; Grothe et al., 2005). The auditory nerve and NM phase lock to sound in birds and crocodilians (Köppl, 1997b), while NMs target neurons in NL act as coincidence detectors for both tones and noise. Internal delays, equal and opposite to interaural delays, characterize barn owls (Carr and Konishi, 1990; Peña et al., 2001), chickens (Overholt et al., 1992; Funabiki et al., 1998; Köppl and Carr, 2008), and alligators (this study). Best delays in NL are such that neurons respond maximally to sound sources in the contralateral hemifield. Similarly, contralateral click delays are longer than ipsilateral (Wagner et al., 2005; Köppl and Carr, 2008). Thus, the axonal delays from NM appear sufficient to account for the range of observed ITDs. Cochlear disparities or stereausis are an alternative to axonal delays (Shamma et al., 1989; Peña et al., 2001), but when ...
An interesting response property of auditory neurons that can be observed at various levels of the auditory pathway, but is particularly versatile in the IC, is selectivity in discharge rate to temporal features of sound, such as, e.g., amplitude modulations and frequency modulations (Brand et al., 2000; McAlpine, 2004; Woolley and Casseday, 2005; Pérez-González et al., 2006; Krebs et al., 2008). These versatile tuning patterns result from the complex set of synaptic inputs IC cells receive and are therefore dependent on outputs of the various auditory nuclei converging at the IC. The dependence of AM selectivity of single IC neurons on network states is nicely illustrated by the finding that AM selectivity can be modulated by changing sound location (Koch and Grothe, 2000) or by blocking inhibition (Casseday et al., 1994; Fuzessery and Hall, 1996; Casseday et al., 2002). We observed a significant decrease in temporal selectivity of IC neurons in aged animals. As mentioned above, selectivity ...
"Complementary Multimodal Compartments in the Developing Inferior Colli" by Roxana Behrooz
The auditory system is responsible for detecting, encoding, and deciphering hearing. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major relay hub situated in the midbrain, that is subdivided into a central nucleus, and surrounding dorsal and lateral cortices. The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) is organized tonotopically based on a frequency gradient and strictly processes auditory information. In contrast, recent studies show that the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC) is actually multimodal, receiving inputs from not just auditory sources, but also somatosensory and visual structures. The precise organization of patterned inputs to the LCIC and their development has yet to be fully established. Mounting evidence suggests a modular LCIC framework with surrounding extramodular zones that provide an anatomical substrate for input-output arrays. Previously, a series of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cytochrome oxidase (CO), glutamic
Synonyms for medial geniculate body | Synonym.com
Acoustic lemniscus: Definition with Acoustic lemniscus Pictures and Photos
Wired for Sound: A Q&A Concerning Dolphin Brains - The Austringer
Afferent:. Neural activity begins with the transduction of acoustic waves into electrochemical communication in the hair cells of the basilar membrane. Synaptic connections stimulate activity in sensory neurons. Apical, intermediate, and basal neurons of the cochlea innervate the cochlear nucleus. The cochlear nucleus gives rise to a variety of connections. Ipsilaterally, these connections are to the medial superior olive, the lateral superior olive (absent or reduced in dolphins and bats), the lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body, lateral pre-olivary nucleus, and dorsal and ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus. Contralaterally, these connections of the cochlear nucleus are to the medial trapezoidal body, medial superior olive, medial pre-olivary nucleus, and dorsal and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus. The medial trapezoidal body innervates the lateral superior olive of the same side. [2, pp. 284-294]. Afferent innervation of the retro-olivary group is laminar, and may indicate a ...
"Binaural interaction in the auditory brainstem response: a normative s" by L. N. Van Yper, K. Vermeire et al.
OBJECTIVE: Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. METHODS: Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. RESULTS: Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained
Brachium of the inferior colliculus | definition of Brachium of the inferior colliculus by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of Brachium of the inferior colliculus in the Medical Dictionary? Brachium of the inferior colliculus explanation free. What is Brachium of the inferior colliculus? Meaning of Brachium of the inferior colliculus medical term. What does Brachium of the inferior colliculus mean?
Lirias: Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence...
Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Vol 8: The relative contributions of MNTB and LNTB neurons to inhibition in the medial superior olive assessed through single...
Vol 8: The relative contributions of MNTB and LNTB neurons to inhibition in the medial superior olive assessed through single and paired recordings.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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About 95 percent of sound input to the brain comes from the ears inner hair cells.. "These inner hair cells are like spark plugs in an 8-cylinder engine," says Salvi. "A car wont run well if you remove half of those spark plugs, but people can still present with normal hearing thresholds if theyve lost half or even three-quarters of their inner hair cells.". Ear damage reduces the signal that goes the brain. That results in trouble hearing, but thats not whats happening here, because the brain "has a central gain control, like a radio, the listener can turn up the volume control to better hear a distant station." Salvi says.. Sound is converted to neural activity by the inner hair cells in the auditory part of the ear, called the cochlea.. Sound-evoked neural activity then travels from the cochlea to the auditory nerve and into the central auditory pathway of the brain. Halfway up the auditory pathway the information is relayed into a structure known as the inferior colliculus, before ...
Iris View Profile
The auditory circuit that we are studying helps to locate sound sources in space and illustrates beautifully how development is instrumental in shaping function. A major cue for an animal to locate sound sources compares the arrival time of the sound at the two ears. The time difference in sound reaching each ear, termed interaural time difference (ITD), varies from zero (sound directly ahead) to approximately 300 microseconds (depending on the size of head). The circuit operates as an AND logical gate where synaptic input from the ear closest to the sound sets up a map of space along an array of neurons which is compared to synaptic input from the ear furthest away from the sound. This identifies the location of sound in a subset of neurons along this array through dendritic integration to detect temporal coincidence of the two inputs. This calculation is performed at each characteristic frequency of sound using different arrays of neurons that are juxtaposed to form a sheet of cells in the ...
Biomedical Engineering : University of Rochester
Fig. 1: The main ascending pathways in the mammalian auditory system. AN, auditory nerve; CN, cochlear nucleus; SO, superior olive; NLL, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; IC, inferior colliculus; MGB, thalamus; and A1, cortex. One goal of the lab is to identify functional pathways (patterns of afferent convergence) that link the brainstem auditory nuclei.. Current research in the laboratory centers on the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) because it occupies a pivotal position in the auditory system; it receives direct inputs from most, if not all, of the auditory nuclei in the brainstem and, in turn, provides nearly all of the input to the auditory forebrain. Anatomical evidence suggests that the projections to the ...
Morphological variation in the nucleus laminaris in birds
Interaural time differences (lTDs) are one of the cues used for binaural sound localisation. In birds, RDs are computed in nucleus laminaris (NL), where a place code of azimuthal location first emerges. In chickens, NL consists of a monolayer of bitufted cells that receive segregated inputs from ipsi- and contralateral nucleus magnocellularis (NM). In ham owls, the monolayer organisation, the bitufted morphology, and the segregation of inputs have been lost, giving rise to a derived organisation that is accompanied by a reorganisation of the auditory place code. Although chickens and ham owls have been the traditional experimental models in which to study lTD coding, they represent distant evolutionary lineages with very different auditory specialisations. Here we examined the structure of NL in several bird lineages. We have found only two NL morphotypes, one of which appears to have emerged in association with high frequency hearing ...
Surface Wave Parametric Processors and Long Delay Lines.
-BANDWIDTH PRODUCTS EXCEEDING 10,000, USING PASSIVE, UNGUIDED PROPAGATION. The report presents experimental results on a delay line having 1/2 millisecond delay and 5 MHz bandwidth. This is a helical SAW delay line on a Bi12GeO20 wrap-around crystal plate, operating at 50 MHz, which proves that practical two-port delay lines operating in the millisecond range are within the current technology. An analysis has been made of the problem of broadbanding the transducers for long delay lines of this kind, which involve different considerations than for standard short delay lines. A loss balancing criterion is developed, and computer results are presented which show the general design parameters for delay lines having time delays extending to one millisecond together with bandwidth extending to 60 MHz, using graded interdigital transducer arrays. (Modified author abstract)*Acoustic delay lines
Gene expression profiling of the rat superior olivary complex using serial analysis of gene expression :: MPG.PuRe
Frontiers | Assessing Auditory Processing Deficits in Tinnitus and Hearing Impaired Patients with the Auditory Behavior...
Background and purpose: Auditory processing disorders (APD), tinnitus and hearing loss (HL) are typical issues reported by patients in audiologic clinics. These auditory impairments can be concomitant or mutually excluding. APD are not necessarily accompanied by significant HL, whereas many adults exhibit peripheral HL and typical cognitive deficits often associated with APD. Since HL, tinnitus and APD affects to several parts of the ascending auditory pathway from the periphery to the auditory cortex, there could be some interrelationship between them. For instance, tinnitus has been reported to degrade the auditory localization capacity. Tinnitus is believed to be triggered by deafferentation of normal peripheral input to the central auditory system. This peripheral deficit can be accompanied by HL or not, since a type of permanent cochlear damage (thus deafferentation) without an elevation of hearing thresholds might persist. Therefore, a combined study of APD, tinnitus and HL on the same cohort of
The Oxford Handbook of the Auditory Brainstem - Karl Kandler - Oxford University Press
The Oxford Handbook of The Auditory Brainstem provides an introduction as well as an in-depth reference to the organization and function of ascending and descending auditory pathways in the mammalian brainstem. Individual chapters are organized along the auditory pathway beginning with the cochlea and ending with the auditory midbrain.
Import Data And Price Of Delay Line Transducer | www.eximpulse.com
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Reliable identification of the auditory thalamus using multi-modal structural analyses. - Wellcome Centre for Integrative...
The medial geniculate body (MGB) of the thalamus is a key component of the auditory system. It is involved in relaying and transforming auditory information to the cortex and in top-down modulation of processing in the midbrain, brainstem, and ear. Functional imaging investigations of this region in humans, however, have been limited by the difficulty of distinguishing MGB from other thalamic nuclei. Here, we introduce two methods for reliably delineating MGB anatomically in individuals based on conventional and diffusion MRI data. The first uses high-resolution proton density weighted scanning optimized for subcortical grey-white contrast. The second uses diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography to automatically segment the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei from surrounding structures based on their distinctive patterns of connectivity to the rest of the brain. Both methods produce highly replicable results that are consistent with published atlases. Importantly, both methods rely
The Physiological Basis and Clinical Use of the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response. - PubMed -...
Full text Supplement:. Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding acoustic stimulus affects 10 to 15% of the adult population worldwide. Despite this prevalence, there are currently no effective drug therapies due to limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tinnitus onset following triggers such as exposure to loud sound. Many studies support the prevailing idea that tinnitus arises in response to enhanced multisensory synaptic transmission to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the first relay in the auditory brainstem integrating acoustic and multisensory inputs. Such findings include a correlation between tinnitus and aberrant neural activity in the DCN (Kaltenbach 2007), altered excitability in the DCN initiating a complex sequence of events in the auditory pathway (Brozoski et al., 2002) and an increased synchrony in the network activity (Shore et al., 2016). We investigate the role of plasticity in the DCN at the early stages following acoustic ...
ModelDB: Duration-tuned neurons from the inferior colliculus of vertebrates (Aubie et al. 2012)
from sim import Simulation import network import neuron import progress from math import ceil def run(netdef,tosave,modify,procs,thisProc,stims,param,repeats,sim_time,SaveSpikes,SaveVoltage,SaveConductance,SaveCurrent): net = netdef() if SaveVoltage: net.recordVoltage() repeats = int(repeats) # Randomseed was 200 for most figures # Changed to 200 for rat # Changed to 200 for anurans s = Simulation(net, randomseed=200,delay=25) s.verbose = False s.sim_time = sim_time s.dt = 0.050 total = len(stims)*len(param)*repeats spp = ceil(float(total)/procs) start = thisProc*spp end = (thisProc+1)*spp count = 0 for a in param: s.set_amplitude(net.sim_amp) for d in stims*repeats: if count ,= start and count , end: net = modify(net,a,d) progress.update(count-start,spp,thisProc) s.stim_dur = d s.run() key = [a,d] net.savecells(tosave, key, spikes=SaveSpikes,voltage=SaveVoltage,conductance=SaveConductance,current=SaveCurrent) count += 1 progress.update(spp,spp,thisProc) r = ...
Label Cochlear nucleus neuron - NeuroLex
Note: Neurolex imports many terms and their ids from existing community ontologies, e.g., the Gene Ontology. Neurolex, however, is a dynamic site and any content beyond the identifier should not be presumed to reflect the content or views of the source ontology. Users should consult with the authoritative source for each ontology for current information ...
Emulating Temporal Receptive Fields of Higher Level Auditory Neurons for ASR - Infoscience
This paper proposes modifications to the Multi-resolution RASTA (MRASTA) feature extraction technique for the automatic speech recognition (ASR). By emulating asymmetries of the temporal receptive field (TRF) profiles of higher level auditory neurons, we obtain more than 11.4% relative improvement in word error rate on OGI-Digits database. Experiments on TIMIT database confirm that proposed modifications are indeed useful. Sivaram, Garimella S. V. S.; Hermansky, Hynek
Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway
Neuromonics Oasis Provides Tinnitus Treatment - Comments
By Andrew Liszewski. As far as I know theres no real cure for Tinnitus, but a company called Neuromonics claims to have created an effective treatment that will reduce the symptoms almost immediately and provide some level of long-term relief. At the core of the treatment is the Oasis audio device which plays specifically designed music thats embedded with a "pleasant acoustic neural stimulus." These sounds, which are customized for every patient based on their audiological profile, stimulate the auditory pathway to promote neural plastic changes. And over time its these new connections that help the brain filter out the tinnitus disturbance. So as far as I can tell the process doesnt cure the problem, it just trains your brain to ignore it.. The treatments usually last for 6 months, and during the first 2 months youll need to listen to the device for about 2 hours or longer every day. During the last 4 months that duration will gradually decrease, and once the treatment is over you may ...
OSA | Periodic optical delay line based on a tilted parabolic generatrix helicoid reflective mirror
We report the design and testing of a novel linear scanning periodic optical delay line (ODL) by use of a helicoid reflective mirror based on a tilted parabolic generatrix that was driven by an electrical motor for a periodic change in the optical path length of the reflected light beam. The divergence and pulse front distortion of the optical beam reflected by the helicoid reflective mirror were simulated based on differential geometry. With a round-trip pass arrangement, a scanning range of delay time as large as ...
BroadbandBreakfast.com: FCC Seeks to Get Into Broadband Stimulus Game with Public Notice
Download Auditory system by Wolf-Dieter Keidel PDF EPUB FB2 MOBI
Tekturon multi-tap sequenced delay effect plugin by D16 Group
Inferior colliculus - Wikipedia
The inferior colliculus (IC) (Latin, lower hill) is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex. The inferior colliculus has three subdivisions: the central nucleus, a dorsal cortex by which it is surrounded, and an external cortex which is located laterally. Its bimodal neurons are implicated in auditory-somatosensory interaction, receiving projections from somatosensory nuclei. This multisensory integration may underlie a filtering of self-effected sounds from vocalization, chewing, or respiration activities. The inferior colliculi together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the corpora quadrigemina, and also part of the tectal region of the midbrain. The inferior colliculus lies caudal to its counterpart - the superior colliculus - above the trochlear nerve, and at the base of the projection of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral ...
The effect of bilateral deafness on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength in the inferior colliculus<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of bilateral deafness on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength in the inferior colliculus. AU - Vale, Carmen. AU - Sanes, Dan H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The consequences of deafness on the central auditory nervous system have been examined at many levels, from molecular to functional. However, there has never been a direct and selective measurement of excitatory synaptic function following total hearing loss. In the present study, gerbils were deafened at postnatal day 9, an age at which there is no deafferentation-induced cell death of ventral cochlear nucleus neurons. One to five days after bilateral cochlear ablation, the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSC) was measured with whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in an inferior colliculus (IC) brain slice preparation in response to electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral lateral lemniscus (LL) or the commissure of the inferior colliculus (CIC). Deafness resulted in larger LL- and ...
Changes in neuronal excitability contribute to neurologic dysfunction in FXS (Contractor et al., 2015). In the auditory brainstem, where synaptic balance is a key factor in sound processing and sound localization (Tollin, 2003), increased excitability could lead to hyperacusis and difficulties in sound localization. Indeed, Fmr1 KO mice have shifted sensitivity for interaural level differences (Garcia-Pino et al., 2017). Enhanced gain leading to hyperacusis in FXS may originate, at least in part, in the auditory brainstem nuclei. The increase in VGAT in MNTB, a sign-inverting relay nucleus, could lead to enhanced excitation in targets of MNTB (Rotschafer et al., 2015); additionally, increased excitation in LSO has also been shown to arise from VCN (Garcia-Pino et al., 2017). Both of these observations suggest that the superior olivary complex may increase gain in the auditory pathway in Fmr1 KO mice.. In MNTB, increased VGAT expression in Fmr1 KO mice was seen at P6 and persisted into adulthood. ...
Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
latest on tinnitus cure tinnitus cure stem cell | tinnitus natural cure tinnitus protein cure
Tinnitus can arise anywhere along the auditory pathway, from the outer ear through the middle and inner ear to the brains auditory cortex, where its thought to be encoded (in a sense, imprinted). One of the most common causes of tinnitus is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (see "Auditory pathways and tinnitus"). These cells help transform sound waves into nerve signals. If the auditory pathways or circuits in the brain dont receive the signals theyre expecting from the cochlea, the brain in effect "turns up the gain" on those pathways in an effort to detect the signal - in much the same way that you turn up the volume on a car radio when youre trying to find a stations signal. The resulting electrical noise takes the form of tinnitus - a sound that is high-pitched if hearing loss is in the high-frequency range and low-pitched if its in the low-frequency range. This kind of tinnitus resembles phantom limb pain in an amputee - the brain is producing abnormal nerve signals to ...
Histological determination of the areas enriched in cholinergic terminals and m2 and m3 muscarinic receptors in the mouse...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histological determination of the areas enriched in cholinergic terminals and m2 and m3 muscarinic receptors in the mouse central auditory system. AU - Hamada, Satoko. AU - Houtani, Takeshi. AU - Trifonov, Stefan. AU - Kase, Masahiko. AU - Maruyama, Masato. AU - Shimizu, Jun Ichi. AU - Yamashita, Toshio. AU - Tomoda, Koichi. AU - Sugimoto, Tetsuo. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicated that the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body and the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus constituted cholinergic synaptic sites in the brainstem auditory system, containing a significant number of cholinergic axon terminals and m2 receptor-expressing cell bodies.. AB - Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ ...
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation - pdf descargar
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00214016 - Presbycusis.
The age related decline in auditory performance, or presbycusis, was reviewed and discussed. Topics reviewed included: anatomy and physiology of the cochlea and central auditory pathway; laboratory animal models of presbycusis; age related structural losses in humans; age related changes in brainstem evoked response; interaction of aging and noise; hearing levels in subjects with military and indu
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
Hearing loss leads to a reorganization of the pathways in the central auditory system.12,20,22,23 These changes may occur rapidly24 and lead to abnormal interactions between auditory and other central pathways.20Analogous changes in the somatosensory system linked to phantom pain25 led us to suggest that there are similarities between neuropathic pain and tinnitus.12 In patients with gaze-evoked tinnitus, lateral eye movements failto produce the inhibition of the auditory cortex observed in controls.20 The absence of this phenomenon, called cross-modal inhibition, may contribute to the false perception of sounds.. Levine hypothesized that a reduction in auditory-nerve input leads to disinhibition of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and an increase in spontaneous activity in the central auditory system, which is experienced as tinnitus.26 This mechanism could explain the temporary ringing sensation that may follow exposure to noise,27 the effects of some drugs such as furosemide, and spontaneous ...
Affiliates | Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center
Our research uses a wide variety of methods and numerous preparations to better understand development, plasticity, pathology and potential repair of the inner ear and auditory pathways of the brian. We investigate both the fundamental neurobiology of hearing and translational opportunities of the present and future that are directed toward preventing and curing hearing loss and balance disorders. One research program endeavors to understand cellular processes underlying the development of information processing in the auditory system. Anatomical, physiological, and acoustical methods are used to examine development of cellular mechanisms underlying acoustic signal processing by the inner ear. Parallel studies using both in vivo and in vitro preparations examine the factors that include growth of connections in the brain stem auditory pathways. A second research program addresses the problem of how experience influences brain development. Using manipulations of the amount and pattern of neuronal ...
Affiliates | Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center
Our research uses a wide variety of methods and numerous preparations to better understand development, plasticity, pathology and potential repair of the inner ear and auditory pathways of the brian. We investigate both the fundamental neurobiology of hearing and translational opportunities of the present and future that are directed toward preventing and curing hearing loss and balance disorders. One research program endeavors to understand cellular processes underlying the development of information processing in the auditory system. Anatomical, physiological, and acoustical methods are used to examine development of cellular mechanisms underlying acoustic signal processing by the inner ear. Parallel studies using both in vivo and in vitro preparations examine the factors that include growth of connections in the brain stem auditory pathways. A second research program addresses the problem of how experience influences brain development. Using manipulations of the amount and pattern of neuronal ...
Inferior Colliculus Function, Anatomy & Location | Body Maps - muslimselfportrait.info
Periodotopic organization in the inferior colliculus of chinchillas revealed by c-fos labelling due to electrical and...
Efficient Temporal Processing of Naturalistic Sounds
In this study, we investigate the ability of the mammalian auditory pathway to adapt its strategy for temporal processing under natural stimulus conditions. We derive temporal receptive fields from the responses of neurons in the inferior colliculus to vocalization stimuli with and without additional ambient noise. We find that the onset of ambient noise evokes a change in receptive field dynamics that corresponds to a change from bandpass to lowpass temporal filtering. We show that these changes occur within a few hundred milliseconds of the onset of the noise and are evident across a range of overall stimulus intensities. Using a simple model, we illustrate how these changes in temporal processing exploit differences in the statistical properties of vocalizations and ambient noises to increase the information in the neural response in a manner consistent with the principles of efficient coding. ...
Interaural delay-dependent changes in the binaural difference potential in cat auditory brainstem response: implications about...
talks.cam : Experience-related changes in the adult auditory system
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Louise White.. Changes in the sensory environment, as a result of deprivation or stimulation, modify our sensory experience and may result in experience-related or learning-induced reorganisation within the central nervous system. Recently, advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques have revealed reorganisation of the adult human auditory map, for example, after sudden unilateral hearing loss. In parallel to these studies, there is behavioural evidence that auditory function can be modified by changing the acoustic environment; for example, experience with amplification has consequences for long-term performance, as shown by evidence from studies of late-onset auditory deprivation and auditory acclimatisation. Future studies could usefully unite these behavioural and advanced objective techniques. Such studies could provide a direct link between changes in perception and reorganisation of the auditory system. This presentation will ...
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Insulin Resistance Articles
We have all heard about diabetes and how prevalent it is becoming in our country, especially Type 2. This condition, although commonly called "adult-onset diabetes", actually affects people of all ages, and is connected to a diet high in sugar, lack of exercise, and even some environmental factors. But just recently, researchers have revealed another […]. Read More ...
... the auditory pathway is subdivided into parallel ascending pathways, which can simultaneously extract different types of ... Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve ... This pathway is called the ventral acoustic stria (VAS or, more commonly, the trapezoid body). Another pathway, called the ... Middlebrooks, J.C. (2009). "Auditory System: Central Pathways". In Squire. Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Academic Press. pp. ...
Stria vascularis of cochlear duct
1992). The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97800-3. H Spoendlin (1972). "Innervation ... Their dendrites make synaptic contact with the base of hair cells, and their axons are bundled together to form the auditory ... These bipolar neurons are the first neurons in the auditory system to fire an action potential, and supply all of the brain's ... nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the cephalic edge of the auditory ...
"Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway for research and future prosthetics". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 34: 29- ... 2014). "Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway". J Clin Invest. 124 (3): 1114-1129. doi:10.1172/JCI69050. PMC 3934189 ... Adaptive signaling pathways, for instance, adjust in accordance to the current level of the projected stimulus and display ... These accumbal MSNs are known to be involved in the neural pathway through which cocaine exerts its effects, because decreasing ...
Northern saw-whet owl
Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature 404: 871-876, 2000. Dragoi, V., C. ... Acceleration of visually cued conditioned fear through the auditory pathway. Nature Neuroscience 7: 968-973, 2004. Oray S, A. ... A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250: 818-820, 1990. Hahm, J.-O., R.B. Langdon and M. Sur. ... Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404: 841-847, 2000. Von Melchner, L., S.L. Pallas and M. Sur ...
Therefore, cartilage conduction it referred to as the third auditory pathway. Since approximately 450 years ago, two pathways ... Cartilage conduction is a pathway in which sound signals are transmitted to the inner ear. This pathway is distinct from ... the new pathway is referred to as cartilage conduction. This unique pathway has attracted the attention of several researchers ... Such sonic wave energy passes through the eardrum and the middle ear before finally activating the auditory nerve. These ...
Cerebellopontine angle syndrome
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test gives information about the inner ear (cochlea) and nerve pathways for hearing via ... Each waveform represents specific anatomical points along the auditory neural pathway. Delays of one side relative to the other ... Stapedius reflex (SR) and caloric vestibular response (CVR) are non-invasive otologic tests for auditory neural function. These ...
Chambard JM, Ashmore JF (2005). "Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway". Pflugers ... A targeted gene disruption strategy of prestin showed a >100-fold (or 40 dB) loss of auditory sensitivity. Prestin is a ... Prestin is essential in auditory processing. It is specifically expressed in the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs) of ...
Inhibitory postsynaptic potential
This is important because spiking timing is needed for proper sound localization in the ascending auditory pathways. Songbirds ... Visually guided behaviors may be regulated through the inhibitory striato-tegmental pathway found in amphibians in a study ... The basal ganglia in amphibians is very important in receiving visual, auditory, olfactory, and mechansensory inputs; the ... calcium ion-independent pathway. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials have also been studied in the Purkinje cell through ...
Once a sound source has been identified, the cells of lower auditory pathways are specialized to analyze physical sound ... Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G (2003). "Parallel auditory pathways: projection patterns of the different neuronal ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... The auditory nuclei collect, integrate, and analyze afferent supply, the outcome is a representation of auditory space. The ...
Reproduction and vocalization in midshipman fish
This model organisms' simple system could lead to a deeper understanding of human speech and auditory pathways,. This ... Vocal pathways modulate efferent neurons to the inner ear and lateral line. The Journal of Neuroscience 25(25): 5967-5974. Bass ... The neuronal pathway for midshipman vocalization starts at the ventral medullary nucleus and continues to a hindbrain vocal ... Steroid-dependent auditory plasticity leads to adaptive coupling of sender and receiver. Science 305: 404-407. Skoglund CB. ...
The subcortical auditory pathway then relays the information to the auditory cortex in the dorsal superior temporal gyrus (dSTG ... The function of the dorsal pathway is to map auditory sensory representations onto articulatory motor representations. Hickok ... The Spt is responsible for connecting the motor and auditory systems by making auditory code accessible to the motor cortex. It ... This shows that conduction aphasia must reflect not an impairment of the ventral pathway but instead of the dorsal pathway. ...
Medial geniculate nucleus
... the DMGB and MMGB also receive information from non-auditory pathways. There are two main cell types in the ventral subnucleus ... It shows a wide range of responses to auditory stimuli. Binaural interactions found in the MMGB include EE, EI, and IE types. ... The MGB has three major divisions; ventral (VMGB), dorsal (DMGB) and medial (MMGB). Whilst the VMGB is specific to auditory ... Other cells are multi modal, often responding to somatosensory as well as auditory stimuli. Cells in the medial subnucleus of ...
... midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, ... The majority of the ascending fibers from the lateral lemniscus project to IC, which means major ascending auditory pathways ... Auditory system List of regions in the human brain Shore, S. E.: Auditory/Somatosensory Interactions. In: Squire (Ed.): ... IC are large auditory nuclei on the right and left sides of the midbrain. It is divided into three parts, the Central Nucleus ...
Audiology and hearing health professionals in developed and developing countries
ABR is an electrophysiologic measure of the function of cranial nerve eight and the auditory pathway in the brainstem. Three ... Roeser, R. J., & Clark, J. L. (2004). Screening for auditory disorders. Auditory Disorders in School Children, 105. McPherson, ... However, 500 Hz has been found to identify the auditory impact of otitis media with effusion in children and should be included ... and auditory brainstem response (ABR). An OAE is an electrophysiologic measure of the integrity of the outer hair cells in the ...
Biological theories of dyslexia
... theory proposes that the magnocellular dysfunction is not only restricted to the visual pathways but also includes auditory and ... auditory, tactile, proprioceptive, motion) entering and leaving the brain as well as signal interconnections. The quality and ... the Rapid Auditory Processing Theory, and the Visual Theory. The Magnocellular ...
Spatial hearing loss
This is the interaural time difference (ITD) cue and is measured by signal processing in the two central auditory pathways that ... In this case the single speech stream enters both ears and its representation ascends the two auditory pathways. The stream ... By the time sound stream representations reach the end of the auditory pathways brainstem inhibition processing ensures that ... Both peripheral hearing and central auditory pathway problems can interfere with early development. With some individuals, for ...
... which enters the auditory processing pathway of the brain. A resting endolymphatic potential of a normal cochlea is + 80 mV. ... The auditory nerve action potential is the most widely studied component in ECochG. The AP represents the summed response of ... Auditory stimuli in the form of broadband clicks 100 microseconds in duration are used. The stimulus polarity can be ... They also discovered the N1, N2, and N3 waves following the CM, but it was Tasaki who identified these waves as auditory nerve ...
Ventral cochlear nucleus
... preserving the tonotopic organization of the ascending auditory pathway. Stellate/multipolar cells form the projection to both ... In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), auditory nerve fibers enter the brain via the nerve root in the VCN. The ventral ... Bushy cells receive input from auditory nerve fibers through particularly large endings called end bulbs of Held. They contact ... The orderly innervation by auditory nerve fibers gives the AVCN a tonotopic organization along the dorsoventral axis. Fibers ...
... of amusic individuals who are able to sing proficiently suggests that there may be separate neural pathways for auditory ... Some report that the primary auditory cortex, secondary auditory cortex, and limbic system are responsible for this faculty, ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Tramo M., Shah G.D., Braida L.D. (2002). "Functional role of auditory cortex in ... The right secondary auditory cortex processes pitch change and manipulation of fine tunes; specifically, this region ...
This organ again helps the sound to be transferred into a neural impulse that stimulates the auditory pathway and reaches the ... The auditory system receives sound signals starting at the outer ear. They enter the pinna and continue into the external ... The auditory theory puts greater emphasis on the sensory and filtering mechanisms of the listener and suggests that speech ... As for theories of speech perception, there are a motor and an auditory theory. The motor theory is based upon the premise that ...
... body of evidence suggesting that some tinnitus is a consequence of neuroplastic alterations in the central auditory pathway. ... When the tinnitus is caused by disorders of the inner ear or auditory nerve it is called otic (from the Greek word for ear). ... When there does not seem to be a connection with a disorder of the inner ear or auditory nerve, the tinnitus is called nonotic ... It is the description of a noise inside a person's head in the absence of auditory stimulation. The noise can be described in ...
... vestibulocochlear nerve and associated midbrain structures to the primary auditory cortex via the auditory radiation pathway. ... six tonotopic maps have been identified in the primary auditory cortex. their anatomical locations along the auditory cortex. ... Tonotopy in the auditory system begins at the cochlea, the small snail-like structure in the inner ear that sends information ... Mar 2004). "Tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex revealed by progressions of frequency sensitivity" (PDF). J ...
In alternative fashion, cats with similarly placed interruptions to ascending auditory and somatic pathways exhibited normal ... polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These pathways reach the ... The four pathways can be grouped into two main system pathways - a medial system and a lateral system. The medial system ... It is also the origin of the descending analgesic pathways. The nerve fibers in these pathways act in the spinal cord to block ...
Camos, V. & Tillmann, B. (2008). "Discontinuity in the enumeration of sequentially presented auditory and visual stimuli". ... Robertson, L.; Treisman, A.; Freidman-Hill, S. & Grabowecky, M. (1997). "The interaction of spatial and object pathways: ... A 2008 study also demonstrated subitizing and counting in auditory perception. Even though the existence of subitizing in ... these findings support the idea that subitizing is a general perceptual mechanism extending to auditory and tactile processing ...
Impact of Temporary and Permanent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss on Neuronal Cell Density in the Mouse Central Auditory Pathway. [ ... Chen C-J, Dai Y-T, Sun Y-M, Lin Y-C, Juang Y-J. Evaluation of Auditory Fatigue in Combined Noise, Heat and Workload Exposure. ... As with any type of hearing-related disorder, the related physiology is within the ear and central auditory system. With ... The exact causes of listener fatigue and the associated pathways and mechanisms are still being studied. Some of the popular ...
This suggests that follicular carcinomas develop in two distinct pathways either with PAX8/PPAR y or RAS. ... "Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system". The Journal of Clinical ... thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process. • ventricular ... Activation of a set of genes unrelated to both wild-type PPARy and wild-type PAX8 pathways ...
Evolution of biological complexity
Brodmann area 45
The different photosynthesis pathways used by C3 and C4 plants cause them to discriminate differently towards 13C The C4 and C3 ... One such marker has been found to be a reliable indicator of lifestyle: the external auditory exostosis also called surfer's ... The three photosynthesis pathways are C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and Crassulacean acid metabolism. C4 plants are ... Corn, millet and sugar cane are some well-known C4 domesticates, while all trees and shrubs use the C3 pathway. C3 plants are ...
Schizophrenia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This leaves the ectotympanic ring, which supports the eardrum, free within the auditory bulla. This trait is also seen in ... This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system. ... the tympanic cavity is smaller and the ectotympanic ring becomes attached to the edge of the auditory bulla. The tympanic ...
The sinoatrial node uses calcium to cause a depolarising signal transduction pathway from the atrium through right and left ... Birds communicate using primarily visual and auditory signals. Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific ... Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory communication. The Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand drive air through ...
Auditory processing deficits have also been proposed as a cause of stuttering. Stuttering is less prevalent in deaf and hard-of ... Injuries to the brain and spinal cord, including cortex, subcortex, cerebellar, and even the neural pathway regions. ... Altered auditory feedback, so that people who stutter hear their voice differently, has been used for over 50 years in the ... Capacity for fluent speech may be affected by a predisposition to the disorder, auditory processing or motor speech deficits, ...
Conductive hearing loss
... (CHL) occurs when there is a problem transferring sound waves anywhere along the pathway through the ... Congenital stenosis or atresia of the external auditory canal (narrow or blocked ear canal). *Ear canal stenosis & atresia can ... Acquired stenosis (narrowing) of the external auditory canal following surgery or radiotherapy ...
Singular value decomposition
Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. This is important in the acoustic ... Neural pathways and circuits of the cerebellum. Neural pathways and circuits in the cerebellum ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ...
Auditory hallucinations are uncommon in PD, and are rarely described as voices. It is now believed that psychosis is an ... There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ... Blum D, Torch S, Lambeng N, Nissou M, Benabid AL, Sadoul R, Verna JM (October 2001). "Molecular pathways involved in the ... Anticholinergics and surgery (lesioning of the corticospinal pathway or some of the basal ganglia structures) were the only ...
Information in the posterior descending pathway (also referred to as the vocal production or motor pathway) descends from HVC ... Dooling, R.J. (1982). Auditory perception in birds. Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 1 (eds D.E. Kroodsma & E.H. Miller). ... designed an auditory feedback perturbation protocol in order to explore the role of auditory feedback in adult song maintenance ... Auditory feedback in birdsong learningEdit. Early experiments by Thorpe in 1954 showed the importance of a bird being able to ...
... opens into the nasopharynx at the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube. The opening and closing of the auditory tubes serves ... It lies inferior to the epiglottis and extends to the location where this common pathway diverges into the respiratory (larynx ... On its lateral wall is the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube, somewhat triangular in shape, and bounded behind by a firm ... In the horse the auditory tube opens into the guttural pouch and the tonsils are diffuse and raised slightly. Horses are unable ...
Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic reflex, ... Vertigo is classified into either peripheral or central depending on the location of the dysfunction of the vestibular pathway, ... lesions of the internal auditory canal may be associated with facial weakness on the same side. Due to a rapid compensation ... and vasospasm of the blood vessels supplying the labyrinth or central vestibular pathways resulting in ischemia to these ...
For example, unilateral destruction, in a region of the auditory pathway above the cochlear nucleus, results in slight hearing ... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates. ... The auditory cortex is involved in tasks such as identifying and segregating "auditory objects" and identifying the location of ...
Effect of caffeine on memory
Auditory effects within short-term memory. Caffeine's effects in memory were also investigated in the auditory system. ... It would thus require the examination of multiple activation pathways in order to determine caffeine's specific effect on the ... The Auditory-Verbal Learning Test is a memory test that assesses recall of lists of words on single and multiple trials given ... through the subjects' auditory system. Caffeine subjects recalled fewer words than did control subjects, and caffeine subjects ...
Most studies have looked for activation at the 'sites' of biasing, such as in the visual or auditory cortices. Early studies ... The aggregate effect of these bias signals is to guide the flow of neural activity along pathways that establish the proper ... Researchers had participants complete an auditory version of the Stroop task, in which either the location or semantic meaning ... "An electrophysiological correlate of conflict processing in an auditory spatial Stroop task: The effect of individual ...
Developmental language disorder
This bony part is known as the auditory bulla and is formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone. The skin surrounding the ... in circuits located in the superior olivary complex and the trapezoid bodies which are connected via pathways to both ears. ... The middle ear and its components develop from the first and second pharyngeal arches. The tympanic cavity and auditory ... the auditory tube; and the round and oval windows. The ossicles are three small bones that function together to receive, ...
Sensory nervous system
Auditory system. *Somatosensory system consists of the receptors, transmitters (pathways) leading to S1, and S1 that ... Auditory cortex. Located in the temporal lobe, the auditory cortex is the primary receptive area for sound information. ... The auditory cortex is composed of Brodmann areas 41 and 42, also known as the anterior transverse temporal area 41 and the ... A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways, and parts of the brain ...
The insula receives information from "homeostatic afferent" sensory pathways via the thalamus and sends output to a number of ... Bushara, KO; Grafman, J; Hallett, M (1 January 2001). "Neural correlates of auditory-visual stimulus onset asynchrony detection ... experience and imagination shows divergent functional connectivity pathways". PLoS ONE. 3 (8): e2939. Bibcode:2008PLoSO... ... whereas the posterior insula is related more to auditory-somesthetic-skeletomotor function. Functional imaging experiments have ...
Selective auditory attention
There have been some models that theorize the pathway of selective auditory attention, notably the early selection model, late ... Selective auditory attention or selective hearing is a type of selective attention and involves the auditory system. Selective ... before processing auditory information. Broadbent proposed that auditory information enters an unlimited sensory buffer and ... noise from the surrounding environment is heard by the auditory system but only certain parts of the auditory information are ...
Analogue VLSI building blocks for an electronic auditory pathway - Infoscience
Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a ... The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. ... The first example uses synchronized activity on auditory nerve fibres from two positions along the basilar membrane to obtain a ... and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is ...
Auditory pathway essay » CECC-EXPERTISES
... auditory pathway essay process selection, total quality management, quality control, capacity planning, facility location and ... contain too much cliche or sound auditory pathway essay too formal. For a Skype interview, ensure you are dressed ... postgraduate scholarship is an award for those studying a full time taught masters programme at Cardiff Met in auditory pathway ...
What does it mean when you get ringing in your ears, help baby not sleeping at night, ringing in my ears on and off
One of the most common causes of tinnitus is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (see "Auditory pathways and tinnitus"). ... Tinnitus can arise anywhere along the auditory pathway, from the outer ear through the middle and inner ear to the brains ... The main components of TRT are individual counseling (to explain the auditory system, how tinnitus develops, and how TRT can ... the cochlea help transform sound waves into electrical signals that then travel to the brains auditory cortex via the auditory ...
Pathways Leave a comment Anatomy & Physiology / Articles / auditory processing / CAPD / central auditory processing / ... Pathways Leave a comment Articles / auditory processing / CAPD / Clinical Applications / Neuroaudiology / Psychoacoustics / ... Neuro-otology Intraoperative Neuromonitoring: Brainstem Auditory Evoked Responses. May 6, 2020. April 21, 2020. Pathways Leave ... This Pathways article will focus on an auditory evoked potential (AEP) that should be considered more than it has been - ...
Pathways in the Brain Germane to Audiologists: A Brief Commentary
Most audiologists are familiar with at least two major pathways in the brain. One is the ascending (and descending) ... The ascending auditory brainstem pathway is often considered the lateral lemniscus pathway (LLP), not to be confused with the ... auditory brainstem pathway and the other is the ascending (and descending) vestibular brainstem pathway. In the cerebrum there ... Pathways in the Brain Germane to Audiologists: A Brief Commentary. September 5, 2018. August 26, 2018. Pathways 1 Comment 1317 ...
Neurotree - Glenn David Rosen
EMF-Portal | Effects of mobile GSM radiotelephone exposure on the auditory brainstem response (ABR).
2003): Thirty minutes mobile phone use has no short-term adverse effects on central auditory pathways. ... effects on the neurological system: ABR (auditory brainstem response; see above). *changes on auditory system, ABR (auditory ... Effects of mobile GSM radiotelephone exposure on the auditory brainstem response (ABR). med./bio. By: Kellenyi L, Thuroczy G, ... Auditory brainstem response have been recorded before and after the short-term exposure from the common used handy-devices. ...
Using Technology to Break the Speed Barrier of Reading - Scientific American
Even though the brain already includes a fully developed auditory pathway for language, the traditional design for reading ... While the visual pathways are being strained to capacity by reading, the auditory network for language remains relatively under ... We intend to do this by building on the neurological circuits for auditory processing, and use these in parallel with reading. ... suggests the possibility that the auditory network can be used in conjunction with visual reading to create parallel pathways ...
Orton-Gillingham Archives - Page 2 of 4 - Pride Learning Co.
The teacher accesses the auditory, visual, and kinesthetic pathways in order to enhance memory and learning. Links are ... Auditory Processing Disorder and Learning. by PRIDE Reading Program Admin , Feb 20, 2016 , A PRIDE Post, Auditory Processing ... Children with Auditory Processing Disorder are not being defiant or being lazy. A child with Auditory Processing Disorder can ... Auditory Processing (APD) is a very common learning disability and affects about 5% of school-age children. Auditory Processing ...
Uncovering the Neural Mechanics of Autism - Medical and Health Science - Science Forums
But its crucial to understand that the auditory pathway is the first step of sensory organization as it serves to initiate the ... In humans this system is seemingly less emphasized as the auditory pathway is only of primary use until dexterity and motor ... These processes begin with the jump starting of the auditory pathway, namely the innervation of the vestibulocochlear nerve and ... the failure to induce postnatal innervation of the auditory pathway, and the subsequent failure to sync mechanoreceptors in the ...
Jiunn-Liang Wu - 研究成果 - 國立成功大學
Auditory brainstem response in premature infants with very low birthweight. Wu, J-L., Wang, S-T., Chao, W-Y., Chen, P. H. & Lee ... The auditory performance in children using cochlear implants: Effects of mental function. Yang, H. M., Lin, C-Y., Chen, Y. J ... A hearing screening in very low birth weight preterm infants by auditory brainstem response. Wu, J-L., Huang, C-C. & Kao, C. C ... Cochlear implantation in a Mandarin Chinese-speaking child with auditory neuropathy. Lin, C-Y., Chen, Y. J. & Wu, J-L., 2005 二月 ...
Publicações | Ronaldo Casimiro da Costa
Fountain Of Youth Series - The Body Channel
HUMAN ANATOMY | Università degli Studi di Parma
Multisensory Teaching for Reading and Spelling + FREE Downloads!
... ignoring the other major pathways to the brain. But not only is it possible to activate the auditory and kinesthetic pathways ... Three Main Pathways to the Brain. Learning begins with your senses. We can think of our senses as pathways to the brain. When ... The visual, auditory, and kinesthetic pathways are all engaged, and the information becomes neurologically linked together. ... Interestingly, when children are taught using all three pathways to the brain-visual, auditory, and kinesthetic-they learn more ...
Audiology and Speech
Six Processing Stages from Mismatch to Symptom Report
"with multiple parallel pathways [split between auditory and visual]. *"[among] localized sensory-specific, phonological, ... "were presented with auditory or visual single words and. *"were instructed either to view them passively, repeat them or ... Perhaps these pathways are another example of "form follows function," since they are like the ones for grasping the medication ... "auditory word forms [involved] the left temporo-parietal cortex,. *"visual word forms [involved] the left extrastriate cortex, ...
Ventral nucleus of trapezoid body | definition of ventral nucleus of trapezoid body by Medical dictionary
Integrated Breast Cancer Pathway (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways
Paci C, Gobbato R, Carboni T, Sanguigni S, Santone A, Curatola L; P300 auditory event-related potentials and ... These proteins were then used to determine the most important pathways involved in Breast Cancer by using the Human Pathway ... The pathways retrieved from the Human Pathway Database were from several sources such as Protein Lounge, BioCarta, KEGG, and ... Added two Pathway nodes, with links to an example PW from WPs.. 92369. view. 15:27, 30 May 2017. Ddigles. Reverted to version ...
abstract Andreas Lind - Department of Experimental Psychology
The Journal of Comparative Neurology | [email protected]
Descending auditory pathways: projections from the inferior colliculus contact superior olivary cells that project bilaterally ... Central acoustic tract in an echolocating bat: an extralemniscal auditory pathway to the thalamus.. 287:247-259. 1989 ... The organization of central auditory pathways in a reptile, Iguana iguana.. 178:783-831. 1978 ... Pathway from the zona incerta to the superior colliculus in the rat.. 321:555-575. 1992 ...
Neural circuits underlying adaptation and learning in the perception of auditory space. - Oxford Neuroscience
... behavioral and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that auditory spatial processing can undergo rapid adjustments in ... made in identifying the cortical and subcortical circuits in the brain that are responsible for the dynamic coding of auditory ... the mature brain retains a surprising capacity to relearn to localize sound in the presence of substantially altered auditory ... Adaptation, Physiological, Animals, Auditory Pathways, Brain Mapping, Humans, Learning, Neuronal Plasticity, Sound Localization ...
Binaural Beats At 295 8 Hz
Binaural Beats through the Auditory Pathway: From Brainstem to Connectivity Patterns. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: ... Binaural beats are auditory illusions which are perceived when two tones of two different For example, if a frequency of 200 Hz ... Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived by the brain when two slightly different frequencies of sound are played into ... the selected binaural beat at 15 Hz in the beta wave on simple binaural-beat auditory... ...
Personensuche | Max-Planck-Institut für biologische Kybernetik Tübingen
Ortiz-Rios, M.: Functional Neuroimaging of Ventral and Dorsal Stream Pathways in the Macaque Auditory System. Dissertation, 208 ... processing in early rostral areas of macaque auditory cortex. Tucker-Davis Symposium on Advances and Perspectives in Auditory ... Azevedo, F.; Ortiz-Rios, M.; Li, Q.; Logothetis, N.; Keliris, G.: A Potential Role of Auditory Induced Modulations in Primary ... Ortiz, M.: High-resolution fMRI phase-mapping of azimuth space in rhesus monkey auditory cortex. Networks! 2013: 4th German ...
15 Amazingly Popular Spanish Songs for Kindergarten
Types of Hearing Loss - Educational Overview - Hearing amplifier review
Q & A
Cellfield specifically targets the auditory, visual, and auditory-to-visual pathways within the brain. ... Research in the area of Brain plasticity is now suggesting that our brain pathways can be changed! The Cellfield reading ... intervention program specifically aims to re-route these pathways. ...
NeuronsBrainstemActivityEvoked potentialsNeuralNucleiStimulationCochleaNeuroscienceMammalianStimuliSensoryMidbrainAnatomyResponsesCentersTemporalDevelopment of auditoryPlasticityPhysiologyTonotopicActivation of the auditory pathwayPeripheryStructuresThresholdsSpatialCentralFunction of auditory pathwaysSystemTinnitusPerceptionStatus of auditoryThalamusFunctionalBrain's auditory cortexCortex contains a primaryDorsalOlfactoryInner earVisual pathwaysParallelVentralNerve fibresCurrent state of auditory2000Human auditory cortexInferiorFMRI
- Can Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Demonstrate An Electrophysiological Release From Masking In Noise? (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- When patients cannot be assessed with behavioral techniques, auditory evoked potentials are often employed. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- Auditory evoked potentials provide "objective" information regarding the structure and function of the auditory neurological pathway. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- More recently, we have been interested in whether this same RMF can be demonstrated with cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- In the present study, we measure brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) to assess auditory pathways in CCHS and investigate to which extent brainstem auditory pathways are also affected. (biomedcentral.com)
- Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are the changes in the ongoing electric activity generated in auditory pathways of the brain that is elicited by external auditory stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
- Systematic studies of the auditory cortex's functional organization began in 1942 with a study by Woolsey and Walzl in which the authors mapped a distribution of the slow-wave evoked potentials in the ectosylvian region of the cat cerebral cortex under local electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve fibres in a cochlear labyrinth . (scirp.org)
- To this end, we studied the effects of Nicotine, Melatonin, Resveratrol and DHA on the neonatal auditory system via measurement of auditory evoked potentials and characterization of the morphological, molecular and cellular integrity of the IC. (ehu.es)
- This is a series-of-case descriptive study in which the possible presence of auditory pathways abnormalities in 75 patients (48 children and 27 adults) with Chiari malformation types I and II were analyzed by means of auditory evoked potentials evaluation. (scielo.br)
- Auditory evoked potentials testing can be considered a valuable instrument for diagnosis and evaluation of brain stem functional abnormalities in patients with Arnold-Chiari malformations type I and II. (scielo.br)
- Arnold-Chiari malformations type I and type II, auditory evoked potentials. (scielo.br)
- to characterize the long latency auditory evoked potentials (LLAEP) results N1, P2, N2 and P300 of children with phonological disorder and to verify the improvement of such potentials with speech therapy. (scielo.br)
- This book offers an integrated account of hearing in terms of the neural processes that take place in different parts of the auditory system. (mit.edu)
- This symposium will consider evidence that deafferentation of tonotopically organized central auditory structures leads to increased neuron spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony in the hearing loss region. (jneurosci.org)
- However, the authors do not go very far in describing the brain (or neural) mechanisms involved other than identifying that there is a connection between the auditory system and the limbic system deep in the temporal lobe of the brain. (hindawi.com)
- First, understanding what is going on with a child who has auditory hypersensitivities is a normal neural reaction and, second, identifying what treatments may be appropriate to help children who are overly sensitive deal more successfully with sound so that they do not have over reactions during listening tasks and, possibly, "shut down" so as to avoid listening and responding to any sounds. (hindawi.com)
- Before beginning the discussion of these various neural pathways, the reader should have a clearer understanding of some of the terms used in this paper. (hindawi.com)
- Microglia are essential for pruning away extra neural connections in the development of the auditory brainstem. (totalfreewill.com)
- Dysfunction of the cochlea or disruption of neural impulses in the central auditory pathway will result in SNHL. (appliedradiology.com)
- After a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying neural plasticity following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, various neuroprotective therapies have been developed for alleviating brain injury.The aim of this work is to evaluate with morphofunctional, molecular and cellular methods the effect of a panel of antioxidants on HI-induced auditory deficits. (ehu.es)
- Stellate (chopper) cells encode sound spectra (peaks and valleys) by spatial neural firing rates based on auditory input strength (rather than frequency). (wikipedia.org)
- Mild to moderate forms of hearing loss can have a lasting impact on the auditory cortex, according to findings by researchers at New York University's Center for Neural Science. (brightsurf.com)
- This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). (jove.com)
- Although disruption in auditory and language processing is crucial in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the neural basis for the deficits in emotion recognition of auditorily presented language stimuli and its relation to persecutory delusion have not yet been clarified. (dovepress.com)
- Neural timing nets for auditory computation. (mit.edu)
- ABR measures the neural status of the cochlea, the auditory nerve, may be used to and assess auditory neuropathy. (unicare.com)
- The rostral part, which starts from the cortical centers to thalamic nuclei and continues into collicular pathways in rostral brainstem, which sends its neural fibers to the main collicular nuclei especially inferior colliculus. (bioportfolio.com)
- The classic view of auditory information flow depicts a simple serial route from the periphery through tonotopically-organized nuclei in the brainstem, midbrain and thalamus, ascending eventually to the neocortex. (frontiersin.org)
- In the classical view, the principle route for auditory information traverses through these tonotopic nuclei at each level of processing. (frontiersin.org)
- For example, the ascending pathways through the non-tonotopically organized nuclei and the large number of descending projections pose unanswered questions regarding their roles in auditory information processing. (frontiersin.org)
- Auditory pathways start from the auditory nerve (wave I) to the cochlear nuclei (wave II) in the medulla to the superior olivary complex (wave III) in the pons and end in the inferior colliculus (waves IV and V) in the midbrain. (biomedcentral.com)
- These findings provide immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence that the various nuclei of the auditory pathway are activated by electrical stimulation of the cochlea. (ox.ac.uk)
- There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. (scribd.com)
- Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (scribd.com)
- The outputs from the cochlear nuclei are received in higher regions of the auditory brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
- Another pathway, called the dorsal acoustic stria (DAS, also known as the stria of von Monakow), rises above the medulla into the pons where it hits the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus along with its kin, the intermediate acoustic stria (IAS, also known as the stria of Held). (wikipedia.org)
- We have mapped, using in situ hybridization, the subunit expression patterns of the GABA A receptor in the auditory brainstem nuclei. (elsevier.com)
- In contrast to many brain regions, the β2 subunit gene and γ2S splice forms are not highly expressed in auditory brainstem nuclei. (elsevier.com)
- Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. (jci.org)
- Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. (jci.org)
- Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). (epfl.ch)
- Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. (epfl.ch)
- The activity elicited by electrical stimulation of the cochlea in the auditory pathway was assessed in an animal model of cochlear implants on the basis of the induction of the immediate early gene c-fos and single neuron recordings. (ox.ac.uk)
- Electrical stimulation of the cochlea induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus, mainly in its dorsal nucleus, in the superior olivary complex, in the lateral lemniscus, but not in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the main relay nucleus in the auditory midbrain. (ox.ac.uk)
- Previous studies have reported primary auditory cortex plasticity following vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with a sound. (podbean.com)
- A single or multi-channel unilateral or bilateral cochlear implant is intended to restore a level of auditory sensation to an individual with bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss by means of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. (unicare.com)
- Sound waves travel through the ear canal to the middle and inner ear, where hair cells in part of the cochlea help transform sound waves into electrical signals that then travel to the brain's auditory cortex via the auditory nerve. (harvard.edu)
- Auditory hair cells (HCs) cannot be spontaneously regenerated or replaced in mammalian damaged cochlea which leads to permanent deafness. (noormags.ir)
- This paper reviews current knowledge about the main signaling pathways involved in HCs development in the mammalian cochlea. (noormags.ir)
- The motion of fluid in the cochlea stimulates hair cells in the Organ of Corti which, in turn, generate action potentials that are transmitted via the cochlear nerve through the central auditory pathway to the auditory cortex. (appliedradiology.com)
- Some researchers meant (imply under this term) age-related hearing disorders caused by involutional changes only in the cochlea, and others meant that changes involve all parts of the auditory system [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Individual chapters are organized along the auditory pathway beginning with the cochlea and ending with the auditory midbrain. (oup.com)
- In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. (scribd.com)
- Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve) carry information from the inner ear, the cochlea, on the same side of the head, to the nerve root in the ventral cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
- The auditory nerve fibers form a highly organized system of connections according to their peripheral innervation of the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
- OAE measures the preneural status of the peripheral auditory system to the outer hair cells of the inner ear (cochlea). (unicare.com)
- auditory efferent system is active in all parts of the auditory pathways from auditory cortex to the cochlea. (bioportfolio.com)
- 1 Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37099 Göttingen, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
- 1 Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
- 6 Presynaptogenesis and Intracellular Transport in Hair Cells Group, Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
- Jan Schnupp is Professor of Neuroscience and Codirector of the Auditory Neuroscience Research Group in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics at Oxford University and a Fellow of St. Peter's College. (mit.edu)
- Andrew King is Professor of Neurophysiology, Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow, and Codirector of the Auditory Neuroscience Research Group in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics at Oxford University and a Fellow of Merton College. (mit.edu)
- Auditory neuroscience : making sense of sound / Jan Schnupp, Israel Nelken, and Andrew King. (mit.edu)
- This excellent book is valuable in providing a detailed view of auditory neuroscience. (mit.edu)
- This book is unique in its elegant unification of a broad view of the fundamentals of hearing with a highly sophisticated account of the current state of auditory neuroscience. (mit.edu)
- The mammalian auditory system is challenged with the task of accurately encoding the pattern and source of incoming sound. (frontiersin.org)
- Aging and acoustic trauma may result in partial peripheral deafferentation in the central auditory pathway of the mammalian brain. (biologists.org)
- Findings of age-related inhibitory changes within mammalian auditory circuits are similar to age and deafferentation plasticity changes observed in other sensory systems. (biologists.org)
- The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. (scirp.org)
- The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species. (scirp.org)
- Khorunzhii, G. and Egorova, M. (2018) Mammalian Auditory Cortex Structure as the Basis of Cortical Sound Processing. (scirp.org)
- At present, there are extensive data about the morphological structure of the mammalian auditory cortex obtained in numerous studies with different experimental approaches and methods - . (scirp.org)
- Despite this, information about partitioning of the auditory cortex into separate sub-regions and about its connectivity among different mammalian orders has not been summarized in detail. (scirp.org)
- The first part of this review contains a detailed description of the auditory fields' disposition in the temporal lobe of the neocortex among a significant number of mammalian species. (scirp.org)
- For each mammalian order, we separately describe primary and secondary auditory fields as well as the auditory parabelt, their disposition within the auditory cortex, tonotopic organization and the relative size of these areas. (scirp.org)
- In both chapters, we focused on basic aspects of auditory cortical structure in the mammalian phylogenetic tree rather than on their functional organization. (scirp.org)
- On the other hand, regenerative ability of HCs in lower vertebrates such as birds and amphibians causes that researchers investigate underlying mechanisms and pathways which can possibly induce mammalian cochlear HCs regeneration and hearing recovery. (noormags.ir)
- The Oxford Handbook of The Auditory Brainstem provides an introduction as well as an in-depth reference to the organization and function of ascending and descending auditory pathways in the mammalian brainstem. (oup.com)
- Although there is accumulating evidence that nonprimary auditory cortex regions posterior to the Heschl's gyrus (HG) are involved in spatial processing ( 21 - 26 ) and that areas anterior to HG process sound-identity cues such as speech ( 27 , 28 ) and pitch ( 29 ), the posterior nonprimary auditory cortex areas have been reported to respond strongly to phonetic stimuli as well ( 30 , 31 ). (pnas.org)
- Development of auditory brainstem response to tone pip stimuli in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
- The results suggest that both RPB and CPB provide the major auditory connections with the region related to directing eye movements towards stimuli of interest, and the dorsal prefrontal cortex for working memory. (nih.gov)
- A research group from The University of Texas at San Antonio (TX, USA) has identified a new fear pathway in mice between the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala that may play a role in fear-related behavior driven by auditory stimuli. (neuro-central.com)
- Studies in the auditory system, for example, have demonstrated that performance in detecting sounds and gaps in noise, or the discrimination of lexical stimuli, varies with the power and phase of rhythmic activity between about 1 and 12 Hz ( 4 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
- The algorithm of the auditory training was designed based on distinction between nonverbal and verbal stimuli of varying complexity, as well as tasks to improve memory (e.g., memorizing poetry). (intechopen.com)
- Speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (S-ABR) as an electrophysiologic test that uses speech stimuli to simulate real-life auditory conditions, reflects the performance of rostral brainstem centers, so structurally seems to be an appropriate candidate to examine the rostral part of the auditory efferent system. (bioportfolio.com)
- However, the relationship between such sensory mismatch responses and hierarchical predictive processing has not yet been demonstrated at the neuronal level in the auditory pathway. (nature.com)
- A hallmark of sensory system organization is parallel pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- These data suggest that somatosensory and auditory modalities have parallel sub-cortical pathways that separately process slow rates and the spatial representation of the sensory periphery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It affects all the sensory, autonomic and motor systems including auditory pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
- Diabetes affects the sensory, motor and autonomic nervous systems, including the auditory pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
- Aging and partial damage to the peripheral sensory systems of mammals appear to result in plastic pre- and postsynaptic changes in the inhibitory neurotransmitter systems of the primary sensory pathways. (biologists.org)
- To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. (pnas.org)
- Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. (pnas.org)
- The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. (wikipedia.org)
- It includes both the sensory organs (the ears) and the auditory parts of the sensory system. (wikipedia.org)
- The present study was undertaken to determine whether impairment of sensory conduction in the auditory pathway is one of the contributory factors of performance in children with borderline intelligence. (who.int)
- Age-related presynaptic changes in the cochlear nucleus include reduced glycine levels, while in the auditory midbrain and cortex, GABA synthesis and release are altered. (biologists.org)
- The subcortical auditory pathway, from the acoustic nerve to the lateral geniculate body, ascending through the pons, midbrain, metathalamus, and internal capsule, includes crossed and uncrossed tracts. (hindawi.com)
- Neuroanatomical abnormalities also cause CAPD in children, and result from irregular development of the higher auditory areas and yield abnormal anatomy. (lww.com)
- This volume builds on the information about the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathway found in volumes 1 and 2 of the SHAR series. (alldiscountbooks.net)
- This article will explore the anatomy , function and clinical relevance of the auditory pathway. (kenhub.com)
- In This Section you will find detailed different Photos and images about the anatomy of the Pathways of the CNS including their types , spinothalamic track anatomy , ascending tracks anatomy , descend. (edoctoronline.com)
- Many of these disorders manifest with similar symptoms and may be difficult to differentiate without a basic understanding of the anatomy of the ear and auditory pathway. (coursera.org)
- Week 1: Introduction Week 2: Anatomy and pathophysiology of the auditory pathway (15 min. (coursera.org)
- We recorded single-neuron activity from different auditory centers in anaesthetized rats and awake mice while animals were played a sequence of sounds, designed to separate the responses due to prediction error from those due to adaptation effects. (nature.com)
- These results demonstrate that prediction error is a fundamental component of singly auditory neuron responses. (nature.com)
- Similar to the trigeminal system, responses measured in auditory thalamus indicate that slow rates are differentially represented in a paralemniscal pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Hornickel et al (2012)showed improved synchronicity of auditory brainstem responses as a result of use of RMHAs in children with dyslexia and associated APD. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers. (semanticscholar.org)
- Auditory brainstem responses in the Eastern Screech Owl: an estimate of auditory thresholds. (semanticscholar.org)
- Origins of peripheral and brainstem auditory responses in the White Leghorn chick. (semanticscholar.org)
- However, auditory evoked responses can be normal in the disease, therefore suggesting much more complex yet-to-be determined interactions between pathways and functions of central control of breathing and of control of hearing. (biomedcentral.com)
- Auditory cortical responses and cochlear modulations due to infrasound exposure have also been observed, despite the subjects' lack of tonal perception. (wind-watch.org)
- 8,These studies provide strong evidence for infrasound impact on human peripheral and central auditory responses. (wind-watch.org)
- The functional integrity of the central auditory pathway was assessed using Auditory Evoked Responses i.e. (who.int)
- Adults who lost their vision at an early age have more refined auditory cortex responses to simple sounds than sighted individuals, according to new neuroimaging research published in JNeurosci. (brightsurf.com)
- By considering the visual and auditory networks of 6- to 22-week old infants, we analyzed early lateralized responses in relation to projection bundles, and the inter-hemispheric transfer of responses in relation to corpus callosum fibers while taking into account the age effects. (ismrm.org)
- This document addresses the use of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) for the evaluation of hearing disorders. (unicare.com)
- Human neuroimaging studies suggest that localization and identification of relevant auditory objects are accomplished via parallel parietal-to-lateral-prefrontal "where" and anterior-temporal-to-inferior-frontal "what" pathways, respectively. (pnas.org)
- We found a double dissociation in response adaptation to sound pairs with phonetic vs. spatial sound changes, demonstrating that the human nonprimary auditory cortex indeed processes speech-sound identity and location in parallel anterior "what" (in anterolateral Heschl's gyrus, anterior superior temporal gyrus, and posterior planum polare) and posterior "where" (in planum temporale and posterior superior temporal gyrus) pathways as early as ≈70-150 ms from stimulus onset. (pnas.org)
- Human neuropsychological ( 5 - 8 ) and neuroimaging ( 9 - 20 ) studies have consistently shown anterior-temporal-to-inferior frontal "what" and parietal-to-lateral-prefrontal "where" auditory pathways, but whether such dual pathways exist also in the human nonprimary auditory cortex has remained a more controversial issue. (pnas.org)
- This performance enhancement has been attributed to the auditory system's temporal ability to resolve speech fragments, or get "glimpses" or "looks" of speech, between the gaps of noise. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- Data from the rat trigeminal system suggest that the paralemniscal pathway may be specifically tuned to code low-frequency temporal information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We tested whether this phenomenon occurs in the auditory system by measuring the representation of temporal rate in lemniscal and paralemniscal auditory thalamus and cortex in guinea pig. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We speculate that a paralemniscal pathway in the auditory system may be specifically tuned to code low frequency temporal information present in acoustic signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Studies in adults demonstrate the effectiveness of RMHAs in mitigating hearing difficulties in conditions which are known to cause central auditory temporal distortions (multiple sclerosis, Friederich Ataxia)(Lewis et al. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- In the present study, we determined connections of three newly defined regions of auditory cortex with regions of the frontal lobe, and how two of these regions in the frontal lobe interconnect and connect to other portions of frontal cortex and the temporal lobe in macaque monkeys. (nih.gov)
- We conceptualize auditory cortex as including a core of primary areas, a surrounding belt of auditory areas, a lateral parabelt of two divisions, and adjoining regions of temporal cortex with parabelt connections. (nih.gov)
- Future modeling efforts might maintain the integrity of these two parallel pathways, optimized for fine spectral (Lower-SR) and fine temporal (High-SR) resolution, by separating rather than summing their respective outputs. (biomedcentral.com)
- This highly specialized synaptic arrangement, which is characterized by little convergence from disparate regions of the cochlear partition, is important in preserving temporal information transmitted by auditory nerve fibers. (scribd.com)
- Octopus cells have close to the best temporal precision while firing, they decode the auditory timing code. (wikipedia.org)
- however, they do exhibit changes in behavioral tests, suggesting the existence of deficits in temporal or non-auditory processing such as attention (2). (scielo.br)
- The transverse temporal gyri , also called Heschl's gyri ( / ˈ h ɛ ʃ əl z ˈ dʒ aɪ r aɪ / ) or Heschl's convolutions , are gyri found in the area of primary auditory cortex buried within the lateral sulcus of the human brain , occupying Brodmann areas 41 and 42 . (wikipedia.org)
- Transverse temporal gyri are the first cortical structures to process incoming auditory information. (wikipedia.org)
- The transverse temporal gyri are active during auditory processing under fMRI for tone and semantic tasks. (wikipedia.org)
- The role of transverse temporal gyri in auditory processing of tone is demonstrated by a study by Wong, Warrier et. (wikipedia.org)
Development of auditory2
- Here we review studies of the organization and development of auditory thalamocortical pathways in the pallid bat. (frontiersin.org)
- Iron plays a large role in brain development in the womb, and new University of Rochester Medical Center research shows an iron deficiency may delay the development of auditory nervous system in preemies. (brightsurf.com)
- Listen to learn about auditory plasticity, potential therapies for auditory processing disorders, and more! (podbean.com)
- Improvement of speech intelligibility in elderly patients with SNHL proves that plasticity of the auditory regions of the brain remains possible throughout the life. (intechopen.com)
- A major emphasis throughout this book is on the numerous forms of plasticity that are increasingly observed in many areas of the auditory brainstem. (oup.com)
- Because hearing results from the interplay of so many physical, biological, and psychological processes, the book pulls together the different aspects of hearing-including acoustics, the mathematics of signal processing, the physiology of the ear and central auditory pathways, psychoacoustics, speech, and music-into a coherent whole. (mit.edu)
- The mustached bat auditory cortex contains a primary auditory cortex (A1) with a tonotopic map (reviewed in Suga, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Some specializations for echolocation, such as over-representation of dominant harmonic frequencies of the echolocation call, are present in this pathway, but within the context of tonotopic representation. (frontiersin.org)
- Microelectrode recordings were used to investigate the tonotopic organization of auditory cortex of macaque monkeys and guide the placement of injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horse radish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and fluorescent dyes. (nih.gov)
Activation of the auditory pathway2
- Optical activation of the auditory pathway in ChR2 transgenic mice. (jci.org)
- Whittaker argued that regeneration takes place: fibers from the para-abducens nucleus, abducens nucleus, or median longitudinal fasciculus invade the cochlear nucleus (CN), leading to activation of the auditory pathway. (jneurosci.org)
- We should consider the possibility that Low- and High- spontaneous rate (SR) auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) [ 1 ] constitute two different parallel pathways at the auditory periphery. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study used a computational model of the auditory periphery [ 2 ] to demonstrate that Low- and High- SR ANFs have contrasting response properties. (biomedcentral.com)
- Zilany MSA, Bruce IC, Carney LH: Updated parameters and expanded simulation options for a model of the auditory periphery. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pathways controlling breathing and auditory pathways traverse very similar anatomic structures. (biomedcentral.com)
- implicating changes in central auditory structures as a causal factor. (jneurosci.org)
- Here we review the animal and human literature on the main subcortical structures along the auditory pathway, and propose a model whereby the distinction between different types of vocal affect in auditory communication begins at very early stages of auditory processing, and relies on the analysis of individual acoustic features of the sound signal. (uzh.ch)
- Here, we compared the particle acceleration and pressure auditory thresholds of three species of fish with differing hearing specialisations, goldfish ( Carassius auratus , weberian ossicles), bigeye ( Pempheris adspersus , ligamentous hearing specialisation) and a third species with no swim bladder, the common triplefin ( Forstergyian lappillum ), using three different methods of determining particle acceleration. (biologists.org)
- Our data further show that the "where" pathway is activated ≈30 ms earlier than the "what" pathway, possibly enabling the brain to use top-down spatial information in auditory object perception. (pnas.org)
- Evidence of a double dissociation between processing of phonetic vs. spatial features is thus needed to determine whether the dual pathway model is valid for anterior vs. posterior human nonprimary auditory cortex areas. (pnas.org)
- Dichotic listening studies of spatial attention suggest signal enhancements in auditory areas contralateral to the attended ear ( 38 , 42 , 43 ). (pnas.org)
- The topography of frequency representation (i.e., its high-ordered spatial distribution within the auditory cortex) was shown by Woolsey and Walzl for the first time. (scirp.org)
- Processing of auditory spatial cues in human cortex: an fMRI study. (semanticscholar.org)
- Interdependent encoding of pitch, timbre, and spatial location in auditory cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
- A method and system for improving auditory processing and increasing spatial awareness, wherein the voices of a musical composition are arranged, recorded and produced in particular combinations and at particular frequency levels according to a predetermined program designed to exercise auditory muscles, imprint the frequency map, and stimulate dendritic growth and synaptic organization. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Central auditory processing disorder or deficit has been linked to many etiologies, including neurologic lesions or compromise of the central auditory nervous system. (lww.com)
- Although the incidence of children with central auditory processing disorder or deficit (CAPD) resulting from neurologic defects is considerably lower than that in children with CAPD, learning problems, and no identifiable neuropathology, some of the latter group also present with neurologic issues. (lww.com)
- Those diagnosed with CAPD with a presumed underlying neuromaturational source present central auditory systems that appear to mature more slowly than seen in normal children, often secondary to auditory deprivation and delayed myelin maturation in the subcortex, cortex, and corpus callosum. (lww.com)
- These delays theoretically can result in decreased performance on central auditory tests and in hearing difficulties, and are likely related to the long maturational course of the CANS. (lww.com)
- Here we report that prediction error is organized hierarchically along the central auditory pathway. (nature.com)
- Coding of environmental acoustic signals occurs at all levels of the central auditory pathway. (biologists.org)
- A brain network involving limbic and other nonauditory regions is active in tinnitus and may be driven when spectrotemporal information conveyed by the damaged ear does not match that predicted by central auditory processing. (jneurosci.org)
- The auditory pathway is divided into the outer, middle, and inner ear and the central auditory pathway. (appliedradiology.com)
- The authors emphasize that central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) significantly impairs speech perception in elderly people and makes difficult the rehabilitation of patients with presbycusis. (intechopen.com)
- Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. (scribd.com)
- Mild memory impairment may be associated with central auditory processing dysfunction, or difficulty hearing in complex situations with competing noise, such as hearing a single conversation amid several other conversations, according to a report in the July issue of Archives of Otolaryngology -- Head & Neck Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (brightsurf.com)
- children with phonological disorder present altered P300 suggesting involvement of the central auditory pathway, probably due to alterations in the auditory processing, presenting improvement in all components of LLAEP results after speech therapy. (scielo.br)
Function of auditory pathways1
- Primate models ( 1 , 2 ) suggest that this task is accomplished via parallel anterolateral "what" and caudolateral "where" nonprimary auditory cortex streams, resembling the functional subdivisions of the visual system ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
- These properties illuminate the potential roles of some previously ill-defined auditory pathways, and may be extended further to categorize either unknown or mischaracterized pathways throughout the auditory system. (frontiersin.org)
- In the auditory system, auditory nerve fibers diverge into different divisions of the cochlear nucleus setting the stage for multiple ascending pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- An hypothesis based on the somatosensory results is that a paralemniscal pathway in the auditory system may be tuned to code slow rates in acoustic signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Given that the ability to hear in noise can be improved by a period of RMHA system use, separate speech in noise auditory training may not be necessary in some children who are also being fitted with RMHAs for APD. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- this image shows the pathway of the auditory system 'the system responsible for our sense of hearing' (displays the pathway from both our left and right ears) showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
- this image shows the pathway of hearing system showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
- this image shows the auditor pathway ' hearing system' showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
- The authors focus on brain research to support the idea of the nonclassical auditory pathways being involved in connecting the auditory system with the emotional system of the brain. (hindawi.com)
- Lucker and Doman [ 1 ] and Lucker [ 2 ] discussed the fact that auditory hypersensitivity in children with ASD is more of an emotional based problem than a specific auditory system problem. (hindawi.com)
- In these publications, the authors state that underlying auditory hypersensitivity (or oversensitivity to sounds) involves what are called the nonclassical auditory pathways and limbic system connections. (hindawi.com)
- In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). (pnas.org)
- Lets take a look further about some processing of the auditory system. (coursera.org)
- Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. (scirp.org)
- First, we focused on the projection system of the cat auditory cortex, which is the most studied among all eutherians. (scirp.org)
- The significance of the presbycusis problem is determined by its social importance, lack of data about its etiology, and need for clinical practice to accurately determine an impaired area of auditory system and to identify the presbycusis genesis. (intechopen.com)
- Empirical observations have shown that the human auditory system is especially sensitive to the human voice, and that activity within the voice-sensitive regions of the primary and secondary auditory cortex is modulated by the emotional quality of the vocal signal, and may therefore subserve, with frontal regions, the cognitive ability to correctly identify the speaker's affective state. (uzh.ch)
- Hearing loss can happen when any part of the ear or auditory (hearing) system is not working in the usual way. (cdc.gov)
- Speech-ABR in contralateral noise: A potential tool to evaluate rostral part of the auditory efferent system. (bioportfolio.com)
- The auditory efferent system has two main segments: the rostral and the caudal parts. (bioportfolio.com)
- Most studies about the auditory efferent system have focused only on the caudal part using otoacoustic emission suppression test. (bioportfolio.com)
- Our hypothesis is that S-ABR in noisy condition, a typical condition for stimulating the auditory efferent system, has the potential to be used as an objective noninvasive electrophysiologic test for studying the rostral auditory efferent system in diagnosis and treatment/rehabilitation follow-ups. (bioportfolio.com)
- Then we checked the correlation between the results of S-ABR in different conditions and scores of auditory behavioral tests that auditory efferent system is involved in them: Consonant-Vowel perception in noise, dichotic Consonant-Vowel-Consonant and sound lateralization in noise. (bioportfolio.com)
- Findings of the current study suggest that S-ABR with specific contralateral noise can be an appropriate option for evaluating the performance of rostral part of the auditory efferent system and may be suitable for top-down auditory training follow-ups, although the generalization of these results needs further studies in different groups with different auditory processing abnormalities or skills. (bioportfolio.com)
- and examine auditory discrimination and speech perception. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
- Every time we listen-to speech, to music, to footsteps approaching or retreating-our auditory perception is the result of a long chain of diverse and intricate processes that unfold within the source of the sound itself, in the air, in our ears, and, most of all, in our brains. (mit.edu)
- Toyohashi University of Technology has indicated that the relationship between attentional states in response to pictures and sounds and the emotions elicited by them may be different in visual perception and auditory perception. (brightsurf.com)
Status of auditory2
- Using combined hemodynamic (functional MRI) and electromagnetic (magnetoencephalography) measurements, we investigated whether such dual pathways exist already in the human nonprimary auditory cortex, as suggested by animal models, and whether selective attention facilitates sound localization and identification by modulating these pathways in a feature-specific fashion. (pnas.org)
- Overall enhancement of human auditory cortex activity by selective attention has been verified by functional MRI (fMRI) ( 14 , 33 - 37 ), positron emission tomography ( 38 - 40 ), electroencephalography ( 41 ), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) ( 42 ) studies, and recent fMRI results further implied that these effects mainly occur in the nonprimary auditory areas ( 37 ). (pnas.org)
- Present study is focused on functional analysis of auditory pathway by Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) and with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) in type 2 diabetes. (alliedacademies.org)
- PTA and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) are used for the functional analysis of auditory pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
- We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to show that in normal-hearing control subjects, peripheral gaze results in inhibition of the auditory cortex, but no detectable response in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and inferior colliculus (IC). (jneurosci.org)
- In particular, it will be important to understand how such functional segregation interacts with hemispheric lateralization, a feature of the auditory cortex that characterizes the human brain. (semanticscholar.org)
- However, anatomical and functional evidence suggests that acoustic information relevant to the affective quality of the auditory signal might be processed prior to the auditory cortex. (uzh.ch)
Brain's auditory cortex1
Cortex contains a primary1
- The auditory pathway is more complex than the visual and the olfactory pathways. (kenhub.com)
- Like olfactory cells that detect odors, auditory receptor cells (also called hair cells) are recessed from the surface of the body. (washington.edu)
- Although taste and olfactory cells interact directly with molecules in the environment , auditory receptors are quite far removed from the phenomena they detect. (washington.edu)
- However, various cochlear microphonic, distortion product otoacoustic emission, and fMRI studies have demonstrated the detection of infrasound by the human inner ear and auditory cortex. (wind-watch.org)
- A U.S. Patent has just been issued for the invention first reported on two years ago that introduces antioxidants to the inner ear to not only reduce damage to auditory tissues and reduce hearing loss due to noise, but - in some cases - to actually reverse it. (brightsurf.com)
- Thus, this series of membranes and bones forms a pathway that carries vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. (washington.edu)
- OAE may be used to assess hearing disorders as the result of cochlear dysfunction or detect irregularities to the pathway of the inner ear. (unicare.com)
- Yet, complicating this picture are numerous parallel ascending and descending pathways, whose roles in auditory processing are poorly defined. (frontiersin.org)
- However, numerous parallel ascending ( Winer, 2005 ) and descending ( Winer, 2006 ) pathways complicate this simple picture, and their roles in audition have yet to be adequately elucidated. (frontiersin.org)
- Auditory thalamocortical connections are organized as parallel pathways that originate in different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB). (frontiersin.org)
- Taken together, these studies reveal parallel IC-MGB-cortex pathways involved in echolocation and passive listening. (frontiersin.org)
- These data suggest that parallel auditory thalamocortical pathways may segregate in an experience-dependent fashion, a hypothesis that remains to be tested in any species. (frontiersin.org)
- These parallel pathways are purported to serve different functions in hearing. (frontiersin.org)
- The cognitive neuropsychology of auditory hallucinations: A parallel auditory pathways framework. (springer.com)
Current state of auditory1
Human auditory cortex2
- Selective attention is known to support both sound localization and recognition, but it is unclear how representations of auditory space and identity are top-down modulated in the human auditory cortex. (pnas.org)
- Effective and structural connectivity in the human auditory cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
- In the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex, physiological studies show that noise and echolocation calls are processed in segregated regions. (frontiersin.org)
- While the functions of different neuronal types in the CN and the SOC are quite well understood, the nature of the code at the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (A1) levels are less well understood. (biologists.org)
- The tragus and antitragus are the cartilaginous prominences that lie anterior and inferior respectively to the external auditory opening. (kenhub.com)
- However, although distinct prefrontal and parietal activations to attentional processing of "what" vs. "where" auditory information have been consistently reported ( 9 , 13 - 16 ), previous positron emission tomography and fMRI studies have failed to find evidence for feature-specific attentional effects for sound identity and location in the auditory cortex ( 37 , 39 ). (pnas.org)