NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/1597)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (2/1597)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

Coding of sound envelopes by inhibitory rebound in neurons of the superior olivary complex in the unanesthetized rabbit. (3/1597)

Most natural sounds (e.g., speech) are complex and have amplitude envelopes that fluctuate rapidly. A number of studies have examined the neural coding of envelopes, but little attention has been paid to the superior olivary complex (SOC), a constellation of nuclei that receive information from the cochlear nucleus. We studied two classes of predominantly monaural neurons: those that displayed a sustained response to tone bursts and those that gave only a response to the tone offset. Our results demonstrate that the off neurons in the SOC can encode the pattern of amplitude-modulated sounds with high synchrony that is superior to sustained neurons. The upper cutoff frequency and highest modulation frequency at which significant synchrony was present were, on average, slightly higher for off neurons compared with sustained neurons. Finally, most sustained and off neurons encoded the level of pure tones over a wider range of intensities than those reported for auditory nerve fibers and cochlear nucleus neurons. A traditional view of inhibition is that it attenuates or terminates neural activity. Although this holds true for off neurons, the robust discharge when inhibition is released adds a new dimension. For simple sounds (i.e., pure tones), the off response can code a wide range of sound levels. For complex sounds, the off response becomes entrained to each modulation, resulting in a precise temporal coding of the envelope.  (+info)

The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (4/1597)

Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem.  (+info)

Early visual experience shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain gaze fields of the barn owl. (5/1597)

Auditory spatial information is processed in parallel forebrain and midbrain pathways. Sensory experience early in life has been shown to exert a powerful influence on the representation of auditory space in the midbrain space-processing pathway. The goal of this study was to determine whether early experience also shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain. Owls were raised wearing prismatic spectacles that shifted the visual field in the horizontal plane. This manipulation altered the relationship between interaural time differences (ITDs), the principal cue used for azimuthal localization, and locations of auditory stimuli in the visual field. Extracellular recordings were used to characterize ITD tuning in the auditory archistriatum (AAr), a subdivision of the forebrain gaze fields, in normal and prism-reared owls. Prism rearing altered the representation of ITD in the AAr. In prism-reared owls, unit tuning for ITD was shifted in the adaptive direction, according to the direction of the optical displacement imposed by the spectacles. Changes in ITD tuning involved the acquisition of unit responses to adaptive ITD values and, to a lesser extent, the elimination of responses to nonadaptive (previously normal) ITD values. Shifts in ITD tuning in the AAr were similar to shifts in ITD tuning observed in the optic tectum of the same owls. This experience-based adjustment of binaural tuning in the AAr helps to maintain mutual registry between the forebrain and midbrain representations of auditory space and may help to ensure consistent behavioral responses to auditory stimuli.  (+info)

Auditory perception: does practice make perfect? (6/1597)

Recent studies have shown that adult humans can learn to localize sounds relatively accurately when provided with altered localization cues. These experiments provide further evidence for experience-dependent plasticity in the mature brain.  (+info)

Expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in hypothyroid rat brain indicates an important role of thyroid hormone in the development of specific primary sensory systems. (7/1597)

Thyroid hormone is an important epigenetic factor in brain development, acting by modulating rates of gene expression. The active form of thyroid hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is produced in part by the thyroid gland but also after 5'-deiodination of thyroxine (T4) in target tissues. In brain, approximately 80% of T3 is formed locally from T4 through the activity of the 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2), an enzyme that is expressed mostly by glial cells, tanycytes in the third ventricle, and astrocytes throughout the brain. D2 activity is an important point of control of thyroid hormone action because it increases in situations of low T4, thus preserving brain T3 concentrations. In this work, we have studied the expression of D2 by quantitative in situ hybridization in hypothyroid animals during postnatal development. Our hypothesis was that those regions that are most dependent on thyroid hormone should present selective increases of D2 as a protection against hypothyroidism. D2 mRNA concentration was increased severalfold over normal levels in relay nuclei and cortical targets of the primary somatosensory and auditory pathways. The results suggest that these pathways are specifically protected against thyroid failure and that T3 has a role in the development of these structures. At the cellular level, expression was observed mainly in glial cells, although some interneurons of the cerebral cortex were also labeled. Therefore, the T3 target cells, mostly neurons, are dependent on local astrocytes for T3 supply.  (+info)

Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses. (8/1597)

The common occurrence of hearing loss in both humans and mice, and the anatomical and functional similarities of their inner ears, attest to the potential of mice being used as models to study inherited hearing loss. A large-scale, auditory screening project is being undertaken at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) to identify mice with inherited hearing disorders. To assess hearing sensitivity, at least five mice from each inbred strain had auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds determined. Thus far, we have screened 80 inbred strains of mice; 60 of them exhibited homogeneous ABR threshold values not significantly different from those of the control strain CBA/CaJ. This large database establishes a reliable reference for normal hearing mouse strains. The following 16 inbred strains exhibited significantly elevated ABR thresholds before the age of 3 months: 129/J, 129/ReJ, 129/SvJ, A/J, ALR/LtJ, ALS/LtJ, BUB/BnJ, C57BLKS/J, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, and SKH2/J. These hearing impaired strains may serve as models for some forms of human non-syndromic hearing loss and aid in the identification of the underlying genes.  (+info)

This thesis gives an overview of my work over the last four years on the development of analogue electronic building blocks for the auditory pathway, and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is presented, and is decomposed into three key elements, i.e., the basilar membrane band-pass filters, the transduction into a neural signal performed by the inner hair cells, and the mechanical feedback introduced by the outer hair cells. An electronic model for the first two of these elements is presented and measurement results are shown to compare these circuits with their biological counterparts. The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a good spiking neuron model is essential. The electrophysiology and anatomy needed to understand the
Auditory brainstem neurons fire at very high rates with extraordinarily high temporal precision, allowing them to encode specific features of sound stimuli. Une...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
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Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an integration-based mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five ...
Glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in the adult vertebrate brain, but their activation in developing neurons also influences developmental processes. However, little is known about the developmental regulation of the subunits composing these receptors. Here we have studied age-dependent changes in the expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in the cochlear nucleus complex (CN), the superior olivary complex (SOC), the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and the inferior colliculus of the developing rat. In the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the distribution of AMPA receptor subunits changed drastically with age. While GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were highly expressed in the first 2 postnatal weeks, GluR4 staining was detectable only thereafter. GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities rapidly decreased during the third ...
Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. Finally, there is topographically patterned input to the superior colliculus and to the cerebellum, the latter receiving some of its input from the pontine nuclei activated by acoustic stimulation. Cochlear Nuclei All auditory ...
Model of Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body (MNTB) neurons described in Lu-Yang Wang, Li Gan, Ian D. Forsythe and Leonard K. Kaczmarek. Contribution of the Kv3.1 potassium channel to high-frequency firing in mouse auditory neurones. J. Physiol (1998) 509.1 183-194. Created by David Kornfeld, Byram Hills High School, Armonk NY. Please email [email protected] for questions about the model. See Readme.txt below for more info ...
Definition of olivary complex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is olivary complex? Meaning of olivary complex as a legal term. What does olivary complex mean in law?
The inferior colliculus, the primary nucleus in the mammalian auditory midbrain, occupies a central position in the ascending auditory pathway. Nearly all ascending neural pathways converge and synapse in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Further, the anatomical arrangement of axons and neurons in the ICC suggests the existence of functional regions which may play a role in organizing different types of physiological information. To investigate this organization, we characterized the response properties of neighboring neurons in the ICC. To record reliably from neighboring neurons, we adopted a relatively new electrophysiological technique, tetrode recordings. Tetrodes have four closely spaced recording sites (,20[mu]m) which record multi-unit activity from a small number of neighboring neurons. The recorded signals contain action potentials originating from more than one neuron. Based on action potential wave shape differences across the four channels, we can reconstruct the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The development of synaptic function and integration in the central auditory system. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The development of inhibitory synaptic transmission is difficult to assess because the afferents usually arise from intrinsic neurons that are difficult to stimulate independently. The postnatal maturation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic function was compared in the gerbil lateral superior olive (LSO), where it is possible to stimulate physically discrete afferent projections. Intracellular recordings obtained in a brain slice preparation revealed that transmission was prominent at birth. The EPSPs and IPSPs were up to 2 orders of magnitude longer than in more mature animals. Brief trains of electrical stimulus pulses led to a temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in 1-14 d animals resulting in prolonged depolarizations or hyperpolarizations. In neonates, the depolarization could exceed 1 sec following a 70 msec stimulus train. The ...
88 Cochlea and Auditory Pathways Anatomical Considerations External ear: The external auditory meatus (canal) is formed by auricular and annular cartilages, plus a short…
The auditory pathway conveys the special sense of hearing. Information travels from the receptors in the organ of Corti of the inner ear - the cochlear hair cells - to the central nervous system, carried by the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
9780387989037 Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research),books, textbooks, text book
Both avian and crocodilian auditory circuits appear to conform to the requirements of the Jeffress model (Jeffress, 1948; Joris et al., 1998; Grothe et al., 2005). The auditory nerve and NM phase lock to sound in birds and crocodilians (Köppl, 1997b), while NMs target neurons in NL act as coincidence detectors for both tones and noise. Internal delays, equal and opposite to interaural delays, characterize barn owls (Carr and Konishi, 1990; Peña et al., 2001), chickens (Overholt et al., 1992; Funabiki et al., 1998; Köppl and Carr, 2008), and alligators (this study). Best delays in NL are such that neurons respond maximally to sound sources in the contralateral hemifield. Similarly, contralateral click delays are longer than ipsilateral (Wagner et al., 2005; Köppl and Carr, 2008). Thus, the axonal delays from NM appear sufficient to account for the range of observed ITDs. Cochlear disparities or stereausis are an alternative to axonal delays (Shamma et al., 1989; Peña et al., 2001), but when ...
An interesting response property of auditory neurons that can be observed at various levels of the auditory pathway, but is particularly versatile in the IC, is selectivity in discharge rate to temporal features of sound, such as, e.g., amplitude modulations and frequency modulations (Brand et al., 2000; McAlpine, 2004; Woolley and Casseday, 2005; Pérez-González et al., 2006; Krebs et al., 2008). These versatile tuning patterns result from the complex set of synaptic inputs IC cells receive and are therefore dependent on outputs of the various auditory nuclei converging at the IC. The dependence of AM selectivity of single IC neurons on network states is nicely illustrated by the finding that AM selectivity can be modulated by changing sound location (Koch and Grothe, 2000) or by blocking inhibition (Casseday et al., 1994; Fuzessery and Hall, 1996; Casseday et al., 2002). We observed a significant decrease in temporal selectivity of IC neurons in aged animals. As mentioned above, selectivity ...
The auditory system is responsible for detecting, encoding, and deciphering hearing. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major relay hub situated in the midbrain, that is subdivided into a central nucleus, and surrounding dorsal and lateral cortices. The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) is organized tonotopically based on a frequency gradient and strictly processes auditory information. In contrast, recent studies show that the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC) is actually multimodal, receiving inputs from not just auditory sources, but also somatosensory and visual structures. The precise organization of patterned inputs to the LCIC and their development has yet to be fully established. Mounting evidence suggests a modular LCIC framework with surrounding extramodular zones that provide an anatomical substrate for input-output arrays. Previously, a series of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cytochrome oxidase (CO), glutamic
a neural structure that serves as the last of a series of processing centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. ...
Definition of Acoustic lemniscus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
ITD - Interaural time difference. Looking for abbreviations of ITD? It is Interaural time difference. Interaural time difference listed as ITD
Afferent:. Neural activity begins with the transduction of acoustic waves into electrochemical communication in the hair cells of the basilar membrane. Synaptic connections stimulate activity in sensory neurons. Apical, intermediate, and basal neurons of the cochlea innervate the cochlear nucleus. The cochlear nucleus gives rise to a variety of connections. Ipsilaterally, these connections are to the medial superior olive, the lateral superior olive (absent or reduced in dolphins and bats), the lateral nucleus of the trapezoid body, lateral pre-olivary nucleus, and dorsal and ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus. Contralaterally, these connections of the cochlear nucleus are to the medial trapezoidal body, medial superior olive, medial pre-olivary nucleus, and dorsal and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus. The medial trapezoidal body innervates the lateral superior olive of the same side. [2, pp. 284-294]. Afferent innervation of the retro-olivary group is laminar, and may indicate a ...
OBJECTIVE: Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. METHODS: Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. RESULTS: Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained
Looking for online definition of Brachium of the inferior colliculus in the Medical Dictionary? Brachium of the inferior colliculus explanation free. What is Brachium of the inferior colliculus? Meaning of Brachium of the inferior colliculus medical term. What does Brachium of the inferior colliculus mean?
nuclei of the cochlear nerve, with their upper connections. (Schematic.) The vestibular nerve with its terminal nuclei and their efferent fibers have been suppressed. On the other hand, in order not to obscure the trapezoid body, the efferent fibers of the terminal nuclei on the right side have been resected in a considerable portion of their extent. The trapezoid body, therefore, shows only one-half of its fibers, viz., those which come from the left. 1. Vestibular nerve, divided at its entrance into the medulla oblongata. 2. Cochlear nerve. 3. Accessory nucleus of acoustic nerve. 4. Tuberculum acusticum. 5. Efferent fibers of accessory nucleus. 6. Efferent fibers of tuberculum acusticum, forming the striae medullares, with 6, their direct bundle going to the superior olivary nucleus of the same side; 6, their decussating bundles going to the superior olivary nucleus of the opposite side. 7. Superior olivary nucleus. 8. Trapezoid body. 9. Trapezoid nucleus. 10. Central acoustic tract ...
Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Deafness affects the expression and distribution of voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kvs) of central auditory neurons in the short-term, i.e., hours to days, but the consequences in the expression of Kvs after long-term deafness remain unknown. We tested expression and distribution of Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b, key for auditory processing, in the rat cochlear nucleus (CN), and in the inferior colliculus (IC), at 1, 15 and 90 days after mechanical lesion of the cochlea, using a combination of qRT-PCR and Western blot in the whole CN, along with semi-quantitative immunocytochemistry in the AVCN, where the role of both Kvs in excitability control for accurate auditory timing signal processing is well established. Neither Kv1.1/Kv3.1b mRNA or protein expression changed significantly in the CN between 1 and 15 days after deafness. At 90 days post-lesion, however, mRNA and protein expression for both Kvs increased, suggesting that expression regulation of Kv1.1 and Kv3.1b is part of cellular mechanisms for long
Vol 8: The relative contributions of MNTB and LNTB neurons to inhibition in the medial superior olive assessed through single and paired recordings.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
About 95 percent of sound input to the brain comes from the ears inner hair cells.. These inner hair cells are like spark plugs in an 8-cylinder engine, says Salvi. A car wont run well if you remove half of those spark plugs, but people can still present with normal hearing thresholds if theyve lost half or even three-quarters of their inner hair cells.. Ear damage reduces the signal that goes the brain. That results in trouble hearing, but thats not whats happening here, because the brain has a central gain control, like a radio, the listener can turn up the volume control to better hear a distant station. Salvi says.. Sound is converted to neural activity by the inner hair cells in the auditory part of the ear, called the cochlea.. Sound-evoked neural activity then travels from the cochlea to the auditory nerve and into the central auditory pathway of the brain. Halfway up the auditory pathway the information is relayed into a structure known as the inferior colliculus, before ...
The auditory circuit that we are studying helps to locate sound sources in space and illustrates beautifully how development is instrumental in shaping function. A major cue for an animal to locate sound sources compares the arrival time of the sound at the two ears. The time difference in sound reaching each ear, termed interaural time difference (ITD), varies from zero (sound directly ahead) to approximately 300 microseconds (depending on the size of head). The circuit operates as an AND logical gate where synaptic input from the ear closest to the sound sets up a map of space along an array of neurons which is compared to synaptic input from the ear furthest away from the sound. This identifies the location of sound in a subset of neurons along this array through dendritic integration to detect temporal coincidence of the two inputs. This calculation is performed at each characteristic frequency of sound using different arrays of neurons that are juxtaposed to form a sheet of cells in the ...
Fig. 1: The main ascending pathways in the mammalian auditory system. AN, auditory nerve; CN, cochlear nucleus; SO, superior olive; NLL, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; IC, inferior colliculus; MGB, thalamus; and A1, cortex. One goal of the lab is to identify functional pathways (patterns of afferent convergence) that link the brainstem auditory nuclei.. Current research in the laboratory centers on the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) because it occupies a pivotal position in the auditory system; it receives direct inputs from most, if not all, of the auditory nuclei in the brainstem and, in turn, provides nearly all of the input to the auditory forebrain. Anatomical evidence suggests that the projections to the ...
Interaural time differences (lTDs) are one of the cues used for binaural sound localisation. In birds, RDs are computed in nucleus laminaris (NL), where a place code of azimuthal location first emerges. In chickens, NL consists of a monolayer of bitufted cells that receive segregated inputs from ipsi- and contralateral nucleus magnocellularis (NM). In ham owls, the monolayer organisation, the bitufted morphology, and the segregation of inputs have been lost, giving rise to a derived organisation that is accompanied by a reorganisation of the auditory place code. Although chickens and ham owls have been the traditional experimental models in which to study lTD coding, they represent distant evolutionary lineages with very different auditory specialisations. Here we examined the structure of NL in several bird lineages. We have found only two NL morphotypes, one of which appears to have emerged in association with high frequency hearing ...
-BANDWIDTH PRODUCTS EXCEEDING 10,000, USING PASSIVE, UNGUIDED PROPAGATION. The report presents experimental results on a delay line having 1/2 millisecond delay and 5 MHz bandwidth. This is a helical SAW delay line on a Bi12GeO20 wrap-around crystal plate, operating at 50 MHz, which proves that practical two-port delay lines operating in the millisecond range are within the current technology. An analysis has been made of the problem of broadbanding the transducers for long delay lines of this kind, which involve different considerations than for standard short delay lines. A loss balancing criterion is developed, and computer results are presented which show the general design parameters for delay lines having time delays extending to one millisecond together with bandwidth extending to 60 MHz, using graded interdigital transducer arrays. (Modified author abstract)*Acoustic delay lines
Author: Koehl, Alexander et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2004-12; Keywords: energy metabolism; gene expression; purinergic receptor; SAGE; Sprague-Dawley rats; Title: Gene expression profiling of the rat superior olivary complex using serial analysis of gene expression
Background and purpose: Auditory processing disorders (APD), tinnitus and hearing loss (HL) are typical issues reported by patients in audiologic clinics. These auditory impairments can be concomitant or mutually excluding. APD are not necessarily accompanied by significant HL, whereas many adults exhibit peripheral HL and typical cognitive deficits often associated with APD. Since HL, tinnitus and APD affects to several parts of the ascending auditory pathway from the periphery to the auditory cortex, there could be some interrelationship between them. For instance, tinnitus has been reported to degrade the auditory localization capacity. Tinnitus is believed to be triggered by deafferentation of normal peripheral input to the central auditory system. This peripheral deficit can be accompanied by HL or not, since a type of permanent cochlear damage (thus deafferentation) without an elevation of hearing thresholds might persist. Therefore, a combined study of APD, tinnitus and HL on the same cohort of
The Oxford Handbook of The Auditory Brainstem provides an introduction as well as an in-depth reference to the organization and function of ascending and descending auditory pathways in the mammalian brainstem. Individual chapters are organized along the auditory pathway beginning with the cochlea and ending with the auditory midbrain.
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The medial geniculate body (MGB) of the thalamus is a key component of the auditory system. It is involved in relaying and transforming auditory information to the cortex and in top-down modulation of processing in the midbrain, brainstem, and ear. Functional imaging investigations of this region in humans, however, have been limited by the difficulty of distinguishing MGB from other thalamic nuclei. Here, we introduce two methods for reliably delineating MGB anatomically in individuals based on conventional and diffusion MRI data. The first uses high-resolution proton density weighted scanning optimized for subcortical grey-white contrast. The second uses diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography to automatically segment the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei from surrounding structures based on their distinctive patterns of connectivity to the rest of the brain. Both methods produce highly replicable results that are consistent with published atlases. Importantly, both methods rely
The medial geniculate body (MGB) of the thalamus is a key component of the auditory system. It is involved in relaying and transforming auditory information to the cortex and in top-down modulation of processing in the midbrain, brainstem, and ear. Functional imaging investigations of this region in humans, however, have been limited by the difficulty of distinguishing MGB from other thalamic nuclei. Here, we introduce two methods for reliably delineating MGB anatomically in individuals based on conventional and diffusion MRI data. The first uses high-resolution proton density weighted scanning optimized for subcortical grey-white contrast. The second uses diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography to automatically segment the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei from surrounding structures based on their distinctive patterns of connectivity to the rest of the brain. Both methods produce highly replicable results that are consistent with published atlases. Importantly, both methods rely
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Full text Supplement:. Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding acoustic stimulus affects 10 to 15% of the adult population worldwide. Despite this prevalence, there are currently no effective drug therapies due to limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tinnitus onset following triggers such as exposure to loud sound. Many studies support the prevailing idea that tinnitus arises in response to enhanced multisensory synaptic transmission to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the first relay in the auditory brainstem integrating acoustic and multisensory inputs. Such findings include a correlation between tinnitus and aberrant neural activity in the DCN (Kaltenbach 2007), altered excitability in the DCN initiating a complex sequence of events in the auditory pathway (Brozoski et al., 2002) and an increased synchrony in the network activity (Shore et al., 2016). We investigate the role of plasticity in the DCN at the early stages following acoustic ...
from sim import Simulation import network import neuron import progress from math import ceil def run(netdef,tosave,modify,procs,thisProc,stims,param,repeats,sim_time,SaveSpikes,SaveVoltage,SaveConductance,SaveCurrent): net = netdef() if SaveVoltage: net.recordVoltage() repeats = int(repeats) # Randomseed was 200 for most figures # Changed to 200 for rat # Changed to 200 for anurans s = Simulation(net, randomseed=200,delay=25) s.verbose = False s.sim_time = sim_time s.dt = 0.050 total = len(stims)*len(param)*repeats spp = ceil(float(total)/procs) start = thisProc*spp end = (thisProc+1)*spp count = 0 for a in param: s.set_amplitude(net.sim_amp) for d in stims*repeats: if count ,= start and count , end: net = modify(net,a,d) progress.update(count-start,spp,thisProc) s.stim_dur = d s.run() key = [a,d] net.savecells(tosave, key, spikes=SaveSpikes,voltage=SaveVoltage,conductance=SaveConductance,current=SaveCurrent) count += 1 progress.update(spp,spp,thisProc) r = ...
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This paper proposes modifications to the Multi-resolution RASTA (MRASTA) feature extraction technique for the automatic speech recognition (ASR). By emulating asymmetries of the temporal receptive field (TRF) profiles of higher level auditory neurons, we obtain more than 11.4% relative improvement in word error rate on OGI-Digits database. Experiments on TIMIT database confirm that proposed modifications are indeed useful. Sivaram, Garimella S. V. S.; Hermansky, Hynek
Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway Posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots.
By Andrew Liszewski. As far as I know theres no real cure for Tinnitus, but a company called Neuromonics claims to have created an effective treatment that will reduce the symptoms almost immediately and provide some level of long-term relief. At the core of the treatment is the Oasis audio device which plays specifically designed music thats embedded with a pleasant acoustic neural stimulus. These sounds, which are customized for every patient based on their audiological profile, stimulate the auditory pathway to promote neural plastic changes. And over time its these new connections that help the brain filter out the tinnitus disturbance. So as far as I can tell the process doesnt cure the problem, it just trains your brain to ignore it.. The treatments usually last for 6 months, and during the first 2 months youll need to listen to the device for about 2 hours or longer every day. During the last 4 months that duration will gradually decrease, and once the treatment is over you may ...
We report the design and testing of a novel linear scanning periodic optical delay line (ODL) by use of a helicoid reflective mirror based on a tilted parabolic generatrix that was driven by an electrical motor for a periodic change in the optical path length of the reflected light beam. The divergence and pulse front distortion of the optical beam reflected by the helicoid reflective mirror were simulated based on differential geometry. With a round-trip pass arrangement, a scanning range of delay time as large as ...
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
trapezoid roll grinding stones manufacturer Grasping strong production capability, advanced research strength and excellent service, Shanghai trapezoid roll grinding stones supplier create the value and bring values to all of customers.. ...
Synaptic Mechanisms in the Auditory System. by. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research (Book 41) Share your thoughts Complete your review. Tell readers what you thought by rating and reviewing this book. Rate it * You Rated it *.
IT CANT be seen or heard; it can be indoors or outside; its not biological, environmental or radiation, but it can make you sick or even kill you.
Tekturon offers 16 delay lines all arranged in a sequence to provide a level of inspiration and possibility simply unavailable with conventional delays.
... the auditory pathway is subdivided into parallel ascending pathways, which can simultaneously extract different types of ... Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve ... This pathway is called the ventral acoustic stria (VAS or, more commonly, the trapezoid body). Another pathway, called the ... Middlebrooks, J.C. (2009). "Auditory System: Central Pathways". In Squire (ed.). Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Academic Press. ...
Further along the auditory pathway, the movement of the basilar membrane results in the stimulation of primary auditory neurons ... information from lower in the auditory processing pathway is integrated and sent on to the auditory cortex. As George Pollak ... Syka J, Masterton RB (2012-12-06). Auditory Pathway: Structure and Function. Springer. ISBN 978-1-468-41300-7. Lima SL, O'Keefe ... SHAR Series for Auditory Research. Springer-Verlag. pp. 43-108. Fjeldså J, Krabbe N (1990). Birds of the High Andes: a manual ...
Moser T (October 2015). "Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway for research and future prosthetics". Current Opinion ... March 2014). "Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 124 (3): 1114-29. doi: ... December 2018). "Ultrafast optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway by targeting-optimized Chronos". The EMBO Journal. ... In addition, a rapid negative feedback loop in the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway was discovered using pulsatile activation of a ...
"Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway". J Clin Invest. 124 (3): 1114-29. doi:10.1172/JCI69050. PMC 3934189. PMID ... "Ultrafast optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway by targeting‐optimized Chronos". EMBO J. 37 (24): e99649. doi: ... "High frequency neural spiking and auditory signaling by ultrafast red-shifted optogenetics". Nat Commun. 9 (1): 1750. doi: ...
1992). The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97800-3. H Spoendlin (1972). "Innervation ... Their dendrites make synaptic contact with the base of hair cells, and their axons are bundled together to form the auditory ... These bipolar neurons are the first neurons in the auditory system to fire an action potential, and supply all of the brain's ... nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the cephalic edge of the auditory ...
Tracing the responses of these combination-sensitive neurons to higher order regions of the auditory pathway reveals that there ... Oertel D, Fay RR, Popper AN (2002). Integrative functions in the mammalian auditory pathway. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 385 ... In the auditory system of bats, like in auditory systems of other vertebrates, primary sensory afferent neurons, which receive ... These pathways converge in the medial geniculate body-giving rise to more complex feature detectors that respond to specific ...
"The auditory pathway in cat corpus callosum". Experimental Brain Research. 104 (3): 534-40. doi:10.1007/BF00231988. PMID ...
Cummings (2001). "Chapter 140: Cochlear Anatomy and Central Auditory Pathways". Stria vascularis (PDF). Textbook of ...
Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature 404: 871-876, 2000. Dragoi, V., C. ... Acceleration of visually cued conditioned fear through the auditory pathway. Nature Neuroscience 7: 968-973, 2004. Oray S, A. ... A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250: 818-820, 1990. Hahm, J.-O., R.B. Langdon and M. Sur. ... Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404: 841-847, 2000. Von Melchner, L., S.L. Pallas and M. Sur ...
Working with Pamela Rollins, he found signs that children seem to use the non-classical auditory pathways more than adults. In ... Moller, Aage R.; Rollins, Pamela R. (2002). "The non-classical auditory pathways are involved in hearing in children but not in ... Møller, Aage R.; Kern, Janet K.; Grannemann, Bruce (2005). "Are the non-classical auditory pathways involved in autism and PDD ... M.B found signs that the non-classical ascending auditory pathways are involved in creating the symptoms of tinnitus. In 2011, ...
"Identification of a motor-to-auditory pathway important for vocal learning". Nature Neuroscience. 20 (7): 978-986. doi:10.1038/ ... It projects to the song motor pathway via the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) and to the Anterior Forebrain Pathway via ... It is located in the lateral caudal nidopallium and has projections to both the direct and the anterior forebrain pathways. It ... Akutagawa, Eugene; Konishi, Masakazu (2010-03-23). "New brain pathways found in the vocal control system of a songbird". The ...
Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Andrew N. Iwaniuk; Douglas R. Wylie (2011). "Relative Size of Auditory Pathways in Symmetrically ... Frost, B.J.; P. J. Baldwin; M. Csizy (1989). "Auditory localization in the northern saw-whet owl, Aegolius acadicus". Canadian ...
"Visual projections induced into the auditory pathway of ferrets. I. Novel inputs to primary auditory cortex (AI) from the LP/ ... "Visual projections routed to the auditory pathway in ferrets: receptive fields of visual neurons in primary auditory cortex". ... Roe, A.W., S.L. Pallas, J.O. Hahm, and M. Sur (1990). A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250: ... Roe, AW; Pallas, SL; Hahm, JO; Sur, M (9 November 1990). "A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex". Science. ...
"Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway". Nature. 404 (6780): 871-876. doi:10.1038/ ... Even highly evolved cortical areas such as the primary visual and auditory cortices can to a surprising degree take on new ... Semantics can develop in the visual cortex of those born blind, and vision can develop in the auditory cortex in experimental ...
Therefore, cartilage conduction it referred to as the third auditory pathway. Since approximately 450 years ago, two pathways ... Cartilage conduction is a pathway in which sound signals are transmitted to the inner ear. This pathway is distinct from ... the new pathway is referred to as cartilage conduction. This unique pathway has attracted the attention of several researchers ... Such sonic wave energy passes through the eardrum and the middle ear before finally activating the auditory nerve. These ...
The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test gives information about the inner ear (cochlea) and nerve pathways for hearing via ... Each waveform represents specific anatomical points along the auditory neural pathway. Delays of one side relative to the other ... Stapedius reflex (SR) and caloric vestibular response (CVR) are non-invasive otologic tests for auditory neural function. These ...
Chambard JM, Ashmore JF (2005). "Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway". Pflügers ...
Chambard JM, Ashmore JF (2005). "Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway". Pflügers ... A targeted gene disruption strategy of prestin showed a >100-fold (or 40 dB) loss of auditory sensitivity. Prestin is a ... Prestin is essential in auditory processing. It is specifically expressed in the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs) of ...
Neurons along the auditory pathway exhibit a hierarchical organization of prediction error. Nature communications, 8(1), 2148. ... "rapid auditory input". The role of transverse temporal gyri in auditory processing of tone is demonstrated by a study by Wong, ... This ERP has probably two generators, one in the right prefrontal lobe, and the other in the primary auditory regions - the ... The transverse temporal gyri are active during auditory processing under fMRI for tone and semantic tasks. Transverse temporal ...
... a newly identified protein of the afferent auditory pathway, cause DFNB59 auditory neuropathy". Nat. Genet. 38 (7): 770-8. doi: ... The encoded protein is required for the proper function of auditory pathway neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of non- ... Sequence analysis of DFNB59 gene in a Chinese family with dominantly inherited auditory neuropathy]". Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou ...
Gale SD, Perkel DJ (January 2010). "A basal ganglia pathway drives selective auditory responses in songbird dopaminergic ...
Additionally, multimodal "what" and "where" pathways have been proposed for auditory and tactile stimuli. External receptors ... They call it Auditory Cognitive Psychology. The main point is to understand why humans are able to use sound in thinking ... Subjective visual and auditory experiences appear to be similar across humans subjects. The same cannot be said about taste. ... At the end of the auditory canal is the tympanic membrane, or ear drum, which vibrates after it is struck by sound waves. The ...
This is important because spiking timing is needed for proper sound localization in the ascending auditory pathways. Songbirds ... Visually guided behaviors may be regulated through the inhibitory striato-tegmental pathway found in amphibians in a study ... The basal ganglia in amphibians is very important in receiving visual, auditory, olfactory, and mechansensory inputs; the ... calcium ion-independent pathway. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials have also been studied in the Purkinje cell through ...
Once a sound source has been identified, the cells of lower auditory pathways are specialized to analyze physical sound ... Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G (2003). "Parallel auditory pathways: projection patterns of the different neuronal ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... The auditory nuclei collect, integrate, and analyze afferent supply, the outcome is a representation of auditory space. The ...
This model organisms' simple system could lead to a deeper understanding of human speech and auditory pathways,. This ... The neuronal pathway for midshipman vocalization starts at the ventral medullary nucleus and continues to a hindbrain vocal ... doi:10.1038/news050711-1. Weeg, M. S. (22 June 2005). "Vocal Pathways Modulate Efferent Neurons to the Inner Ear and Lateral ... Mating in midshipman fish depends on auditory communication, the production and reception of sound signals. Males produce ...
This is important because spiking timing is needed for proper sound localization in the ascending auditory pathways. Songbirds ... The basal ganglia in amphibians is very important in receiving visual, auditory, olfactory, and mechansensory inputs; the ... Visually guided behaviors may be regulated through the inhibitory striato-tegmental pathway found in amphibians in a study ... disinhibitory striato-protecto-tectal pathway is important in prey-catching behaviors of amphibians. When the ipsilateral ...
ABR is an electrophysiologic measure of the function of cranial nerve eight and the auditory pathway in the brainstem. Three ... Roeser, R. J., & Clark, J. L. (2004). Screening for auditory disorders. Auditory Disorders in School Children, 105. McPherson, ... However, 500 Hz has been found to identify the auditory impact of otitis media with effusion in children and should be included ... and auditory brainstem response (ABR). An OAE is an electrophysiologic measure of the integrity of the outer hair cells in the ...
... a newly identified protein of the afferent auditory pathway, cause DFNB59 auditory neuropathy". Nat. Genet. 38 (7): 770-8. doi: ...
... a dual auditory pathway has been revealed. In accordance with this model, there are two pathways that connect the auditory ... This pathway is responsible for sound recognition, and is accordingly known as the auditory 'what' pathway. The functions of ... The auditory ventral stream pathway is responsible for sound recognition, and is accordingly known as the auditory 'what' ... and is accordingly known as the auditory 'where' pathway. In humans, this pathway (especially in the left hemisphere) is also ...
Camos, V. & Tillmann, B. (2008). "Discontinuity in the enumeration of sequentially presented auditory and visual stimuli". ... Robertson, L.; Treisman, A.; Freidman-Hill, S. & Grabowecky, M. (1997). "The interaction of spatial and object pathways: ... A 2008 study also demonstrated subitizing and counting in auditory perception.[8] Even though the existence of subitizing in ... these findings support the idea that subitizing is a general perceptual mechanism extending to auditory and tactile processing ...
Impact of Temporary and Permanent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss on Neuronal Cell Density in the Mouse Central Auditory Pathway. [ ... Chen C-J, Dai Y-T, Sun Y-M, Lin Y-C, Juang Y-J. Evaluation of Auditory Fatigue in Combined Noise, Heat and Workload Exposure. ... As with any type of hearing-related disorder, the related physiology is within the ear and central auditory system. With ... The exact causes of listener fatigue and the associated pathways and mechanisms are still being studied. Some of the popular ...
This suggests that follicular carcinomas develop in two distinct pathways either with PAX8/PPAR y or RAS. ... "Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor beta isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system". The Journal of Clinical ... thyroid-stimulating hormone signaling pathway. • negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process. • ventricular ... Activation of a set of genes unrelated to both wild-type PPARy and wild-type PAX8 pathways ...
... a parasitic organism may dispense with the synthetic pathway of a metabolite where it can readily scavenge that metabolite from ... the loss may be fixed in the population through mutation accumulation if no disadvantage is incurred by loss of that pathway. ...
RSK2 is involved at the distal end of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the ... Instantaneous loss of muscle tone as a result of sudden unexpected tactile of auditory stimuli but without loss of ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... as well as auditory and visual abnormalities. ...
... these researchers were able to demonstrate the existence of numerous pathways between the pars triangularis and pars ... "Localizing the distributed language network responsible for the N400 measured by MEG during auditory sentence processing". ...
The different photosynthesis pathways used by C3 and C4 plants cause them to discriminate differently towards 13C The C4 and C3 ... One such marker has been found to be a reliable indicator of lifestyle: the external auditory exostosis also called surfer's ... The three photosynthesis pathways are C3 carbon fixation, C4 carbon fixation and Crassulacean acid metabolism. C4 plants are ... Corn, millet and sugar cane are some well-known C4 domesticates, while all trees and shrubs use the C3 pathway. C3 plants are ...
Paranoid subtype: Delusions or auditory hallucinations are present. However, thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or lack ... "Childhood trauma and psychosis: evidence, pathways, and implications". J Postgrad Med 54: 287-293. PMID 18953148. http://www. ...
Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either through the nostrils when inhaling (olfaction ... auditory cortex, and olfactory system. *In total it has 27 inputs and 20 outputs. An oversimplification of its role is to state ... Stria terminalis, specifically bed nuclei (BNST), act as the information pathway between the amygdala and hypothalamus, as well ... "The Journal of NeuroscienceSociety for Neuroscience." Parallel Mitral and Tufted Cell Pathways Route Distinct Odor Information ...
This leaves the ectotympanic ring, which supports the eardrum, free within the auditory bulla.[94] This trait is also seen in ... This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system.[111] ... the tympanic cavity is smaller and the ectotympanic ring becomes attached to the edge of the auditory bulla. The tympanic ...
The sinoatrial node uses calcium to cause a depolarising signal transduction pathway from the atrium through right and left ... Birds communicate using primarily visual and auditory signals. Signals can be interspecific (between species) and intraspecific ... Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory communication. The Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand drive air through ...
central pathways. Equilibrioception. *Vertigo/Balance disorder: peripheral *Ménière's disease. *BPPV. *Vestibular neuronitis ( ...
Auditory processing deficits have also been proposed as a cause of stuttering. Stuttering is less prevalent in deaf and hard-of ... Injuries to the brain and spinal cord, including cortex, subcortex, cerebellar, and even the neural pathway regions.[2] ... Altered auditory feedback, so that people who stutter hear their voice differently, has been used for over 50 years in the ... Capacity for fluent speech may be affected by a predisposition to the disorder, auditory processing or motor speech deficits, ...
... (CHL) occurs when there is a problem transferring sound waves anywhere along the pathway through the ... Congenital stenosis or atresia of the external auditory canal (narrow or blocked ear canal). *Ear canal stenosis & atresia can ... Acquired stenosis (narrowing) of the external auditory canal following surgery or radiotherapy ...
"Receptive-field dynamics in the central visual pathways". Trends Neurosci. 18 (10): 451-8. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(95)94496-R ... "Spectro-temporal response field characterization with dynamic ripples in ferret primary auditory cortex". J. Neurophysiol. 85 ...
Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. This is important in the acoustic ... Neural pathways and circuits of the cerebellum[edit]. Neural pathways and circuits in the cerebellum ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ...
Greater activation of dopaminergic pathways dopamine production in the striatum is associated with a higher rate of spontaneous ... or auditory stimuli (e.g., menace reflex) ...
In the transfer of visual signals to the brain, the visual pathway, the retina is vertically divided in two, a temporal (nearer ...
Auditory hallucinations are uncommon in PD, and are rarely described as voices. It is now believed that psychosis is an ... There are five major pathways in the brain connecting other brain areas with the basal ganglia. These are known as the motor, ... Blum D, Torch S, Lambeng N, Nissou M, Benabid AL, Sadoul R, Verna JM (October 2001). "Molecular pathways involved in the ... Anticholinergics and surgery (lesioning of the corticospinal pathway or some of the basal ganglia structures) were the only ...
TMS involves the administration of a focused electromagnetic field to the cortex to stimulate specific nerve pathways. ... Hallucinations can be auditory, visual, olfactory (smell), or haptic (touch), and are congruent with delusional material.[2] ...
Information in the posterior descending pathway (also referred to as the vocal production or motor pathway) descends from HVC ... Dooling, R.J. (1982). Auditory perception in birds. Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 1 (eds D.E. Kroodsma & E.H. Miller). ... designed an auditory feedback perturbation protocol in order to explore the role of auditory feedback in adult song maintenance ... Auditory feedback in birdsong learningEdit. Early experiments by Thorpe in 1954 showed the importance of a bird being able to ...
... opens into the nasopharynx at the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube. The opening and closing of the auditory tubes serves ... It lies inferior to the epiglottis and extends to the location where this common pathway diverges into the respiratory (larynx ... On its lateral wall is the pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube, somewhat triangular in shape, and bounded behind by a firm ... In the horse the auditory tube opens into the guttural pouch and the tonsils are diffuse and raised slightly. Horses are unable ...
Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic reflex, ... Vertigo is classified into either peripheral or central depending on the location of the dysfunction of the vestibular pathway, ... lesions of the internal auditory canal may be associated with facial weakness on the same side.[16] Due to a rapid compensation ... and vasospasm of the blood vessels supplying the labyrinth or central vestibular pathways resulting in ischemia to these ...
For example, unilateral destruction, in a region of the auditory pathway above the cochlear nucleus, results in slight hearing ... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates. ... The auditory cortex is involved in tasks such as identifying and segregating "auditory objects" and identifying the location of ...
Auditory effects within short-term memory[edit]. Caffeine's effects in memory were also investigated in the auditory system. ... It would thus require the examination of multiple activation pathways in order to determine caffeine's specific effect on the ... The Auditory-Verbal Learning Test is a memory test that assesses recall of lists of words on single and multiple trials given ... through the subjects' auditory system. Caffeine subjects recalled fewer words than did control subjects, and caffeine subjects ...
Most studies have looked for activation at the 'sites' of biasing, such as in the visual or auditory cortices. Early studies ... The aggregate effect of these bias signals is to guide the flow of neural activity along pathways that establish the proper ... Researchers had participants complete an auditory version of the Stroop task, in which either the location or semantic meaning ... "An electrophysiological correlate of conflict processing in an auditory spatial Stroop task: The effect of individual ...
A major divide is between theories that attribute the difficulties to a low-level problem with auditory temporal processing, ... of the mode of action of the FOXP2 gene has helped identify other common genetic variants involved in the same neural pathways ...
This bony part is known as the auditory bulla and is formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone. The skin surrounding the ... in circuits located in the superior olivary complex and the trapezoid bodies which are connected via pathways to both ears.[6] ... The middle ear and its components develop from the first and second pharyngeal arches.[16] The tympanic cavity and auditory ... the auditory tube; and the round and oval windows. The ossicles are three small bones that function together to receive, ...
The auditory effects of LSD may include echo-like distortions of sounds, changes in ability to discern concurrent auditory and ... has been shown to activate DARPP-32-related pathways.[73] The drug enhances dopamine D2 receptor protomer recognition and ... Changes in auditory and visual perception are also typical.[42][43]. Some sensory effects may include an experience of radiant ... Many users have visual or auditory hallucinations.[12][13] Dilated pupils, increased blood pressure, and increased body ...
Friedel, P; Young, BA; van Hemmen, JL (2008). "Auditory Localization of Ground-Borne Vibrations in Snakes". Phys. Rev. Lett. ... The jaw-quadrate-stapes pathway is capable of detecting vibrations on the angstrom scale, despite the absence of an outer ear ...
Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for ... activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. Furthermore, ... Auditory prostheses can partially restore speech comprehension when hearing fails. Sound coding with current prostheses is ... optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. Approximation of the spatial spread of cochlear ...
... auditory pathways, but whether such dual pathways exist also in the human nonprimary auditory cortex has remained a more ... Presumably, the human auditory cortex "what" and "where" pathways interact closely to facilitate perception of auditory objects ... pathway through bottom-up and top-down interactions. Analogously, the posterior auditory "where" pathway could accomplish rapid ... pathways of the human nonprimary auditory cortex.. We hypothesized that the human nonprimary auditory cortex includes parallel ...
Pathways: In Autism Spectrum Disorders, Dichotic Listening Training Can Help * Pathways: A New Test Sheds Light on Auditory ... Pathways: "Comprehensive Auditory Function Testing Vital for Children with CAPD". Chermak, Gail D. PhD ... Home , April 2012 - Volume 65 - Issue 4 , Pathways: "Comprehensive Auditory Function Testing Vital fo... ... All regions of the CANS can be assessed using auditory suggestions, electroacoustic procedures, and central auditory behavioral ...
Here, authors describe how auditory patterns are encoded and detected by single neurons along the auditory pathway, ... Here we report that prediction error is organized hierarchically along the central auditory pathway. These prediction error ... responses and hierarchical predictive processing has not yet been demonstrated at the neuronal level in the auditory pathway. ... We recorded single-neuron activity from different auditory centers in anaesthetized rats and awake mice while animals were ...
2.2.3 LGN and the visual pathway. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... All these cells actually in this pathway will respond to only one eye stimulation. ...
Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway. ... is expressed in the inner ear and the central auditory pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:4333-4338CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Frolenkov GI, Mammano F, Belyantseva IA, Coling D, Kachar B (2000) Two distinct Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways regulate the ... 1.Department of Physiology and Centre for Auditory ResearchUniversity College LondonLondonUK ...
Driver pathways are associated with information-bearing pathways, while modulator pathways modify these principal information ... Driver pathways are associated with information-bearing pathways, while modulator pathways modify these principal information ... These properties illuminate the potential roles of some previously ill-defined auditory pathways, and may be extended further ... These properties illuminate the potential roles of some previously ill-defined auditory pathways, and may be extended further ...
New Stem Cell Transplantation Method Restores Damaged Auditory Pathways A new way of transplanting stem cells provides hope for ... and eventually restored remarkable auditory function. They discovered that auditory function was better restored with the new, ... They reported that the survived stem cells were able to grow from the damaged segment of the auditory nerve, which then travel ... that surface stem cell transplant may become a powerful way to repair damage and restore lost function of auditory pathways. ...
Here we review studies of the organization and development of auditory thalamocortical pathways in the pallid bat. The pallid ... Here we review studies of the organization and development of auditory thalamocortical pathways in the pallid bat. The pallid ... These data suggest that parallel auditory thalamocortical pathways may segregate in an experience-dependent fashion, a ... There is overlap of thalamocortical pathways during development. At two weeks postnatal, when the bat begins to exhibit adult- ...
Intra-operative monitoring of auditory pathways: A new faster BAEPs technique. Joint Conference 12th International Conference ...
Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a ... The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. ... The first example uses synchronized activity on auditory nerve fibres from two positions along the basilar membrane to obtain a ... and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is ...
These physical properties are estimated at different stages along the brainstem auditory pathway. The interaural time delay is ... These lower bounds are derived at the output of the auditory nerve and of the superior olivary complex where binaural cues are ... This result suggests that sound localization is estimated by the auditory nuclei using ambiguous binaural information. ... Since the auditory nerve (AN) is the initial stage in the auditory neural pathway, we first tested the prediction of MAA on the ...
By auditory pathway,cognitive load,doodling,sketch noting,visual pathway,working memory , With Comments Off on Tip #589: ...
Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents ... Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents ... Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents ... Multichannel optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway using microfabricated LED cochlear implants in rodents ...
Pathways. Articles auditory processing CAPD central auditory processing Electrophysiology Electrophysiology Neuroaudiology ... information regarding the structure and function of the auditory neurological pathway. Specifically, auditory evoked potentials ... About Pathways Pathways is both a column that covers topics related to CAPD and Neuroaudiology and a society for people ... HomeArticlesCan Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Demonstrate An Electrophysiological…. Can Cortical Auditory Evoked ...
Keywords: auditory thalamus, auditory cortex, guinea pig, paralemniscal auditory pathway, non-primary auditory pathway, ... 4.1.1 Lemniscal pathway Slow temporal rates have been studied extensively in the lemniscal pathway of the auditory system ( ... A question raised by this work involves the hierarchy of the paralemniscal auditory pathway at the levels of auditory thalamus ... it is postulated that these auditory thalamocortical connections represent parallel pathways in the ascending auditory system. ...
... elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway and whether it elicited an evoked response. Viral- ... Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic ... These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics ... However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the ...
Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ... Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ... Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ... Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ...
The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ... The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ... The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ... The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ...
Although auditory sensitivity in the mid-frequency range (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz) appeared 1-2 days later than in the low- ... In contrast, the development of auditory sensitivity in the low- and high-frequency ranges continued to develop after hatching ... The development of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) was studied in mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) embryos and ... Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers.. *Bernard Lohr, Elizabeth F. Brittan-Powell, Robert J. ...
Springer Handbook of Auditory Research),books, textbooks, text book ... For Book: Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) [Detail & Customer ... Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) Author(s): N/A. ISBN-13: ... Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) A summary of how the ...
... , Rajesh Paluru, ... Functional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot study. Rajesh Paluru1* ... Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER). Inter wave peak latencies in auditory pathway were recorded with Biologic Navigator ... PTA and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) are used for the functional analysis of auditory pathway. ...
... auditory thalamus 4. auditory cortex 5. amygdala 6. prefrontal cortex 7. rhinal cortex 8. hippocampus ... this diagram shows the pathway of the impulse from the ear and its processing in the brain showing: 1. ear 2. brain stem 3. ... auditory pathway diagram. , auditory pathway, hearing pathway to the brain, auditory thalamus, diagram of auditory pathway, ... Auditory pathway. this diagram shows the pathway of the impulse from the ear and its processing in the brain. showing:. 1. ear ...
We aimed to assess the integrity of auditory pathways in CCHS and investigate the extent in which brainstem auditory pathways ... to assess auditory pathways in CCHS and investigate to which extent brainstem auditory pathways are also affected. ... Auditory pathways start from the auditory nerve (wave I) to the cochlear nuclei (wave II) in the medulla to the superior ... Dysfunction of brainstem auditory pathways can be observed in CCHS. However, auditory evoked responses can be normal in the ...
Auditory Processing is the way the brain recognizes and interprets sounds. Find out more and read other medical term ... [email protected]pathways.org. 355 E Erie St., Chicago, IL 60611. Sign up for emails from Pathways.org ... [email protected]pathways.org. 355 E Erie St., Chicago, IL 60611. Sign up for emails from Pathways.org ...
The study of auditory development provides an understanding of the processes that underlie auditory function in adulthood and ... The evolution of the auditory system has helped many species adapt to their surroundings. This article discusses how the ... Some of the key embryological and perinatal milestones that contribute to the formation of the adult auditory system are ... The study of auditory development provides an understanding of the processes that underlie auditory function in adulthood and ...
These primary auditory fibres exit the modiolus through the internal meatus, or passageway, and immediately enter the part of ... Auditory nerve fibres: …longer central processes of the bipolar cochlear neurons unite and are twisted like the cords of a rope ... auditory nerve pathways. *. In human ear: Auditory nerve fibres. …longer central processes of the bipolar cochlear neurons ... These primary auditory fibres exit the modiolus through the internal meatus, or passageway, and immediately enter the part of ...
Ascending pathways: …the next higher level, the medial geniculate body. From the medial geniculate body there is an orderly ... auditory nerve pathways. *. In human ear: Ascending pathways. …the next higher level, the medial geniculate body. From the ...
The external auditory meatus (canal) is formed by auricular and annular cartilages, plus a short… ... 88 Cochlea and Auditory Pathways Anatomical Considerations External ear: ... Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science The Auditory ?· Oxford Handbook of Auditory Science The Auditory… ... Auditory Forebrain Auditory Thalamus Auditory Cortex Auditory Projections to Polysensory Cortex Plasticity ...
Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway. Victor H. Hernandez,1,2 Anna Gehrt,1 Kirsten Reuter,1,2 Zhizi Jing,1,3 Marcus ... Optical activation of the auditory pathway in ChR2 transgenic mice. (A) ChR2-YFP expression in SGNs in a section of an entire ... Specificity of oABRs for ChR2-mediated activation of the auditory pathway. (A) No oABRs upon projection of light onto the ... Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for ...
  • Yet, complicating this picture are numerous parallel ascending and descending pathways, whose roles in auditory processing are poorly defined. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further investigations of the auditory system described the neural response as a nonhomogeneous Poisson point process (NHPP) whose instantaneous rate depends on the input stimuli [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This symposium will consider evidence that deafferentation of tonotopically organized central auditory structures leads to increased neuron spontaneous firing rates and neural synchrony in the hearing loss region. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the authors do not go very far in describing the brain (or neural) mechanisms involved other than identifying that there is a connection between the auditory system and the limbic system deep in the temporal lobe of the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • First, understanding what is going on with a child who has auditory hypersensitivities is a normal neural reaction and, second, identifying what treatments may be appropriate to help children who are overly sensitive deal more successfully with sound so that they do not have over reactions during listening tasks and, possibly, "shut down" so as to avoid listening and responding to any sounds. (hindawi.com)
  • Before beginning the discussion of these various neural pathways, the reader should have a clearer understanding of some of the terms used in this paper. (hindawi.com)
  • Notably, research has demonstrated that there are, in fact, afferent and efferent neural connections between the cerebellum and both motor and sensory areas of the human brain, including the central auditory nervous system. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • This book offers an integrated account of hearing in terms of the neural processes that take place in different parts of the auditory system. (mit.edu)
  • Auditory cortex is required for sound localisation, but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. (nature.com)
  • Microglia are essential for pruning away extra neural connections in the development of the auditory brainstem. (totalfreewill.com)
  • Dysfunction of the cochlea or disruption of neural impulses in the central auditory pathway will result in SNHL. (appliedradiology.com)
  • After a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying neural plasticity following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, various neuroprotective therapies have been developed for alleviating brain injury.The aim of this work is to evaluate with morphofunctional, molecular and cellular methods the effect of a panel of antioxidants on HI-induced auditory deficits. (ehu.es)
  • Neurophysiological Effects of the Presence of an Irrelevant Visual Stimulus on Auditory Neural Activity. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Neural timing nets for auditory computation. (mit.edu)
  • Can Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials Demonstrate An Electrophysiological Release From Masking In Noise? (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • When patients cannot be assessed with behavioral techniques, auditory evoked potentials are often employed. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • Auditory evoked potentials provide "objective" information regarding the structure and function of the auditory neurological pathway. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • More recently, we have been interested in whether this same RMF can be demonstrated with cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs). (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • In the present study, we measure brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) to assess auditory pathways in CCHS and investigate to which extent brainstem auditory pathways are also affected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are the changes in the ongoing electric activity generated in auditory pathways of the brain that is elicited by external auditory stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To this end, we studied the effects of Nicotine, Melatonin, Resveratrol and DHA on the neonatal auditory system via measurement of auditory evoked potentials and characterization of the morphological, molecular and cellular integrity of the IC. (ehu.es)
  • Using the latency of cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) as a measure we have found that central auditory pathways are maximally plastic for a period of about 3.5 years. (isca-speech.org)
  • Horn FK, Michelson G, Schnitzler E. Visual evoked potentials of the blue-sensitive pathway under cold provocation in normals and glaucomas. (medscape.com)
  • Systematic studies of the auditory cortex's functional organization began in 1942 with a study by Woolsey and Walzl in which the authors mapped a distribution of the slow-wave evoked potentials in the ectosylvian region of the cat cerebral cortex under local electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve fibres in a cochlear labyrinth [6]. (scirp.org)
  • Neuroanatomical abnormalities also cause CAPD in children, and result from irregular development of the higher auditory areas and yield abnormal anatomy. (lww.com)
  • This volume builds on the information about the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathway found in volumes 1 and 2 of the SHAR series. (alldiscountbooks.net)
  • This article will explore the anatomy , function and clinical relevance of the auditory pathway. (kenhub.com)
  • In This Section you will find detailed different Photos and images about the anatomy of the Pathways of the CNS including their types , spinothalamic track anatomy , ascending tracks anatomy , descend. (edoctoronline.com)
  • Jan Schnupp is Professor of Neuroscience and Codirector of the Auditory Neuroscience Research Group in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics at Oxford University and a Fellow of St. Peter's College. (mit.edu)
  • Andrew King is Professor of Neurophysiology, Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellow, and Codirector of the Auditory Neuroscience Research Group in the Department of Physiology, Anatomy, and Genetics at Oxford University and a Fellow of Merton College. (mit.edu)
  • Many of these disorders manifest with similar symptoms and may be difficult to differentiate without a basic understanding of the anatomy of the ear and auditory pathway. (coursera.org)
  • Week 1: Introduction Week 2: Anatomy and pathophysiology of the auditory pathway (15 min. (coursera.org)
  • Sound coding with current prostheses is based on electrical stimulation of auditory neurons and has limited frequency resolution due to broad current spread within the cochlea. (jci.org)
  • Optogenetic stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) activated the auditory pathway, as demonstrated by recordings of single neuron and neuronal population responses. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. (jci.org)
  • Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for future applications of cochlear optogenetics in auditory research and prosthetics. (jci.org)
  • Optical stimulation evoked excitatory multiunit spiking activity throughout the tonotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) and the auditory cortex (Actx). (epfl.ch)
  • Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic stimulation. (epfl.ch)
  • The activity elicited by electrical stimulation of the cochlea in the auditory pathway was assessed in an animal model of cochlear implants on the basis of the induction of the immediate early gene c-fos and single neuron recordings. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Electrical stimulation of the cochlea induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus, mainly in its dorsal nucleus, in the superior olivary complex, in the lateral lemniscus, but not in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the main relay nucleus in the auditory midbrain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings provide immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence that the various nuclei of the auditory pathway are activated by electrical stimulation of the cochlea. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have reported primary auditory cortex plasticity following vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with a sound. (podbean.com)
  • However, if stimulation is withheld for more than 7 years, we find that plasticity in central auditory pathways is greatly reduced. (isca-speech.org)
  • 2001) have shown via PET scans that after the age of 4-5 higher-order auditory cortex in congenitally deaf children is not quiet as would be expected in the absence of auditory stimulation, but rather is active, suggesting take over by other functions. (isca-speech.org)
  • The usual target of the stimulation is the primary auditory cortex (PAC) on Heschl's gyrus (HG). (springer.com)
  • Cerebral MRI of 60 patients with chronic tinnitus, carried out before neuronavigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting the auditory cortex, were included. (springer.com)
  • De Ridder D, De Mulder G, Walsh V, Muggleton N, Sunaert S, Moller A (2004) Magnetic and electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex for intractable tinnitus. (springer.com)
  • The neocortical temporal lobe, which receives large inputs from the thalamic medial geniculate body (MGB) and contains neurons responding to acoustic stimulation, is generally classified as the auditory cortex [25]. (scirp.org)
  • The classic view of auditory information flow depicts a simple serial route from the periphery through tonotopically-organized nuclei in the brainstem, midbrain and thalamus, ascending eventually to the neocortex. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the classical view, the principle route for auditory information traverses through these tonotopic nuclei at each level of processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the ascending pathways through the non-tonotopically organized nuclei and the large number of descending projections pose unanswered questions regarding their roles in auditory information processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • This result suggests that sound localization is estimated by the auditory nuclei using ambiguous binaural information. (hindawi.com)
  • Auditory pathways start from the auditory nerve (wave I) to the cochlear nuclei (wave II) in the medulla to the superior olivary complex (wave III) in the pons and end in the inferior colliculus (waves IV and V) in the midbrain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The central auditory pathway consists of a complex network of neurons and nuclei that connect the cochlea to the auditory cortex. (appliedradiology.com)
  • We have mapped, using in situ hybridization, the subunit expression patterns of the GABA A receptor in the auditory brainstem nuclei. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to many brain regions, the β2 subunit gene and γ2S splice forms are not highly expressed in auditory brainstem nuclei. (elsevier.com)
  • There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. (scribd.com)
  • Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (scribd.com)
  • The outputs from the cochlear nuclei are received in higher regions of the auditory brainstem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another pathway, called the dorsal acoustic stria (DAS, also known as the stria of von Monakow), rises above the medulla into the pons where it hits the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus along with its kin, the intermediate acoustic stria (IAS, also known as the stria of Held). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is accumulating evidence that nonprimary auditory cortex regions posterior to the Heschl's gyrus (HG) are involved in spatial processing ( 21 - 26 ) and that areas anterior to HG process sound-identity cues such as speech ( 27 , 28 ) and pitch ( 29 ), the posterior nonprimary auditory cortex areas have been reported to respond strongly to phonetic stimuli as well ( 30 , 31 ). (pnas.org)
  • Development of auditory brainstem response to tone pip stimuli in the rat. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therefore, the cerebellum is also a major associative center for sensory input integration, including auditory stimuli, which will be the focus of this article. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • A research group from The University of Texas at San Antonio (TX, USA) has identified a new fear pathway in mice between the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala that may play a role in fear-related behavior driven by auditory stimuli. (neuro-central.com)
  • The results suggest that both RPB and CPB provide the major auditory connections with the region related to directing eye movements towards stimuli of interest, and the dorsal prefrontal cortex for working memory. (nih.gov)
  • The algorithm of the auditory training was designed based on distinction between nonverbal and verbal stimuli of varying complexity, as well as tasks to improve memory (e.g., memorizing poetry). (intechopen.com)
  • Studies in the auditory system, for example, have demonstrated that performance in detecting sounds and gaps in noise, or the discrimination of lexical stimuli, varies with the power and phase of rhythmic activity between about 1 and 12 Hz ( 4 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hemispheric lateralization of bilaterally presented homologous visual and auditory stimuli in normal adults, normal children, and children with central auditory dysfunction. (curehunter.com)
  • We recorded single-neuron activity from different auditory centers in anaesthetized rats and awake mice while animals were played a sequence of sounds, designed to separate the responses due to prediction error from those due to adaptation effects. (nature.com)
  • This study explored whether optical activation of the cochlear nucleus (CN) elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway and whether it elicited an evoked response. (epfl.ch)
  • There are auditory centers in the brain that interpret the stimulus enabling the understanding of what is being heard. (hearusa.com)
  • INTRODUCTION: The most successful tinnitus therapies are based on the psychological and the neurophysiological models, which suggest that tinnitus-related annoyance results from the dynamic interaction of auditory brain centers, limbic and autonomic nervous systems. (usp.br)
  • Because hearing results from the interplay of so many physical, biological, and psychological processes, the book pulls together the different aspects of hearing-including acoustics, the mathematics of signal processing, the physiology of the ear and central auditory pathways, psychoacoustics, speech, and music-into a coherent whole. (mit.edu)
  • The mammalian auditory system is challenged with the task of accurately encoding the pattern and source of incoming sound. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aging and acoustic trauma may result in partial peripheral deafferentation in the central auditory pathway of the mammalian brain. (biologists.org)
  • Findings of age-related inhibitory changes within mammalian auditory circuits are similar to age and deafferentation plasticity changes observed in other sensory systems. (biologists.org)
  • Auditory hair cells (HCs) cannot be spontaneously regenerated or replaced in mammalian damaged cochlea which leads to permanent deafness. (noormags.ir)
  • On the other hand, regenerative ability of HCs in lower vertebrates such as birds and amphibians causes that researchers investigate underlying mechanisms and pathways which can possibly induce mammalian cochlear HCs regeneration and hearing recovery. (noormags.ir)
  • This paper reviews current knowledge about the main signaling pathways involved in HCs development in the mammalian cochlea. (noormags.ir)
  • The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. (scirp.org)
  • The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species. (scirp.org)
  • Khorunzhii, G. and Egorova, M. (2018) Mammalian Auditory Cortex Structure as the Basis of Cortical Sound Processing. (scirp.org)
  • At present, there are extensive data about the morphological structure of the mammalian auditory cortex obtained in numerous studies with different experimental approaches and methods [1] - [20]. (scirp.org)
  • Despite this, information about partitioning of the auditory cortex into separate sub-regions and about its connectivity among different mammalian orders has not been summarized in detail. (scirp.org)
  • The first part of this review contains a detailed description of the auditory fields' disposition in the temporal lobe of the neocortex among a significant number of mammalian species. (scirp.org)
  • For each mammalian order, we separately describe primary and secondary auditory fields as well as the auditory parabelt, their disposition within the auditory cortex, tonotopic organization and the relative size of these areas. (scirp.org)
  • In both chapters, we focused on basic aspects of auditory cortical structure in the mammalian phylogenetic tree rather than on their functional organization. (scirp.org)
  • The Oxford Handbook of The Auditory Brainstem provides an introduction as well as an in-depth reference to the organization and function of ascending and descending auditory pathways in the mammalian brainstem. (oup.com)
  • However, the relationship between such sensory mismatch responses and hierarchical predictive processing has not yet been demonstrated at the neuronal level in the auditory pathway. (nature.com)
  • A hallmark of sensory system organization is parallel pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data suggest that somatosensory and auditory modalities have parallel sub-cortical pathways that separately process slow rates and the spatial representation of the sensory periphery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It affects all the sensory, autonomic and motor systems including auditory pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Diabetes affects the sensory, motor and autonomic nervous systems, including the auditory pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Aging and partial damage to the peripheral sensory systems of mammals appear to result in plastic pre- and postsynaptic changes in the inhibitory neurotransmitter systems of the primary sensory pathways. (biologists.org)
  • Postnatal Auditory Development The most important thing to understand is that the auditory pathway is the first step of sensory organization and begins the brain's understanding of its external environment. (nudescience.com)
  • Every other sensory encoding system begins with the auditory system. (nudescience.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to determine whether impairment of sensory conduction in the auditory pathway is one of the contributory factors of performance in children with borderline intelligence. (who.int)
  • To dissociate influences of state on earlier sensory representations and higher-level decision processes, we collected behavioral and EEG data in human participants performing two auditory discrimination tasks relying on distinct acoustic features. (pnas.org)
  • Within auditory networks, we found that phase had no direct influence on choice, whereas power in task-specific frequency bands affected the encoding of sensory evidence. (pnas.org)
  • 1 Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37099 Göttingen, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1 Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
  • 6 Presynaptogenesis and Intracellular Transport in Hair Cells Group, Institute for Auditory Neuroscience and InnerEarLab, University Medical Center Göttingen, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. (sciencemag.org)
  • Auditory neuroscience : making sense of sound / Jan Schnupp, Israel Nelken, and Andrew King. (mit.edu)
  • This excellent book is valuable in providing a detailed view of auditory neuroscience. (mit.edu)
  • This book is unique in its elegant unification of a broad view of the fundamentals of hearing with a highly sophisticated account of the current state of auditory neuroscience. (mit.edu)
  • As is commonly the case with tinnitus, these impairments may be consequent to noise-induced damage to hair cells in the cochlea, or possibly damage directly to the auditory nerve that carries information about sound from the ear to the central nervous system. (ata.org)
  • A brain network involving limbic and other nonauditory regions is active in tinnitus and may be driven when spectrotemporal information conveyed by the damaged ear does not match that predicted by central auditory processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, increased tinnitus loudness is represented by increased activity in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and IC and reduced inhibition in the auditory cortex (AC). (jneurosci.org)
  • Subjective tinnitus is considered a phantom auditory phenomenon. (springer.com)
  • Age-related presynaptic changes in the cochlear nucleus include reduced glycine levels, while in the auditory midbrain and cortex, GABA synthesis and release are altered. (biologists.org)
  • Individual chapters are organized along the auditory pathway beginning with the cochlea and ending with the auditory midbrain. (oup.com)
  • Listen to learn about auditory plasticity, potential therapies for auditory processing disorders, and more! (podbean.com)
  • Improvement of speech intelligibility in elderly patients with SNHL proves that plasticity of the auditory regions of the brain remains possible throughout the life. (intechopen.com)
  • The loss of central auditory plasticity in congenitally deaf children implanted after age 7 is correlated with relatively poor development of oral speech and language skills. (isca-speech.org)
  • Another aspect of plasticity that works against late-implanted children is the take over of higher-order auditory cortex by other function, e.g. vision. (isca-speech.org)
  • Auditory and Visual Electrophysiology of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Implications for Cross Modal Plasticity. (essex.ac.uk)
  • A major emphasis throughout this book is on the numerous forms of plasticity that are increasingly observed in many areas of the auditory brainstem. (oup.com)
  • Using combined hemodynamic (functional MRI) and electromagnetic (magnetoencephalography) measurements, we investigated whether such dual pathways exist already in the human nonprimary auditory cortex, as suggested by animal models, and whether selective attention facilitates sound localization and identification by modulating these pathways in a feature-specific fashion. (pnas.org)
  • Selective attention is known to support both sound localization and recognition, but it is unclear how representations of auditory space and identity are top-down modulated in the human auditory cortex. (pnas.org)
  • This finding suggests that selective-attention effects are feature-specific in the human nonprimary auditory cortex and that they arise from enhanced tuning of receptive fields of task-relevant neuronal populations. (pnas.org)
  • In this study we refer to auditory systems in which irregular neuronal activity was demonstrated during in vivo recordings [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While the functions of different neuronal types in the CN and the SOC are quite well understood, the nature of the code at the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (A1) levels are less well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Utilizing anatomical, electrophysiological, imaging and optogenetics approaches the authors of the study were able to analyze individual neuronal cells connecting the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala in the brains of mice. (neuro-central.com)
  • The outer ear consists of the external ear (pinna or auricle), the ear canal (external auditory meatus) and the ear drum (tympanic membrane). (hearusa.com)
  • The mustached bat auditory cortex contains a primary auditory cortex (A1) with a tonotopic map (reviewed in Suga, 1989 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Some specializations for echolocation, such as over-representation of dominant harmonic frequencies of the echolocation call, are present in this pathway, but within the context of tonotopic representation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Microelectrode recordings were used to investigate the tonotopic organization of auditory cortex of macaque monkeys and guide the placement of injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horse radish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) and fluorescent dyes. (nih.gov)
  • Optical activation of the auditory pathway in ChR2 transgenic mice. (jci.org)
  • Whittaker argued that regeneration takes place: fibers from the para-abducens nucleus, abducens nucleus, or median longitudinal fasciculus invade the cochlear nucleus (CN), leading to activation of the auditory pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data further show that the "where" pathway is activated ≈30 ms earlier than the "what" pathway, possibly enabling the brain to use top-down spatial information in auditory object perception. (pnas.org)
  • and examine auditory discrimination and speech perception. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • Every time we listen-to speech, to music, to footsteps approaching or retreating-our auditory perception is the result of a long chain of diverse and intricate processes that unfold within the source of the sound itself, in the air, in our ears, and, most of all, in our brains. (mit.edu)
  • The authors emphasize that central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) significantly impairs speech perception in elderly people and makes difficult the rehabilitation of patients with presbycusis. (intechopen.com)
  • Phonological and morphological structures in speech perception, auditory linguistic processing in children with cochlear implants, individual differences in lexical processing in auditory speech perception. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Deficient auditory processing can cause problems with speech perception and affect the development and evolution of reading skills. (bvsalud.org)
  • The efferent auditory pathway has an important role in normal auditory system functions like speech -in- noise perception , but there is still no general agreement on this. (bvsalud.org)
  • To study the performance of the efferent auditory system in a group of children with reading impairment in comparison with normal reading and evaluation of its relationship with speech -in- noise perception . (bvsalud.org)
  • 5] Auditory cortical responses and cochlear modulations due to infrasound exposure have also been observed, despite the subjects' lack of tonal perception. (wind-watch.org)
  • We should consider the possibility that Low- and High- spontaneous rate (SR) auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) [ 1 ] constitute two different parallel pathways at the auditory periphery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study used a computational model of the auditory periphery [ 2 ] to demonstrate that Low- and High- SR ANFs have contrasting response properties. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zilany MSA, Bruce IC, Carney LH: Updated parameters and expanded simulation options for a model of the auditory periphery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primate models ( 1 , 2 ) suggest that this task is accomplished via parallel anterolateral "what" and caudolateral "where" nonprimary auditory cortex streams, resembling the functional subdivisions of the visual system ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Central auditory processing disorder or deficit has been linked to many etiologies, including neurologic lesions or compromise of the central auditory nervous system. (lww.com)
  • These properties illuminate the potential roles of some previously ill-defined auditory pathways, and may be extended further to categorize either unknown or mischaracterized pathways throughout the auditory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the auditory system, auditory nerve fibers diverge into different divisions of the cochlear nucleus setting the stage for multiple ascending pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Data from the rat trigeminal system suggest that the paralemniscal pathway may be specifically tuned to code low-frequency temporal information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We tested whether this phenomenon occurs in the auditory system by measuring the representation of temporal rate in lemniscal and paralemniscal auditory thalamus and cortex in guinea pig. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Similar to the trigeminal system, responses measured in auditory thalamus indicate that slow rates are differentially represented in a paralemniscal pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We speculate that a paralemniscal pathway in the auditory system may be specifically tuned to code low frequency temporal information present in acoustic signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An hypothesis based on the somatosensory results is that a paralemniscal pathway in the auditory system may be tuned to code slow rates in acoustic signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • this image shows the pathway of the auditory system 'the system responsible for our sense of hearing' (displays the pathway from both our left and right ears) showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • this image shows the pathway of hearing system showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • this image shows the auditor pathway ' hearing system' showing: 1. (edoctoronline.com)
  • The authors focus on brain research to support the idea of the nonclassical auditory pathways being involved in connecting the auditory system with the emotional system of the brain. (hindawi.com)
  • Lucker and Doman [ 1 ] and Lucker [ 2 ] discussed the fact that auditory hypersensitivity in children with ASD is more of an emotional based problem than a specific auditory system problem. (hindawi.com)
  • In these publications, the authors state that underlying auditory hypersensitivity (or oversensitivity to sounds) involves what are called the nonclassical auditory pathways and limbic system connections. (hindawi.com)
  • The Auditory System: What's the Cerebellum got to do with it? (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • Lets take a look further about some processing of the auditory system. (coursera.org)
  • The stimulus at birth is what compels the 1) baby's CRY, which innervates the auditory pathway after birth and begins the process of spatially encoding the environment (this tonotopy becomes the basis for the ocular system as well as finger joint/grasping abilities). (nudescience.com)
  • And, 3) the initiation of the Ascending Reticular Activating System, the body's wake up call, which the auditory system is tasked with initially triggering after leaving the womb. (nudescience.com)
  • Hugo Zuccarelli first established this in 1980 with his creation of holophonics as well as his proposal that the human ear and auditory system work as an interferometer . (nudescience.com)
  • In animals like bats this natural auditory feedback system is very large as they have adapted to acquiring food from their environments strictly by use of sound, e.g. sonar. (nudescience.com)
  • In primates this system is smaller, because we only use the auditory pathway primarily until we fine-tune our finger motor skills, and our visuospatial system kicks in. (nudescience.com)
  • Once human vision orients itself based on the auditory encoding of the environment, the biological Law of Precedence takes effect and strict emphasis on the auditory system is abandoned. (nudescience.com)
  • This is because the vestibular system is innervated at the same time as the auditory pathway as they both make up the vestibulocochlear nerve. (nudescience.com)
  • Some researchers meant (imply under this term) age-related hearing disorders caused by involutional changes only in the cochlea, and others meant that changes involve all parts of the auditory system [ 1 , 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • The significance of the presbycusis problem is determined by its social importance, lack of data about its etiology, and need for clinical practice to accurately determine an impaired area of auditory system and to identify the presbycusis genesis. (intechopen.com)
  • In the auditory system, for example, previous studies have reported a wide range of effects in terms of the perceptually relevant frequency bands and state parameters (phase/power). (pnas.org)
  • Hearing loss can happen when any part of the ear or auditory (hearing) system is not working in the usual way. (cdc.gov)
  • Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. (scirp.org)
  • First, we focused on the projection system of the cat auditory cortex, which is the most studied among all eutherians. (scirp.org)
  • Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. (scribd.com)
  • In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. (scribd.com)
  • The auditory nerve fibers form a highly organized system of connections according to their peripheral innervation of the cochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • These primary auditory fibres exit the modiolus through the internal meatus, or passageway, and immediately enter the part of the brainstem called the medulla oblongata. (britannica.com)
  • Age-related postsynaptic GABA A R changes in IC and primary auditory cortex (A1) involve changes in the subunit makeup of GABA A Rs. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative localisation task. (nature.com)
  • Animal models suggest that primary auditory cortex may be functionally disconnected from higher-order auditory cortex, due to restricted development of inter- and intra-cortical connections, in late-implanted children (Kral et al. (isca-speech.org)
  • A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent morphological data about secondary auditory areas. (scirp.org)
  • In accordance with this scheme, the auditory cortical area was divided into a primary auditory field (A1) and several other fields surrounding A1. (scirp.org)
  • As a rule, the auditory cortex contains a primary auditory field (core) that is surrounded by the auditory belt and parabelt. (scirp.org)
  • The visual evoked potential (VEP) tests the function of the visual pathway from the retina to the occipital cortex. (medscape.com)
  • By incorporating pure-tone audiometry and BERA before radiosurgery, we can reliably detect whether the function of the auditory pathway is affected in patients with vestibular schwannoma of all degrees. (csnn.eu)
  • The major input to the cochlear nucleus is from the auditory nerve, a part of cranial nerve VIII (the vestibulocochlear nerve). (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional status of auditory pathway is affected in type 2 diabetes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Functional status of auditory pathways in children with borderline intellectual functioning : Evoked potential study. (who.int)
  • These results demonstrate that prediction error is a fundamental component of singly auditory neuron responses. (nature.com)
  • Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Auditory brainstem responses in the Eastern Screech Owl: an estimate of auditory thresholds. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Origins of peripheral and brainstem auditory responses in the White Leghorn chick. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, auditory evoked responses can be normal in the disease, therefore suggesting much more complex yet-to-be determined interactions between pathways and functions of central control of breathing and of control of hearing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The functional integrity of the central auditory pathway was assessed using Auditory Evoked Responses i.e. (who.int)
  • By considering the visual and auditory networks of 6- to 22-week old infants, we analyzed early lateralized responses in relation to projection bundles, and the inter-hemispheric transfer of responses in relation to corpus callosum fibers while taking into account the age effects. (ismrm.org)
  • 8,9] These studies provide strong evidence for infrasound impact on human peripheral and central auditory responses. (wind-watch.org)
  • To evaluate preservation of the auditory pathway with pure-tone audiometry and brainstem evoked audiometry (BERA) in patients with vestibular schwannoma before and after treatment with Leksell gamma knife. (csnn.eu)
  • Follow-up pure-tone audiometry is statistically significant in patients with vestibular schwannoma after gamma-knife procedure and reliably assesses preservation of the auditory pathway as well as it demonstrates distinct and statistically significant loss of serviceable hearing. (csnn.eu)
  • This model proposes that two populations of neurons in auditory thalamus and cortex facilitate the representation of a wide range of temporal features in acoustical signals in a complementary fashion. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Surprisingly, there has been no systematic investigation of paralemniscal representation of acoustic rate in auditory thalamus and whether it differs from the lemniscal representation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • auditory thalamus 4. (edoctoronline.com)
  • We found a double dissociation in response adaptation to sound pairs with phonetic vs. spatial sound changes, demonstrating that the human nonprimary auditory cortex indeed processes speech-sound identity and location in parallel anterior "what" (in anterolateral Heschl's gyrus, anterior superior temporal gyrus, and posterior planum polare) and posterior "where" (in planum temporale and posterior superior temporal gyrus) pathways as early as ≈70-150 ms from stimulus onset. (pnas.org)
  • Evidence of a double dissociation between processing of phonetic vs. spatial features is thus needed to determine whether the dual pathway model is valid for anterior vs. posterior human nonprimary auditory cortex areas. (pnas.org)
  • Dichotic listening studies of spatial attention suggest signal enhancements in auditory areas contralateral to the attended ear ( 38 , 42 , 43 ). (pnas.org)
  • Specifically, whether neurons in auditory cortex represent spatial cues or an integrated representation of auditory space across cues is not known. (nature.com)
  • Similar to the visual dual-pathway model, neurophysiological studies in non- human primates have suggested that the dual-pathway model is also applicable for explaining auditory cortical processing, including the ventral 'what' pathway for object identification and the dorsal 'where' pathway for spatial localization . (bvsalud.org)
  • The topography of frequency representation (i.e., its high-ordered spatial distribution within the auditory cortex) was shown by Woolsey and Walzl for the first time. (scirp.org)
  • Pathways controlling breathing and auditory pathways traverse very similar anatomic structures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • implicating changes in central auditory structures as a causal factor. (jneurosci.org)
  • We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans to show that in normal-hearing control subjects, peripheral gaze results in inhibition of the auditory cortex, but no detectable response in the medial geniculate body (MGB) and inferior colliculus (IC). (jneurosci.org)
  • Present study is focused on functional analysis of auditory pathway by Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) and with Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) in type 2 diabetes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics may be necessary to convey information at rates typical of many auditory signals. (epfl.ch)
  • The first example uses synchronized activity on auditory nerve fibres from two positions along the basilar membrane to obtain a high frequency selectivity and a representation of the sound which is independent of intensity. (epfl.ch)
  • The "shearing motion," stimulating the hair cells, causes impulses to be sent beyond the cochlea to the auditory (VIIIth) nerve. (hearusa.com)
  • In addition to auditory nerve input, there is a rich network of interneurons that forms circuits within and between CN subdivisions (Lorente de No, 1981) along with a substantial set of afferents derived from neurons in other regions of the auditory brain stem. (scribd.com)
  • The book is intended for students and postdocs starting in the auditory field, and researchers of related fields who wish to get an authoritative and up-to-date summary of the current state of auditory brainstem research. (oup.com)
  • Here we review studies of the organization and development of auditory thalamocortical pathways in the pallid bat. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall enhancement of human auditory cortex activity by selective attention has been verified by functional MRI (fMRI) ( 14 , 33 - 37 ), positron emission tomography ( 38 - 40 ), electroencephalography ( 41 ), and magnetoencephalography (MEG) ( 42 ) studies, and recent fMRI results further implied that these effects mainly occur in the nonprimary auditory areas ( 37 ). (pnas.org)
  • PTA and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) are used for the functional analysis of auditory pathway. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The ectopic areas and polymicrogyria have been noted in children with learning problems (mostly in the left hemisphere and in the auditory cortex) by close examination of the brain postmortem. (lww.com)
  • They reported that the survived stem cells were able to grow from the damaged segment of the auditory nerve, which then travel from the cochlea to the brainstem, the part of the brain which controls flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body - in this case, the ear - and eventually restored remarkable auditory function. (ata.org)
  • Emergence of the brain-stem auditory evoked potential in the premature lamb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The authors also discuss brain mechanisms felt to be involved in auditory hypersensitivity. (hindawi.com)
  • this auditory information to the brain stem. (coursera.org)
  • The auditory nerve carries the information to the brain via the brainstem for decoding. (hearusa.com)
  • If these parts of the brain are badly damaged or are not stimulated for a long period of time, a person may not be able to hear speech (even at high levels) despite the fact that the auditory nerve has transmitted it to the brain. (hearusa.com)
  • Although the incidence of children with central auditory processing disorder or deficit (CAPD) resulting from neurologic defects is considerably lower than that in children with CAPD, learning problems, and no identifiable neuropathology, some of the latter group also present with neurologic issues. (lww.com)
  • Those diagnosed with CAPD with a presumed underlying neuromaturational source present central auditory systems that appear to mature more slowly than seen in normal children, often secondary to auditory deprivation and delayed myelin maturation in the subcortex, cortex, and corpus callosum. (lww.com)
  • Two experiments were conducted to examine the performance of normal adults, normal children, and children diagnosed with central auditory dysfunction presumed to involve the interhemispheric pathways on a dichotic digits test in common clinical use for the diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder ( CAPD ) and its corresponding visual analog. (curehunter.com)
  • Isaac M de L, Oliveira JAA de, Rosatto M. Auditory pathways maturation evolution by ABR in full-term and pre-term neonates. (usp.br)
  • Auditory nerve fibers, fibers that travel through the auditory nerve (also known as the cochlear nerve or eighth cranial nerve) carry information from the inner ear, the cochlea, on the same side of the head, to the nerve root in the ventral cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway is called the ventral acoustic stria (VAS or, more commonly, the trapezoid body). (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) was studied in mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) embryos and hatchlings from 5-6 days before hatching through two days after hatching in response to tone pips of different frequencies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • What is the role of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) testing in the workup of respiratory insufficiency after encephalitis? (medscape.com)
  • Experiments with congenitally deaf children fit with cochlear implants at different times during childhood have allowed us to establish the existence and time limits of a critical period for the development of central auditory pathways in humans. (isca-speech.org)
  • In the present study, we determined connections of three newly defined regions of auditory cortex with regions of the frontal lobe, and how two of these regions in the frontal lobe interconnect and connect to other portions of frontal cortex and the temporal lobe in macaque monkeys. (nih.gov)
  • Sound waves travel through the ear canal to the middle and inner ear, where hair cells in part of the cochlea help transform sound waves into electrical signals that then travel to the brain's auditory cortex via the auditory nerve. (harvard.edu)
  • The data systematised here provide a necessary base for an in-depth analysis of acoustic information processing in the auditory cortex and for an integrative scheme of sound encoding by the brain's auditory centres. (scirp.org)
  • Auditory Brainstem response (ABR), Mid Latency Response (MLR) and Slow Vertex Response (SVR). (who.int)