Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/1597)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (2/1597)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

Coding of sound envelopes by inhibitory rebound in neurons of the superior olivary complex in the unanesthetized rabbit. (3/1597)

Most natural sounds (e.g., speech) are complex and have amplitude envelopes that fluctuate rapidly. A number of studies have examined the neural coding of envelopes, but little attention has been paid to the superior olivary complex (SOC), a constellation of nuclei that receive information from the cochlear nucleus. We studied two classes of predominantly monaural neurons: those that displayed a sustained response to tone bursts and those that gave only a response to the tone offset. Our results demonstrate that the off neurons in the SOC can encode the pattern of amplitude-modulated sounds with high synchrony that is superior to sustained neurons. The upper cutoff frequency and highest modulation frequency at which significant synchrony was present were, on average, slightly higher for off neurons compared with sustained neurons. Finally, most sustained and off neurons encoded the level of pure tones over a wider range of intensities than those reported for auditory nerve fibers and cochlear nucleus neurons. A traditional view of inhibition is that it attenuates or terminates neural activity. Although this holds true for off neurons, the robust discharge when inhibition is released adds a new dimension. For simple sounds (i.e., pure tones), the off response can code a wide range of sound levels. For complex sounds, the off response becomes entrained to each modulation, resulting in a precise temporal coding of the envelope.  (+info)

The superior olivary nucleus and its influence on nucleus laminaris: a source of inhibitory feedback for coincidence detection in the avian auditory brainstem. (4/1597)

Located in the ventrolateral region of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal connections between the SON and NL are of particular interest because they constitute a feedback circuit for coincidence detection. In the present study, the chick SON was investigated. In vivo tracing studies show that the SON projects predominantly to the ipsilateral NM, NL, and NA. In vitro whole-cell recording reveals single-cell morphology, firing properties, and postsynaptic responses. SON neurons are morphologically and physiologically suited for temporal integration; their firing patterns do not reflect the temporal structure of their excitatory inputs. Of most interest, direct stimulation of the SON evokes long-lasting inhibition in NL neurons. The inhibition blocks both intrinsic spike generation and orthodromically evoked activity in NL neurons and can be eliminated by bicuculline methiodide, a potent antagonist for GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest that the SON provides GABAergic inhibitory feedback to laminaris neurons. We discuss a mechanism whereby SON-evoked GABAergic inhibition can influence the coding of interaural time differences for sound localization in the avian auditory brainstem.  (+info)

Early visual experience shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain gaze fields of the barn owl. (5/1597)

Auditory spatial information is processed in parallel forebrain and midbrain pathways. Sensory experience early in life has been shown to exert a powerful influence on the representation of auditory space in the midbrain space-processing pathway. The goal of this study was to determine whether early experience also shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain. Owls were raised wearing prismatic spectacles that shifted the visual field in the horizontal plane. This manipulation altered the relationship between interaural time differences (ITDs), the principal cue used for azimuthal localization, and locations of auditory stimuli in the visual field. Extracellular recordings were used to characterize ITD tuning in the auditory archistriatum (AAr), a subdivision of the forebrain gaze fields, in normal and prism-reared owls. Prism rearing altered the representation of ITD in the AAr. In prism-reared owls, unit tuning for ITD was shifted in the adaptive direction, according to the direction of the optical displacement imposed by the spectacles. Changes in ITD tuning involved the acquisition of unit responses to adaptive ITD values and, to a lesser extent, the elimination of responses to nonadaptive (previously normal) ITD values. Shifts in ITD tuning in the AAr were similar to shifts in ITD tuning observed in the optic tectum of the same owls. This experience-based adjustment of binaural tuning in the AAr helps to maintain mutual registry between the forebrain and midbrain representations of auditory space and may help to ensure consistent behavioral responses to auditory stimuli.  (+info)

Auditory perception: does practice make perfect? (6/1597)

Recent studies have shown that adult humans can learn to localize sounds relatively accurately when provided with altered localization cues. These experiments provide further evidence for experience-dependent plasticity in the mature brain.  (+info)

Expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase in hypothyroid rat brain indicates an important role of thyroid hormone in the development of specific primary sensory systems. (7/1597)

Thyroid hormone is an important epigenetic factor in brain development, acting by modulating rates of gene expression. The active form of thyroid hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is produced in part by the thyroid gland but also after 5'-deiodination of thyroxine (T4) in target tissues. In brain, approximately 80% of T3 is formed locally from T4 through the activity of the 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2), an enzyme that is expressed mostly by glial cells, tanycytes in the third ventricle, and astrocytes throughout the brain. D2 activity is an important point of control of thyroid hormone action because it increases in situations of low T4, thus preserving brain T3 concentrations. In this work, we have studied the expression of D2 by quantitative in situ hybridization in hypothyroid animals during postnatal development. Our hypothesis was that those regions that are most dependent on thyroid hormone should present selective increases of D2 as a protection against hypothyroidism. D2 mRNA concentration was increased severalfold over normal levels in relay nuclei and cortical targets of the primary somatosensory and auditory pathways. The results suggest that these pathways are specifically protected against thyroid failure and that T3 has a role in the development of these structures. At the cellular level, expression was observed mainly in glial cells, although some interneurons of the cerebral cortex were also labeled. Therefore, the T3 target cells, mostly neurons, are dependent on local astrocytes for T3 supply.  (+info)

Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses. (8/1597)

The common occurrence of hearing loss in both humans and mice, and the anatomical and functional similarities of their inner ears, attest to the potential of mice being used as models to study inherited hearing loss. A large-scale, auditory screening project is being undertaken at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) to identify mice with inherited hearing disorders. To assess hearing sensitivity, at least five mice from each inbred strain had auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds determined. Thus far, we have screened 80 inbred strains of mice; 60 of them exhibited homogeneous ABR threshold values not significantly different from those of the control strain CBA/CaJ. This large database establishes a reliable reference for normal hearing mouse strains. The following 16 inbred strains exhibited significantly elevated ABR thresholds before the age of 3 months: 129/J, 129/ReJ, 129/SvJ, A/J, ALR/LtJ, ALS/LtJ, BUB/BnJ, C57BLKS/J, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, and SKH2/J. These hearing impaired strains may serve as models for some forms of human non-syndromic hearing loss and aid in the identification of the underlying genes.  (+info)

*Channelrhodopsin

"Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway". J Clin Invest. 124 (3): 1114-29. doi:10.1172/JCI69050. PMC 3934189 . PMID ...

*Spiral ganglion

1992). The Mammalian Auditory Pathway: Neuroanatomy. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97800-3. H Spoendlin (1972). "Innervation ... Their dendrites make synaptic contact with the base of hair cells, and their axons are bundled together to form the auditory ... These bipolar neurons are the first neurons in the auditory system to fire an action potential, and supply all of the brain's ... nerve appears about the end of the third week as a group of ganglion cells closely applied to the cephalic edge of the auditory ...

*Stria vascularis of cochlear duct

Cummings (2001). "Chapter 140: Cochlear Anatomy and Central Auditory Pathways". Stria vascularis (PDF). Textbook of ...

*Optogenetics

"Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway for research and future prosthetics". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 34: 29- ... 2014). "Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway". J Clin Invest. 124 (3): 1114-1129. doi:10.1172/JCI69050. PMC 3934189 ... Adaptive signaling pathways, for instance, adjust in accordance to the current level of the projected stimulus and display ... These accumbal MSNs are known to be involved in the neural pathway through which cocaine exerts its effects, because decreasing ...

*Cat intelligence

"The auditory pathway in cat corpus callosum". Experimental Brain Research. 104 (3): 534-40. doi:10.1007/BF00231988. PMID ...

*Northern saw-whet owl

Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Andrew N. Iwaniuk; Douglas R. Wylie (2011). "Relative Size of Auditory Pathways in Symmetrically ... ISBN 0-679-42852-6. Frost, B.J.; P. J. Baldwin; M. Csizy (1989). "Auditory localization in the northern saw-whet owl, Aegolius ...

*Mriganka Sur

Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature 404: 871-876, 2000. Dragoi, V., C. ... Acceleration of visually cued conditioned fear through the auditory pathway. Nature Neuroscience 7: 968-973, 2004. Oray S, A. ... A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250: 818-820, 1990. Hahm, J.-O., R.B. Langdon and M. Sur. ... Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404: 841-847, 2000. Von Melchner, L., S.L. Pallas and M. Sur ...

*Cartilage conduction

Therefore, cartilage conduction it referred to as the third auditory pathway. Since approximately 450 years ago, two pathways ... Cartilage conduction is a pathway in which sound signals are transmitted to the inner ear. This pathway is distinct from ... the new pathway is referred to as cartilage conduction. This unique pathway has attracted the attention of several researchers ... Such sonic wave energy passes through the eardrum and the middle ear before finally activating the auditory nerve. These ...

*KCNQ4

Chambard JM, Ashmore JF (2005). "Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway". Pflugers ...

*Prestin

Chambard JM, Ashmore JF (2005). "Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway". Pflugers ... A targeted gene disruption strategy of prestin showed a >100-fold (or 40 dB) loss of auditory sensitivity. Prestin is a ... Prestin is essential in auditory processing. It is specifically expressed in the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs) of ...

*Inhibitory postsynaptic potential

This is important because spiking timing is needed for proper sound localization in the ascending auditory pathways. Songbirds ... Visually guided behaviors may be regulated through the inhibitory striato-tegmental pathway found in amphibians in a study ... The basal ganglia in amphibians is very important in receiving visual, auditory, olfactory, and mechansensory inputs; the ... calcium ion-independent pathway. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials have also been studied in the Purkinje cell through ...

*Binaural fusion

Once a sound source has been identified, the cells of lower auditory pathways are specialized to analyze physical sound ... Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G (2003). "Parallel auditory pathways: projection patterns of the different neuronal ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... The auditory nuclei collect, integrate, and analyze afferent supply, the outcome is a representation of auditory space. The ...

*Reproduction and vocalization in midshipman fish

This model organisms' simple system could lead to a deeper understanding of human speech and auditory pathways,. This ... Vocal pathways modulate efferent neurons to the inner ear and lateral line. The Journal of Neuroscience 25(25): 5967-5974. Bass ... The neuronal pathway for midshipman vocalization starts at the ventral medullary nucleus and continues to a hindbrain vocal ... Steroid-dependent auditory plasticity leads to adaptive coupling of sender and receiver. Science 305: 404-407. Skoglund CB. ...

*Spatial hearing loss

This is the interaural time difference (ITD) cue and is measured by signal processing in the two central auditory pathways that ... In this case the single speech stream enters both ears and its representation ascends the two auditory pathways. The stream ... By the time sound stream representations reach the end of the auditory pathways brainstem inhibition processing ensures that ... Both peripheral hearing and central auditory pathway problems can interfere with early development. With some individuals, for ...

*Medial geniculate nucleus

... the DMGB and MMGB also receive information from non-auditory pathways. There are two main cell types in the ventral subnucleus ... It shows a wide range of responses to auditory stimuli. Binaural interactions found in the MMGB include EE, EI, and IE types. ... The MGB has three major divisions; ventral (VMGB), dorsal (DMGB) and medial (MMGB). Whilst the VMGB is specific to auditory ... Other cells are multi modal, often responding to somatosensory as well as auditory stimuli. Cells in the medial subnucleus of ...

*Audiology and hearing health professionals in developed and developing countries

ABR is an electrophysiologic measure of the function of cranial nerve eight and the auditory pathway in the brainstem. Three ... Roeser, R. J., & Clark, J. L. (2004). Screening for auditory disorders. Auditory Disorders in School Children, 105. McPherson, ... However, 500 Hz has been found to identify the auditory impact of otitis media with effusion in children and should be included ... and auditory brainstem response (ABR). An OAE is an electrophysiologic measure of the integrity of the outer hair cells in the ...

*Mark Lathrop

... a newly identified protein of the afferent auditory pathway, cause DFNB59 auditory neuropathy". Nat. Genet. United States. 38 ( ...

*Two-streams hypothesis

The subcortical auditory pathway then relays the information to the auditory cortex in the dorsal superior temporal gyrus (dSTG ... The function of the dorsal pathway is to map auditory sensory representations onto articulatory motor representations. Hickok ... The Spt is responsible for connecting the motor and auditory systems by making auditory code accessible to the motor cortex. It ... This shows that conduction aphasia must reflect not an impairment of the ventral pathway but instead of the dorsal pathway. ...

*Inferior colliculus

... midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, ... The majority of the ascending fibers from the lateral lemniscus project to IC, which means major ascending auditory pathways ... Auditory system List of regions in the human brain Shore, S. E.: Auditory/Somatosensory Interactions. In: Squire (Ed.): ... IC are large auditory nuclei on the right and left sides of the midbrain. It is divided into three parts, the Central Nucleus ...

*Ventral cochlear nucleus

... preserving the tonotopic organization of the ascending auditory pathway. Stellate/multipolar cells form the projection to both ... In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), auditory nerve fibers enter the brain via the nerve root in the VCN. The ventral ... Bushy cells receive input from auditory nerve fibers through particularly large endings called end bulbs of Held. They contact ... The orderly innervation by auditory nerve fibers gives the AVCN a tonotopic organization along the dorsoventral axis. Fibers ...

*Speech science

This organ again helps the sound to be transferred into a neural impulse that stimulates the auditory pathway and reaches the ... The auditory system receives sound signals starting at the outer ear. They enter the pinna and continue into the external ... The auditory theory puts greater emphasis on the sensory and filtering mechanisms of the listener and suggests that speech ... As for theories of speech perception, there are a motor and an auditory theory. The motor theory is based upon the premise that ...

*Tinnitus

... body of evidence suggesting that some tinnitus is a consequence of neuroplastic alterations in the central auditory pathway. ... When the tinnitus is caused by disorders of the inner ear or auditory nerve it is called otic (from the Greek word for ear). ... When there does not seem to be a connection with a disorder of the inner ear or auditory nerve, the tinnitus is called nonotic ... It is the description of a noise inside a person's head in the absence of auditory stimulation. The noise can be described in ...

*Auditory brainstem response

One way to measure the developmental status and limits of plasticity of the auditory cortical pathways is to study the latency ... P1 latency represents the synaptic delays throughout the peripheral and central auditory pathways (Eggermont, Ponton, Don, ... The auditory structures that generate the auditory brainstem response are believed to be as follows: Wave I through III - ... Auditory steady state response is an auditory evoked potential, elicited with modulated tones that can be used to predict ...

*Electric acoustic stimulation

The hearing aid is integrated in the ear hook and the amplified signals are forwarded to the auditory pathway via an ear mould ... Electric stimulation of the auditory system via cochlear implant is a commonly used technique for individuals with a severe to ... Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-340. Skarzynski H, Lorens A, Piotrowska A, Anderson I (2006). ... Ipsilateral Electric Acoustic Stimulation of the Auditory System: Results of Long-Term Hearing Preservation. Audiology & ...

*Conspecific song preference

Tight spectral-temporal tuning in the auditory pathway provides the central nervous system of songbirds with the ability to ... the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP) involved in song learning, and the posterior forebrain pathway or "song motor pathway" ( ... The selective response properties of neurons in the songbird auditory pathway has been proposed as the mechanism responsible ... In an evolutionary context, neural mechanisms of conspecific song preference in the auditory pathway are important for species ...

*CLINT1

"Multiple endocytic pathways of G protein-coupled receptors delineated by GIT1 sensitivity". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (3 ... auditory hallucinations and many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. CLINT1 has been shown to interact with GGA2. GRCh38: ...
This thesis gives an overview of my work over the last four years on the development of analogue electronic building blocks for the auditory pathway, and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is presented, and is decomposed into three key elements, i.e., the basilar membrane band-pass filters, the transduction into a neural signal performed by the inner hair cells, and the mechanical feedback introduced by the outer hair cells. An electronic model for the first two of these elements is presented and measurement results are shown to compare these circuits with their biological counterparts. The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a good spiking neuron model is essential. The electrophysiology and anatomy needed to understand the
Auditory brainstem neurons fire at very high rates with extraordinarily high temporal precision, allowing them to encode specific features of sound stimuli. Une...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
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Ultrafast and temporally precise action potentials (APs) are biophysical specializations of auditory brainstem neurons; properties necessary for encoding sound localization and communication cues. Fundamental to these specializations are voltage dependent potassium (KV) and sodium (NaV) ion channels. Here we characterized the functional development of these ion channels and quantified how they shape AP properties in the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM). We report that late developing NM neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) generate fast APs that reliably phase lock to sinusoidal inputs at 75 Hz. In contrast, early developing neurons (E19) contained NaV channels that inactivate at more negative voltages, suggesting alterations in NaV channel subtypes. Taken together, our results indicate that the refinement of passive and active ion channel properties operate differentially in order to develop fast and reliable APs in the avian NM.
Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an "integration-based" mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five ...
Glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in the adult vertebrate brain, but their activation in developing neurons also influences developmental processes. However, little is known about the developmental regulation of the subunits composing these receptors. Here we have studied age-dependent changes in the expression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in the cochlear nucleus complex (CN), the superior olivary complex (SOC), the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and the inferior colliculus of the developing rat. In the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, and the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, the distribution of AMPA receptor subunits changed drastically with age. While GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were highly expressed in the first 2 postnatal weeks, GluR4 staining was detectable only thereafter. GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities rapidly decreased during the third ...
Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. In addition to these pathways, over which impulses originating in the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex, there are corticofugal connections and interneuronal circuits that, together with ascending projections, provide numerous opportunities at all levels of the auditory system for convergence and divergence of afferent input, serial and parallel processing of information, and feedback modulation. There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. Finally, there is topographically patterned input to the superior colliculus and to the cerebellum, the latter receiving some of its input from the pontine nuclei activated by acoustic stimulation. Cochlear Nuclei All auditory ...
Definition of olivary complex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is olivary complex? Meaning of olivary complex as a legal term. What does olivary complex mean in law?
The inferior colliculus, the primary nucleus in the mammalian auditory midbrain, occupies a central position in the ascending auditory pathway. Nearly all ascending neural pathways converge and synapse in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). Further, the anatomical arrangement of axons and neurons in the ICC suggests the existence of functional regions which may play a role in organizing different types of physiological information. To investigate this organization, we characterized the response properties of neighboring neurons in the ICC. To record reliably from neighboring neurons, we adopted a relatively new electrophysiological technique, tetrode recordings. Tetrodes have four closely spaced recording sites (,20[mu]m) which record multi-unit activity from a small number of neighboring neurons. The recorded signals contain action potentials originating from more than one neuron. Based on action potential wave shape differences across the four channels, we can reconstruct the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The development of synaptic function and integration in the central auditory system. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The development of inhibitory synaptic transmission is difficult to assess because the afferents usually arise from intrinsic neurons that are difficult to stimulate independently. The postnatal maturation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic function was compared in the gerbil lateral superior olive (LSO), where it is possible to stimulate physically discrete afferent projections. Intracellular recordings obtained in a brain slice preparation revealed that transmission was prominent at birth. The EPSPs and IPSPs were up to 2 orders of magnitude longer than in more mature animals. Brief trains of electrical stimulus pulses led to a temporal summation of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in 1-14 d animals resulting in prolonged depolarizations or hyperpolarizations. In neonates, the depolarization could exceed 1 sec following a 70 msec stimulus train. The ...
The auditory pathway conveys the special sense of hearing. Information travels from the receptors in the organ of Corti of the inner ear - the cochlear hair cells - to the central nervous system, carried by the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII).
9780387989037 Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research),books, textbooks, text book
Both avian and crocodilian auditory circuits appear to conform to the requirements of the Jeffress model (Jeffress, 1948; Joris et al., 1998; Grothe et al., 2005). The auditory nerve and NM phase lock to sound in birds and crocodilians (Köppl, 1997b), while NMs target neurons in NL act as coincidence detectors for both tones and noise. Internal delays, equal and opposite to interaural delays, characterize barn owls (Carr and Konishi, 1990; Peña et al., 2001), chickens (Overholt et al., 1992; Funabiki et al., 1998; Köppl and Carr, 2008), and alligators (this study). Best delays in NL are such that neurons respond maximally to sound sources in the contralateral hemifield. Similarly, contralateral click delays are longer than ipsilateral (Wagner et al., 2005; Köppl and Carr, 2008). Thus, the axonal delays from NM appear sufficient to account for the range of observed ITDs. Cochlear disparities or stereausis are an alternative to axonal delays (Shamma et al., 1989; Peña et al., 2001), but when ...
An interesting response property of auditory neurons that can be observed at various levels of the auditory pathway, but is particularly versatile in the IC, is selectivity in discharge rate to temporal features of sound, such as, e.g., amplitude modulations and frequency modulations (Brand et al., 2000; McAlpine, 2004; Woolley and Casseday, 2005; Pérez-González et al., 2006; Krebs et al., 2008). These versatile tuning patterns result from the complex set of synaptic inputs IC cells receive and are therefore dependent on outputs of the various auditory nuclei converging at the IC. The dependence of AM selectivity of single IC neurons on network states is nicely illustrated by the finding that AM selectivity can be modulated by changing sound location (Koch and Grothe, 2000) or by blocking inhibition (Casseday et al., 1994; Fuzessery and Hall, 1996; Casseday et al., 2002). We observed a significant decrease in temporal selectivity of IC neurons in aged animals. As mentioned above, selectivity ...
The auditory system is responsible for detecting, encoding, and deciphering hearing. The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major relay hub situated in the midbrain, that is subdivided into a central nucleus, and surrounding dorsal and lateral cortices. The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) is organized tonotopically based on a frequency gradient and strictly processes auditory information. In contrast, recent studies show that the lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC) is actually multimodal, receiving inputs from not just auditory sources, but also somatosensory and visual structures. The precise organization of patterned inputs to the LCIC and their development has yet to be fully established. Mounting evidence suggests a modular LCIC framework with surrounding extramodular zones that provide an anatomical substrate for input-output arrays. Previously, a series of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), cytochrome oxidase (CO), glutamic
a neural structure that serves as the last of a series of processing centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. ...
Definition of Acoustic lemniscus with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
OBJECTIVE: Binaural interaction can be investigated using auditory evoked potentials. A binaural interaction component can be derived from the auditory brainstem response (ABR-BIC) and is considered evidence for binaural interaction at the level of the brainstem. Although click ABR-BIC has been investigated thoroughly, data on 500 Hz tone-burst (TB) ABR-BICs are scarce. In this study, characteristics of click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs are described. Furthermore, reliability of both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are investigated. METHODS: Eighteen normal hearing young adults (eight women, ten men) were included. ABRs were recorded in response to clicks and 500 Hz TBs. ABR-BICs were derived by subtracting the binaural response from the sum of the monaural responses measured in opposite ears. RESULTS: Good inter-rater reliability is obtained for both click and 500 Hz TB ABR-BICs. The most reliable peak in click ABR-BIC occurs at a mean latency of 6.06 ms (SD 0.354 ms). Reliable 500 Hz TB ABR-BIC are obtained
Looking for online definition of Brachium of the inferior colliculus in the Medical Dictionary? Brachium of the inferior colliculus explanation free. What is Brachium of the inferior colliculus? Meaning of Brachium of the inferior colliculus medical term. What does Brachium of the inferior colliculus mean?
Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and are the primary source of excitatory input to more centrally located brainstem auditory nuclei. Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these details, we have physiologically characterized and anatomically labeled individual axons of the spherical bushy cell (SBC) class of the cat AVCN. The characteristic frequencies (CFs) of our injected SBC population are low, all less than 12 kHz and primarily (83%) less than 3 kHz, while their spontaneous activity is comparatively high (mean of 59 spikes/sec). In response to short tone bursts at CF, low CF (, 1 kHz) SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses ...
Vol 8: The relative contributions of MNTB and LNTB neurons to inhibition in the medial superior olive assessed through single and paired recordings.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
About 95 percent of sound input to the brain comes from the ears inner hair cells.. "These inner hair cells are like spark plugs in an 8-cylinder engine," says Salvi. "A car wont run well if you remove half of those spark plugs, but people can still present with normal hearing thresholds if theyve lost half or even three-quarters of their inner hair cells.". Ear damage reduces the signal that goes the brain. That results in trouble hearing, but thats not whats happening here, because the brain "has a central gain control, like a radio, the listener can turn up the volume control to better hear a distant station." Salvi says.. Sound is converted to neural activity by the inner hair cells in the auditory part of the ear, called the cochlea.. Sound-evoked neural activity then travels from the cochlea to the auditory nerve and into the central auditory pathway of the brain. Halfway up the auditory pathway the information is relayed into a structure known as the inferior colliculus, before ...
The auditory circuit that we are studying helps to locate sound sources in space and illustrates beautifully how development is instrumental in shaping function. A major cue for an animal to locate sound sources compares the arrival time of the sound at the two ears. The time difference in sound reaching each ear, termed interaural time difference (ITD), varies from zero (sound directly ahead) to approximately 300 microseconds (depending on the size of head). The circuit operates as an AND logical gate where synaptic input from the ear closest to the sound sets up a map of space along an array of neurons which is compared to synaptic input from the ear furthest away from the sound. This identifies the location of sound in a subset of neurons along this array through dendritic integration to detect temporal coincidence of the two inputs. This calculation is performed at each characteristic frequency of sound using different arrays of neurons that are juxtaposed to form a sheet of cells in the ...
Fig. 1: The main ascending pathways in the mammalian auditory system. AN, auditory nerve; CN, cochlear nucleus; SO, superior olive; NLL, nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; IC, inferior colliculus; MGB, thalamus; and A1, cortex. One goal of the lab is to identify functional pathways (patterns of afferent convergence) that link the brainstem auditory nuclei.. Current research in the laboratory centers on the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) because it occupies a pivotal position in the auditory system; it receives direct inputs from most, if not all, of the auditory nuclei in the brainstem and, in turn, provides nearly all of the input to the auditory forebrain. Anatomical evidence suggests that the projections to the ...
-BANDWIDTH PRODUCTS EXCEEDING 10,000, USING PASSIVE, UNGUIDED PROPAGATION. The report presents experimental results on a delay line having 1/2 millisecond delay and 5 MHz bandwidth. This is a helical SAW delay line on a Bi12GeO20 wrap-around crystal plate, operating at 50 MHz, which proves that practical two-port delay lines operating in the millisecond range are within the current technology. An analysis has been made of the problem of broadbanding the transducers for long delay lines of this kind, which involve different considerations than for standard short delay lines. A loss balancing criterion is developed, and computer results are presented which show the general design parameters for delay lines having time delays extending to one millisecond together with bandwidth extending to 60 MHz, using graded interdigital transducer arrays. (Modified author abstract)*Acoustic delay lines
Background and purpose: Auditory processing disorders (APD), tinnitus and hearing loss (HL) are typical issues reported by patients in audiologic clinics. These auditory impairments can be concomitant or mutually excluding. APD are not necessarily accompanied by significant HL, whereas many adults exhibit peripheral HL and typical cognitive deficits often associated with APD. Since HL, tinnitus and APD affects to several parts of the ascending auditory pathway from the periphery to the auditory cortex, there could be some interrelationship between them. For instance, tinnitus has been reported to degrade the auditory localization capacity. Tinnitus is believed to be triggered by deafferentation of normal peripheral input to the central auditory system. This peripheral deficit can be accompanied by HL or not, since a type of permanent cochlear damage (thus deafferentation) without an elevation of hearing thresholds might persist. Therefore, a combined study of APD, tinnitus and HL on the same cohort of
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The medial geniculate body (MGB) of the thalamus is a key component of the auditory system. It is involved in relaying and transforming auditory information to the cortex and in top-down modulation of processing in the midbrain, brainstem, and ear. Functional imaging investigations of this region in humans, however, have been limited by the difficulty of distinguishing MGB from other thalamic nuclei. Here, we introduce two methods for reliably delineating MGB anatomically in individuals based on conventional and diffusion MRI data. The first uses high-resolution proton density weighted scanning optimized for subcortical grey-white contrast. The second uses diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography to automatically segment the medial and lateral geniculate nuclei from surrounding structures based on their distinctive patterns of connectivity to the rest of the brain. Both methods produce highly replicable results that are consistent with published atlases. Importantly, both methods rely
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Full text Supplement:. Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound in the absence of a corresponding acoustic stimulus affects 10 to 15% of the adult population worldwide. Despite this prevalence, there are currently no effective drug therapies due to limited understanding of the mechanisms that underlie tinnitus onset following triggers such as exposure to loud sound. Many studies support the prevailing idea that tinnitus arises in response to enhanced multisensory synaptic transmission to the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), the first relay in the auditory brainstem integrating acoustic and multisensory inputs. Such findings include a correlation between tinnitus and aberrant neural activity in the DCN (Kaltenbach 2007), altered excitability in the DCN initiating a complex sequence of events in the auditory pathway (Brozoski et al., 2002) and an increased synchrony in the network activity (Shore et al., 2016). We investigate the role of plasticity in the DCN at the early stages following acoustic ...
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This paper proposes modifications to the Multi-resolution RASTA (MRASTA) feature extraction technique for the automatic speech recognition (ASR). By emulating asymmetries of the temporal receptive field (TRF) profiles of higher level auditory neurons, we obtain more than 11.4% relative improvement in word error rate on OGI-Digits database. Experiments on TIMIT database confirm that proposed modifications are indeed useful. Sivaram, Garimella S. V. S.; Hermansky, Hynek
By Andrew Liszewski. As far as I know theres no real cure for Tinnitus, but a company called Neuromonics claims to have created an effective treatment that will reduce the symptoms almost immediately and provide some level of long-term relief. At the core of the treatment is the Oasis audio device which plays specifically designed music thats embedded with a "pleasant acoustic neural stimulus." These sounds, which are customized for every patient based on their audiological profile, stimulate the auditory pathway to promote neural plastic changes. And over time its these new connections that help the brain filter out the tinnitus disturbance. So as far as I can tell the process doesnt cure the problem, it just trains your brain to ignore it.. The treatments usually last for 6 months, and during the first 2 months youll need to listen to the device for about 2 hours or longer every day. During the last 4 months that duration will gradually decrease, and once the treatment is over you may ...
We report the design and testing of a novel linear scanning periodic optical delay line (ODL) by use of a helicoid reflective mirror based on a tilted parabolic generatrix that was driven by an electrical motor for a periodic change in the optical path length of the reflected light beam. The divergence and pulse front distortion of the optical beam reflected by the helicoid reflective mirror were simulated based on differential geometry. With a round-trip pass arrangement, a scanning range of delay time as large as ...
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
The inferior colliculus (IC) (Latin, lower hill) is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei in the auditory pathway, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex. The inferior colliculus has three subdivisions: the central nucleus, a dorsal cortex by which it is surrounded, and an external cortex which is located laterally. Its bimodal neurons are implicated in auditory-somatosensory interaction, receiving projections from somatosensory nuclei. This multisensory integration may underlie a filtering of self-effected sounds from vocalization, chewing, or respiration activities. The inferior colliculi together with the superior colliculi form the eminences of the corpora quadrigemina, and also part of the tectal region of the midbrain. The inferior colliculus lies caudal to its counterpart - the superior colliculus - above the trochlear nerve, and at the base of the projection of the medial geniculate nucleus and the lateral ...
Changes in neuronal excitability contribute to neurologic dysfunction in FXS (Contractor et al., 2015). In the auditory brainstem, where synaptic balance is a key factor in sound processing and sound localization (Tollin, 2003), increased excitability could lead to hyperacusis and difficulties in sound localization. Indeed, Fmr1 KO mice have shifted sensitivity for interaural level differences (Garcia-Pino et al., 2017). Enhanced gain leading to hyperacusis in FXS may originate, at least in part, in the auditory brainstem nuclei. The increase in VGAT in MNTB, a sign-inverting relay nucleus, could lead to enhanced excitation in targets of MNTB (Rotschafer et al., 2015); additionally, increased excitation in LSO has also been shown to arise from VCN (Garcia-Pino et al., 2017). Both of these observations suggest that the superior olivary complex may increase gain in the auditory pathway in Fmr1 KO mice.. In MNTB, increased VGAT expression in Fmr1 KO mice was seen at P6 and persisted into adulthood. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heterogeneous kinetics and pharmacology of synaptic inhibition in the chick auditory brainstem. AU - Kuo, Sidney P.. AU - Bradley, Laura A.. AU - Trussell, Laurence. PY - 2009/7/29. Y1 - 2009/7/29. N2 - Identification of shared features between avian and mammalian auditory brainstem circuits has provided much insight into the mechanisms underlying early auditory processing. However, previous studies have highlighted an apparent difference in inhibitory systems; synaptic inhibition is thought to be slow and GABAergic in birds but to have fast kinetics and be predominantly glycinergic in mammals. Using patch-clamp recordings in chick brainstem slices, we found that this distinction is not exclusively true. Consistent with previous work, IPSCs in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) were slow and mediated by GABA A receptors. However, IPSCs in nucleus laminaris (NL) and a subset of neurons in nucleus angularis (NA) had rapid time courses twofold to threefold faster than those in NM. ...
Tinnitus can arise anywhere along the auditory pathway, from the outer ear through the middle and inner ear to the brains auditory cortex, where its thought to be encoded (in a sense, imprinted). One of the most common causes of tinnitus is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea (see "Auditory pathways and tinnitus"). These cells help transform sound waves into nerve signals. If the auditory pathways or circuits in the brain dont receive the signals theyre expecting from the cochlea, the brain in effect "turns up the gain" on those pathways in an effort to detect the signal - in much the same way that you turn up the volume on a car radio when youre trying to find a stations signal. The resulting electrical noise takes the form of tinnitus - a sound that is high-pitched if hearing loss is in the high-frequency range and low-pitched if its in the low-frequency range. This kind of tinnitus resembles phantom limb pain in an amputee - the brain is producing abnormal nerve signals to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histological determination of the areas enriched in cholinergic terminals and m2 and m3 muscarinic receptors in the mouse central auditory system. AU - Hamada, Satoko. AU - Houtani, Takeshi. AU - Trifonov, Stefan. AU - Kase, Masahiko. AU - Maruyama, Masato. AU - Shimizu, Jun Ichi. AU - Yamashita, Toshio. AU - Tomoda, Koichi. AU - Sugimoto, Tetsuo. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicated that the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body and the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus constituted cholinergic synaptic sites in the brainstem auditory system, containing a significant number of cholinergic axon terminals and m2 receptor-expressing cell bodies.. AB - Cholinergic projections to auditory system are vital for coupling arousal with sound processing. Systematic search with in situ ...
Synaptic Reorganization in the Adult Rats Ventral Cochlear Nucleus following Its Total Sensory Deafferentation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The age related decline in auditory performance, or presbycusis, was reviewed and discussed. Topics reviewed included: anatomy and physiology of the cochlea and central auditory pathway; laboratory animal models of presbycusis; age related structural losses in humans; age related changes in brainstem evoked response; interaction of aging and noise; hearing levels in subjects with military and indu
Developing chick NL neurons express both HVA and LVA-type Ca2+ channels in their dendrites. These currents were larger than those recorded from the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (Koyano et al. 1996; Sivaramakrishnan and Laurent 1995), mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus (octopus cells: Bal and Oertel 2007), or neurons enzymatically isolated from the mammalian dorsal cochlear nucleus (Molitor and Manis 1999). Both current types could be activated rapidly by spikes. Given that these signals arose within milliseconds of the stimulus (and thus are not likely to arise from Ca2+ diffusion from distant sources) and were larger in more distal dendrites than proximal ones, it is likely that HVA and LVA channels are distributed even on the most distal processes of NL.. Because NL dendrites are relatively small, it is difficult to determine directly the amplitude of the voltage transient that activated Ca2+ channels. Recent studies indicate that spikes in NL of hatchling chicks are initiated in the ...
Hearing loss leads to a reorganization of the pathways in the central auditory system.12,20,22,23 These changes may occur rapidly24 and lead to abnormal interactions between auditory and other central pathways.20Analogous changes in the somatosensory system linked to phantom pain25 led us to suggest that there are similarities between neuropathic pain and tinnitus.12 In patients with gaze-evoked tinnitus, lateral eye movements failto produce the inhibition of the auditory cortex observed in controls.20 The absence of this phenomenon, called cross-modal inhibition, may contribute to the false perception of sounds.. Levine hypothesized that a reduction in auditory-nerve input leads to disinhibition of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and an increase in spontaneous activity in the central auditory system, which is experienced as tinnitus.26 This mechanism could explain the temporary ringing sensation that may follow exposure to noise,27 the effects of some drugs such as furosemide, and spontaneous ...
Our research uses a wide variety of methods and numerous preparations to better understand development, plasticity, pathology and potential repair of the inner ear and auditory pathways of the brian. We investigate both the fundamental neurobiology of hearing and translational opportunities of the present and future that are directed toward preventing and curing hearing loss and balance disorders. One research program endeavors to understand cellular processes underlying the development of information processing in the auditory system. Anatomical, physiological, and acoustical methods are used to examine development of cellular mechanisms underlying acoustic signal processing by the inner ear. Parallel studies using both in vivo and in vitro preparations examine the factors that include growth of connections in the brain stem auditory pathways. A second research program addresses the problem of how experience influences brain development. Using manipulations of the amount and pattern of neuronal ...
Our research uses a wide variety of methods and numerous preparations to better understand development, plasticity, pathology and potential repair of the inner ear and auditory pathways of the brian. We investigate both the fundamental neurobiology of hearing and translational opportunities of the present and future that are directed toward preventing and curing hearing loss and balance disorders. One research program endeavors to understand cellular processes underlying the development of information processing in the auditory system. Anatomical, physiological, and acoustical methods are used to examine development of cellular mechanisms underlying acoustic signal processing by the inner ear. Parallel studies using both in vivo and in vitro preparations examine the factors that include growth of connections in the brain stem auditory pathways. A second research program addresses the problem of how experience influences brain development. Using manipulations of the amount and pattern of neuronal ...
The inferior colliculus is a part of the midbrain that serves as a main auditory (sound) center for the body. It acts as the channel for almost all auditory signals in the human body. Its primary roles are signal integration, frequency recognition, and pitch discrimination.
Periodotopic organization in the inferior colliculus of chinchillas revealed by c-fos labelling due to electrical and acoustical stimulation ...
In this study, we investigate the ability of the mammalian auditory pathway to adapt its strategy for temporal processing under natural stimulus conditions. We derive temporal receptive fields from the responses of neurons in the inferior colliculus to vocalization stimuli with and without additional ambient noise. We find that the onset of ambient noise evokes a change in receptive field dynamics that corresponds to a change from bandpass to lowpass temporal filtering. We show that these changes occur within a few hundred milliseconds of the onset of the noise and are evident across a range of overall stimulus intensities. Using a simple model, we illustrate how these changes in temporal processing exploit differences in the statistical properties of vocalizations and ambient noises to increase the information in the neural response in a manner consistent with the principles of efficient coding. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Louise White.. Changes in the sensory environment, as a result of deprivation or stimulation, modify our sensory experience and may result in experience-related or learning-induced reorganisation within the central nervous system. Recently, advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques have revealed reorganisation of the adult human auditory map, for example, after sudden unilateral hearing loss. In parallel to these studies, there is behavioural evidence that auditory function can be modified by changing the acoustic environment; for example, experience with amplification has consequences for long-term performance, as shown by evidence from studies of late-onset auditory deprivation and auditory acclimatisation. Future studies could usefully unite these behavioural and advanced objective techniques. Such studies could provide a direct link between changes in perception and reorganisation of the auditory system. This presentation will ...
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The barn owl senses may be because it is just a haven where the guys, naturally you as well as your partner stay, the area thats presented because the most revered and essential area of the home.
Ink Work Figured if I dont ever get another one, I at least have one I really like....honestly....think i might have an idea for a second one Real
We have all heard about diabetes and how prevalent it is becoming in our country, especially Type 2. This condition, although commonly called "adult-onset diabetes", actually affects people of all ages, and is connected to a diet high in sugar, lack of exercise, and even some environmental factors. But just recently, researchers have revealed another […]. Read More ...
In the auditory system of birds and mammals large axosomatic synapses can be found: the giant synaptic terminals of Held. These terminals contain many (hundreds of) active zones and one can say they act as many synapses activated exactly simultaneously. The synaptic currents induced by these terminals are often big enough to individually cause an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. The auditory nerve fibres, which are the axons of neurons in the cochlear ganglion (or spiral ganglion, in mammals) enter, in birds as well as in mammals, the auditory brainstem and bifurcate into two branches: one branch projects towards time-coding parts of the brainstem (birds: nucleus magnocellularis = NM; mammals: anteroventral cochlear nucleus = AVCN), the other branch connects to nuclei where sound intensity and spectral cues are predominantly coded (birds: nucleus angularis = NA; mammals: posteroventral cochlear nucleus and dorsal cochlear nucleus). The very same axon can thus form giant synapses in ...
Scheme of neurones of auditory pathway. 4 neuronal afferent centripetal tract terminating in the primary acoustic cortex of temporal lobe. Receptor: hairs cells of Corti organ inside the membranous cochlear duct of inner ear. Receptors are surrounded by dendrites of bipolar neurons of the cochlear ganglion (1. N). Axons of bipolar neurons form the cochlear nerve. Cochlear nerve terminates in the cochlear nuclei (2. N) in the brainstem. From cochlear nuclei information go by the lateral lemniscus into the inferior collicle (3. N) in the mesencephalon. Signals interpolate in the inferior collicle and continue to the medial geniculate body (4. N). The last part of the auditory tract - acustic radiation (geniculo-cortical tract) continue into the upper part of the temporal lobe - transverse temporal gyruses (primary acustic cortex). Between the basic neurons of the auditory pathway there are inserted interstitial (relay neurons) which are grouped into independent nuclei : nucleus olivaris superior, ...
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
interaural time disparities (ITDs) are the main cue that animals use to localize low frequency sounds. Many features of neural circuitry that process this cue are similar between birds and mammals. For example, both systems involve specialized coincidence-detecting neurons that detect the timing differences of spikes arriving from both ears. These neurons comprise the medial superior olive in mammals (Goldberg and Brown 1969; Yin and Chan 1990) and nucleus laminaris (NL) in birds (Parks and Rubel 1975; Sullivan and Konishi 1986; Carr and Konishi 1990; Peña et al. 1996; Burger and Rubel 2008; Grothe et al. 2010). Additionally, both systems include inhibitory feedback pathways to monaural and binaural processing centers originating from one or more nuclei located in the superior olive (Caspary et al. 1994; Lachica et al. 1994; Ebert and Ostwald 1995a,b; Westerberg and Schwarz 1995; Smith et al. 1998; Backoff et al. 1999; Yang et al. 1999; Kopp-Scheinpflug et al. 2002; Burger et al. 2005).. In ...
More information and latest version available at: https://www.github.com/baubie/dtnet Requirements ============ - Boost 1.47+ - Readline - GLE (For graphing) Installation ============ $ ./configure $ make $ sudo make install Options are available for configure to specify installation location and library locations if configure is unable to find them on their own. Type ./configure --help for more information. Post-Installation ================= Before dtnet can be used, you MUST create a file called ~/.libdtnetrc In this file, add the following line: models=HH aEIF Poisson This tells dtnet which neural models are available Running Examples ================ Examples are included in the examples diretory to reproduce the figures in Aubie et al. (2009). For example, to reproduce the figures generated by bandpass.dtnet (Figures are documented within each .dtnet file), simply enter the examples directory and run: # dtnet -s bandpass.dtnet Ensure GLE is installed and working in order for the figures to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely ...
In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC) in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience, and estrous state on fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in serotonergic increase in response to a restriction ...
Inhibitory circuits throughout the auditory neuraxis are responsible for important survival functions. These include coding the localization of sound in space, as well as extraction and coding of salient communication signals. Processing environmental sounds is necessary for successful predation or avoiding predation. Certain species of Chiropterans (bats) use many of these same circuits for echolocation to navigate their environment and locate insects (Pollak et al., 1977; Simmons, 1989; Portfors and Sinex, 2005; Vater et al., 2003; Portfors and Sinex, 2005). For example, behavioral studies in bats, kangaroo rats, insects and fish show the importance of the auditory system for survival in the wild. This, in turn, suggests that an age-related degradation of acoustic signal processing (sensory function) could play as important a role as motor decline in loss of normal adult behavioral success within an animals natural habitat (Webster and Webster, 1971; Cumming, 1996; Anderson et al., 1998; ...
U. Riordian. South Carolina State University.. They are named the transverse gyri of the cortical tissue of the dorsolateral surface buy cheap propecia 5 mg on line, including Heschl (as was also shown in the previous illustration), the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortex (dis- the auditory gyri, areas 41 and 42 (see Figure 60). Other small The lateral fissure forms a complete separation branches to the internal capsule and basal ganglia are between this part of the temporal lobe and the frontal and given off within the lateral fissure (discussed with Figure parietal lobes above. Cortical representation of sensory systems reflects the CLINICAL ASPECT particular sensation (modality). The auditory gyri are Since the auditory system has a bilateral pathway to the organized according to pitch, giving rise to the term tono- cortex, a lesion of the auditory pathway or cortex on one topic localization. This is similar to the representation of side will not lead to a total loss of ...
Our lab is using dendritic patch clamp recordings to examine mechanisms of synaptic transmission at this first, critical synapse in the auditory pathway. With this technique, we can diagnose the molecular mechanisms of transmitter release at uniquely high resolution (this is the sole input to each afferent neuron), and relate them directly to the rich knowledge base of auditory signaling by single afferent neurons ...
Our lab is using dendritic patch clamp recordings to examine mechanisms of synaptic transmission at this first, critical synapse in the auditory pathway. With this technique, we can diagnose the molecular mechanisms of transmitter release at uniquely high resolution (this is the sole input to each afferent neuron), and relate them directly to the rich knowledge base of auditory signaling by single afferent neurons ...
The ear contains several membranes and nerves that are prone to infection, obstruction and trauma. Even minor head injuries may damage the structures that comprise the auditory pathway. When hearing is disrupted, external electronic devices Read More ...
The perceptual insensitivity to low frequency (LF) sound in humans has led to an underestimation of the physiological impact of LF exposure on the inner ear. It is known, however, that intense, LF sou
The spatio-temporal pattern in the auditory nerve (AN), i.e. the temporal pattern of AN fiber activity across the tonotopic axis, provides cues to important features in sounds such as pitch, loudness, and spatial location ...
Ernst, M.O., Bresciani, J.-P., & Drewing, K., 2004. Feeling what you hear: Auditory signals can modulate the perception of tactile taps. Perception, 33(Suppl. 1), p 143-143 ...
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Ferroelastic insulators below their phase transition have two stable states with different elastic properties. They can be converted one into another b...
I wanted to post this solution to a Powershell problem I had because I couldnt find any examples on the internet.I needed to be ab... | 13 replies | PowerShell
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I am very grateful to the Palos Verdes Peninsula Land Conservancy for affording us such beautiful trails to run on. Thanks to this group, 1,200 acres of open space on the south side of the Palos Verdes Peninsula will be preserved in perpetuity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of middle latency response in the diagnosis of cortical deafness. AU - Vedder, J. S.. AU - Barrs, D. M.. AU - Fifer, Robert. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - Bilateral cortical lesions resulting in true deafness were first reported approximately 100 years ago. A detailed map of the auditory cortex, however, was derived only within the past 50 years, primarily from investigation in the cat and subhuman primate. The few human studies have shown the primary auditory cortex to be located around the posterior two-thirds of the sylvian fissure, especially in the anterior and posterior transverse temporal gyri -or Heschls gyri- on the superior portion of the temporal lobe. Each organ of Corti has extensive bilateral projections to the primary auditory cortex, although experiments by Celesia have shown larger contralateral than ipsilateral response to auditory stimulation. This bilateral distribution of ascending auditory pathways makes deafness secondary to a single cortical ...
Verhulstetal2018Model The model code for the Verhulst, Altoè, Vasilkov 2018 Hearing Research publication: Computational modeling of the human auditory periphery: Auditory-nerve responses, evoked potentials and hearing loss. *Hearing Research* 360, 55-75. (found in doc/ folder) The model code and interface was written by Alessandro Altoè and Sarah Verhulst (copyright 2012,2014,2015,2016,2018) and is licensed under the UGent acadamic license (see details in license file that is part of this repository). The Verhulstetal2018Model consists of the following files: tridiag.so, cochlea_utils.c, build.bat, build.sh, run_model2018.py, model2018.m, cochlear_model2017.py, inner_hair_cell2018.py, auditory_nerve2017.py, ic_cn2017.py, ExampleSimulation.m, ExampleAnalysis.m, the HI profiles in the Poles folder. ##################### How to run the model ##################### 1. INSTALL NUMPY AND SCIPY (anaconda), check whether you should install 32 or 64 bit! The model works on python 2.7 and also on 3.6 ...
The project aims at studying physiological and neural processes involved in environmental noise exposure. The cumulative effects of daily exposure at loud but non-traumatic sound pressure levels (80dB SPL), typically including occupational and increasing urban and leisure noise, are considered stressful albeit harmless for the auditory system. However, effects of long-term exposure on neural circuits, excitation/inhibition balance and cognitive functions remain unclear and likely underestimated. The work will mainly focus on the thalamocortical system and the inferior colliculus and will involve in vivo and possibly in vitro electrophysiological approaches as well as behavioral tests. The overall goal will be to go from the identification of plastic processes in the auditory system to their relevance during individual and social group behavior. Wild-type mice as well as new genetically-modified mouse models with imbalanced cortical excitation/inhibition will be studied. These latter models are ...
Neurons in the developing auditory system fire bursts of action potentials before the onset of hearing. This spontaneousactivity promotes the survival and maturation of auditory neurons and the refinement of synaptic connections in auditory nuclei; however, the mechanisms responsible for initiating this activity remain uncertain. Previous studies indicate that inner supporting cells (ISCs) in the developing cochlea periodically release ATP, which depolarizes inner hair cells (IHCs), leading to bursts of action potentials in postsynaptic spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). To determine when purinergic signaling appears in the developing cochlea and whether it is responsible for initiating auditory neuron activity throughout the prehearing period, we examined spontaneousactivity from ISCs, IHCs, and SGNs in cochleae acutely isolated from rats during the first three postnatal weeks. We found that ATP was released from ISCs within the cochlea from birth until the onset of hearing, which led to periodic ...
A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. The electrode can be arranged in the patients primary auditory cortex and each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical contacts can be arranged to approximately tonotopically match the primary auditory cortex.
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
In a small town there is a hotel called Haute Enchilada which is one of the best spots there. This place is well known for some of its inventions such as switching to paper chopsticks and utilizing more sustainable sources of seafood. This became the first American hotel to use Barn owl as a pesticide against rodents.. Another town called Moss landing about 15 miles from Monterey has a very big population of barn owls which is on the rise. This was from a company called Human wildlife control build and Barn owl box. This company was started by Duane Titus and Rebecca Dmytryk. This box has been used to attract these owls in mating pairs.. Two days after this, there were 2 barn owls in the box and after 2 weeks the females were nesting 8 eggs which is great ...
The network underlying sound localization is similar in all vertebrates, although the exact mechanisms underlying the use, the neural extraction and the neural representation may be different in different vertebrate classes. This is not surprising, because, for example birds and mammals have independently developed for several hundreds of millions of years. We study the representation of sound-localization cues at several levels, from the first station of binaural detection in nucleus laminaris to the midbrain-nucleus colliculus inferior, where a first remodeling of the representation occurs and the forebrain, where a further remodeling occurs. We mainly use extracellular recording techniques and combine these with theoretical results. The groups of Thomas Kuenzel and Marcus Wirth complement our approach by working with chicken, an auditory generalist, on the molecular and cellular levels. ...
Eighth Nerve Action Potential, Cochlear Nucleus, Olivary Complex (superior), Lateral Lemniscus, Inferior Colliculus [hearing Test ...
The dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve (or posterior motor nucleus of vagus) is a cranial nerve nucleus for the vagus nerve that arises from the floor of the fourth ventricle. ...
Seroquel - Before fertilisation thi' nucleus of the embryosac of a plant divides into two, each of which travels to the opposed ends of the sac; here they each divide and subdivide into four nuclei; of these, two, one from each end, travel to the centre and then fuse to form the iV., secondary; the three remaining nuclei at the micropylar end of the and the three at the opposite end form the Anti' in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata, behind the superior olivary nucleus, and beneath the floor of the fourth ventricle.
A digital delay-locked loop has been discovered having a reduced area as compared to typical register-controlled delay-locked loops (RDLLs) used to control strobe delay lines that provide delay to strobe signals driving asynchronous FIFOs. This result is achieved by reducing ratio computation (i.e. gear logic) circuitry of the RDLL. A master delay line receives a control code to delay a reference clock by one clock period. A slave delay line receives the control code to delay a strobe signal by a predetermined fraction of the clock period. The master delay line may include individual sections responsive to the control code which effectively delay a signal by a portion of the clock period, the delay having a fixed relationship to a delay associated with individual sections of the slave delay line.
Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and
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Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information 41467_2019_10868_MOESM1_ESM. cues got little effect on ferrets efficiency, or on neural spatial tuning. A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial placement?regularly across localisation cue type. Furthermore, neural firing pattern decoders outperformed two-channel model decoders using populace activity. Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. test, test, test, test, test, test, test, Bonferroni-corrected test, p 0.05). To elucidate whether models were representing the buy Geldanamycin spatial location of sounds independently of their underlying spatial cues, we contrasted the number of models that were useful about sound location across conditions in which unique binaural cues were offered (i.e., LPN, made up of ITDs, and either HPN or BPN, which did not contain fine-structure ITDs). We found that subpopulations of recorded cells were able to provide cue-independent ...
meshinder at aol.com (MEShinder) wrote in message news:,20010716122745.19834.00000992 at nso-bg.aol.com,... , In article ,b86268d4.0107160805.6215f470 at posting.google.com,, , jonesmat at physiology.wisc.edu (Matt Jones) writes: , , ,However, the earliest stage where neurons appear to respond to pitch , ,(as opposed to frequency - not the same thing) is probably the , ,cochlear nucleus which is the first main integrative processing stage , ,for auditory information. , , , , I am naive to the neuralogical difference between pitch and frequency , processing in the cochlear nuclei. I am aware of the tonotopy in these nuclei, , but Im not sure how it relates to a difference. Frequency is the physical description of the pressure wave (e.g., power spectral density) whereas pitch is the perceptual sensation evoked in the listener. Most of the time these things amount to roughly the same thing. However there are some well known situations in which frequency and pitch are different. For example, it is ...
Auditory System The physical stimulus - physical stimulus for audition is timevarying changes in air pressure that propagate through space in wave-like manner - e.g., pure tone played by speaker: sinusoidal
The Neuromonics Sanctuary is an on demand Tinnitus Management Tool that engages the auditory pathways to promote neural plastic changes. Find out how the Sanctuary can manage your Tinnitus!
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Central compensation in auditory brainstem after damaging noise exposure. AU - Schrode, Katrina M.. AU - Muniak, Michael. AU - Kim, Ye Hyun. AU - Lauer, Amanda M.. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Noise exposure is one of the most common causes of hearing loss and peripheral damage to the auditory system. A growing literature suggests that the auditory system can compensate for peripheral loss through increased central neural activity. The current study sought to investigate the link between noise exposure, increases in central gain, synaptic reorganization, and auditory function. All axons of the auditory nerve project to the cochlear nucleus, making it a requisite nucleus for sound detection. As the first synapse in the central auditory system, the cochlear nucleus is well positioned to respond plastically to loss of peripheral input. To investigate noise-induced compensation in the central auditory system, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and auditory ...
Tinnitus is the phantom perception of noise in the ears that occurs in the absence of an external sound source. It is estimated that about 1 in 5 people experience tinnitus. Tinnitus by itself is not a disease but may be a symptom of another condition. In addition to a ringing sound, the noise may be perceived as buzzing, roaring, crickets, the ocean, or even music. A special variant of tinnitus, pulsatile tinnitus, is hearing ones heartbeat in one or both ears. Both pulsatile and non-pulsatile tinnitus may be constant or intermittent. The source of the tinnitus can be the ear itself; however, tinnitus is far more commonly of central origin (from the brain). The inciting event for tinnitus may be a change in inner ear function; however, the tinnitus generator is likely to be somewhere in the brains auditory circuitry (central auditory pathways). Some of the most common causes include age-related hearing loss, exposure to loud noises, earwax impaction, certain medications, or a stiffening of ...
ABR measurements reveal substantial hearing loss in Gunn rats within 18 h of exposure to high bilirubin. Extracellular multi-electrode array recordings showed impaired synaptic transmission through the MNTB in vitro. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from MNTB neurons in hyperbilirubinaemic rats confirmed that their electrophysiological properties were essentially unchanged from control animals. However, stimulation of the trapezoid body was unable to elicit large amplitude calyceal EPSCs in MNTB neurons of hyperbilirubinaemic Gunn rats. Multi-photon imaging of anterogradely labelled calyceal terminals revealed dramatic degeneration of the presynaptic calyx, supporting a neurodegenerative mechanism. Electron microscopy confirmed the loss of presynaptic terminals and healthy postsynaptic neurons. The protection from hearing loss by an nNOS antagonist suggests involvement of nitric oxide signalling in this presynaptic toxicity. We conclude that degeneration underlies the synaptic failure in the ...
We show here that synaptic transmission to the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is mediated principally by excitatory amino acid receptors and has two components. A fast excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) is mediated by non-NMDA receptors and a slow EPSC is mediated by NMDA receptors. Each neuron receives a large synaptic input (calyx of Held) which produces an EPSC with a mean peak conductance of 37 nS. The somatic location of this synapse gives good resolution of the EPSC timecourse with the fast EPSC decaying with a time constant of 1.1 ms (at 25 °C). The slow EPSC exhibits a double exponential decay with time constants of 41 ms and 106 ms and is voltage dependent in the presence of extracellular magnesium. Other smaller EPSCS mediated by NMDA and non-NMDA receptors, and a strychnine-sensitive synaptic current, are also present. Although the intrinsic membrane properties of MNTB neurons (Forsythe & Barnes-Davies (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 251, 143 (1993)), preceding paper) promote ...

Vestibulocochlear nerve | anatomy | Britannica.comVestibulocochlear nerve | anatomy | Britannica.com

physiology of central auditory pathways* In human ear: Auditory nerve fibres. Article History ... Alternative Titles: acoustic nerve, auditory nerve, eighth cranial nerve. Vestibulocochlear nerve, also called Auditory Nerve, ... human ear: Auditory nerve fibres. The vestibulocochlear nerve consists of two anatomically and functionally distinct parts: the ... The acoustic nerves (VIII) are pure sensory nerves, each with a ganglion that subdivides for auditory functions and functions ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/vestibulocochlear-nerve

Cochlear Implant : Bimodal Fitting (Cochlear Implant and Hearing Aid Usage) - PORTAL MyHEALTHCochlear Implant : Bimodal Fitting (Cochlear Implant and Hearing Aid Usage) - PORTAL MyHEALTH

Figure 3: Illustration of auditory pathway for bimodal fitting in cochlear implant ... cochlear implant sends electrical signals to spiral ganglion cells and this electrical transmission go through auditory pathway ... and spiral ganglion cells which then convert acoustic signals into electrical signals and it go through the auditory system to ...
more infohttp://www.myhealth.gov.my/en/cochlear-implant-bimodal-fitting-cochlear-implant-hearing-aid-usage/

Lirias: Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence...Lirias: Projections of physiologically characterized spherical bushy cell axons from the cochlear nucleus of the cat: evidence...

Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of ... Bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive their principal excitatory input from the auditory nerve and ... SBC units can phase-lock better than auditory nerve fibers. SBCs with CFs above 1 kHz have primary-like responses at all ... these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. In an attempt to clarify these ...
more infohttps://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/183923

Frontiers | Drivers and modulators in the central auditory pathways | Frontiers in NeuroscienceFrontiers | Drivers and modulators in the central auditory pathways | Frontiers in Neuroscience

Driver pathways are associated with information-bearing pathways, while modulator pathways modify these principal information ... Driver pathways are associated with information-bearing pathways, while modulator pathways modify these principal information ... These properties illuminate the potential roles of some previously ill-defined auditory pathways, and may be extended further ... These properties illuminate the potential roles of some previously ill-defined auditory pathways, and may be extended further ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/neuro.01.014.2010/full

Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway | SpringerLinkRegulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway | SpringerLink

Regulation of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ4 in the auditory pathway. ... is expressed in the inner ear and the central auditory pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:4333-4338CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Frolenkov GI, Mammano F, Belyantseva IA, Coling D, Kachar B (2000) Two distinct Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways regulate the ... 1.Department of Physiology and Centre for Auditory ResearchUniversity College LondonLondonUK ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00424-004-1366-2

auditory pathway Archives - Laurel and Associates, Ltd. - Madison, WIauditory pathway Archives - Laurel and Associates, Ltd. - Madison, WI

By auditory pathway,cognitive load,doodling,sketch noting,visual pathway,working memory , With Comments Off on Tip #589: ...
more infohttp://laurelandassociates.com/tag/auditory-pathway/

Analogue VLSI building blocks for an electronic auditory pathway - InfoscienceAnalogue VLSI building blocks for an electronic auditory pathway - Infoscience

Since the main part of signal processing in the auditory pathway is performed by these different types of spiking neurons, a ... The remaining part of the human auditory pathway consists of several groups of different types of spiking neurons. ... The first example uses synchronized activity on auditory nerve fibres from two positions along the basilar membrane to obtain a ... and their application to some models of processing in the auditory brainstem. The anatomy and physiology of the human ear is ...
more infohttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/32241

A possible role for a paralemniscal auditory pathway in the coding of slow temporal informationA possible role for a paralemniscal auditory pathway in the coding of slow temporal information

Keywords: auditory thalamus, auditory cortex, guinea pig, paralemniscal auditory pathway, non-primary auditory pathway, ... 4.1.1 Lemniscal pathway Slow temporal rates have been studied extensively in the lemniscal pathway of the auditory system ( ... A question raised by this work involves the hierarchy of the paralemniscal auditory pathway at the levels of auditory thalamus ... it is postulated that these auditory thalamocortical connections represent parallel pathways in the ascending auditory system. ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3039065/?lang=en-ca

Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathways -...Optogenetic stimulation of the cochlear nucleus using channelrhodopsin-2 evokes activity in the central auditory pathways -...

... elicited responses in neurons in higher centers of the auditory pathway and whether it elicited an evoked response. Viral- ... Optical stimulation also evoked an auditory brainstem response, which had a simpler waveform than the response to acoustic ... These data suggest that optogenetic control of central auditory neurons is feasible, but opsins with faster channel kinetics ... However, few studies have applied optogenetics to the auditory brainstem. This study explored whether optical activation of the ...
more infohttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/204544/

Development of brainstem auditory pathway in mallard duck embryos and hatchlings - Semantic ScholarDevelopment of brainstem auditory pathway in mallard duck embryos and hatchlings - Semantic Scholar

Although auditory sensitivity in the mid-frequency range (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz) appeared 1-2 days later than in the low- ... In contrast, the development of auditory sensitivity in the low- and high-frequency ranges continued to develop after hatching ... The development of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) was studied in mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) embryos and ... Auditory brainstem responses and auditory thresholds in woodpeckers.. *Bernard Lohr, Elizabeth F. Brittan-Powell, Robert J. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Development-of-brainstem-auditory-pathway-in-duck-Dmitrieva-Gottlieb/c0fca14ecfe65cc8afb8e4b0a34a43c0d37169b9

Auditory pathwayAuditory pathway

... auditory thalamus 4. auditory cortex 5. amygdala 6. prefrontal cortex 7. rhinal cortex 8. hippocampus ... this diagram shows the pathway of the impulse from the ear and its processing in the brain showing: 1. ear 2. brain stem 3. ... auditory pathway diagram. , auditory pathway, hearing pathway to the brain, auditory thalamus, diagram of auditory pathway, ... Auditory pathway. this diagram shows the pathway of the impulse from the ear and its processing in the brain. showing:. 1. ear ...
more infohttp://www.edoctoronline.com/medical-atlas.asp?c=4&id=21954

Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult...Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult...

Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ... Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ... Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ... Optogenetic stimulation of cochlear neurons activates the auditory pathway and restores auditory-driven behavior in deaf adult ...
more infohttps://stm.sciencemag.org/content/10/449/eaao0540/tab-article-info

The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the...The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the...

The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ... The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ... The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ... The binaural auditory pathway: excitatory amino acid receptors mediate dual timecourse excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/251/1331/151

9780387989037  isbn/isbn13 $$ Compare Prices at 110 Bookstores! Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway ...9780387989037 isbn/isbn13 $$ Compare Prices at 110 Bookstores! Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway ...

Springer Handbook of Auditory Research),books, textbooks, text book ... For Book: Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) [Detail & Customer ... Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) Author(s): N/A. ISBN-13: ... Integrative Functions in the Mammalian Auditory Pathway (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) A summary of how the ...
more infohttp://www.alldiscountbooks.net/_9780387989037_i_.html

Functional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot studyFunctional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot study

... , Rajesh Paluru, ... Functional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot study. Rajesh Paluru1* ... Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER). Inter wave peak latencies in auditory pathway were recorded with Biologic Navigator ... PTA and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) are used for the functional analysis of auditory pathway. ...
more infohttp://www.alliedacademies.org/articles/functional-analysis-of-auditory-pathway-in-type-2-diabetes-by-brainstem-auditory-evoked-responsea-pilot-study.html

Abnormal auditory pathways in PHOX2B mutation positive congenital central hypoventilation syndrome | BMC Neurology | Full TextAbnormal auditory pathways in PHOX2B mutation positive congenital central hypoventilation syndrome | BMC Neurology | Full Text

We aimed to assess the integrity of auditory pathways in CCHS and investigate the extent in which brainstem auditory pathways ... to assess auditory pathways in CCHS and investigate to which extent brainstem auditory pathways are also affected. ... Auditory pathways start from the auditory nerve (wave I) to the cochlear nuclei (wave II) in the medulla to the superior ... Dysfunction of brainstem auditory pathways can be observed in CCHS. However, auditory evoked responses can be normal in the ...
more infohttps://bmcneurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12883-015-0299-z/

auditory-pathway-to-the-brain | eDoctorOnline.comauditory-pathway-to-the-brain | eDoctorOnline.com

auditory pathway, auditory pathway, auditory pathway, auditory pathways, auditory pathway, auditory pathways, hearing pathway, ... auditory pathway, auditory system pathway, auditory pathway, lateral lemniscus, auditory pathway, AUDITORY PATHWAY, auditory ... auditory pathways, ear anatomy, hearing pathway, The following are the result pages for the searched keyowrd: auditory pathway ... Auditory pathway. 05/11/2009 03:41:01 this image shows the pathway of the auditory system the system responsible for our sense ...
more infohttp://tags.edoctoronline.com/auditory-pathway-to-the-brain

Functional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot studyFunctional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot study

... , Rajesh Paluru, ... Functional analysis of auditory pathway in type 2 diabetes by brainstem auditory evoked response-a pilot study. Rajesh Paluru1* ... Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER). Inter wave peak latencies in auditory pathway were recorded with Biologic Navigator ... PTA and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) are used for the functional analysis of auditory pathway. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedres.info/biomedical-research/functional-analysis-of-auditory-pathway-in-type-2-diabetes-by-brainstem-auditory-evoked-responsea-pilot-study.html

Auditory Pathway - Anatomy, Ear Structures, Transduction | KenhubAuditory Pathway - Anatomy, Ear Structures, Transduction | Kenhub

This article describes the anatomy and physiology of the hearing process and auditory pathway from the ear to the brain cortex ... The auditory pathway is more complex than the visual and the olfactory pathways. It is composed of a number of nuclei and is ... The auditory pathway. The external ear/pinna funnels sound waves into a unidirectional wave, and is able to direct it into the ... Auditory Pathway - want to learn more about it? Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are ...
more infohttps://www.kenhub.com/en/library/anatomy/auditory-pathway

JCI -
Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathwayJCI - Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway. Victor H. Hernandez,1,2 Anna Gehrt,1 Kirsten Reuter,1,2 Zhizi Jing,1,3 Marcus ... Optical activation of the auditory pathway in ChR2 transgenic mice. (A) ChR2-YFP expression in SGNs in a section of an entire ... Specificity of oABRs for ChR2-mediated activation of the auditory pathway. (A) No oABRs upon projection of light onto the ... Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for ...
more infohttps://com.www.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/69050

JCI -
Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathwayJCI - Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway. Victor H. Hernandez,1,2 Anna Gehrt,1 Kirsten Reuter,1,2 Zhizi Jing,1,3 Marcus ... Optical activation of the auditory pathway in ChR2 transgenic mice. (A) ChR2-YFP expression in SGNs in a section of an entire ... Specificity of oABRs for ChR2-mediated activation of the auditory pathway. (A) No oABRs upon projection of light onto the ... Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for ...
more infohttps://chinatirui.net.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/69050

JCI -
Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathwayJCI - Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway

Optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway. Victor H. Hernandez,1,2 Anna Gehrt,1 Kirsten Reuter,1,2 Zhizi Jing,1,3 Marcus ... Optical activation of the auditory pathway in ChR2 transgenic mice. (A) ChR2-YFP expression in SGNs in a section of an entire ... Specificity of oABRs for ChR2-mediated activation of the auditory pathway. (A) No oABRs upon projection of light onto the ... Our study demonstrates a strategy for optogenetic stimulation of the auditory pathway in rodents and lays the groundwork for ...
more infohttps://insight.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/69050

Frontiers | Development of Parallel Auditory Thalamocortical Pathways for Two Different Behaviors | Frontiers in NeuroanatomyFrontiers | Development of Parallel Auditory Thalamocortical Pathways for Two Different Behaviors | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy

Here we review studies of the organization and development of auditory thalamocortical pathways in the pallid bat. The pallid ... Here we review studies of the organization and development of auditory thalamocortical pathways in the pallid bat. The pallid ... These data suggest that parallel auditory thalamocortical pathways may segregate in an experience-dependent fashion, a ... There is overlap of thalamocortical pathways during development. At two weeks postnatal, when the bat begins to exhibit adult- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2010.00134/full

2.2.6 Auditory pathways and the tonotopic map - Perception: Auditory | Coursera2.2.6 Auditory pathways and the tonotopic map - Perception: Auditory | Coursera

2.2.6 Auditory pathways and the tonotopic map. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web ... Lets take a look further about some processing of the auditory system. ... Okay so this is the auditory pathways.. ... 2.2.6 Auditory pathways and the tonotopic map9:48. 2.2.7 Sound ...
more infohttps://zh.coursera.org/learn/advancedneurobiologyii/lecture/rBBvi/2-2-6-auditory-pathways-and-the-tonotopic-map
  • The development of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) was studied in mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) embryos and hatchlings from 5-6 days before hatching through two days after hatching in response to tone pips of different frequencies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Auditory thalamocortical connections are organized as parallel pathways that originate in different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB). (frontiersin.org)
  • Frolenkov GI, Mammano F, Belyantseva IA, Coling D, Kachar B (2000) Two distinct Ca 2+ -dependent signaling pathways regulate the motor output of cochlear outer hair cells. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Musiek is a professor and the director of auditory research in the Department of Communication Sciences at the University of Connecticut in Storrs. (lww.com)
  • Although the incidence of children with central auditory processing disorder or deficit (CAPD) resulting from neurologic defects is considerably lower than that in children with CAPD, learning problems, and no identifiable neuropathology, some of the latter group also present with neurologic issues. (lww.com)
  • These delays theoretically can result in decreased performance on central auditory tests and in hearing difficulties, and are likely related to the long maturational course of the CANS. (lww.com)
  • Studies in adults demonstrate the effectiveness of RMHAs in mitigating hearing difficulties in conditions which are known to cause central auditory temporal distortions (multiple sclerosis, Friederich Ataxia)(Lewis et al. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • A brain network involving limbic and other nonauditory regions is active in tinnitus and may be driven when spectrotemporal information conveyed by the damaged ear does not match that predicted by central auditory processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • By funneling the sound waves in this way, it is able to direct them into the auditory canal and amplify them. (kenhub.com)
  • It arises from the greater wing of sphenoid and auditory canal and can be voluntarily controlled. (kenhub.com)
  • One of the most exciting research findings in the treatment of auditory processing disorder (APD) is the neuroplastic benefit of amplification. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • Emergence of the brain-stem auditory evoked potential in the premature lamb. (semanticscholar.org)
  • this auditory information to the brain stem. (coursera.org)
  • After a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying neural plasticity following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, various neuroprotective therapies have been developed for alleviating brain injury.The aim of this work is to evaluate with morphofunctional, molecular and cellular methods the effect of a panel of antioxidants on HI-induced auditory deficits. (ehu.es)
  • While the first two volumes describe the structure and function of auditory pathways, this one explains how these pathways lead to an animal's ability to localize and interpret sounds. (alldiscountbooks.net)