The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The ability to differentiate tones.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (1/1840)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

Episodic retrieval activates the precuneus irrespective of the imagery content of word pair associates. A PET study. (2/1840)

The aim of this study was to evaluate further the role of the precuneus in episodic memory retrieval. The specific hypothesis addressed was that the precuneus is involved in episodic memory retrieval irrespective of the imagery content. Two groups of six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six [15O]butanol-PET scans. In each of the six trials, the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of 1500 MBq of [15O]butanol. For Group 1, 12 word pair associates were presented visually, for Group 2 auditorily. The subjects of each group had to learn and retrieve two sets of 12 word pairs each. One set consisted of highly imaginable words and another one of abstract words. Words of both sets were not related semantically, representing 'hard' associations. The presentations of nonsense words served as reference conditions. We demonstrate that the precuneus shows consistent activation during episodic memory retrieval. Precuneus activation occurred in visual and auditory presentation modalities and for both highly imaginable and abstract words. The present study therefore provides further evidence that the precuneus has a specific function in episodic memory retrieval as a multimodal association area.  (+info)

Single cortical neurons serve both echolocation and passive sound localization. (3/1840)

The pallid bat uses passive listening at low frequencies to detect and locate terrestrial prey and reserves its high-frequency echolocation for general orientation. While hunting, this bat must attend to both streams of information. These streams are processed through two parallel, functionally specialized pathways that are segregated at the level of the inferior colliculus. This report describes functionally bimodal neurons in auditory cortex that receive converging input from these two pathways. Each brain stem pathway imposes its own suite of response properties on these cortical neurons. Consequently, the neurons are bimodally tuned to low and high frequencies, and respond selectively to both noise transients used in prey detection, and downward frequency modulation (FM) sweeps used in echolocation. A novel finding is that the monaural and binaural response properties of these neurons can change as a function of the sound presented. The majority of neurons appeared binaurally inhibited when presented with noise but monaural or binaurally facilitated when presented with the echolocation pulse. Consequently, their spatial sensitivity will change, depending on whether the bat is engaged in echolocation or passive listening. These results demonstrate that the response properties of single cortical neurons can change with behavioral context and suggest that they are capable of supporting more than one behavior.  (+info)

The magnitude and phase of temporal modulation transfer functions in cat auditory cortex. (4/1840)

Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) in response to periodic click trains are presented for simultaneous recordings from primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, and secondary auditory cortex in 21 cats. The multiunit records could be separated in to 215 single-unit spike trains that allowed a reliable estimate of a group delay, which represents the cumulative delay for responses to repetitive stimuli. For approximately two-thirds of the 215 single units the group delay was within 7.5 msec of the response latency to the first clicks in the trains. For the remaining units, the group delay was on average approximately 14 msec higher, and this may result from differences in synaptic properties. These findings were similar in the three cortical areas studied. The findings are modeled based on presynaptic facilitation and depression and pyramidal cell calcium kinetics, and a quantitative description of the magnitude of the tMTF was obtained that resulted in substantially shorter depression time constants (20 msec) than reported for visual cortex (300 msec). A small amount (0-5.5%) of facilitation that decayed with a time constant of 60 msec was obtained. Auditory cortical cells apparently have much faster recovery mechanisms than visual cortical cells. This allows for the ability of the auditory cortex to reliably track the rhythms that occur in natural sounds.  (+info)

Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex. (5/1840)

Neurons in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1) generally cannot respond to tone sequences faster than 12 pulses per second (pps). To test whether experience can modify this maximum following rate in adult rats, trains of brief tones with random carrier frequency but fixed repetition rate were paired with electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis (NB) 300 to 400 times per day for 20-25 days. Pairing NB stimulation with 5-pps stimuli markedly decreased the cortical response to rapidly presented stimuli, whereas pairing with 15-pps stimuli significantly increased the maximum cortical following rate. In contrast, pairing with fixed carrier frequency 15-pps trains did not significantly increase the mean maximum following rate. Thus this protocol elicits extensive cortical remodeling of temporal response properties and demonstrates that simple differences in spectral and temporal features of the sensory input can drive very different cortical reorganizations.  (+info)

Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. (6/1840)

Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.  (+info)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. (7/1840)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. This paper examines neuron responses in rat primary auditory cortex (AI) during sound stimulation of the two ears designed to simulate sound motion in the horizontal plane. The simulated sound motion was synthesized from mathematical equations that generated dynamic changes in interaural phase, intensity, and Doppler shifts at the two ears. The simulated sounds were based on moving sources in the right frontal horizontal quadrant. Stimuli consisted of three circumferential segments between 0 and 30 degrees, 30 and 60 degrees, and 60 and 90 degrees and four radial segments at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. The constant velocity portion of each segment was 0.84 m long. The circumferential segments and center of the radial segments were calculated to simulate a distance of 2 m from the head. Each segment had two trajectories that simulated motion in both directions, and each trajectory was presented at two velocities. Young adult rats were anesthetized, the left primary auditory cortex was exposed, and microelectrode recordings were obtained from sound responsive cells in AI. All testing took place at a tonal frequency that most closely approximated the best frequency of the unit at a level 20 dB above the tuning curve threshold. The results were presented on polar plots that emphasized the two directions of simulated motion for each segment rather than the location of sound in space. The trajectory exhibiting a "maximum motion response" could be identified from these plots. "Neuron discharge profiles" within these trajectories were used to demonstrate neuron activity for the two motion directions. Cells were identified that clearly responded to simulated uni- or multidirectional sound motion (39%), that were sensitive to sound location only (19%), or that were sound driven but insensitive to our location or sound motion stimuli (42%). The results demonstrated the capacity of neurons in rat auditory cortex to selectively process dynamic stimulus conditions representing simulated motion on the horizontal plane. Our data further show that some cells were responsive to location along the horizontal plane but not sensitive to motion. Cells sensitive to motion, however, also responded best to the moving sound at a particular location within the trajectory. It would seem that the mechanisms underlying sensitivity to sound location as well as direction of motion converge on the same cell.  (+info)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the Cat. (8/1840)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the cat. Mimimum detectable gaps in noise in humans are independent of the position of the gap, whereas in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) they are position dependent. The position dependence in other cortical areas is not known and may resolve this contrast. This study presents minimum detectable gap-in-noise values for which single-unit (SU), multiunit (MU) recordings and local field potentials (LFPs) show an onset response to the noise after the gap. The gap, which varied in duration between 5 and 70 ms, was preceded by a noise burst of either 5 ms (early gap) or 500 ms (late gap) duration. In 10 cats, simultaneous recordings were made with one electrode each in AI, anterior auditory field (AAF), and secondary auditory cortex (AII). In nine additional cats, two electrodes were inserted in AI and one in AAF. Minimum detectable gaps based on SU, MU, or LFP data in each cortical area were the same. In addition, very similar minimum early-gap values were found in all three areas (means, 36.1-41.7 ms). The minimum late-gap values were also similar in AI and AII (means, 11.1 and 11.7 ms), whereas AAF showed significantly larger minimum late-gap durations (mean 21.5 ms). For intensities >35 dB SPL, distributions of minimum early-gap durations in AAF and AII had modal values at approximately 45 ms. In AI, the distribution was more uniform. Distributions for minimum late-gap duration were skewed toward low values (mode at 5 ms), but high values (+info)

The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
Auditory cortex is required for sound localisation, but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. Specifically, whether neurons in auditory cortex represent spatial cues or an integrated representation of auditory space across cues is not known. Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative localisation task. Manipulating the availability of binaural and spectral localisation cues had little impact on ferrets performance, or on neural spatial tuning. A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial position consistently across localisation cue type. Furthermore, neural firing pattern decoders outperformed two-channel model decoders using population activity. Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. The brains auditory cortex is involved not just in detection of sounds, but also in localizing
A major challenge for sensory processing in the brain is considering stimulus context, such as stimulus probability, which may be relevant for survival. Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone (oddball) that breaks the preceding regularity. Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. All cell types displayed SSA of fast (early) subthreshold and suprathreshold responses with oddball tones of a deviant frequency eliciting enlarged responses compared with adapted standards. SSA was especially strong when oddball frequency matched neuronal preference. In ...
It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
The basic morphological aspects of auditory cortex organization in different orders of eutherian mammals are considered in the present review. The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent morphological data about secondary auditory areas. Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species.
Schuller, Gerd; ONeill, W. E.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne (1991): Facilitation and delay sensitivity of auditory cortex neurons in CF-FM bats, Rhinolopus rouxi and Pteronotus p. parnellii. In: European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 11: pp. 1165-1181 ...
Despite extensive subcortical processing, the auditory cortex is believed to be essential for normal sound localization. However, we still have a poor understanding of how auditory spatial information is encoded in the cortex and of the relative contribution of different cortical areas to spatial hearing. We investigated the behavioral consequences of inactivating ferret primary auditory cortex (A1) on auditory localization by implanting a sustained release polymer containing the GABA(A) agonist muscimol bilaterally over A1. Silencing A1 led to a reversible deficit in the localization of brief noise bursts in both the horizontal and vertical planes. In other ferrets, large bilateral lesions of the auditory cortex, which extended beyond A1, produced more severe and persistent localization deficits. To investigate the processing of spatial information by high-frequency A1 neurons, we measured their binaural-level functions and used individualized virtual acoustic space stimuli to record their spatial
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
Via: PLoS Biology:. How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial ...
Author: Kayser, C et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-12; Title: Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology
Brasselet, R., Panzeri, S., Logothetis, N. K., & Kayser, C. (2012). Neurons with stereotyped and rapid responses provide a reference frame for relative temporal coding in primate auditory cortex. J Neurosci, 32(9), 2998-3008. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5435- ...
A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. The electrode can be arranged in the patients primary auditory cortex and each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical contacts can be arranged to approximately tonotopically match the primary auditory cortex.
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
Front Neural Circuits. 2014 Mar 11;8:15. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2014.00015. eCollection 2014. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex.
Lesion studies suggest that primary auditory cortex (A1) is required for accurate sound localization by carnivores and primates. In order to elucidate further its role in spatial hearing, we examined the behavioural consequences of reversibly inactivating ferret A1 over long periods, using Elvax implants releasing the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. Sub-dural polymer placements were shown to deliver relatively constant levels of muscimol to underlying cortex for |5 months. The measured diffusion of muscimol beneath and around the implant was limited to 1 mm. Cortical silencing was assessed electrophysiologically in both auditory and visual cortices. This exhibited rapid onset and was reversed within a few hours of implant removal. Inactivation of cortical neurons extended to all layers for implants lasting up to 6 weeks and throughout at least layers I-IV for longer placements, whereas thalamic activity in layer IV appeared to be unaffected. Blockade of cortical neurons in the deeper layers was
The recent discovery of combination-sensitive neurons in the primary auditory cortex of awake marmosets may reconcile previous, apparently contradictory, findings that cortical neurons produce strong, sustained responses, but also represent stimuli sparsely. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the present study, we determined connections of three newly defined regions of auditory cortex with regions of the frontal lobe, and how two of these regions in the frontal lobe interconnect and connect to other portions of frontal cortex and the temporal lobe in macaque monkeys. We conceptualize …
Despite vast literature on catecholaminergic neuromodulation of auditory cortex functioning in general, knowledge about its role for long-term memory formation is scarce. Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerb …
Learning a language or recognizing music is usually a breeze for children, however, this capacity dramatically declines with age. Now, a study from researchers at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital shows the restriction of a key chemical messenger in the brain helps extend efficient auditory learning much later in life. The team states limiting the supply of the neuromodulator adenosine in a brain structure called the auditory thalamus preserved the ability of adult mice to learn from passive exposure to sound. The study is published in the journal Science.. Previous studies show the auditory thalamus is the brains relay station where sound is collected and sent to the auditory cortex for processing. The auditory thalamus and cortex rely on the neurotransmitter glutamate to communicate, with adenosine also shown to reduce glutamate levels. Circuits in the auditory cortex are highly susceptible to acoustic influences during the early postnatal period, with the auditory cortex selectively ...
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory...
A GENESIS GUI for providing inputs to an auditory cortex model ======================================================================*/ //=============================== // Function Definitions //=============================== // Display the parameters for the specified input function show_params(input_num) str control_form = /input_control int input_num, row_num setfield {control_form}/input_num value {input_num} float frequency, delay, width, interval str pulse_src = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /spikepulse str spike_out = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /soma/spike // this assumes set_pulse_params has been called so that abs_refract != 0 row_num = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_row} setfield {control_form}/targ_row value {row_num} frequency = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_freq} setfield {control_form}/spikefreq value {frequency} delay = {getfield {pulse_src} delay1 } float width = {getfield {pulse_src} ...
When two sounds are presented in quick succession, the neural response to the second sound can decrease relative to when it is presented alone. Previous two-tone experiments have not determined whether the frequency tuning of cortical suppression was determined by the receptive field of the neuron or the exact relationship between the frequencies of the two tones. In the first experiment, it is shown that forward suppression does depend on the relationship between the two tones. This confirmed that cortical forward suppression is frequency specific at the shortest possible timescale ...
Sensory areas. There is a general rule that one cerebral hemisphere handles sensory inputs from the opposite side of the body. This is true of the somatosensory cortex, and the visual system, where each visual area processes information relating to the opposite visual field of both eyes. The auditory cortex is an exception however, because localisation of sound requires comparison of the times of arrival of sounds at both ears; hence each auditory cortex receives inputs from both cochleas.. Sensory inputs to the cortex arise from the thalamic nuclei, including the medial and lateral geniculate bodies. There is a topographic map of one half of the bodys surface on the contralateral somatosensory cortex, and a map of the contralateral visual fields of both eyes on the visual cortex. There is also a map of the cochlear basilar membranes on the auditory cortex, in keeping with the need to localise sounds. The cortical area given over to the fovea in the primary visual cortex is much larger that ...
Pyramidal neurons were the only excitatory cell type encountered in layer 2/3. These cells exhibited classical pyramidal morphologies with an apical dendrite that tufted at the layer 1/layer 2 border. The most surprising observation about the anatomy of these neurons is the prevalence of axonal arbors in layer 4. Numerous projections to layer 4 were observed for virtually all layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. These projections reflect a direct feedback from layer 2/3 to layer 4 that is extremely sparse or absent in other primary sensory areas (Lübke et al., 2003; Binzegger et al., 2004). Perhaps the strongest example of a projection from layer 2/3 pyramids to layer 4 is in mouse S1 (Yabuta et al., 2000), but this projection is present only in the deepest layer 3 pyramidal neurons, whose dendrites extend well into layer 4, and is absent in more superficial pyramids. Evidence exists that transient projections from layer 2/3 pyramids to layer 4 are present early in development of ferret V1 before being ...
For MVPA, ROIs were identified in individual subject data. We used functionally defined ROIs as input for the pattern classification based on areas active at p , .001 (uncorrected) and ET of 20 voxels for the average of All Conditions minus Rest. Clusters were categorized by peak voxel location and general spatial extent in the supratemporal plane relative to HG, labeled as aSTG, HG, or pSTG, in both left and right hemispheres, yielding six total ROIs. Representative slices illustrating ROIs for three subjects are plotted on each subjects native anatomical image in Figure 5. These regions then were used as candidate regions for identification of FM-selective networks that we could assess using a more fine-grained MVPA. The pattern of activity in each subjects ROI was then assessed in its ability to classify the four different pairs of stimulus conditions noted earlier. Table 1 provides results of statistical classification analyses for the 21 subjects in each ROI (left and right HG, ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25;106(34):14611-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907682106. Epub 2009 Aug 10. Clinical Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A neural prosthetic device for an auditory cortex of a patient has a support arranged in the auditory cortex with a plurality of electrical contacts and is connected to a speech processor for receiving and processing audio information and outputting processed electrical signals. Each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical-contacts are arranged to approximately tonotopically match the auditory cortex. Methods and apparatus for selectively treating or inactivating neurons within the brain of a patient. The apparatus includes a dual purpose multicontact neuron-monitoring electrode assembly and an introducer tube for introducing the electrode assembly within the patient in the vicinity of the target tissue. The apparatus and methods of the instant invention are particularly suited to performing magnetic pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinsons disease.
Blue Hell, they may have worked out what tinnitus is and how to fix it. The basic idea is that when your ear is damaged (by noise,medication,etc), auditory cortex neurons in the brain become starved of certain frequencies. In Darwinian survival style, they become hyperactive and start receiving input sound from bordering undamaged zones, which we hear as tinnitus. The objective therefore is to re-supply the missing input noise to a now over-active auditory cortex to suppress the excessive neuronal firing which causes tinnitus ...
The goal of this study was to understand the spontaneous neuronal activities and acoustic responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI), and the modulation of different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) on different layers of the auditory cortex (AC) especially AI, through in vivo intracellular recordings and/or extracellular recordings in adult urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. One hundred and eighty nine neurons/units in AC, distributed among all six cortical layers, were recorded intracellularly and/or extrcellularly. Thirty-one of forty intracellular recorded neurons (77.50 %) and one hundred and thirty of one hundred and forty nine extracellular recorded units (87.25%) showed excitatory responses to a noise burst stimulus applied to the contralateral ear of the animals. The extracellularly recorded neurons showed synchronized spikes with the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), action potential (AP) and/or rhythmic oscillation of the intracellularly recorded ...
In the next part of the study, we focused on the neuronal plasticity in the auditory cortex. The plasticity of synapse is widely accepted as a candidate mechanism of learning and memory in the brain. From the first published long term potentiation (LTP) induction experiment by Tim Bliss and colleagues in 1972, most experimenters have induced LTP through high frequency or repeated stimuli. Such artificial stimulus patterns in the experimental preparation are, however, uncommon in natural condition. The hippocampus is widely believed to serve only as a memory buffer instead of the location to store permanent memory. The cerebral cortex is regarded as the site for long term memory storage. In a parallel study by Chen and colleagues in our laboratory, they have found that an artificial visuoauditory memory trace could be induced in the auditory cortex through conditioning a combined stimulus of electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex and a visual stimulus with foot shock in the behaving rat. ...
This study addresses the temporal fidelity and spatial topography of auditory cortex suppression during vocalization and resolves a controversy in the animal versus human literature. We first examined averaged ECoG responses across auditory electrodes in seven different subjects. We found a reduction in the N100 component of the ECoG auditory ERP as well as a reduction of induced spectral responses that peaked at 100 Hz, corresponding with the γHigh band. However, examining each auditory electrode with a γHigh response revealed differential degrees of suppression across auditory cortex. Moreover, within each subject different regions of auditory cortex exhibited different types of self-speech modulation of ECoG auditory responses. Single-trial analysis of these electrodes revealed a consistent response across the different trials. Both highly suppressed and nonsuppressed electrodes revealed the same pattern of response in single-trials across the experimental session. Only a few sites ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely ...
The Central Nervous System Module 8 bingo card with primary motor cortex, premotor area, prefrontal area, taste area, Brocas area, primary auditory area, auditory association area, Wernickes area, visual cortex and visual association area
Little is known about the underlying neurobiology of rhythm and beat perception, despite its universal cultural importance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study rhythm perception in musicians and nonmusicians. Three conditions varied in the degree to which external reinforcement versus internal generation of the beat was required. The volume condition strongly externally marked the beat with volume changes, the duration condition marked the beat with weaker accents arising from duration changes, and the unaccented condition required the beat to be entirely internally generated. In all conditions, beat rhythms compared with nonbeat control rhythms revealed putamen activity. The presence of a beat was also associated with greater connectivity between the putamen and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the premotor cortex (PMC), and auditory cortex. In contrast, the type of accent within the beat conditions modulated the coupling between premotor and auditory cortex, ...
Tinnitus, the chronic perception of ringing or other phantom sounds, is typically associated with hearing loss. The reduction of auditory input that conveys to auditory cortex leads to the changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activation of the corresponding neurons in this area and is possibly the cause of tinnitus. From the other hand a recent study (Gordon et al. Beain 2013) has shown that bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally driven reorganization. Based on this finding we could expect that in patient with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus the input from unimpaired ear has not been transfered sufficiently to the bilateral hemisphere and this loss of input has resulted in reorganization in neuronal activity of the auditory cortex. To test this hypothesis we compare the amplitude of the neuronal activity bold response of the auditory cortex in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere to the hearing ear in response to different frequency tones. Ten tinnitus patients
Video articles in JoVE about auditory cortex include Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI, Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging, Stereotactically-guided Ablation of the Rat Auditory Cortex, and Localization of the Lesion in the Brain, High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning, Combined Shuttle-Box Training with Electrophysiological Cortex Recording and Stimulation as a Tool to Study Perception and Learning, Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training, Reversible Cooling-induced Deactivations to Study Cortical Contributions to Obstacle Memory in the Walking Cat, Decoding Auditory Imagery with Multivoxel Pattern Analysis, Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice
Congenital amusia is a disorder characterized by impaired musical skills, which can extend to an inability to recognize very familiar tunes. The neural bases of this deficit are now being deciphered. According to a study conducted by researchers from CNRS and Inserm at the Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS / Inserm / Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), amusics exhibit altered processing of musical information in two regions of the brain: the auditory cortex and the frontal cortex, particularly in the right cerebral hemisphere. These alterations seem to be linked to anatomical anomalies in these same cortices. This work, published on April 2013 in the journal Brain, adds invaluable information to our understanding of amusia and, more generally, of the
Generative models of neuroimaging and electrophysiological data present new opportunities for accessing hidden or latent brain states. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) uses Bayesian model inversion and selection to infer the synaptic mechanisms underlying empirically observed brain responses. DCM for electrophysiological data, in particular, aims to estimate the relative strength of synaptic transmission at different cell types and via specific neurotransmitters. Here, we report a DCM validation study concerning inference on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, using different doses of a volatile anaesthetic agent (isoflurane) to parametrically modify excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processing while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from primary auditory cortex (A1) and the posterior auditory field (PAF) in the auditory belt region in rodents. We test whether DCM can infer, from the LFP measurements, the expected drug-induced changes in synaptic transmission mediated via fast ...
Birn R.M., Converse A.K., Rajala A.Z., Alexander A.L., Bloek W.F., McMillan A.B, Christian B.T., Filla C.N, Murali D., Hurley S.A., Jenison R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2019) Changes in Endogenous Dopamine Induced by Methylphenidate Predict Functional Connectivity in Nonhuman Primates , Journal of Neuroscience 39:8 1436-1444.. Rajala A.Z., Jenison R.L., and Populin L.C. (2018) Neural correlate of auditory spatial attention allocation in the superior colliculus, Journal of Neurophysiology 119: 1450-1460.. Jenison R.L., Reale R.A., Armstrong A.L., Oya H., Kawasaki H. and Howard III M.A. (2015) Sparse Spectro-temporal Receptive Fields based on Multi-unit and High-gamma response in Human Auditory Cortex, PLoS ONE, 10(9). Rajala, A.Z., Jenison, R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2015) Decision making: effects of methylphenidate on temporal discounting in nonhuman primates. Journal of Neurophysiology, 114, 70-79. Jenison, R.L. (2014) Directional Influence between the Human Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex at the ...
The following m files are included: discrimination_MLE.m Calculates the discrimination ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take an hour to run categorization_llikhd.m Calculates the identification ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take 4 minutes to run. Both scripts above use the following helper functions: MNRRS.m Gets the response of the population of neurons to a specific frequency. likhood.m The likelihood function (equation 2 in manuscript) get_params.m The parameters used for the simulation (population parameters and testing parameters) Editing this file will suffice to change population or testing parameters smth_gass_distr.m Helper function for get_params to redefine over-representation. categorization_llikhd also includes: binornd_sim.m The Bernoulli random process simulation (Eq 5 in paper) In addition, the following mat files are included: discr_temp.mat output expected at line 93 of discrimination_MLE to plot, use lines 98-103 ...
Tuesday February 25th 2014. Research is shedding new light on why there is such a huge bond between people and their dogs.. Scientists in Hungary have found that humans and canines respond to voices and sounds in a similar way with the same area of the brain. The findings, revealed in the Current Biology journal, show how similar the brains of the two species react to human commands and canine whines and even in recognising sounds that reveal emotions. Dogs and humans both use a part of the brain near the primary auditory cortex when they hear happy noises. Dogs were trained to lie still in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanner and their responses to sounds were compared with those of humans, such as whining, barking, crying and laughing.. It is often said that dogs are mans best friend and the study could finally be pinpointing the reason why. Owners can make sure they can afford the best veterinary care for their beloved dogs by arranging Pet Insurance. Attila Andics, ...
A new Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach to translate brain waves into speech Akbari et al. Towards reconstructing intelligible speech from the human auditory cortex. Scientific Reports January,
The average patient age at tadalafil 20mg lowest price diagnosis was 30.6 years and the mean followup was 65 months. Responses in the human auditory cortex to natural speech reveal a dual character.. The evolution of pharmacokinetics and clinically useful drug assays tadalafil cost at walmart has led to pharmacokinetic dosing, a more sophisticated and exact method of dosing certain agents. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide deficiency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy.. Since the human heart has a complex anatomy, the two-dimensional analysis of myocardial scintigrams obviously is not satisfactory. A range of factors influence health-related quality of life in people with heart failure. Atrophic and a mixed pattern tadalafil online of acne scars improved with a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient. The need to measure the level of surgical risk ...
5. Categorization of Species-Specific Vocalizations in the Non-Human Primate: Features Guiding Behavioral Discrimination and Neural Processing in the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex (Gordon W. Gifford, and Yale E. Cohen)pp. 65- ...
Recent evidence from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies in ASD have pointed to abnormalities (specifically, delays) in auditory evoked neuromagnetic responses (e.g. M100 - see Roberts et al., 2010, and mismatch field, MMF - see Roberts et al., 2011) as well as abnormalities in the oscillatory behavior of auditory cortex, especially in the gamma band (30-50Hz), at rest and in response to simple auditory stimuli (see Gandal et al., 2010 and Cornew et al., 2012; Edgar et al., 2013). The local circuitry underlying such evoked activity and oscillations, and synaptic transmission in general, requires an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition, mediated by glutamate and GABA, respectively. One model of the neural oscillatory deficits in ASD suggests that impaired regulatory control by inhibitory interneurons onto pyramidal cells underlies abnormal auditory latency and oscillatory electrophysiological measures. As such, electrophysiological deficits are interpreted in terms of local ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Penikis, Kristina B.. AU - Young, Stephen K.. AU - Ferrer, Christopher E.. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2017/6/20. Y1 - 2017/6/20. N2 - Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, ...
The scientists found that this learned behaviour was permanent and when they mapped oxytocins effect in the brain of the mice, they found it was working on the left hemisphere of the auditory cortex. In other words they believe that oxytocin was controlling the volume of social information that was being processed by individual nerve cells, similar to the way a dimmer switch can turn a light up or down ...
Dr Catia Andreassi, UCL Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology: Bridging funding to support a post-doctoral RA working on understanding the role of mRNA transport and local translation in axons of developing neurons.. Dr Maria Arantzazu Barrios Lafuente, UCL Division of Biosciences: Bridging funds for an intermediate career scientist working with c.elegans in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology.. Dr Daniel Bendor, UCL Psychology and Language Sciences: Contribution towards electrophysiology equipment for a new Investigator recruited from MIT to work on neural circuits in the auditory cortex.. Professor Frances Brodsky, UCL Division of Biosciences: Start-up funds for the provision of postdoctoral RA salaries for a new senior recruit specialising in the biochemical properties of clathrin and its role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes.. Dr Steven Buckingham, UCL Division of Medicine: Bridging funding for a postdoctoral RA pending PI grant applications. His research focuses on ion ...
... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex plays an important yet ambiguous role in hearing. When the auditory information passes into the cortex, the ... The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These ... with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically ...
Her poem, Place won an honorable mention at Asian Ch's Auditory Cortex. Ground up won third place at the David Burland Poetry ... "Auditory Cortex". Asian Cha (39). April 2018. ISSN 1999-5032. Archived from the original on 7 September 2018. Retrieved 7 ...
It is then the responsibility of the auditory cortex (AC) of the right hemisphere (on its own) to map the whole auditory scene ... The stream arrives at both the right and left auditory cortices for eventual speech processing by the left hemisphere. In a ... Its caudal and splenium portions contain fibres that originate from the primary and second auditory cortices, and from other ... Aging 33(7), 2012 Tervaniemi M, Hugdahl K; Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions; Brain Research Reviews 43, 2003 Van den ...
show that tactile senses can activate the human auditory cortex. Currently vibrotactile stimuli can be used to facilitate ... Schurmann M, Caetano G, Hlushchuk Y, Jousmaki V, Hari R (2006). "Touch activates human auditory cortex". NeuroImage. 30 (4): ... "Functional cerebral reorganization for auditory spatial processing and auditory substitution of vision in early blind subjects ... The visual or auditory data collected from the sensors is transformed into tactile stimuli that are then relayed to the brain ...
The primary auditory cortex is the first region of cerebral cortex to receive auditory input. Perception of sound is associated ... From the primary auditory cortex emerge two separate pathways: the auditory ventral stream and auditory dorsal stream. The ... The primary auditory cortex is surrounded by secondary auditory cortex, and interconnects with it. These secondary areas ... The neurons of the primary auditory cortex can be considered to have receptive fields covering a range of auditory frequencies ...
She published her first academic paper, on how silent lip-reading activates the auditory cortex, in Science, while she was a ... Silent lipreading activates the auditory cortex. Science, 276, 593-596. Official website (Articles with short description, ... Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 11, No. 12, 1110-1123. Osterbauer, R.A., Matthews, P.M., Jenkinson, M., Beckmann, C.F., Hansen, P.C. & ... Calvert, G.A., Campbell, R., Brammer, M.J. (2000) fMRI evidence of crossmodal binding in the human heteromodal cortex. Current ...
The auditory cortex may be included. This network handles visual information processing. Different methods and data have ... Limbic Auditory Right/left executive Cerebellar Spatial attention Language Lateral visual Temporal Visual perception/imagery ... Cerebral Cortex. 29 (1): 397-409. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhy264. PMC 6294404. PMID 30357316. Bailey, Stephen K.; Aboud, Katherine S ... dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and three subcortical structures which are the ventral striatum, substantia nigra/ventral ...
During auditory verbal imagery, the inferior frontal cortex and the insula were activated as well as the supplementary motor ... Auditory imagery is a form of mental imagery that is used to organize and analyze sounds when there is no external auditory ... It was consistently found the prefrontal cortex and premotor cortical areas were active during the anticipation of auditory ... 2] Zatorre, R. J., & Halpern, A. R. (2005). Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex. Neuron, 47(1), 9-12. Halpern ...
2012). "Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex". PLOS Biol. 10 (1): e1001251. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001251. PMC ... Later, the computer model of auditory information processing was used to reconstruct some of the words back into sound based on ... Early studies used voxels from early visual cortex areas (V1, V2, and V3) to reconstruct geometric stimuli made up of ... Haynes, J; Rees, G (2005). "Predicting the Stream of Consciousness from Activity in Human Visual Cortex". Current Biology. 15 ( ...
Silent lip reading activates the auditory cortex. When sounds are matched or mismatched with the movements of the lips, ... The ABR, also known as the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test or auditory brainstem evoked potential (ABEP) test ... The human ear is able to detect differences in pitch through the movement of auditory hair cells found on the basilar membrane ... Specific inhibitory responses that take place in the visual cortex help create a visual focus on a specific point rather than ...
"ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Auditory and somatosensory cortex". Retrieved 2009-01-02. "ResearchCrossroads Research Grant ... "ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Functional organization of auditory somatosensory cortex". Retrieved 2009-01-02. " ... "ResearchCrossroads Research Grant Develop Multichannel Electrodes For Auditory Prosthesisunctional Organization Of The Auditory ... There, he did a cross-species analysis of the cochlear nucleus in large game cats and pinnipeds, did the first auditory ...
Part of the auditory cortex also can represent aspects of speech such as its consonantal features. Mirror neurons have been ... At least some cortical areas neurobiologically active during both sign and vocal speech, such as the auditory cortex, are ... Okada, K.; Hickok, G. (2006). "Left posterior auditory-related cortices participate both in speech perception and speech ... in the auditory cortex". Nature. 397 (6715): 116. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..116N. doi:10.1038/16376. PMID 9923672. S2CID 4414422. ...
The auditory cortex may also be included. The SMN is activated during motor tasks, such as finger tapping, indicating that the ... Biswal B, Yetkin FZ, Haughton VM, Hyde JS (October 1995). "Functional connectivity in the motor cortex of resting human brain ... Cerebral Cortex. 21 (10): 2291-8. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhr002. PMID 21368084. (Neuroscience, Brain). ...
Belin, P.; Zatorre, R. J.; Lafaille, P.; Ahad, P.; Pike, B. (2000-01-20). "Voice-selective areas in human auditory cortex". ... Cortex. 2014;50(100):125-136. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.07.011 Kreifelts B, Ethofer T, Shiozawa T, Grodd W, Wildgruber D. ... after the spectrotemporal analysis conducted by the auditory cortex, the STS is responsible for interpretation of vocal input ... Pure auditory agnosia (agnosia without aphasia) is found in a patients who can't identify non-speech sounds such as coughing, ...
Superior temporal gyrus: contains primary auditory cortex. Primary auditory cortex: processes hearing and speech perception. ... and the subsequent primary auditory cortex. The perception of auditory hallucinations corresponds to the experience of actual ... Transverse temporal gyri (Heschl's gyri): found within the primary auditory cortex. Left temporal lobe: processes semantics in ... Auditory hallucinations have been known to manifest as a result of intense stress, sleep deprivation, and drug use. Auditory ...
Induction of visual orientation modules in auditory cortex. Nature 404: 841-847, 2000. Von Melchner, L., S.L. Pallas and M. Sur ... Visual input altered the development of neuronal connections in the auditory cortex, thus enabling animals to use their " ... Experimentally induced visual projections into auditory thalamus and cortex. Science 242: 1437-1441, 1988. Hahm, J.-O., R.B. ... The Sur laboratory also studies genes involved in constructing the cerebral cortex, and the ways in which gene networks are ...
1997). "Activation of auditory cortex during silent lipreading". Science. 276 (5312): 593-6. doi:10.1126/science.276.5312.593. ... 1991 Seeing Speech: visual information from lip movements modifies activity in the human auditory cortex". Neuroscience Letters ... These studies and many more point to a role for vision in the development of sensitivity to (auditory) speech in the first half ... Havy, M., Foroud, A., Fais, L., & Werker, J.F. (in press; online January 26, 2017). The role of auditory and visual speech in ...
Overall, the auditory cortices of deaf humans have an increased gray-white matter ratio as a result of the lack of auditory ... Likewise, Wernicke's area was near the auditory cortex. These motor and auditory areas are important in spoken language ... Deaf humans are thought to have a larger ratio of gray matter to white matter in certain auditory cortices, such as left and ... Structural brain imaging has commonly shown white matter volume of the auditory cortices differs between deaf and hearing ...
"The Representation of Prediction Error in Auditory Cortex". PLoS Computational Biology. 12 (8): e1005058. Bibcode:2016PLSCB.. ... Ortiz T, Martin-Loeches M, Vila E (1990). "Frontal lobes and aging effect on the P300 component of the auditory event-related ... Some studies show that alcoholics have larger P300 amplitudes in response to an auditory oddball task, but that alcoholics who ... There is also some evidence that activation is certain limbic structures, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, may contribute ...
Animal models suggest that the auditory cortex is the primary cause for this auditory illusion. However, it has been shown that ... the human brainstem also supports auditory continuity even before the auditory cortex is involved. Other areas of the brain ... Listeners strongly susceptible to illusory discontinuity do not perceive illusory auditory continuity. Auditory induction in ... "Encoding of Illusory Continuity in Primary Auditory Cortex". Neuron. 54 (1): 153-165. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.02.031. ISSN ...
Some report that the primary auditory cortex, secondary auditory cortex, and limbic system are responsible for this faculty, ... Zatorre RJ, Berlin P (2001). "Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 11 (10): 946-53. doi ... The right secondary auditory cortex processes pitch change and manipulation of fine tunes; specifically, this region ... Tramo M, Shah GD, Braida LD (2002). "Functional role of auditory cortex in frequency processing and pitch perception". Journal ...
Specific sound frequencies map precisely onto the auditory cortex. This auditory (or tonotopic) map is similar to the ... The superior temporal gyrus contains the auditory cortex, which is responsible for processing sounds. ... marking the location of the auditory cortex, the cortical region responsible for the sensation of sound; Wernicke's area, ... The superior temporal gyrus is involved in auditory processing, including language, but also has been implicated as a critical ...
"Auditory cortex characteristics in schizophrenia: associations with auditory hallucinations". Schizophr Bull. 43 (1): 75-83. ... Thomsen T, Rimol LM, Ersland L, Hugdahl K (2004). "Dichotic listening reveals functional specificity in prefrontal cortex: an ... and neurobiology of auditory hallucinations. He has published over 300 articles in international peer reviewed journals, ...
Kaukoranta, Elina; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli: Responses of the human auditory cortex to vowel onset after fricative ... Auditory spectrum of human voice, Auditory spectrogram of human voice, Auditory spectral series of human voice, Phonetogram of ... Aulanko, Reijo; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli; Näätänen, Risto; Sams, Mikko: Phonetic invariance in the human auditory cortex. ... Selective listening modifies activity of the human auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research. February 1989;74:3:463-470. ...
Conference on Auditory Cortex Editorial Board of the journal Neurobiology of Learning and Memory The Auditory Cortex: A ... "Hemispheric shifts of sound representation in auditory cortex with conceptual listening". Cerebral Cortex. Oxford University ... 39-. Peter Heil, Henning Scheich, Eike Budinger, Reinhard Konig (6 May 2005). The Auditory Cortex: A Synthesis of Human and ... Ohl, Frank W; Scheich, Henning (2005). "Learning-induced plasticity in animal and human auditory cortex". Current Opinion in ...
Hromádka, T; Deweese, MR; Zador, AM (2008). "Sparse representation of sounds in the unanesthetized auditory cortex". PLOS Biol ... Vinje, WE; Gallant, JL (2000). "Sparse coding and decorrelation in primary visual cortex during natural vision" (PDF). Science ...
Roe, A.W., S.L. Pallas, J.O. Hahm, and M. Sur (1990). A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250: ... I. Novel inputs to primary auditory cortex (AI) from the LP/pulvinar complex and the topography of the MGN-AI projection". The ... Roe, AW; Pallas, SL; Hahm, JO; Sur, M (9 November 1990). "A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex". Science. ... Sur, M., P.E. Garraghty, and A.W. Roe (1988). Experimentally induced visual projections into auditory thalamus and cortex. ...
Kaukoranta, Elina; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli: Responses of the human auditory cortex to vowel onset after fricative ... Aulanko, Reijo; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli; Näätänen, Risto; Sams, Mikko: Phonetic invariance in the human auditory cortex. ... Selective listening modifies activity of the human auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research. February 1989;74:3:463-470. ... Research project of the Academy of Finland, Auditory modelling of speech perception: Karjalainen Matti A. (eds.): Puheen ...
Zatorre, R. J.; Belin, P.; Penhune, V. B. (2002). "Structure and function of auditory cortex: music and speech". Trends in ... The speech-to-song illusion is an auditory illusion discovered by Diana Deutsch in 1995. A spoken phrase is repeated several ... "Auditory Illusions", BBC Radio 4, 2019, August "Diana Deutsch's Speech-to-Song Illusion site "Sometimes behaves so strangely", ... Cerebral Cortex. 23 (2): 249-254. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs003. PMC 3539450. PMID 22314043. Hymers , M.; Prendergast , G.; Liu, C ...
Phillips, Colin; T. Pellathy; A. Marantz; E. Yellin; K. Wexler; M. McGinnis; D. Poeppel; T. Roberts (2001). "Auditory cortex ... A.R. Wyler; A.A. Ward, Jr (1981). "Neurons in human epileptic cortex. Response to direct cortical stimulation". Journal of ... Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: Anatomical changes in the human brain Cortex: A Journal Devoted to ... See, for example, Friederici, Angela D. (2002). "Towards a neural basis of auditory sentence processing". Trends in Cognitive ...
The prefrontal cortex is thought essential for all goal-directed and socially-mediated behavior. The PFC is an ideal target for ... red/infrared light refraction is displayed as a visual signal on a computer monitor and may also be translated into an auditory ... When a region of the cortex is used in a specific cognitive task, neuronal activity in that region increases, consequently ... must increase the amount of oxygen they deliver to the activated region of the cortex, resulting in a greater local blood ...
The example STRF here is for an auditory neuron from the area CM (caudal medial) of a male zebra finch, when played conspecific ... See Dario L. Ringach Receptive Fields in Macaque Primary Visual Cortex Spatial Structure and Symmetry of Simple-Cell (2002) J. ... "A rapid correlation method for the analysis of spectro-temporal receptive fields of auditory neurons", Journal of Neuroscience ... permitting axiomatic derivation of auditory receptive fields in two stages: a first stage of temporal receptive fields ...
Audiology Auditory system Auditory cortex Vestibular system Winslow, Raimond L.; Trayanova, Natalia; Geman, Donald; Miller, ... 2010). "Computational Models of the Auditory System". Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. 35. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-5934-8 ... In computational audiology, models and algorithms are used to understand the principles that govern the auditory system, to ... Similarly, machine learning based versions of other auditory tests including determining dead regions in the cochlea or equal ...
This area links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, ... extends to the inferior parietal cortex and ends with the posterior and inferior frontal cortexes, specifically in Broca's area ... The auditory hairs can be stimulated to sharpened activity when a tonal emission is held for 100 ms. This length of time ... The auditory system shifts between a translation stage of perceiving phonemes and a choice phase of anticipating the following ...
The basis of this work takes place in the visual cortex of the brain. The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the ... The most significant period for the development of auditory-visual integration occurs between ages 5-7. During this time, the ... Brain areas involved in recognition are the inferior temporal cortex, the superior parietal cortex, and the cerebellum. During ... The primary visual cortex is located within the occipital lobe in the back of infant's brain and is responsible for processing ...
"Three-dimensional analysis of spontaneous and thalamically evoked gamma oscillations in auditory cortex". Journal of ... The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... This results in the lowered expression of reelin protein, essential for proper cortex lamination and cerebellum development. ...
The study of directionally selective units began with a discovery of such cells in the cerebral cortex of cats by David Hubel ... Many species of mammals can keep track of spatial location even in the absence of visual, auditory, olfactory, or tactile cues ... Hafting T, Fyhn M, Molden S, Moser MB, Moser EI (August 2005). "Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex". ... Because cells in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex (MEC) encode information about position (grid cells) and movement (head direction ...
... view believe that your knowledge of the sound a dog makes exists in your auditory cortex, whilst your ability to recognize and ... temporal cortex, parietal cortex (size knowledge), and premotor cortex (manipulation knowledge). Other areas, such as more ... and the perirhinal cortex. These latter two make up the "parahippocampal cortices". Amnesics with damage to the hippocampus but ... the left lateral temporal cortex in knowledge of motion, and the parietal cortex in knowledge of size. Neuroimaging studies ...
A second (subsequent) auditory efference copy entails the estimation of auditory information as produced by the articulatory ... Cortex. 77: 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.01.002. PMC 5357080. PMID 26889603. Jones, Simon R.; Fernyhough, Charles (2007). " ... In the case of auditory verbal hallucinations, it is thought that a breakdown along the efference copy and forward model route ... Moreover, this system is thought by some to be the basis for inner speech, especially in relation to auditory verbal ...
After the auditory stimuli was presented with 2 minutes of familiarization, the visual stimuli was presented with a congruent ... Additionally, the inferotemporal cortex is implicated in processing the numerical shapes and symbols, necessary for ... The sets used were 4vs.12, 8vs.16, and 4vs.8. The auditory stimuli consisted of tones in different frequencies with a set ... Neural activity recorded during the delay period showed that neurons in the intraparietal sulcus and the frontal cortex had a " ...
Some parts, such as the cerebral cortex and the cerebellar cortex, consist of layers that are folded or convoluted to fit ... It receives strong visual inputs, but also inputs from other senses that are useful in directing actions, such as auditory ... especially the prefrontal cortex and the parts of the cortex involved in vision. The visual processing network of primates ... The primary motor cortex sends projections to the subcortical motor areas, but also sends a massive projection directly to the ...
Rizzolatti and Fabbri found that there were specific neurons in the motor cortex of macaque monkeys which were activated when ... "Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... The regions on the cortex that are responsible for mouth and hand movements border each other. Nonhuman primates minimise vocal ... There is no clear understanding of speech perception currently, but it is generally accepted that the motor cortex is activated ...
They are the anterior cingulate cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. More specifically, while both are activated ... a systematic review and novel functional magnetic resonance imaging data for related visual and auditory stroop tasks". Journal ... Moreover, the posterior dorsal anterior cingulate cortex is responsible for what decision is made (i.e. whether you will say ... The posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex creates the appropriate rules for the brain to accomplish the current goal. For ...
The MRI may show swelling of the cerebral cortex, transient T2 prolongation, and transient lesions. Unlike in MRI's, no ... Patients with macropsia have also noted the cessation of auditory function prior to the onset of visual hallucination, ...
"Cortex", 47, 416-431. Magnuson, J. S., Kukona, A., Braze, D., Johns, C. L., Van Dyke, J. A., Tabor, W., Mencl, W. E., Pugh, K. ... Studdert-Kennedy, M., Shankweiler, D., & Pisoni, D. (1972). Auditory and phonetic processes in speech perception: Evidence from ... Cortex, 2, 277-292. Shankweiler, D., & Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1967). Identification of consonants and vowels presented to the ... and auditory (nonspeech) perception by finding that phonetic structure devoid of meaning is an integral part of language, ...
Cortex. 64: 1-7. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2014.09.020. PMID 25461702. S2CID 24507367. Obringer, Lee Ann (11 April 2006). "How Déjà ... Compston, Alastair (1 March 2005). "From the Archives: The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. A final summary ... These experiences would only last as long as the electrode stimulations were present on the cortex, and in some cases when ... This technique also allowed him to create maps of the sensory and motor cortices of the brain (see cortical homunculus) showing ...
"It was a huge auditory nerve and a very large cortex. The optic nerve," he said, "was smaller than the auditory nerve, just the ... "There were two very tiny necrotic patches on the occipital surface of the cortex, possibly reflecting a minor degree of damage ...
Auditory cues to aid visual selective attention in tasks were shown to improve performance, due to reduction in demand, and it ... Deficits in MCI are consistent with the neurological changes seen in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, parietal lobes ... Dementia with Lewy bodies is characterised by the formation of Lewy bodies in the cerebral cortex, substantia nigra, locus ... As the disease progresses, the prefrontal cortex begins to degenerate, and lower SAS systems lose their autonomic features. ...
The same study went on to determine whether or not the difference generalizes to an auditory description of a person. The ... The fusiform cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, amygdala, and areas involved in motivational control were differentially ... Furthermore, as these results were demonstrated in rats with lesioning in the medial prefrontal cortex, a key brain structure ... Kanwisher, N.; McDermott, J.; Chun, M.M. (1997). "The Fusiform Face Area: A Module in Human Extrastriate Cortex Specialized for ...
... via left temporal cortex) and mental functions (via frontal cortex). Previous models of a structure of temperament did not ... auditory, and tactile modalities, strength of excitation and mobility in auditory and visual modalities, problem solving in ... Similarly, the trait of Plasticity in Rusalov's model relates to activation of the frontal cortex controlling the ease of ... Such differentiation is in line with the neuroanatomic localization of control over motor coordination (via parietal cortex), ...
... in the region which lies adjacent to motor cortex. This proximity to motor cortex underlies the Stentrode's ability to measure ... Hence, new tools rely on auditory and/or vibrotactile stimuli. Patients may wear headphones and/or vibrotactile stimulators ... In 2006 Sony patented a neural interface system allowing radio waves to affect signals in the neural cortex. In 2007 NeuroSky ... In addition, the SSVEP signal is exceptionally robust; the topographic organization of the primary visual cortex is such that a ...
Similar to visual impairments, the deficit arise because of damage in the primary sensory cortex. In the case of auditory ... In addition to verbal and nonverbal auditory agnosia, there are cases of auditory apperceptive agnosia where patients are ... Auditory apperceptive agnosia are impairments in audition that take place despite intact audiogram. In some cases the deficit ... There is early involvement in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex followed by a spread to adjacent areas with ...
"Electrophysiological studies of the representation and pathways of the auditory system in the cerebellar cortex" (Institute of ... His scientific research includes "Integrated function of the cerebellum of the basal ganglia and motor cortex in the ...
... that some non-human primates lack auditory cortex responses to pitch despite having clear tonotopic maps in auditory cortex, ... "Divergence in the functional organization of human and macaque auditory cortex revealed by fMRI responses to harmonic tones". ... and perception in the auditory system. Pitch is an auditory sensation in which a listener assigns musical tones to relative ... A place code, taking advantage of the tonotopy in the auditory system, must be in effect for the perception of high frequencies ...
... that finally sends a message to the cortex. On top of this, there are links between the cortex that send messages back through ... joined immediately above the external auditory meatus Occipital: twins are connected in the occipital lobe causing the twins to ... Thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits are the looped neural pathways that connect the thalamus to the cerebral cortex, and then the ... the cerebral cortex and the thalamus itself are all conscious actions. Another study of the thalamus reaffirms that the ...
In Lashley's experiments, rats were trained to run through a maze and then tissue was removed from their cerebral cortex. ... which dominates in the blinking response and receives the input of auditory information directly. It does not need to "reach ... Such brain parts as the cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala are thought to play an important role ... Later, Richard F. Thompson sought the engram in the cerebellum, rather than the cerebral cortex. He used classical conditioning ...
When the volume of the rat's cortices was measured the amount of enrichment again correlated with larger volume, which is an ... It was shown that there were significant differences in gray matter volume in motor, auditory and visual-spatial regions of the ... While the critical period for the visual cortex ends in early childhood, other cortical areas and abilities have a critical ... Studies have shown that chess requires auditory-verbal-sequential skills, not visuospatial skills. A German study found that ...
A PET scan found functional abnormalities in the visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortex, as well as in areas responsible ... There is converging evidence that the prefrontal cortex may inhibit neural circuits that normally form the basis of emotional ... In an fMRI study of DPD patients, emotionally aversive scenes activated the right ventral prefrontal cortex. Participants ...
Honig A, Romme MA, Ensink BJ, Escher SD, Pennings MH, de-Vries MW (October 1998). "Auditory hallucinations: A comparison ... Conejero-Goldberg C, Torrey EF, Yolken RH (March 2003). "Herpesviruses and Toxoplasma gondii in orbital frontal cortex of ... The unusual functional laterality in speech production (e.g. right hemisphere auditory processing) found in some individuals ... loss of volume in the anterior cingulate cortex, and reduced hippocampal volume. A particularly stable and replicable finding ...
See the latest auditory cortex stories from Popular Science. See news, trends, tips, reviews and more at Popular Science. ... auditory cortex Latest auditory cortex Stories How It Works: A Laser-Powered Ear Implant to Boost Hearing. By Rebecca Boyle / ...
... listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex. ...
The objective of this study was to confirm somatosensory-auditory interaction in A1 and to define both its physiological ... Neuronal oscillations and multisensory interaction in primary auditory cortex Neuron. 2007 Jan 18;53(2):279-92. doi: 10.1016/j. ... The objective of this study was to confirm somatosensory-auditory interaction in A1 and to define both its physiological ... In contrast, responses to auditory inputs arriving during the opposing low-excitability phase tend to be suppressed. Our ...
Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to ... Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to ... Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non- ... Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. ...
The pervasive nature of sound and the high temporal precision of the auditory system make the auditory sensory modality ideally ... I fi rst describe the development of a technique for reliable targeting of tetrode implants to the auditory cortex in mice of ... Based on analysis of data obtained from CBA/Ca mice using this technique, I then present a characterisation of auditory ...
The Bench-to-Bedside Approach for Central Auditory Processing Disorder Learn More ...
... activity in the auditory cortex diminished. But when there was a gap in a familiar tune, the auditory cortex kept working away ... Your auditory cortex wants to run through the entire experience of "Who Let the Dogs Out," even though the rest of your brain ... Annoying songs take root in your auditory cortex. Posted on Thursday, Mar 10, 2005 10:57AM. Friday, December 8, 2017. by Azra ... It should come as little surprise that the center for earworm activity is the auditory cortex, the same place where sounds are ...
Density of α7 mRNA and [125I]α-BTX binding sites in auditory cortex of rats treated from P8-12 with saline or nicotine (CNE) ... In the present study on rat auditory cortex, CNE from P8 to P12 did not significantly alter α7 nAChR levels ([125I] α-BTX ... A Critical Period for Nicotine-Induced Disruption of Synaptic Development in Rat Auditory Cortex. V. Bess Aramakis, Candace Y. ... EPSPs in layers II-IV pyramidal neurons of rat auditory cortex during normal development and after CNE 1-a ...
Stimulating the Auditory Cortex Improves Speech Perception. Stimulating a part of the auditory cortex called the planum ... Researchers reveal how the auditory cortex reacts to "wrong" sounds and shed light on auditory memory recall.. Read More ... Researchers have identified a population of neurons in the auditory cortex that responds to singing, but not any other type of ... Researchers have identified a network between the auditory cortex and thalamus that appears to blunt pain when an animal is ...
Increased Pyramidal and VIP Neuronal Excitability in Primary Auditory Cortex Directly Correlates with Tinnitus Behavior. Madan ... Increased Pyramidal and VIP Neuronal Excitability in Primary Auditory Cortex Directly Correlates with Tinnitus Behavior ... Increased Pyramidal and VIP Neuronal Excitability in Primary Auditory Cortex Directly Correlates with Tinnitus Behavior ... Increased Pyramidal and VIP Neuronal Excitability in Primary Auditory Cortex Directly Correlates with Tinnitus Behavior ...
Example Ad for AUDITORY CORTEX. This what your AUDITORY CORTEX Blog Ad will look like to visitors! Of course you will want to ... If you are the owner of AUDITORY CORTEX, or someone who enjoys this blog why not upgrade it to a Featured Listing or Permanent ... "Review AUDITORY CORTEX at Blogging Fusion Blog Directory" /,,/a,. ... a href="",,img src="" ...
... differential thickening and thinning was observed in specific regions of the deaf auditory cortex. More dorsal auditory regions ... The location and nature of these changes creates a gradient along the dorsoventral axis wherein dorsal auditory cortical fields ... cats to identify cortical areas of differing thickness using the auditory regions from a 3D cortical atlas. Compared to hearing ... the brain must adapt and repurpose the former auditory cortex. In this study we scanned normal hearing (n=29) and deaf (n=26) ...
Author(s): Okada, Kayoko; Venezia, Jonathan H; Matchin, William; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory; Alain, Claude
Dynamics of Neural Responses in Ferret Primary Auditory Cortex: I. Spectro-Temporal Response Field Characterization by Dynamic ... To understand the neural representation of broadband, dynamic sounds in Primary Auditory Cortex (AI), we characterize responses ...
Wang X, Lu T, Bendor D, Bartlett E. Neural coding of temporal information in auditory thalamus and cortex. Neuroscience. 2008 ... Wang, X., Lu, T., Bendor, D., & Bartlett, E. (2008). Neural coding of temporal information in auditory thalamus and cortex. ... Wang, X, Lu, T, Bendor, D & Bartlett, E 2008, Neural coding of temporal information in auditory thalamus and cortex, ... Neural coding of temporal information in auditory thalamus and cortex. / Wang, X.; Lu, T.; Bendor, D. et al. ...
1 . Kim H, Bao S (2008) Distributed representation of perceptual categories in the auditory cortex. J Comput Neurosci 24:277-90 ... Distributed representation of perceptual categories in the auditory cortex (Kim and Bao 2008). ...
keywords = "Auditory cortex, Auditory thalamus, Guinea pig, Temporal coding",. author = "Abrams, {Daniel A.} and Trent Nicol ... Abrams, D. A., Nicol, T., White-Schwoch, T., Zecker, S., & Kraus, N. (2017). Population responses in primary auditory cortex ... Abrams, DA, Nicol, T, White-Schwoch, T, Zecker, S & Kraus, N 2017, Population responses in primary auditory cortex ... We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a ...
... neuroimaging studies have now shown that activation of auditory cortex occurs spontaneously and can be induced during silence ... Acoustic Stimulation, Auditory Cortex, Brain Mapping, Imagination, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neurosciences, Sound ... neuroimaging studies have now shown that activation of auditory cortex occurs spontaneously and can be induced during silence ...
Visual Sensory Cortices Causally Contribute to Auditory Word Recognition Following Sensorimotor-Enriched Vocabulary Training ... "Visual Sensory Cortices Causally Contribute to Auditory Word Recognition Following Sensorimotor-Enriched Vocabulary Training" ... Visual motion cortex integrity benefitted both short- and long-term learning outcomes, as well as the learning of concrete and ... Prior functional neuroimaging work has implicated the visual motion cortices in L2 translation following sensorimotor-enriched ...
Enhanced Sound Perception by Widespread-Onset Neuronal Responses in Auditory Cortex In Special Collection: CogNet ... We carried out numerical simulations of a neural network model for a lateral belt area of auditory cortex. In the network, ... When a sound stimulus is presented to a subject, the auditory cortex first responds with transient discharges across a ... Osamu Hoshino; Enhanced Sound Perception by Widespread-Onset Neuronal Responses in Auditory Cortex. Neural Comput 2007; 19 (12 ...
... and the posterior part of auditory cortex (the planum temporale, PT). Extent and magnitude of auditory activation increased non ... Heschls gyrus is more sensitive to tone level than non-primary auditory cortex. Hearing Research, 171 (1), pp. 177-190. ... Additionally, most studies have either analysed the entire auditory cortex without differentiating primary and non-primary ... Heschls gyrus is more sensitive to tone level than non-primary auditory cortex ...
Such nonlinearities were most prevalent in primary auditory cortex, although they tended to be small compared with stimulus ... Although indicating that neural encoding of pitch, location, and timbre cues is distributed across auditory cortex, significant ... and sound source azimuth in both core and belt areas of ferret auditory cortex. A variance decomposition technique was used to ... Acoustic Stimulation, Action Potentials, Animals, Auditory Cortex, Auditory Pathways, Brain Mapping, Electrophysiology, Female ...
Neonatal pain reduced BDNF level and increased spines density in auditory cortex. The auditory cortex is critical in processing ... then in the brainstem auditory nuclei in the brainstem, and finally in the central auditory cortex.13 Based on this temporal ... AC, auditory cortex; ANOVA, analysis of variance; Ctrl, control; CFA, complete freund adjuvant injection; NS, normal saline; ... We then detected BDNF expression in auditory cortex among the groups. BDNF colocalized with GFAP and NeuN, but not with IBA1 ( ...
Laminar regulation of hemodynamics in primary auditory cortex. Team Principal Investigator: *Ravi Rungta, University of ...
Responses in Rat Core Auditory Cortex are Preserved during Sleep Spindle Oscillations ... Responses in Rat Core Auditory Cortex are Preserved during Sleep Spindle Oscillations ...
... auditory cortex) in the human and dog brains. Not surprisingly, the human auditory cortex was mostly (87%)… ...
Somatostatin neurons properties are specialized in different subregions of the cortex, finds study The brains cerebral cortex ...
We are a trusted online source for research news and resources on all aspects of the mind and human behavior ...
Nine animals had minor damage to piriform cortex and eight animals had minor damage to auditory cortex. The cases with the ... Two animals had minor damage in ventral auditory cortex. In all animals there was damage in lateral entorhinal cortex and in ... including primary somatosensory cortex, visual cortex, and posterior parietal cortex; in six animals the damage was minor. The ... All animals had additional minor damage in the medial orbital cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and motor cortex. Six animals ...
  • Findings suggest the state of unconsciousness produced by anesthesia forces the cerebral cortex to mask sensory input with spontaneous neural activity. (
  • In the cerebral cortex, when somatostatin neurons become active, other nearby somatostatin neurons became active as well. (
  • The brain's cerebral cortex is made up of distinct regions involved in myriad processes, from sensory perception to cognitive functions like memory, attention, and decision-making. (
  • The cerebral cortex concerned with hearing is in? (
  • The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY . (
  • This helps in monitoring the acoustic nerve , brainstem and cerebral cortex. (
  • Changes in human auditory cortex thickness have been found in different deaf groups in the past with mixed results. (
  • Levy, RB & Reyes, AD 2012, ' Spatial profile of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity in mouse primary auditory cortex ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 5609-5619. (
  • This article synthesizes recent studies from our laboratory regarding neural representations of time-varying signals in auditory cortex and thalamus in awake marmoset monkeys. (
  • Stimulus-specific adaptation in the auditory thalamus of the anesthetized rat. (
  • Whatever the IC "hears" would seem to be passed both "upward" to thalamus and thence to auditory cortex and beyond, as well as "downward" via centrifugal connections to earlier areas of the auditory pathway such as the cochlear nucleus. (
  • A major departure from that line of thinking came in 1984 , when Francis Crick, known for his work on the structure of DNA, proposed that the attentional searchlight was controlled by a region deep in the brain called the thalamus, parts of which receive input from sensory domains and feed information to the cortex. (
  • Laminar current source density and multiunit activity sampled during multielectrode penetrations of primary auditory area A1 in awake macaques revealed clear somatosensory-auditory interactions, with a novel mechanism: somatosensory inputs appear to reset the phase of ongoing neuronal oscillations, so that accompanying auditory inputs arrive during an ideal, high-excitability phase, and produce amplified neuronal responses. (
  • In contrast, responses to auditory inputs arriving during the opposing low-excitability phase tend to be suppressed. (
  • Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. (
  • Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. (
  • Based on analysis of data obtained from CBA/Ca mice using this technique, I then present a characterisation of auditory cortical responses recorded in awake freely moving mice, for forward suppression of responses to repeated tones. (
  • To understand the neural representation of broadband, dynamic sounds in Primary Auditory Cortex (AI), we characterize responses using the Spectro-Temporal Response Field (STRF). (
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that auditory cortical neurons exhibit widespread-onset responses and restricted sustained responses to sound stimuli. (
  • When a sound stimulus is presented to a subject, the auditory cortex first responds with transient discharges across a relatively large population of neurons, showing widespread-onset responses. (
  • The sustained responses are considered to have a role in expressing information about the stimulus, but it remains to be seen what roles the widespread-onset responses have in auditory information processing. (
  • We suggest that the widespread-onset neuronal responses and the ongoing subthreshold cortical state, for which the coordination of lateral synaptic interaction among dissimilar cell assemblies is essential, may work together in order for the auditory cortex to quickly detect the sudden occurrence of sounds from the external environment. (
  • We recorded responses to artificial vowels presented in virtual acoustic space to investigate the representations of pitch, timbre, and sound source azimuth in both core and belt areas of ferret auditory cortex. (
  • While even those who have suffered damage to the parts of the brain required for auditory processes display reflex responses to loud sounds, they lack the ability to hear and understand many things that are extremely important, especially to humans. (
  • Inhibitory and excitatory neural responses were initially mismatched in the cortex of naive mice , with untuned inhibition and overly narrow excitation. (
  • Specifically, we recorded the responses of neurons in primary auditory cortex of alert macaque monkeys listening passively to complex and natural sounds. (
  • In auditory cortex, we compared responses to sequences of random tones (stimulus auto-correlation scale of below 10ms) to responses to a sequence of natural sounds (auto-correlation of more than 30ms). (
  • In visual cortex, we compared responses to natural movie epochs containing fast temporal modulation to responses to epochs of slower modulation (the temporal auto-correlation of the latter being about 2-3 times longer). (
  • Mismatch responses in the awake rat: evidence from epidural recordings of auditory cortical fields. (
  • Neurophysiological studies corroborate that non-auditory stimuli can modulate auditory processing in the IC and even elicit responses independent of coincident auditory stimulation. (
  • The procedure is also known as brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER), auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and auditory brainstem responses (ABR). (
  • Using a well-established condition-suppression model of tinnitus, we measured tinnitus-related changes in the microcircuits of excitatory/inhibitory neurons onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons (PNs), as well as changes in the excitability of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1). (
  • Experiment 2 examined whether, when using different types of recognition memory information, the hippocampus interacts with either the perirhinal or prefrontal cortex. (
  • Thus, groups of rats were prepared with a unilateral cytotoxic lesion in the hippocampus combined with a lesion in either the contralateral perirhinal or prefrontal cortex. (
  • and second, that the hippocampus functionally interacts with either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortex during these recognition memory tasks. (
  • To test the first hypothesis, animals with bilateral lesions in the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and perirhinal cortex were compared in a battery of recognition memory tasks. (
  • The second hypothesis was tested by disconnecting the hippocampus from either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortex in the same or opposite hemisphere. (
  • As expected, the prefrontal cortex, which issues high-level commands to other parts of the brain, was crucial. (
  • Adaptation to conflict via context-driven anticipatory signals in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. (
  • A signifi cant challenge for auditory neuroscience lies in the quest for a thorough understanding of how highly complex stimuli, such as human speech and other animal vocal signals, are encoded. (
  • In the second experiment, I show that mnemonic and predictive representations of auditory stimuli can be simultaneously decoded from neural activity in anesthetized rats at overlapping latencies, but based on largely uncorrelated data features. (
  • In mammals, primary auditory cortex processes auditory stimuli. (
  • Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) refers to a deficit in the neural processing of auditory stimuli that can affect listening, language, and learning. (
  • Children with FASD often present sensory alterations such as aversion to multiple sensory stimuli presented at the same time, attention deficits, poor visual-motor integration, delayed auditory processing and hypersensitivity to tactile stimulation. (
  • We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a naturally produced sentence. (
  • Tinnitus-related A1 changes were similar to findings in studies of neuropathic pain in somatosensory cortex suggesting a common pathology of these troublesome perceptual impairments. (
  • Here we show that adult rats can learn to perceive otherwise invisible infrared light through a neuroprosthesis that couples the output of a head-mounted infrared sensor to their somatosensory cortex (S1) via intracortical microstimulation. (
  • For instance, in people that suffer permanent damage to the visual cortex, we might ask the somatosensory cortex to take over some of the roles of the visual system. (
  • The auditory brainstem response test was used to determine hearing thresholds. (
  • Brainstem auditory evoked potentials record the brain's response to sound stimulus. (
  • Differential diagnosis of these disorders is accomplished using behavioral and electrophysiological tests that examine the array of auditory skills and integrity of the system from brainstem through the cortex. (
  • The clinical role of quantitative EEG and brainstem auditory-evoked potential testing also is undetermined and requires further evidence. (
  • Importantly, these two temporal features of speech are simultaneously observed within neuronal ensembles in auditory cortex in response to clear, conversation, and compressed speech exemplars. (
  • Although indicating that neural encoding of pitch, location, and timbre cues is distributed across auditory cortex, significant differences in average neuronal sensitivity were observed across cortical areas and depths, which could form the basis for the segregation of spatial and nonspatial cues at higher cortical levels. (
  • The observer of the unique musical anhedonia decided that man or woman variations concerning musical rewards were associated with the purposeful connectivity (individual patterns of neuronal activation in entire mind regions) within the auditory cortex, mainly the supratemporal auditory cortex, and a critical part in a profitable manner, the ventral striatum. (
  • Thus, altered stimulation of nAChRs by CNE during week 2, but not before or after, disrupts the development of glutamate synapses in rat auditory cortex. (
  • A chronic protocol of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation over auditory cortex for tinnitus treatment: Dataset from a double-blinded randomized controlled trial [vers. (
  • In the ferret, the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr) is a multisensory area that contains neurons activated by both visual and tactile stimulation. (
  • Auditory, somatosensory, and multisensory insular cortex in the rat. (
  • In this article, we review anatomical and physiological evidence for multisensory and other non-auditory processing in the IC. (
  • In the first experiment, I show that auditory sensory memory contents can be decoded from electrophysiological signals recorded in awake humans and anesthetized rats using homologous methods, suggesting that the mechanisms of sensory memory encoding are evolutionarily conserved across species. (
  • While MMN has been extensively used in human electrophysiological studies of auditory processing, the neural mechanisms and brain regions underlying its generation remain unclear. (
  • however, neuroimaging studies have now shown that activation of auditory cortex occurs spontaneously and can be induced during silence by stimulus expectancy or mental imagery. (
  • Such nonlinearities were most prevalent in primary auditory cortex, although they tended to be small compared with stimulus main effects. (
  • Searching for the mismatch negativity in primary auditory cortex of the awake monkey: Deviance detection or stimulus specific adaptation? (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Searching for the mismatch negativity in primary auditory cortex of the awake monkey: Deviance detection or stimulus specific adaptation? (
  • Stimulus-specific adaptation and deviance detection in the rat auditory cortex. (
  • Stimulus-specific adaptation in auditory cortex is an NMDA-independent process distinct from the sensory novelty encoded by the mismatch negativity. (
  • Detection of stimulus deviance within primate primary auditory cortex: intracortical mechanisms of mismatch negativity (MMN) generation. (
  • The researchers also saw a difference between the vocals and the instrumentals: Songs with lyrics activated an area known as the auditory association cortex, or Brodmann's area 22 - which links sounds with other aspects of experience, such as word recognition. (
  • In vivo magnetic resonance morphometry of the brain in musicians was used to measure the anatomical asymmetry of the planum temporale, a brain area containing auditory association cortex and previously shown to be a marker of structural and functional asymmetry. (
  • Recent neuroimaging studies in primates aim to define the functional properties of auditory cortical areas, especially areas beyond Al, in order to further our understanding of the auditory cortical organization. (
  • Whether this reflects the spatial separation between the functionally distinct "where" and "what" pathways, or a more general property of distance along the dorsoventral axis of cortex remains to be examined. (
  • Interdependent encoding of pitch, timbre, and spatial location in auditory cortex. (
  • In the paper by Imaizumi and colleagues, the spatial organization of the different response categories discussed above was also mapped in the cortex, as well as additional categories such as characteristic frequency and Q40 (a spectral bandwidth measure). (
  • Spatial and temporal auditory processing deficits following right hemisphere infarction. (
  • The present data show that orienting attention and motor attention processes are temporally, functionally, and spatially separated in the posterior parietal cortex, and both contribute to prime motor response during spatial conflict. (
  • As a step toward addressing this question, we used multiple intracellular recording in mouse primary auditory cortical slices to map synaptic connectivity among excitatory pyramidal cells and the two broad classes of inhibitory cells, fast-spiking (FS) and non-FS cells in the principal input layer. (
  • Descending projections from auditory cortex to excitatory and inhibitory cells in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus. (
  • The NBIC is a source of several auditory projections, including an ascending projection to the MG. This ascending projection appears to originate from both excitatory and inhibitory NBIC cells, but whether the cortical projections contact either of these cell groups is unknown. (
  • The distance over which somatostatin neurons shared activity expanded in the posterior parietal cortex. (
  • the primary area, on HG, and two non-primary areas, consisting of a small area lateral to the axis of HG (the anterior lateral area, ALA) and the posterior part of auditory cortex (the planum temporale, PT). (
  • Experiment 2 revealed that object-in-place and recency recognition memory performance depended on a functional interaction between the hippocampus and either the perirhinal or medial prefrontal cortices. (
  • Descending projections from the auditory cortex (AC) terminate in subcortical auditory centers from the medial geniculate nucleus (MG) to the cochlear nucleus, allowing the AC to modulate the processing of acoustic information at many levels of the auditory system. (
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether manipulation of nAChRs via chronic nicotine exposure (CNE) could affect the functional development of auditory cortex. (
  • These results adjudicate between opposing predictions of two neuroscientific learning theories: While reactivation-based theories predict no functional role of specialized sensory cortices in vocabulary learning outcomes, the current study supports the predictive coding theory view that these cortices precipitate sensorimotor-based learning benefits. (
  • Precise mapping of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and interpretation of their localizations among all the small auditory subfields remains challenging. (
  • Regions of interest (ROI) including auditory cortex and visual cortex for uni-sensory processing, and superior temporal sulcus (STS) for AV integration, were identified for each person through independent functional localizer task. (
  • The results showed experience-dependent changes involving ROIs of auditory cortex, STS and functional connectivity between uni-sensory ROIs and STS from pretest to posttest in both cases. (
  • Functional neuroimaging studies have found insula hyper-activations, typically in conjunction with anterior cingulate cortex, for all manner of experimental tasks including those involving perception, intentional action, and consciousness. (
  • The functional anatomy of recovery from auditory agnosia. (
  • We have also discovered that abnormal functional connectivity between the striatum and associative cortical regions, including parts of the auditory cortex, relate to psychosis and dopamine receptor density (Horga et al. (
  • Analyzing data recorded in primate auditory and visual cortices, we show that this is indeed the case. (
  • Here we show that the onset of maternal behaviour in mice results from interactions between intrinsic mechanisms and experience-dependent plasticity in the auditory cortex . (
  • The mechanism that underlies this improvement may be related to the ability of TDCS to modulate interactions between the affected and unaffected motor cortex. (
  • The auditory cortex makes sense of information that has been sent to it along auditory pathways from the ear. (
  • The inferior colliculus (IC) is a major processing center situated mid-way along both the ascending and descending auditory pathways of the brain stem. (
  • The Commission found that midlife hearing impairment measured by audiometry was associated with steeper temporal lobe volume loss, including in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, which is a precursor to cognitive impairment. (
  • Results show that auditory cortical neurons are adept at simultaneously resolving multiple temporal features in extended speech sentences using discrete coding mechanisms. (
  • High frequency EEG activity from 90 intracranial insular electrodes across 16 patients who were candidates for resective epilepsy surgery while they passively listened to a stream of standard and deviant tones indicates that the human insula is engaged during auditory deviance detection. (
  • According to Josep Marc-Pallarés, "then take a look at indicates musical sensitivity is related to white matter structures that join, on the one hand, the supratemporal auditory cortex with the orbitofrontal cortex, and on the other, the orbitofrontal cortex with the ventral striatum. (
  • The non-linear processing in auditory nerve, cochlear nucleus and other structures leading to auditory cortex could also generate harmonic by-products. (
  • In addition, we analyzed the activity of neurons recorded in primary visual cortex of anesthetized macaques during the presentation of naturalistic movies. (
  • Listening to or playing music can activate the motor cortex (touching a piano key or guitar string), the auditory cortex (hearing the notes you make), and the emotional centre, or limbic system (feeling moved by a beautiful passage). (
  • Prior studies have used TDCS to stimulate regions of the brain that control movement (e.g., the motor cortex) in individuals who have had a stroke. (
  • In this project, healthy individuals will receive TDCS and we will quantify how excitability in both the left and right motor cortex changes after treatment. (
  • Tinnitus pathology is multifactorial, generally initiated by damage to the auditory periphery, resulting in a cascade of maladaptive plastic changes at multiple levels of the central auditory neuraxis as well as limbic and non-auditory cortical centers. (
  • Because CAPD manifests behavioral symptoms similar to those exhibited by listeners with peripheral hearing loss, it is important that the audiologist be prepared to "go beyond the 8th nerve" in the assessment process to evaluate central auditory skill sets and provide intervention as needed. (
  • Our prior research showed that voice-sensitive regions of the auditory cortex have increased activity while patients experience auditory hallucinations of voices (Horga et al. (
  • Alcoholism or drug abuse can cause agitation, confusion, and visual and auditory hallucinations, as well as delirium tremens, which can be mistaken for dementia if these conditions are not diagnosed. (
  • We investigate possible homologs of the MMN in macaque primary auditory cortex (A1) using a frequency oddball paradigm in which rare "deviant" tones are randomly interspersed among frequent "standard" tones. (
  • In this study we scanned normal hearing (n=29) and deaf (n=26) cats to identify cortical areas of differing thickness using the auditory regions from a 3D cortical atlas. (
  • Compared to hearing controls, differential thickening and thinning was observed in specific regions of the deaf auditory cortex. (
  • More dorsal auditory regions tended to be bilaterally thicker in the deaf group, while more ventral regions in the left hemisphere were thinner. (
  • It was discovered that five auditory cortex regions were thicker on both sides of the brains of the deaf cats relative to the hearing controls, and two regions on the left side were thinner. (
  • A pattern of thickness change emerged between the two groups, such that physically higher-up auditory regions in the brain were thicker in the deaf groups, and lower regions were thinner. (
  • Additionally, most studies have either analysed the entire auditory cortex without differentiating primary and non-primary regions or have limited their analyses to Heschl's gyrus (HG). (
  • They used the fMRI to locate sound-sensitive regions (auditory cortex) in the human and dog brains. (
  • The restoration-specific suppression is induced most strongly in primary-like regions in the right auditory cortex during illusorily filled gaps and also shortly before and after these gaps. (
  • These areas include the auditory cortical areas of core, belt, and parabelt regions. (
  • Previous research suggests that domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) outperform monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in listening tasks related to primary auditory regions. (
  • Here, we describe the areas including the auditory cortical areas of core, belt, and parabelt regions in these select carnivore species. (
  • Finally, we note that the presence of these signals in the IC has implications for our understanding not just of the IC but also of the multitude of other regions within and beyond the auditory system that are dependent on signals that pass through the IC. (
  • We carried out numerical simulations of a neural network model for a lateral belt area of auditory cortex. (
  • Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. (
  • Auditory cortical event-related potentials to pitch deviances in rats. (
  • Given what we know about the developmental plasticity, the auditory cortex must be imprinted with harmonic structures. (
  • Neuroplastic mechanisms therefore build on an intrinsic sensitivity in the mouse auditory cortex , and enable rapid plasticity for reliable parenting behaviour. (
  • Although audiovisual (AV) training has been shown to improve overall speech perception in hearing-impaired listeners, there has been a lack of direct brain imaging data to help elucidate the neural networks and neural plasticity associated with hearing aid (HA) use and auditory training targeting speechreading. (
  • These data provide initial evidence for the malleable experience-driven cortical functionality for AV speech perception in elderly hearing-impaired people and call for further studies with a much larger subject sample and systematic control to fill in the knowledge gap to understand brain plasticity associated with auditory rehabilitation in the aging population. (
  • Our results, presented along a co-registered surface-based atlas, can be interpreted in terms of a current model of the monkey auditory cortex. (
  • Looming biases in monkey auditory cortex. (
  • abstract = "How the brain processes temporal information embedded in sounds is a core question in auditory research. (
  • Visual motion cortex integrity benefitted both short- and long-term learning outcomes, as well as the learning of concrete and abstract words. (
  • Cats have very similar auditory cortices to humans and have been used for many years in auditory and visual neuroscience. (
  • Auditory neuroscience: activating the cortex without sound. (
  • The pervasive nature of sound and the high temporal precision of the auditory system make the auditory sensory modality ideally suited to investigations into cortical temporal response properties and their behavioural correlates in freely moving animals. (
  • In this thesis, I investigate neural correlates during auditory sequence processing, used as a platform to probe and decode auditory sensory memories, predictions, and implicit learning in the auditory system. (
  • The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a preattentive component of the auditory event-related potential that is elicited by a change in a repetitive acoustic pattern. (
  • Epidural Auditory Event-Related Potentials in the Rat to Frequency and duration Deviants: Evidence of Mismatch Negativity? (
  • Role of cortical N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in auditory sensory memory and mismatch negativity generation: implications for schizophrenia. (
  • Mismatch negativity (MMN), the deviance-elicited auditory deflection, explained. (
  • The perception of harmonics is not only essential for the understanding and appreciation of music, but also crucial for the auditory system to discriminate between vocal communication signals and environmental sounds (e.g., sounds from blowing wind, running water and waving trees). (
  • The objective of this study was to confirm somatosensory-auditory interaction in A1 and to define both its physiological mechanisms and its consequences for auditory information processing. (
  • Innate and plastic mechanisms for maternal behaviour in auditory cortex. (
  • Constructive mechanisms in the auditory system may restore a fragmented sound when a gap in this sound is rendered inaudible by noise to yield a continuity illusion. (
  • Using combined psychoacoustic and electroencephalography experiments in humans, we found that the sensory-perceptual mechanisms that enable restoration suppress auditory cortical encoding of gaps in interrupted sounds. (
  • Although it is fundamentally an auditory area, the IC also receives anatomical input from non-auditory sources. (
  • Ketamine-induced deficits in auditory and visual context-dependent processing in healthy volunteers: implications for models of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. (
  • Here we tested the hypothesis that behavioral benefits of gesture-based enrichment are critically supported by integrity of the biological motion visual cortices (bmSTS). (
  • Background: Speech understanding may rely not only on auditory, but also on visual information. (
  • Neuropathological lesions involved visual, auditory, and post- and pre-central cortex areas. (
  • We suggest that such transformations are necessary for the auditory cortex to perform a wide range of functions including sound segmentation, object processing and multi-sensory integration. (
  • In addition to harmonics encountered in the acoustic environment, the auditory system also produces harmonics internally ( Pickles, 1988 ). (
  • Therefore, during the early developmental period, the auditory cortex is flooded with both exogenous harmonics from the acoustic environment and endogenous harmonics generated within the auditory system. (
  • These findings indicate that the auditory cortex forms internal representations of temporal characteristics of sounds that are no longer faithful replicas of their acoustic structures. (
  • Our results reveal that spontaneous modulations in slow evoked auditory cortical oscillations that are involved in encoding acoustic boundaries may determine the perceived continuity of sounds in noise. (
  • While VASO fMRI has already proven its utility in other brain areas, it has not yet been successfully applied in the auditory cortex due to several additional technical challenges in this region. (
  • Ultimately, we found a stable parameter set for the usage of layer-fMRI VASO in the auditory cortex and validated it in a group of participants. (