The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The ability to differentiate tones.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.
Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
Differential response to different stimuli.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (1/1840)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

Episodic retrieval activates the precuneus irrespective of the imagery content of word pair associates. A PET study. (2/1840)

The aim of this study was to evaluate further the role of the precuneus in episodic memory retrieval. The specific hypothesis addressed was that the precuneus is involved in episodic memory retrieval irrespective of the imagery content. Two groups of six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six [15O]butanol-PET scans. In each of the six trials, the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of 1500 MBq of [15O]butanol. For Group 1, 12 word pair associates were presented visually, for Group 2 auditorily. The subjects of each group had to learn and retrieve two sets of 12 word pairs each. One set consisted of highly imaginable words and another one of abstract words. Words of both sets were not related semantically, representing 'hard' associations. The presentations of nonsense words served as reference conditions. We demonstrate that the precuneus shows consistent activation during episodic memory retrieval. Precuneus activation occurred in visual and auditory presentation modalities and for both highly imaginable and abstract words. The present study therefore provides further evidence that the precuneus has a specific function in episodic memory retrieval as a multimodal association area.  (+info)

Single cortical neurons serve both echolocation and passive sound localization. (3/1840)

The pallid bat uses passive listening at low frequencies to detect and locate terrestrial prey and reserves its high-frequency echolocation for general orientation. While hunting, this bat must attend to both streams of information. These streams are processed through two parallel, functionally specialized pathways that are segregated at the level of the inferior colliculus. This report describes functionally bimodal neurons in auditory cortex that receive converging input from these two pathways. Each brain stem pathway imposes its own suite of response properties on these cortical neurons. Consequently, the neurons are bimodally tuned to low and high frequencies, and respond selectively to both noise transients used in prey detection, and downward frequency modulation (FM) sweeps used in echolocation. A novel finding is that the monaural and binaural response properties of these neurons can change as a function of the sound presented. The majority of neurons appeared binaurally inhibited when presented with noise but monaural or binaurally facilitated when presented with the echolocation pulse. Consequently, their spatial sensitivity will change, depending on whether the bat is engaged in echolocation or passive listening. These results demonstrate that the response properties of single cortical neurons can change with behavioral context and suggest that they are capable of supporting more than one behavior.  (+info)

The magnitude and phase of temporal modulation transfer functions in cat auditory cortex. (4/1840)

Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) in response to periodic click trains are presented for simultaneous recordings from primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, and secondary auditory cortex in 21 cats. The multiunit records could be separated in to 215 single-unit spike trains that allowed a reliable estimate of a group delay, which represents the cumulative delay for responses to repetitive stimuli. For approximately two-thirds of the 215 single units the group delay was within 7.5 msec of the response latency to the first clicks in the trains. For the remaining units, the group delay was on average approximately 14 msec higher, and this may result from differences in synaptic properties. These findings were similar in the three cortical areas studied. The findings are modeled based on presynaptic facilitation and depression and pyramidal cell calcium kinetics, and a quantitative description of the magnitude of the tMTF was obtained that resulted in substantially shorter depression time constants (20 msec) than reported for visual cortex (300 msec). A small amount (0-5.5%) of facilitation that decayed with a time constant of 60 msec was obtained. Auditory cortical cells apparently have much faster recovery mechanisms than visual cortical cells. This allows for the ability of the auditory cortex to reliably track the rhythms that occur in natural sounds.  (+info)

Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex. (5/1840)

Neurons in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1) generally cannot respond to tone sequences faster than 12 pulses per second (pps). To test whether experience can modify this maximum following rate in adult rats, trains of brief tones with random carrier frequency but fixed repetition rate were paired with electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis (NB) 300 to 400 times per day for 20-25 days. Pairing NB stimulation with 5-pps stimuli markedly decreased the cortical response to rapidly presented stimuli, whereas pairing with 15-pps stimuli significantly increased the maximum cortical following rate. In contrast, pairing with fixed carrier frequency 15-pps trains did not significantly increase the mean maximum following rate. Thus this protocol elicits extensive cortical remodeling of temporal response properties and demonstrates that simple differences in spectral and temporal features of the sensory input can drive very different cortical reorganizations.  (+info)

Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. (6/1840)

Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.  (+info)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. (7/1840)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. This paper examines neuron responses in rat primary auditory cortex (AI) during sound stimulation of the two ears designed to simulate sound motion in the horizontal plane. The simulated sound motion was synthesized from mathematical equations that generated dynamic changes in interaural phase, intensity, and Doppler shifts at the two ears. The simulated sounds were based on moving sources in the right frontal horizontal quadrant. Stimuli consisted of three circumferential segments between 0 and 30 degrees, 30 and 60 degrees, and 60 and 90 degrees and four radial segments at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. The constant velocity portion of each segment was 0.84 m long. The circumferential segments and center of the radial segments were calculated to simulate a distance of 2 m from the head. Each segment had two trajectories that simulated motion in both directions, and each trajectory was presented at two velocities. Young adult rats were anesthetized, the left primary auditory cortex was exposed, and microelectrode recordings were obtained from sound responsive cells in AI. All testing took place at a tonal frequency that most closely approximated the best frequency of the unit at a level 20 dB above the tuning curve threshold. The results were presented on polar plots that emphasized the two directions of simulated motion for each segment rather than the location of sound in space. The trajectory exhibiting a "maximum motion response" could be identified from these plots. "Neuron discharge profiles" within these trajectories were used to demonstrate neuron activity for the two motion directions. Cells were identified that clearly responded to simulated uni- or multidirectional sound motion (39%), that were sensitive to sound location only (19%), or that were sound driven but insensitive to our location or sound motion stimuli (42%). The results demonstrated the capacity of neurons in rat auditory cortex to selectively process dynamic stimulus conditions representing simulated motion on the horizontal plane. Our data further show that some cells were responsive to location along the horizontal plane but not sensitive to motion. Cells sensitive to motion, however, also responded best to the moving sound at a particular location within the trajectory. It would seem that the mechanisms underlying sensitivity to sound location as well as direction of motion converge on the same cell.  (+info)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the Cat. (8/1840)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the cat. Mimimum detectable gaps in noise in humans are independent of the position of the gap, whereas in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) they are position dependent. The position dependence in other cortical areas is not known and may resolve this contrast. This study presents minimum detectable gap-in-noise values for which single-unit (SU), multiunit (MU) recordings and local field potentials (LFPs) show an onset response to the noise after the gap. The gap, which varied in duration between 5 and 70 ms, was preceded by a noise burst of either 5 ms (early gap) or 500 ms (late gap) duration. In 10 cats, simultaneous recordings were made with one electrode each in AI, anterior auditory field (AAF), and secondary auditory cortex (AII). In nine additional cats, two electrodes were inserted in AI and one in AAF. Minimum detectable gaps based on SU, MU, or LFP data in each cortical area were the same. In addition, very similar minimum early-gap values were found in all three areas (means, 36.1-41.7 ms). The minimum late-gap values were also similar in AI and AII (means, 11.1 and 11.7 ms), whereas AAF showed significantly larger minimum late-gap durations (mean 21.5 ms). For intensities >35 dB SPL, distributions of minimum early-gap durations in AAF and AII had modal values at approximately 45 ms. In AI, the distribution was more uniform. Distributions for minimum late-gap duration were skewed toward low values (mode at 5 ms), but high values (+info)

The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
Auditory cortex is required for sound localisation, but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. Specifically, whether neurons in auditory cortex represent spatial cues or an integrated representation of auditory space across cues is not known. Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative localisation task. Manipulating the availability of binaural and spectral localisation cues had little impact on ferrets performance, or on neural spatial tuning. A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial position consistently across localisation cue type. Furthermore, neural firing pattern decoders outperformed two-channel model decoders using population activity. Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. The brains auditory cortex is involved not just in detection of sounds, but also in localizing
A major challenge for sensory processing in the brain is considering stimulus context, such as stimulus probability, which may be relevant for survival. Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone (oddball) that breaks the preceding regularity. Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. All cell types displayed SSA of fast (early) subthreshold and suprathreshold responses with oddball tones of a deviant frequency eliciting enlarged responses compared with adapted standards. SSA was especially strong when oddball frequency matched neuronal preference. In ...
It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. AU - Polley, Daniel B.. AU - Heiser, Marc A.. AU - Blake, David T.. AU - Schreiner, Christoph E.. AU - Merzenich, Michael M.. PY - 2004/11/16. Y1 - 2004/11/16. N2 - Since the dawn of experimental psychology, researchers have sought an understanding of the fundamental relationship between the amplitude of sensory stimuli and the magnitudes of their perceptual representations. Contemporary theories support the view that magnitude is encoded by a linear increase in firing rate established in the primary afferent pathways. In the present study, we have investigated sound intensity coding in the rat primary auditory cortex (AI) and describe its plasticity by following paired stimulus reinforcement and instrumental conditioning paradigms. In trained animals, population-response strengths in AI became more strongly nonlinear with increasing stimulus intensity. Individual AI responses became ...
The basic morphological aspects of auditory cortex organization in different orders of eutherian mammals are considered in the present review. The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent morphological data about secondary auditory areas. Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species.
Schuller, Gerd; ONeill, W. E.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne (1991): Facilitation and delay sensitivity of auditory cortex neurons in CF-FM bats, Rhinolopus rouxi and Pteronotus p. parnellii. In: European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 11: pp. 1165-1181 ...
Despite extensive subcortical processing, the auditory cortex is believed to be essential for normal sound localization. However, we still have a poor understanding of how auditory spatial information is encoded in the cortex and of the relative contribution of different cortical areas to spatial hearing. We investigated the behavioral consequences of inactivating ferret primary auditory cortex (A1) on auditory localization by implanting a sustained release polymer containing the GABA(A) agonist muscimol bilaterally over A1. Silencing A1 led to a reversible deficit in the localization of brief noise bursts in both the horizontal and vertical planes. In other ferrets, large bilateral lesions of the auditory cortex, which extended beyond A1, produced more severe and persistent localization deficits. To investigate the processing of spatial information by high-frequency A1 neurons, we measured their binaural-level functions and used individualized virtual acoustic space stimuli to record their spatial
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
Via: PLoS Biology:. How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial ...
Author: Kayser, C et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-12; Title: Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology
Brasselet, R., Panzeri, S., Logothetis, N. K., & Kayser, C. (2012). Neurons with stereotyped and rapid responses provide a reference frame for relative temporal coding in primate auditory cortex. J Neurosci, 32(9), 2998-3008. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5435- ...
A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. The electrode can be arranged in the patients primary auditory cortex and each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical contacts can be arranged to approximately tonotopically match the primary auditory cortex.
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
Front Neural Circuits. 2014 Mar 11;8:15. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2014.00015. eCollection 2014. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex.
Lesion studies suggest that primary auditory cortex (A1) is required for accurate sound localization by carnivores and primates. In order to elucidate further its role in spatial hearing, we examined the behavioural consequences of reversibly inactivating ferret A1 over long periods, using Elvax implants releasing the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. Sub-dural polymer placements were shown to deliver relatively constant levels of muscimol to underlying cortex for |5 months. The measured diffusion of muscimol beneath and around the implant was limited to 1 mm. Cortical silencing was assessed electrophysiologically in both auditory and visual cortices. This exhibited rapid onset and was reversed within a few hours of implant removal. Inactivation of cortical neurons extended to all layers for implants lasting up to 6 weeks and throughout at least layers I-IV for longer placements, whereas thalamic activity in layer IV appeared to be unaffected. Blockade of cortical neurons in the deeper layers was
The recent discovery of combination-sensitive neurons in the primary auditory cortex of awake marmosets may reconcile previous, apparently contradictory, findings that cortical neurons produce strong, sustained responses, but also represent stimuli sparsely. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the present study, we determined connections of three newly defined regions of auditory cortex with regions of the frontal lobe, and how two of these regions in the frontal lobe interconnect and connect to other portions of frontal cortex and the temporal lobe in macaque monkeys. We conceptualize …
Despite vast literature on catecholaminergic neuromodulation of auditory cortex functioning in general, knowledge about its role for long-term memory formation is scarce. Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerb …
Learning a language or recognizing music is usually a breeze for children, however, this capacity dramatically declines with age. Now, a study from researchers at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital shows the restriction of a key chemical messenger in the brain helps extend efficient auditory learning much later in life. The team states limiting the supply of the neuromodulator adenosine in a brain structure called the auditory thalamus preserved the ability of adult mice to learn from passive exposure to sound. The study is published in the journal Science.. Previous studies show the auditory thalamus is the brains relay station where sound is collected and sent to the auditory cortex for processing. The auditory thalamus and cortex rely on the neurotransmitter glutamate to communicate, with adenosine also shown to reduce glutamate levels. Circuits in the auditory cortex are highly susceptible to acoustic influences during the early postnatal period, with the auditory cortex selectively ...
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory...
A GENESIS GUI for providing inputs to an auditory cortex model ======================================================================*/ //=============================== // Function Definitions //=============================== // Display the parameters for the specified input function show_params(input_num) str control_form = /input_control int input_num, row_num setfield {control_form}/input_num value {input_num} float frequency, delay, width, interval str pulse_src = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /spikepulse str spike_out = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /soma/spike // this assumes set_pulse_params has been called so that abs_refract != 0 row_num = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_row} setfield {control_form}/targ_row value {row_num} frequency = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_freq} setfield {control_form}/spikefreq value {frequency} delay = {getfield {pulse_src} delay1 } float width = {getfield {pulse_src} ...
When two sounds are presented in quick succession, the neural response to the second sound can decrease relative to when it is presented alone. Previous two-tone experiments have not determined whether the frequency tuning of cortical suppression was determined by the receptive field of the neuron or the exact relationship between the frequencies of the two tones. In the first experiment, it is shown that forward suppression does depend on the relationship between the two tones. This confirmed that cortical forward suppression is frequency specific at the shortest possible timescale ...
Sensory areas. There is a general rule that one cerebral hemisphere handles sensory inputs from the opposite side of the body. This is true of the somatosensory cortex, and the visual system, where each visual area processes information relating to the opposite visual field of both eyes. The auditory cortex is an exception however, because localisation of sound requires comparison of the times of arrival of sounds at both ears; hence each auditory cortex receives inputs from both cochleas.. Sensory inputs to the cortex arise from the thalamic nuclei, including the medial and lateral geniculate bodies. There is a topographic map of one half of the bodys surface on the contralateral somatosensory cortex, and a map of the contralateral visual fields of both eyes on the visual cortex. There is also a map of the cochlear basilar membranes on the auditory cortex, in keeping with the need to localise sounds. The cortical area given over to the fovea in the primary visual cortex is much larger that ...
Pyramidal neurons were the only excitatory cell type encountered in layer 2/3. These cells exhibited classical pyramidal morphologies with an apical dendrite that tufted at the layer 1/layer 2 border. The most surprising observation about the anatomy of these neurons is the prevalence of axonal arbors in layer 4. Numerous projections to layer 4 were observed for virtually all layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. These projections reflect a direct feedback from layer 2/3 to layer 4 that is extremely sparse or absent in other primary sensory areas (Lübke et al., 2003; Binzegger et al., 2004). Perhaps the strongest example of a projection from layer 2/3 pyramids to layer 4 is in mouse S1 (Yabuta et al., 2000), but this projection is present only in the deepest layer 3 pyramidal neurons, whose dendrites extend well into layer 4, and is absent in more superficial pyramids. Evidence exists that transient projections from layer 2/3 pyramids to layer 4 are present early in development of ferret V1 before being ...
For MVPA, ROIs were identified in individual subject data. We used functionally defined ROIs as input for the pattern classification based on areas active at p , .001 (uncorrected) and ET of 20 voxels for the average of All Conditions minus Rest. Clusters were categorized by peak voxel location and general spatial extent in the supratemporal plane relative to HG, labeled as aSTG, HG, or pSTG, in both left and right hemispheres, yielding six total ROIs. Representative slices illustrating ROIs for three subjects are plotted on each subjects native anatomical image in Figure 5. These regions then were used as candidate regions for identification of FM-selective networks that we could assess using a more fine-grained MVPA. The pattern of activity in each subjects ROI was then assessed in its ability to classify the four different pairs of stimulus conditions noted earlier. Table 1 provides results of statistical classification analyses for the 21 subjects in each ROI (left and right HG, ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25;106(34):14611-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907682106. Epub 2009 Aug 10. Clinical Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A neural prosthetic device for an auditory cortex of a patient has a support arranged in the auditory cortex with a plurality of electrical contacts and is connected to a speech processor for receiving and processing audio information and outputting processed electrical signals. Each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical-contacts are arranged to approximately tonotopically match the auditory cortex. Methods and apparatus for selectively treating or inactivating neurons within the brain of a patient. The apparatus includes a dual purpose multicontact neuron-monitoring electrode assembly and an introducer tube for introducing the electrode assembly within the patient in the vicinity of the target tissue. The apparatus and methods of the instant invention are particularly suited to performing magnetic pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinsons disease.
Blue Hell, they may have worked out what tinnitus is and how to fix it. The basic idea is that when your ear is damaged (by noise,medication,etc), auditory cortex neurons in the brain become starved of certain frequencies. In Darwinian survival style, they become hyperactive and start receiving input sound from bordering undamaged zones, which we hear as tinnitus. The objective therefore is to re-supply the missing input noise to a now over-active auditory cortex to suppress the excessive neuronal firing which causes tinnitus ...
The goal of this study was to understand the spontaneous neuronal activities and acoustic responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI), and the modulation of different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) on different layers of the auditory cortex (AC) especially AI, through in vivo intracellular recordings and/or extracellular recordings in adult urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. One hundred and eighty nine neurons/units in AC, distributed among all six cortical layers, were recorded intracellularly and/or extrcellularly. Thirty-one of forty intracellular recorded neurons (77.50 %) and one hundred and thirty of one hundred and forty nine extracellular recorded units (87.25%) showed excitatory responses to a noise burst stimulus applied to the contralateral ear of the animals. The extracellularly recorded neurons showed synchronized spikes with the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), action potential (AP) and/or rhythmic oscillation of the intracellularly recorded ...
In the next part of the study, we focused on the neuronal plasticity in the auditory cortex. The plasticity of synapse is widely accepted as a candidate mechanism of learning and memory in the brain. From the first published long term potentiation (LTP) induction experiment by Tim Bliss and colleagues in 1972, most experimenters have induced LTP through high frequency or repeated stimuli. Such artificial stimulus patterns in the experimental preparation are, however, uncommon in natural condition. The hippocampus is widely believed to serve only as a memory buffer instead of the location to store permanent memory. The cerebral cortex is regarded as the site for long term memory storage. In a parallel study by Chen and colleagues in our laboratory, they have found that an artificial visuoauditory memory trace could be induced in the auditory cortex through conditioning a combined stimulus of electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex and a visual stimulus with foot shock in the behaving rat. ...
This study addresses the temporal fidelity and spatial topography of auditory cortex suppression during vocalization and resolves a controversy in the animal versus human literature. We first examined averaged ECoG responses across auditory electrodes in seven different subjects. We found a reduction in the N100 component of the ECoG auditory ERP as well as a reduction of induced spectral responses that peaked at 100 Hz, corresponding with the γHigh band. However, examining each auditory electrode with a γHigh response revealed differential degrees of suppression across auditory cortex. Moreover, within each subject different regions of auditory cortex exhibited different types of self-speech modulation of ECoG auditory responses. Single-trial analysis of these electrodes revealed a consistent response across the different trials. Both highly suppressed and nonsuppressed electrodes revealed the same pattern of response in single-trials across the experimental session. Only a few sites ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely ...
The Central Nervous System Module 8 bingo card with primary motor cortex, premotor area, prefrontal area, taste area, Brocas area, primary auditory area, auditory association area, Wernickes area, visual cortex and visual association area
Little is known about the underlying neurobiology of rhythm and beat perception, despite its universal cultural importance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study rhythm perception in musicians and nonmusicians. Three conditions varied in the degree to which external reinforcement versus internal generation of the beat was required. The volume condition strongly externally marked the beat with volume changes, the duration condition marked the beat with weaker accents arising from duration changes, and the unaccented condition required the beat to be entirely internally generated. In all conditions, beat rhythms compared with nonbeat control rhythms revealed putamen activity. The presence of a beat was also associated with greater connectivity between the putamen and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the premotor cortex (PMC), and auditory cortex. In contrast, the type of accent within the beat conditions modulated the coupling between premotor and auditory cortex, ...
Tinnitus, the chronic perception of ringing or other phantom sounds, is typically associated with hearing loss. The reduction of auditory input that conveys to auditory cortex leads to the changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activation of the corresponding neurons in this area and is possibly the cause of tinnitus. From the other hand a recent study (Gordon et al. Beain 2013) has shown that bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally driven reorganization. Based on this finding we could expect that in patient with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus the input from unimpaired ear has not been transfered sufficiently to the bilateral hemisphere and this loss of input has resulted in reorganization in neuronal activity of the auditory cortex. To test this hypothesis we compare the amplitude of the neuronal activity bold response of the auditory cortex in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere to the hearing ear in response to different frequency tones. Ten tinnitus patients
Video articles in JoVE about auditory cortex include Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI, Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging, Stereotactically-guided Ablation of the Rat Auditory Cortex, and Localization of the Lesion in the Brain, High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning, Combined Shuttle-Box Training with Electrophysiological Cortex Recording and Stimulation as a Tool to Study Perception and Learning, Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training, Reversible Cooling-induced Deactivations to Study Cortical Contributions to Obstacle Memory in the Walking Cat, Decoding Auditory Imagery with Multivoxel Pattern Analysis, Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice
Congenital amusia is a disorder characterized by impaired musical skills, which can extend to an inability to recognize very familiar tunes. The neural bases of this deficit are now being deciphered. According to a study conducted by researchers from CNRS and Inserm at the Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS / Inserm / Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), amusics exhibit altered processing of musical information in two regions of the brain: the auditory cortex and the frontal cortex, particularly in the right cerebral hemisphere. These alterations seem to be linked to anatomical anomalies in these same cortices. This work, published on April 2013 in the journal Brain, adds invaluable information to our understanding of amusia and, more generally, of the
Generative models of neuroimaging and electrophysiological data present new opportunities for accessing hidden or latent brain states. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) uses Bayesian model inversion and selection to infer the synaptic mechanisms underlying empirically observed brain responses. DCM for electrophysiological data, in particular, aims to estimate the relative strength of synaptic transmission at different cell types and via specific neurotransmitters. Here, we report a DCM validation study concerning inference on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, using different doses of a volatile anaesthetic agent (isoflurane) to parametrically modify excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processing while recording local field potentials (LFPs) from primary auditory cortex (A1) and the posterior auditory field (PAF) in the auditory belt region in rodents. We test whether DCM can infer, from the LFP measurements, the expected drug-induced changes in synaptic transmission mediated via fast ...
Birn R.M., Converse A.K., Rajala A.Z., Alexander A.L., Bloek W.F., McMillan A.B, Christian B.T., Filla C.N, Murali D., Hurley S.A., Jenison R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2019) Changes in Endogenous Dopamine Induced by Methylphenidate Predict Functional Connectivity in Nonhuman Primates , Journal of Neuroscience 39:8 1436-1444.. Rajala A.Z., Jenison R.L., and Populin L.C. (2018) Neural correlate of auditory spatial attention allocation in the superior colliculus, Journal of Neurophysiology 119: 1450-1460.. Jenison R.L., Reale R.A., Armstrong A.L., Oya H., Kawasaki H. and Howard III M.A. (2015) Sparse Spectro-temporal Receptive Fields based on Multi-unit and High-gamma response in Human Auditory Cortex, PLoS ONE, 10(9). Rajala, A.Z., Jenison, R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2015) Decision making: effects of methylphenidate on temporal discounting in nonhuman primates. Journal of Neurophysiology, 114, 70-79. Jenison, R.L. (2014) Directional Influence between the Human Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex at the ...
The following m files are included: discrimination_MLE.m Calculates the discrimination ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take an hour to run categorization_llikhd.m Calculates the identification ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take 4 minutes to run. Both scripts above use the following helper functions: MNRRS.m Gets the response of the population of neurons to a specific frequency. likhood.m The likelihood function (equation 2 in manuscript) get_params.m The parameters used for the simulation (population parameters and testing parameters) Editing this file will suffice to change population or testing parameters smth_gass_distr.m Helper function for get_params to redefine over-representation. categorization_llikhd also includes: binornd_sim.m The Bernoulli random process simulation (Eq 5 in paper) In addition, the following mat files are included: discr_temp.mat output expected at line 93 of discrimination_MLE to plot, use lines 98-103 ...
Tuesday February 25th 2014. Research is shedding new light on why there is such a huge bond between people and their dogs.. Scientists in Hungary have found that humans and canines respond to voices and sounds in a similar way with the same area of the brain. The findings, revealed in the Current Biology journal, show how similar the brains of the two species react to human commands and canine whines and even in recognising sounds that reveal emotions. Dogs and humans both use a part of the brain near the primary auditory cortex when they hear happy noises. Dogs were trained to lie still in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanner and their responses to sounds were compared with those of humans, such as whining, barking, crying and laughing.. It is often said that dogs are mans best friend and the study could finally be pinpointing the reason why. Owners can make sure they can afford the best veterinary care for their beloved dogs by arranging Pet Insurance. Attila Andics, ...
A new Artificial Intelligence (AI) approach to translate brain waves into speech Akbari et al. Towards reconstructing intelligible speech from the human auditory cortex. Scientific Reports January,
The average patient age at tadalafil 20mg lowest price diagnosis was 30.6 years and the mean followup was 65 months. Responses in the human auditory cortex to natural speech reveal a dual character.. The evolution of pharmacokinetics and clinically useful drug assays tadalafil cost at walmart has led to pharmacokinetic dosing, a more sophisticated and exact method of dosing certain agents. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide deficiency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy.. Since the human heart has a complex anatomy, the two-dimensional analysis of myocardial scintigrams obviously is not satisfactory. A range of factors influence health-related quality of life in people with heart failure. Atrophic and a mixed pattern tadalafil online of acne scars improved with a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient. The need to measure the level of surgical risk ...
5. Categorization of Species-Specific Vocalizations in the Non-Human Primate: Features Guiding Behavioral Discrimination and Neural Processing in the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex (Gordon W. Gifford, and Yale E. Cohen)pp. 65- ...
Recent evidence from magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies in ASD have pointed to abnormalities (specifically, delays) in auditory evoked neuromagnetic responses (e.g. M100 - see Roberts et al., 2010, and mismatch field, MMF - see Roberts et al., 2011) as well as abnormalities in the oscillatory behavior of auditory cortex, especially in the gamma band (30-50Hz), at rest and in response to simple auditory stimuli (see Gandal et al., 2010 and Cornew et al., 2012; Edgar et al., 2013). The local circuitry underlying such evoked activity and oscillations, and synaptic transmission in general, requires an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition, mediated by glutamate and GABA, respectively. One model of the neural oscillatory deficits in ASD suggests that impaired regulatory control by inhibitory interneurons onto pyramidal cells underlies abnormal auditory latency and oscillatory electrophysiological measures. As such, electrophysiological deficits are interpreted in terms of local ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Penikis, Kristina B.. AU - Young, Stephen K.. AU - Ferrer, Christopher E.. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2017/6/20. Y1 - 2017/6/20. N2 - Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, ...
The scientists found that this learned behaviour was permanent and when they mapped oxytocins effect in the brain of the mice, they found it was working on the left hemisphere of the auditory cortex. In other words they believe that oxytocin was controlling the volume of social information that was being processed by individual nerve cells, similar to the way a dimmer switch can turn a light up or down ...
Dr Catia Andreassi, UCL Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology: Bridging funding to support a post-doctoral RA working on understanding the role of mRNA transport and local translation in axons of developing neurons.. Dr Maria Arantzazu Barrios Lafuente, UCL Division of Biosciences: Bridging funds for an intermediate career scientist working with c.elegans in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology.. Dr Daniel Bendor, UCL Psychology and Language Sciences: Contribution towards electrophysiology equipment for a new Investigator recruited from MIT to work on neural circuits in the auditory cortex.. Professor Frances Brodsky, UCL Division of Biosciences: Start-up funds for the provision of postdoctoral RA salaries for a new senior recruit specialising in the biochemical properties of clathrin and its role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes.. Dr Steven Buckingham, UCL Division of Medicine: Bridging funding for a postdoctoral RA pending PI grant applications. His research focuses on ion ...
It is then the responsibility of the auditory cortex (AC) of the right hemisphere (on its own) to map the whole auditory scene ... The stream arrives at both the right and left auditory cortices for eventual speech processing by the left hemisphere. In a ... Its caudal and splenium portions contain fibres that originate from the primary and second auditory cortices, and from other ... Aging 33(7), 2012 Tervaniemi M, Hugdahl K; Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions; Brain Research Reviews 43, 2003 Van den ...
... are parts of the primary auditory cortex. This is the first cortical destination of auditory ... Brodmann areas 41 and 42 are parts of the primary auditory cortex. Brodmann area 41 is also known as the anterior transverse ... temporal area 41 (H). It is a cytoarchitectonic division of the cerebral cortex occupying the anterior transverse temporal ...
show that tactile senses can activate the human auditory cortex. Currently vibrotactile stimuli can be used to facilitate ... Schurmann M, Caetano G, Hlushchuk Y, Jousmaki V, Hari R (2006). "Touch activates human auditory cortex". NeuroImage. 30 (4): ... The visual or auditory data collected from the sensors is transformed into tactile stimuli that are then relayed to the brain ... Most systems are auditory-vision substitutions aimed at using the sense of hearing to convey visual information to the blind. " ...
"Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex". PLOS Biology. Public Library of Science (PLoS). 10 (1): e1001251. doi: ... "Facilitation and restoration of cognitive function in primate prefrontal cortex by a neuroprosthesis that utilizes minicolumn- ... of Pittsburgh develop a robotic arm that can be precisely controlled by paralyzed patients using a set of motor cortex implants ...
... on how silent lip-reading activates the auditory cortex [8], in Science, while she was a doctoral student. This finding and her ... Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 11, No. 12, 1110-1123. Osterbauer, R.A., Matthews, P.M., Jenkinson, M., Beckmann, C.F., Hansen, P.C. & ... Calvert, G.A., Campbell, R., Brammer, M.J. (2000) FMRI evidence of crossmodal binding in the human heteromodal cortex. Current ... multisensory representation of limb position in human premotor cortex. Nature Neuroscience. (1):17-8 Calvert, G.A., Bullmore, E ...
Lamminmäki, Satu; Hari, Riitta (2000). "Auditory cortex activation associated with octave illusion". NeuroReport. 11 (7): 1469- ... The octave illusion is an auditory illusion discovered by Diana Deutsch in 1973. It is produced when two tones that are an ... Deutsch, D. (1974). "An auditory illusion". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 55 (S1): S18-S19. doi:10.1121/ ... Deutsch, D. (1981). "The Octave Illusion and Auditory Perceptual Integration. In Tobias, J.V., and Schubert, E.D.". Hearing ...
2012). "Reconstructing Speech from Human Auditory Cortex". PLOS Biol. 10 (1): e1001251. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001251. PMC ... Later, the computer model of auditory information processing was used to reconstruct some of the words back into sound based on ... Early studies used voxels from early visual cortex areas (V1, V2, and V3) to reconstruct geometric stimuli made up of ... Using the computational model, scientists were able to identify the brain activity involved in processing auditory information ...
Silent lip reading activates the auditory cortex. When sounds are matched or mismatched with the movements of the lips, ... The ABR, also known as the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test or auditory brainstem evoked potential (ABEP) test ... The human ear is able to detect differences in pitch through the movement of auditory hair cells found on the basilar membrane ... Specific inhibitory responses that take place in the visual cortex help create a visual focus on a specific point rather than ...
Penhune, V. B.; Zatorre, R. J.; Feindel, W. H. (1999). "The role of auditory cortex in retention of rhythmic patterns in ... Johnsrude, I. S.; Penhune, V. B.; Zatorre, R. J. (2000). "Functional specificity in the right human auditory cortex for ... Zatorre, R. J.; Halpern, A. R. (2005). "Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex". Neuron. 47 (1): 9-12. doi: ... Bendor, D.; Wang, X. (2005). "The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex". Nature. 436 (7054): 1161-1165. ...
Part of the auditory cortex also can represent aspects of speech such as its consonantal features. Mirror neurons have been ... At least some cortical areas neurobiologically active during both sign and vocal speech, such as the auditory cortex, are ... Okada, K.; Hickok, G. (2006). "Left posterior auditory-related cortices participate both in speech perception and speech ... in the auditory cortex". Nature. 397 (6715): 116. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..116N. doi:10.1038/16376. PMID 9923672. Goodale, E.; ...
Her poem, Place won an honorable mention at Asian Ch's Auditory Cortex. Ground up won third place at the David Burland Poetry ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Auditory Cortex". Asian Cha (39). April 2018. ISSN 1999-5032. Archived from the ...
Belin, P.; Zatorre, R. J.; Lafaille, P.; Ahad, P.; Pike, B. (2000-01-20). "Voice-selective areas in human auditory cortex". ... Cortex. 2014;50(100):125-136. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2013.07.011 Kreifelts B, Ethofer T, Shiozawa T, Grodd W, Wildgruber D. ... after the spectrotemporal analysis conducted by the auditory cortex, the STS is responsible for interpretation of vocal input ... Pure auditory agnosia (agnosia without aphasia) is found in a patients who can't identify non-speech sounds such as coughing, ...
1997). "Activation of auditory cortex during silent lipreading". Science. 276 (5312): 593-6. doi:10.1126/science.276.5312.593. ... 1991 Seeing Speech: visual information from lip movements modifies activity in the human auditory cortex". Neuroscience Letters ... These studies and many more point to a role for vision in the development of sensitivity to (auditory) speech in the first half ... Havy, M., Foroud, A., Fais, L., & Werker, J.F. (in press; online January 26, 2017). The role of auditory and visual speech in ...
Overall, the auditory cortices of deaf humans have an increased gray-white matter ratio as a result of the lack of auditory ... Likewise, Wernicke's area was near the auditory cortex. These motor and auditory areas are important in spoken language ... Deaf humans are thought to have a larger ratio of gray matter to white matter in certain auditory cortices, such as left and ... Structural brain imaging has commonly shown white matter volume of the auditory cortices differs between deaf and hearing ...
"The Representation of Prediction Error in Auditory Cortex". PLoS Computational Biology. 12 (8): e1005058. Bibcode:2016PLSCB.. ... Ortiz T, Martin-Loeches M, Vila E (1990). "Frontal lobes and aging effect on the P300 component of the auditory event-related ... Some studies show that alcoholics have larger P300 amplitudes in response to an auditory oddball task, but that alcoholics who ... There is also some evidence that activation is certain limbic structures, such as the anterior cingulate cortex, may contribute ...
Some report that the primary auditory cortex, secondary auditory cortex, and limbic system are responsible for this faculty, ... Zatorre RJ, Berlin P (2001). "Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex". Cerebral Cortex. 11 (10): 946-53. doi ... The right secondary auditory cortex processes pitch change and manipulation of fine tunes; specifically, this region ... Tramo M, Shah GD, Braida LD (2002). "Functional role of auditory cortex in frequency processing and pitch perception". Journal ...
Specific sound frequencies map precisely onto the auditory cortex. This auditory (or tonotopic) map is similar to the ... The superior temporal gyrus contains the auditory cortex, which is responsible for processing sounds. ... marking the location of the auditory cortex, the cortical region responsible for the sensation of sound; Wernicke's area, ... The superior temporal gyrus is involved in auditory processing, including language, but also has been implicated as a critical ...
"Auditory cortex characteristics in schizophrenia: associations with auditory hallucinations". Schizophr Bull. 43 (1): 75-83. ... Thomsen T, Rimol LM, Ersland L, Hugdahl K (2004). "Dichotic listening reveals functional specificity in prefrontal cortex: an ... and neurobiology of auditory hallucinations. He has published over 300 articles in international peer reviewed journals, ...
Kaukoranta, Elina; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli: Responses of the human auditory cortex to vowel onset after fricative ... Auditory spektrum of human voice, Auditory spektrogram of human voice, Auditory spectral series of human voice, Phonetogram of ... Aulanko, Reijo; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli; Näätänen, Risto; Sams, Mikko: Phonetic invariance in the human auditory cortex. ... Selective listening modifies activity of the human auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research. February 1989;74:3:463-470. ...
Hromádka, T; Deweese, MR; Zador, AM (2008). "Sparse representation of sounds in the unanesthetized auditory cortex". PLOS Biol ... Vinje, WE; Gallant, JL (2000). "Sparse coding and decorrelation in primary visual cortex during natural vision" (PDF). Science ...
Roe, A.W., S.L. Pallas, J.O. Hahm, and M. Sur (1990). A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex. Science 250: ... I. Novel inputs to primary auditory cortex (AI) from the LP/pulvinar complex and the topography of the MGN-AI projection". The ... Roe, AW; Pallas, SL; Hahm, JO; Sur, M (9 November 1990). "A map of visual space induced in primary auditory cortex". Science. ... Sur, M., P.E. Garraghty, and A.W. Roe (1988). Experimentally induced visual projections into auditory thalamus and cortex. ...
Kaukoranta, Elina; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli: Responses of the human auditory cortex to vowel onset after fricative ... Aulanko, Reijo; Hari, Riitta; Lounasmaa, Olli; Näätänen, Risto; Sams, Mikko: Phonetic invariance in the human auditory cortex. ... Selective listening modifies activity of the human auditory cortex. Experimental Brain Research. February 1989;74:3:463-470. ... Research project of the Academy of Finland Auditory modelling of speech perception Karjalainen Matti A. (eds.): Puheen ...
Zatorre, R. J.; Belin, P.; Penhune, V. B. (2002). "Structure and function of auditory cortex: music and speech". Trends in ... The speech-to-song illusion is an auditory illusion discovered by Diana Deutsch in 1995. A spoken phrase is repeated several ... "Auditory Illusions", BBC Radio 4, 2019, August "Diana Deutsch's Speech-to-Song Illusion site "Sometimes behaves so strangely", ... Cerebral Cortex. 23 (2): 249-254. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs003. PMC 3539450. PMID 22314043. Hymers , M.; Prendergast , G.; Liu, C ...
Phillips, Colin; T. Pellathy; A. Marantz; E. Yellin; K. Wexler; M. McGinnis; D. Poeppel; T. Roberts (2001). "Auditory cortex ... A.R. Wyler; A.A. Ward, Jr (1981). "Neurons in human epileptic cortex. Response to direct cortical stimulation". Journal of ... Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: Anatomical changes in the human brain Cortex: A Journal Devoted to ... See, for example, Friederici, Angela D. (2002). "Towards a neural basis of auditory sentence processing". Trends in Cognitive ...
These sounds are normally discarded by the auditory cortex; however, they become more obvious when louder external sounds are ...
... the early auditory environment influences the structural development and response specificity of the primary auditory cortex. ... For example, Zhou and Merzenich (2008) studied the effects of noise on development in the primary auditory cortex in rats. In ... Nakahara H, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM (May 2004). "Specialization of primary auditory cortex processing by sound exposure in the " ... Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM (December 1998). "Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex". ...
The auditory N100 is generated by a network of neural populations in the primary and association auditory cortices in the ... "Tonotopic organization of the human auditory cortex revealed by transient auditory evoked magnetic fields". ... The origin of the wave for a long time was unknown and only linked to the auditory cortex in 1970. Due to ... The two T-complex N100 evoked potentials are created by auditory association cortices in the superior temporal gyri. The N100 ...
Evidence of a bistable network has been shown with the interneurons of the auditory cortex. The stable states of this auditory ... Merriam, Elliot; Netoff, T. I.; Banks, M. I. (2005). "Bistable Network Behavior of Layer I Interneurons in Auditory Cortex". ... In studies with rodents, the prefrontal cortex, specifically the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the ... Valenti, O; Grace, AA (2009). "Entorhinal cortex inhibits medial prefrontal cortex and modulates the activity states of ...
"Modified activity of the human auditory cortex during auditory hallucinations". American Journal of Psychiatry. 149 (2): 255- ... In some cases, auditory verbal hallucinations were simply equated with insanity. The Hearing Voices Movement has been ... Auditory hallucination Critical Psychiatry Network Demon Diagnosis of schizophrenia Hearing Voices Network Interpretation of ... 4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Ruvanee P Vilhauer, Depictions of auditory verbal hallucinations in news media, International Journal of ...
Kilgard, Michael P. (December 1998). "Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex". Nature ... Researchers have suggested that delayed development of the prefrontal cortex and an associated delay in the development of ... Penfield, Wilder (1965). "Conditioning the Uncommitted Cortex for Language Learning". Brain. 88 (4): 787-798. doi:10.1093/brain ... it may be due at least partially to the delayed development of the prefrontal cortex in human children. ...
The prefrontal cortex is thought essential for all goal-directed and socially-mediated behavior. The PFC is an ideal target for ... red/infrared light refraction is displayed as a visual signal on a computer monitor and may also be translated into an auditory ... Most research in HEG has focused on disorders of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the cortical region directly behind the forehead ... When a region of the cortex is used in a specific cognitive task, neuronal activity in that region increases, consequently ...
Corbetta, M.; Shulman, G.L.; Miezin, F.M. & Petersen, S.E. (1995). "Superior parietal cortex activation during spatial ... Camos, V. & Tillmann, B. (2008). "Discontinuity in the enumeration of sequentially presented auditory and visual stimuli". ... A 2008 study also demonstrated subitizing and counting in auditory perception.[8] Even though the existence of subitizing in ... these findings support the idea that subitizing is a general perceptual mechanism extending to auditory and tactile processing ...
Talk:Auditory system. *Talk:Auricular branch of occipital artery. *Talk:Auricular branch of posterior auricular artery ... Talk:Adrenal cortex. *Talk:Adrenal medulla. *Talk:Adventitia. *Talk:Alar ligament. *Talk:Benjamin Alcock ...
The sound environment the NICU provides can be disruptive, but music therapy can mask unwanted auditory stimuli and promote a ... the rhythmic tapping of the left hand stimulates the right sensorimotor cortex in order to further engage the right hemisphere ... Multi-modal stimulation (MMS) includes the applications of auditory, tactile, vestibular, and visual stimulation that helps aid ...
Prefrontal cortex and the cognitive control of memory[edit]. Pars triangularis has been shown to have a role in cognitive ... "Localizing the distributed language network responsible for the N400 measured by MEG during auditory sentence processing". ... Brodmann area 45 (BA45), is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. It is situated on the lateral surface, inferior to ... 1999). "Effects of repetition and competition on activity of left prefrontal cortex during word generation". Neuron. 23 (3): ...
Auditory hallucinations are thus also common: "patients can hear simple sounds, structured melodies or complete sentences".[2] ... and the parts of the cortex related to our most complex logical-cognitive functions experience highly intense electrical ...
Role of right auditory cortex in fine pitch resolution[edit]. The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated ... in the secondary auditory cortex, and the primary auditory cortex in the medial section of Heschl's gyrus (HG). ... The right auditory cortex is primarily involved in perceiving pitch, and parts of harmony, melody and rhythm.[14] One study by ... Auditory-motor interactions[edit]. Feedforward and feedback interactions[edit]. An auditory-motor interaction may be loosely ...
Cerebral cortices. *Visual cortex. *Auditory cortex. *Vestibular cortex. *Olfactory cortex. *Gustatory cortex ... The third-order neurons then send the signal to the somatosensory cortex. ... where they contribute to the auditory system and equilibrioception. In addition to this, mechanoreceptors aid Dionaea muscipula ...
... posterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and parts of the dorsomedial thalamus connecting to temporal and ... Specifically, the effect of losses is assumed to be on general attention rather than just visual or auditory attention. The ... This involves the ventral caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, superior frontal and middle gyri ... Gehring, W.J.; Willoughby, A.R (2002). "The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses". ...
Auditory processing disorder. *Deficits in attention, motor control and perception. *Developmental coordination disorder ... Orbitofrontal cortex. *Cingulate cortex. *Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Receptors. *5-HT1Dβ ...
Paranoid subtype: Delusions or auditory hallucinations are present. However, thought disorder, disorganized behavior, or lack ... there is less brain volume in the frontal cortex and temporal lobes, and problems within the corpus callosum, the band of nerve ...
ঐক্ষিক বহিঃস্তর (গুরুমস্তিষ্ক) (Visual cortex). *কান (Ear) *বহিঃকর্ণ (Outer ear) *কানের লতি (Earlobe) ... শ্রবণ তন্ত্র (Auditory system). *কায়াস্থিতি ব্যবস্থা (Vestibular system). *রোম কোষ (Hair cells) ...
"Predicting visual stimuli based on activity in auditory cortices". Nature Neuroscience. 13 (6): 667-668. doi:10.1038/nn.2533. ... in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.[8] He also demonstrated that while the insular cortex plays a major role in ... "Cerebral Cortex. 23 (4): 833-46. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs077. PMC 3657385. PMID 22473895.. ... "Cerebral Cortex. 23 (4): 833-46. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs077. PMC 3657385. PMID 22473895.. ...
For creating functional maps of human cortex during more complex cognitive tasks, MEG is most often combined with fMRI, as the ... MEG also accurately pinpoints sources in primary auditory, somatosensory and motor areas. ... of using electrodes placed directly on the exposed surface of the brain to record electrical activity from the cerebral cortex. ... imaging analysis software that facilitates the visualization of the functional regions of the highly folded cerebral cortex. ...
... a linguistic auditory signal is first sent from the auditory cortex to Wernicke's area. The lexicon is accessed in Wernicke's ... In addition to dysphasia, anomia and auditory processing disorder can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore ... Hearing problems, such as otitis media with effusion, and listening problems, auditory processing disorders, can lead to ... This is then sent from Broca's area to the motor cortex for articulation.[11] ...
... that measures auditory processing speed and calculation ability.[53] Another study reported that lamotrigine might be a safe ... using primary neurological cultures from rat cortex". Brain Research. 612 (1-2): 190-9. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(93)91660-K. PMID ... the only statistical improvement in core ADHD symptoms was an improvement on a Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) ... of lamotrigine's mechanism of action examined its effects on the release of endogenous amino acids from rat cerebral cortex ...
Thus, in the species with the largest brains, most of their volume is filled with cortex: this applies not only to humans, but ... Research measuring brain volume, P300 auditory evoked potentials, and intelligence shows a dissociation, such that both brain ... For instance, among modern Homo sapiens, northern populations have a 20% larger visual cortex than those in the southern ... Carne, Ross P.; Vogrin, Simon; Litewka, Lucas; Cook, Mark J. (January 2006). "Cerebral cortex: An MRI-based study of volume and ...
... megabats have a well-developed visual cortex and good visual acuity.[34] Megabats have a claw on the second finger of the ... the brain and auditory nervous system can produce detailed images of the bat's surroundings. This allows bats to detect, ... their kidneys have a thin cortex and long renal papillae. Frugivorous bats lack that ability and have kidneys adapted for ... electrolyte-retention due to their low-electrolyte diet; their kidneys accordingly have a thick cortex and very short conical ...
In addition, reduced activation in the left auditory cortex has been observed.[19][22] ... There is some evidence that the functional organization of the auditory cortex may be different in people who stutter.[19] ... Auditory processing deficits have also been proposed as a cause of stuttering. Stuttering is less prevalent in deaf and hard-of ... Altered auditory feedback, so that people who stutter hear their voice differently, has been used for over 50 years in the ...
"Spectro-temporal response field characterization with dynamic ripples in ferret primary auditory cortex". J. Neurophysiol. 85 ( ...
Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. This is important in the acoustic ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ... In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ... M Manto; C De Zeeuw (2012). "Diversity and Complexity of Roles of Granule Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex". The Cerebellum. 11 ( ...
Illustration of image as 'seen' by the retina independent of optic nerve and striate cortex processing. ... Specifically, the output of the LGN "radiates" out to the V1 primary visual cortex. ... "The human visual cortex responds to gene therapy-mediated recovery of retinal function". The Journal of Clinical Investigation ...
TMS involves the administration of a focused electromagnetic field to the cortex to stimulate specific nerve pathways. ... Hallucinations can be auditory, visual, olfactory (smell), or haptic (touch), and are congruent with delusional material.[2] ...
Dooling, R.J. (1982). Auditory perception in birds. Acoustic Communication in Birds, Vol. 1 (eds D.E. Kroodsma & E.H. Miller). ... has been considered homologous to a mammalian motor pathway originating in the cerebral cortex and descending through the brain ... designed an auditory feedback perturbation protocol in order to explore the role of auditory feedback in adult song maintenance ... Auditory feedback in birdsong learningEdit. Early experiments by Thorpe in 1954 showed the importance of a bird being able to ...
Trimble, M. R. (1989). The Prefrontal Cortex: Anatomy, Physiology and Neuropsychology of the Frontal Lobe. British Journal of ... Their dream contents are related to other senses like auditory, touch, smell and taste, whichever are present since birth.[95] ... The reason for this may be that the prefrontal cortex, the region of the brain responsible for logic and planning, exhibits ... Stimulus, usually an auditory one, becomes a part of a dream, eventually then awakening the dreamer. ...
... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex plays an important yet ambiguous role in hearing. When the auditory information passes into the cortex, the ... The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These ... The right auditory cortex has long been shown to be more sensitive to tonality, while the left auditory cortex has been shown ...
Sensorimotor cortex. *Shows rest-state motor neurons.[77]. *Mu suppression could indicate that motor mirror neurons are working ... But research on mental disabilities, such as auditory processing disorder (APD), ADD, or ADHD, is becoming more widely known ... Somatosensory cortex. *Displays during cross-modal sensory processing (perception that combines two different senses, such as ... MEG and EEG both detect activity below the surface of the cortex very poorly, and like EEG, the level of error increases with ...
Most studies have looked for activation at the 'sites' of biasing, such as in the visual or auditory cortices. Early studies ... The prefrontal cortex receives inputs not only from other cortical regions, including association cortex, but also, via the ... The ventromedial prefrontal cortex seems to regulate social cognition, including empathy. The orbitofrontal cortex is involved ... of the cerebral cortex in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls in prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex, ...
A major divide is between theories that attribute the difficulties to a low-level problem with auditory temporal processing, ... Cortex. 41 (3): 399-433. doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70276-4. PMID 15871604. S2CID 1027740.. ...
cerebral cortex development. • establishment of mitotic spindle orientation. • regulation of gene expression. • regulation of ... Cells of this area divide, producing neurons that migrate to eventually form the cerebral cortex. ... Auditory brainstem response. Abnormal DEXA. Normal Radiography. Normal Body temperature. Normal Eye morphology. Abnormal[26] ...
... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex plays an important yet ambiguous role in hearing. When the auditory information passes into the cortex, the ... The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These ... with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically ...
Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Werner Mühlnickel, Thomas Elbert, Edward Taub, and Herta Flor ... Reorganization of auditory cortex related to tinnitus might lead to a shift of the tinnitus frequency representation in the ... This study demonstrates that tinnitus is accompanied by a change of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex. Further, it is ... Similar plastic reorganizational changes occur in auditory cortex with increases and decreases in input (27, 28). At this time ...
In mammals, the auditory cortex is thought to be essential for this," says senior study author Dr. Robert C. Liu from the ... to the detection of pup isolation calls by performing electrophysiological recordings from cells in the auditory cortex of ... "We hypothesize that the observed auditory cortical inhibitory plasticity improves pup call detection in the mother mice in a ... "Although previous work with anesthetized animals has examined how cortical excitation can help to improve auditory processing, ...
... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex plays an important yet ambiguous role in hearing. When the auditory information passes into the cortex, the ... The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These ... The right auditory cortex has long been shown to be more sensitive to tonality, while the left auditory cortex has been shown ...
... both receiving direct inputs from the auditory thalamus: the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF ... Our study reveals a distinct role of two primary auditory cortices in tone processing and highlights the complexity of sound ... Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the mouse auditory cortex, we found that AAF neurons have significantly ... and laminar analyses suggest that the differences in sound responses between these two primary cortices are both of subcortical ...
... listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex. ... Auditory cortex Is the Subject Area "Auditory cortex" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
... Nature. 2000 Jan 20;403(6767):309-12. doi: 10.1038/35002078. ... their existence sheds new light on the functional architecture of the human auditory cortex. ... The voice-selective areas in the STS may represent the counterpart of the face-selective areas in human visual cortex; ...
Converging evidence now indicates that auditory cortical areas can be recruited even in the absence of sound and that this ... Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex Neuron. 2005 Jul 7;47(1):9-12. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.013. ... We also consider the role of core versus belt areas in musical imagery, the relation between auditory and motor systems during ... Most people intuitively understand what it means to "hear a tune in your head." Converging evidence now indicates that auditory ...
While these spatial periodicities show anisotropy in auditory cortex, they are isotropic in visual cortex, indicating region ... Spatial pattern of intra-laminar connectivity in supragranular mouse auditory cortex.. Watkins PV1, Kao JP2, Kanold PO3. ... The mammalian primary auditory cortex has a tonotopic arrangement at large spatial scales (greater than 300 microns). This ... Here we measure the functional 2-dimensional spatial connectivity pattern of the supragranular auditory cortex on micro-column ...
Generation of spike latency tuning by thalamocortical circuits in auditory cortex.. Zhou Y1, Mesik L, Sun YJ, Liang F, Xiao Z, ... D, Relay of latency tuning from the thalamus to the cortex. Top, Spike latency tuning for individual thalamic neurons defined ... Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings from rat auditory cortical neurons in layer 4 revealed that the onset latency of their ... but can be largely reconstructed by local circuits in the cortex. Dissecting of thalamocortical circuits and neural modeling ...
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore ... Zatorre RJ and Belin P (2001) Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 11:946-953.PubMed ... Heil P and Irvine DRF (1998) The posterior field P of cat auditory cortex: coding of envelope transients. Cerebral Cortex 8:125 ... Fishman YI, Arezzo JC, and Steinschneider M (2004) Auditory stream segregation in monkey auditory cortex: effects of frequency ...
... 14.11.2007. The results of a study conducted by ... amplitude of signals measured in the human auditory cortex is increased to the same extent regardless of the type of auditory ... the neurons in the human auditory cortex tune into the frequency band attended to by the subjects. This facilitates the ... indicate that selective attention has significant effects on the activity of the human auditory cortex. ...
Multiple Time Scales of Adaptation in Auditory Cortex Neurons Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Multiple Time Scales of Adaptation in Auditory Cortex Neurons. Nachum Ulanovsky, Liora Las, Dina Farkas and Israel Nelken ... Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). In probabilistic settings, in ... Auditory thalamus neurons did not show SSA, and their responses were poorly fitted by the same model. In addition, SSA ...
... auditory thalamus (ONeill and Brimijoin, 2002), and the primary auditory cortex (A1) (Suga, 1965b; Mendelson and Cynader, 1985 ... Synaptic Mechanisms of Direction Selectivity in Primary Auditory Cortex. Chang-quan Ye, Mu-ming Poo, Yang Dan and Xiao-hui ... 1985) Sensitivity of cat primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons to the direction and rate of frequency modulation. Brain Res 327: ... 2007) Frequency-modulation encoding in the primary auditory cortex of the awake owl monkey. J Neurophysiol 98:2182-2195. ...
Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex (DYS-AUT). The safety and scientific validity of this study ... The aim of this study is to compare auditory evoked cortical responses to syllables and tones in developmental dyslexia and ...
... response to tones as a function of intensity was topographically studied with multiple-unit recordings in the primary auditory ... cortex (AI) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The spatial... ... and VP in the cat auditory cortex. J Comp Neurol 265: 119-144 ... Primary auditory cortex Intensity Isofrequency domain Topography Cat This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Pattems of axon collateralization of identified supragranular pyramidal neurons in the cat auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 1: ...
Specifically, whether neurons in auditory cortex represent spatial cues or an integrated representation of auditory space ... The brains auditory cortex is involved not just in detection of sounds, but also in localizing them. Here, the authors show ... Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative ... but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. ...
Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex. ... The largest effects of auditory deprivation occurred within the auditory cortex rather than the visual cortex, suggesting that ... Comparing the effects of auditory deprivation and sign language within the auditory and visual cortex by Ione Fine, Eva M. ... Overall, major blood flow increases were seen in the primary and secondary auditory cortices, primary motor cortex, frontal ...
... auditory cortex include Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI, Mapping the After- ... Stereotactically-guided Ablation of the Rat Auditory Cortex, and Localization of the Lesion in the Brain, High Resolution ... effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging, ... an Auditory Attention Example, Behavioral Determination of Stimulus Pair Discrimination of Auditory Acoustic and Electrical ...
A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent ... The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different ... The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. ... Another section describes the system of auditory cortical projections. ...
Nicotinic modulation of tone-evoked responses in auditory cortex reflects the strength of prior auditory learning. Neurobiol. ... Nicotinic filtering of sensory processing in auditory cortex. Raju Metherate1*, Irakli Intskirveli1 and Hideki D. Kawai2 ... Figure 5. Effects of systemic nicotine on tone-evoked CSD profiles in primary auditory cortex of three individual mice (A, B ... Kawai, H. D., Kang, H. A., and Metherate, R. (2011). Heightened nicotinic regulation of auditory cortex during adolescence. J. ...
The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that certain cells in the auditory cortex are sensitive to ... The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts, the primary, secondary and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures ... The right auditory cortex has long been shown to be more sensitive to tonality, while the left auditory cortex has been shown ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ...
To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory ... To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory ... cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample ... cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample ...
Simon Receives NIH Grant for Auditory Cortex Research. Prof. Jonathan Z. Simon ... in auditory neuroscience is to understand how speech and other natural sounds are analyzed and encoded in the auditory cortex ... the building blocks of speech and other natural sounds are encoded in the auditory cortex. Prof. Simons research employs ... to investigate how temporal modulations are encoded by the auditory cortex in the brain. For more information about the ...
Measurements of single-spike responses to tone-burststimuli have revealed heterogenic response types amongthe primary auditory ... Modelling the Slope Sensitivity of Primary Auditory Cortex Neurons in Awake Cats K. Ozawa, Y. Koike, H. Wakagi, Y. Sato, and S ... Functional model, primary auditory cortex, phasic neuron,slope sensitivity, awake cat, and brain-machine interface ... To explain the behavior of the slope-sensitive phasic cells, we have developed an auditory model, consisting of six stages: the ...
... so it is not clear how the auditory cortex encodes sound information over longer periods. In this study, we propose that ... The sound-evoked activity measured for most auditory cortical neurons is relatively short (, 50 ms), ... nonlinear adaptation, mimicking the effects of synaptic short-term plasticity (STP), enables auditory neurons to encode longer ... Auditory cortex Is the Subject Area "Auditory cortex" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive ...
... but studies in mice and guinea pigs show it also stimulates the auditory system, presenting a confounder for direct neural ... auditory cortex. auditory processing. brain stimulation. guinea pig. hearing. mouse models. mouse study. neuroscience. News. ... This vibration then triggers auditory signaling and indirectly activates the auditory cortex and other brain regions, rather ... Shapiro and his coauthors determined that the mouse brains lit up across the cortex, starting from the auditory cortex. And as ...
Importantly, the auditory cortices, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal regions showed increased activity during listening ... Activity in the mesolimbic striatum and its interaction with auditory cortices determines the hedonic response to new music. ... Activity in the mesolimbic striatum and its interaction with auditory cortices determines the hedonic response to new music. ... Interactions Between the Nucleus Accumbens and Auditory Cortices Predict Music Reward Value ...
Based on the activity in the auditory cortex and motor cortex, researchers were able to predict whether a participant was ... Financial losses evoke neuroplasticity alterations to the auditory cortex, a new study reports. Read More ... Non-invasive transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applied over the auditory cortex had a pronounced beneficial ... Auditory hallucinations rooted in aberrant brain connectivity. Auditory hallucinations, a common feature of psychosis and ...
  • Besides receiving input from the ears via lower parts of the auditory system, it also transmits signals back to these areas and is interconnected with other parts of the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal responses and topographic organization of feature selectivity in the cerebral cortex are shaped by ascending inputs and by intracortical connectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Systematic studies of the auditory cortex's functional organization began in 1942 with a study by Woolsey and Walzl in which the authors mapped a distribution of the slow-wave evoked potentials in the ectosylvian region of the cat cerebral cortex under local electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve fibres in a cochlear labyrinth [6]. (scirp.org)
  • There are additional areas of the human cerebral cortex that are involved in processing sound, in the frontal and parietal lobes . (wikidoc.org)
  • Animal studies indicate that auditory fields of the cerebral cortex receive ascending input from the auditory thalamus , and that they are interconnected on the same and on the opposite cerebral hemispheres .The auditory cortex is composed of fields, which differ from each other in both structure and function. (wikidoc.org)
  • This area is also known as anterior transverse temporal area 41 (H) . It is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally -defined temporal region of cerebral cortex , occupying the anterior transverse temporal gyrus (H) in the bank of the lateral sulcus on the dorsal surface of the temporal lobe . (wikidoc.org)
  • The cerebral cortex that is traditionally connected with consciousness is extremely complex. (psu.edu)
  • Located in the cerebral cortex that handles sound in the brain.The auditory cortex is part of the auditory system. (typepad.com)
  • Animal studies indicate that auditory fields of the cerebral cortex receive ascending input from the auditory thalamus , and that they are interconnected on the same and on the opposite cerebral hemispheres . (gutenberg.org)
  • Poster presented at 3rd International Conference on Auditory Cortex (AC 2009), Magdeburg, Germany. (mpg.de)
  • The Cerebral Systems Lab recently recently attended the 5th International Conference on Auditory Cortex in Magdeburg, Germany. (cerebralsystems.ca)
  • The researchers examined how neural responses could contribute to the detection of pup isolation calls by performing electrophysiological recordings from cells in the auditory cortex of fully awake mother or virgin mice. (redorbit.com)
  • We hypothesize that the observed auditory cortical inhibitory plasticity improves pup call detection in the mother mice in a relatively specific manner by increasing the contrast between call-evoked responses arising from high-ultrasonic neural populations that should be excited, and so-called lateral band neural populations that should not be," concludes Dr. Liu. (redorbit.com)
  • Bar-Yosef O and Nelken I (2007) The effects of background noise on the neural responses to natural sounds in cat primary auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Auditory cortex is required for sound localisation, but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. (nature.com)
  • To investigate neural plasticity resulting from early auditory deprivation and use of American Sign Language, we measured responses to visual stimuli in deaf signers, hearing signers, and hearing nonsigners using functional magnetic resonance imaging. (psu.edu)
  • To examine potential mechanisms within sensory cortex that may contribute to cognitive functions, here we describe nicotinic actions in primary auditory cortex, where well-characterized neural "filters"-frequency receptive fields-can be exploited to examine nicotinic regulation of cortical processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, our findings suggest that A1 forms part of the larger neural system recruited during auditory STM. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to the sizable literature describing visual STM and its neural substrates, relatively few studies have investigated auditory STM at the behavioral or neuronal levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, one of the remaining steps toward a complete view of the functional organization of the auditory system is a more detailed understanding of auditory STM and its underlying neural processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Early studies investigating the neural substrates of visual STM in non-human primates singled out the critical involvement of the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in tasks that included a memory delay. (frontiersin.org)
  • Prof. Jonathan Z. Simon ( ECE / ISR / Biology ) has been awarded a grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for his research, titled "The Neural Basis of Perceptually-Relevant Auditory Modulations in Humans. (umd.edu)
  • Researchers have been using ultrasound to control brain activity, but studies in mice and guinea pigs show it also stimulates the auditory system, presenting a confounder for direct neural stimulation. (the-scientist.com)
  • behavioral measures in humans to investigate neural correlates of informational masking and auditory perceptual awareness in the auditory cortex . (psu.edu)
  • To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. (cryptogon.com)
  • These findings reveal neural encoding mechanisms of speech acoustic parameters in higher order human auditory cortex. (cryptogon.com)
  • J Neurosci 2011) provides us fine scale tonotopic maps in controls and tinnitus patients and using that we are able to compare the amplitude of the neural activity in the auditory cortex of the unilateral and ipsilateral hemisphere to the hearing ear for each group of different frequency responding neurons. (epfl.ch)
  • This study specifically investigates the processing and representation of sound dynamic information in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive brain imaging technique whose high temporal resolution (on the order of ~1ms) makes it an appropriate tool for studying the neural correlates of dynamic auditory information. (umd.edu)
  • Auditory-motor neural synchronization during perception is restricted to a narrow frequency range and enhanced at ~4.5 Hz. (sciencemag.org)
  • Therefore, I may propose the hypothesis that egocentric selection is a basic neural mechanism shared by many mammalian species, but its effects on subcortical neurons, and accordingly, cortical neurons, can be somewhat different from species to species, depending on species-specific needs for auditory signal processing. (umn.edu)
  • Neural responses were measured from electrodes implanted over auditory association cortex in the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) of epileptic patients. (elifesciences.org)
  • We suggest that the head start inhibits representations of incompatible auditory phonemes, increasing perceptual accuracy and decreasing total neural responses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our previous studies revealed enhanced neural activity and ultrastructural synaptic changes in the central auditory system after long-term salicylate administration. (deepdyve.com)
  • Neural mechanism of auditory cortex for extraction of the auditory information has not yet known despite many electrophysiological, Psychological and information engineering studies. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Based on these results, we proposed a wave sonagram hypothesis and made a neural network model of the auditory cortex using 2-dimensionally distributed neural oscillators with excitatory and inhibitory connections. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These results indicate sounds were represented by dynamic spatio-temporal neural activities in the auditory cortex and propose a novel way of feature and articulation in the auditory recognition. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Anisotropic neural interaction in the primary auditory cortex of guinea pigs with sound stimulation'NeuroRep. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bifurcation of Wave Propagation as a Base of Dynamical Linking in Auditory Recognition'The Fifth International Conference on Neural Information Processing. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Neural interaction in the auditory cortex : Gibbs and diffusion analysis of the optically recorded data'Neurosci. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To scrutinize the neuronal basis of these multisensory influences, we investigate mechanisms of neural information coding in the auditory cortex of the macaque. (mpg.de)
  • Overall, this suggests that the auditory cortex might rely on the use of several neural codes operating on different spatial temporal scales at the same time. (mpg.de)
  • A neural correlate of this auditory streaming has been demonstrated in awake monkeys, birds and bats. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Amusia thus stems from impaired neural processing from the very first steps of sound processing in the auditory nervous system. (inserm.fr)
  • Bidirectional plasticity effects were strictly governed by critical periods, were more strongly expressed in primary auditory cortex than inferior colliculus, and directly impacted neural coding accuracy. (scienceopen.com)
  • Possible reasons for such discrepancies include different species, recording techniques, pitch stimuli, sampling of auditory fields, and the neural metrics recorded. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Inda, M , Hotta, K & Oka, K 2020, ' Neural properties of fundamental function encoding of sound selectivity in the female avian auditory cortex ', European Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1770-1783. (elsevier.com)
  • The few studies that have examined neural sensitivity to multiple sound attributes provide only limited support for neural selectivity within auditory cortex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The goal of this study was to establish whether the neural representation of auditory space can also be influenced by task conditions involving other sensory modalities than hearing. (aalto.fi)
  • Together with previous studies, these findings suggest that performing any demanding task, even one in which sounds and their source locations are irrelevant, can lead to enhancements in the neural representation of auditory space. (aalto.fi)
  • In the second (independent) part, I will use whole-cell and extracellular recording in vivo and in slices of primary auditory cortex (A1) to reveal the neural correlates, mechanisms, and network dynamics involved in learning the significance of sensory input. (grantome.com)
  • Neural ensemble codes for stimulus periodicity in auditory cortex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The aging of auditory system determines the physical, sensory, and neural changes in the peripheral and central parts and may cause changes in the reception and sound processing. (intechopen.com)
  • The aging of the auditory system leads to physical, sensory, and neural changes in the peripheral and central portion of the system, which may also cause changes in the sections which receive and process the sound stimuli. (intechopen.com)
  • Neurophysiological Effects of the Presence of an Irrelevant Visual Stimulus on Auditory Neural Activity. (essex.ac.uk)
  • For example, it has been shown that A1 encodes complex and abstract aspects of auditory stimuli without encoding their "raw" aspects like frequency content, presence of a distinct sound or its echoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of selective attention have previously been explained by a simple gain model suggesting that the amplitude of signals measured in the human auditory cortex is increased to the same extent regardless of the type of auditory stimuli. (innovations-report.com)
  • Frequency-modulated auditory stimuli sweeping across wide spectral ranges are prevalent in the natural environment. (jneurosci.org)
  • We examined ''compensatory hypertrophy'' (changes in the responsivity/size of visual cortical areas) and ''cross-modal plasticity' ' (changes in auditory cortex responses to visual stimuli). (psu.edu)
  • In contrast, within the auditory cortex, motion stimuli evoked significant responses in deaf subjects, but not in hearing subjects, in a region of the right auditory cortex corresponding to Brodmann's areas 41, 42, and 22. (psu.edu)
  • Measurements of single-spike responses to tone-burst stimuli have revealed heterogenic response types among the primary auditory cortex (A1) neurons in awake cats. (actapress.com)
  • This model can be used to convert acoustical signals into electrical stimuli as part of an auditory brain-machine interface for individuals with severe hearing impairments. (actapress.com)
  • The activity of the cortex, however, is not strictly determined by sensory input, and neocortical populations show coordinated, spontaneous patterns of spiking activity in the absence of specific sensory stimuli or motor outputs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We compare activation for stimuli evoking a pitch percept to activation for acoustically matched noise, and demonstrate that the primary auditory cortex (Te1.0) and the lateral region Te1.2 are sensitive to pitch, whereas Te1.1 is not. (ubc.ca)
  • Recordings of single neurons have yielded great insights into the way acoustic stimuli are represented in auditory cortex. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Auditory cortical populations produced structured activity patterns both in response to acoustic stimuli, and spontaneously without sensory input. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Neuronal activities were collected in the primary auditory cortex during performing the task and passively listening to the same stimuli sequences. (umd.edu)
  • A train of acoustic stimuli (AS) and an electric leg-stimulation (ES) excite the auditory and somatosensory cortices, respectively. (umn.edu)
  • AS evokes changes in the auditory cortex, which are highly specific to acoustic stimuli and are based on egocentric selection working together with the corticofugal (descending) system. (umn.edu)
  • Contrary to these long-held views, here we show that single neurons in both primary (area A1) and lateral belt areas of the auditory cortex of awake marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) are capable of firing in a sustained manner over a prolonged period of time, especially when they are driven by their preferred stimuli. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, responses become more transient or phasic when auditory cortex neurons respond to non-preferred stimuli. (elsevier.com)
  • In fact, auditory responses of neurons in primary and secondary fields are enhanced or reduced by the simultaneous presentation of visual or touch stimuli. (mpg.de)
  • In the context of multisensory stimuli, we find that neurons become more informative about the stimulus when an auditory stimulus is complemented with the matching movie. (mpg.de)
  • A study of evoked musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. (journaldatabase.info)
  • A research group from The University of Texas at San Antonio (TX, USA) has identified a new fear pathway in mice between the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala that may play a role in fear-related behavior driven by auditory stimuli. (neuro-central.com)
  • While recordings of field potentials reveal strong influences of visual or somatosensory stimulation on synaptic activity even in primary auditory cortex, single unit studies find only a small minority of neurons as being influenced by non-acoustic stimuli. (mpg.de)
  • 2000). Though the precise intracortical mechanisms of this impairment are not known, this deficit is correlated with reductions in mismatch negativity (MMN), an evoked response potential arising in response to auditory stimuli that deviate in one characteristic (e.g., pitch) from a repetitive stimulus (Javitt et al. (blogspot.dk)
  • Our brains are wired to detect auditory stimuli that are important and might be relevant for behavior. (churchlandlab.org)
  • They used this approach to evaluate the role of two classes of inhibitory neurons: PV and SOM interneurons.They found that inhibitory either class of neurons interfered with the SSA: following their manipulation, deviant auditory stimuli no longer "popped out" the way they normally do. (churchlandlab.org)
  • Auditory Stimulation. (pnas.org)
  • Brugge JF, Merzenich MM (1973) Responses of neurons in auditory cortex of the macaque monkey to monaural and binaural stimulation. (springer.com)
  • Brugge JF, Dubrovsky NA, Aitkin LM, Anderson DJ (1969) Sensitivity of single neurons in auditory cortex of cat to binaural tonal stimulation: effect of varying interaural time and intensity. (springer.com)
  • The neocortical temporal lobe, which receives large inputs from the thalamic medial geniculate body (MGB) and contains neurons responding to acoustic stimulation, is generally classified as the auditory cortex [25]. (scirp.org)
  • We tested the specific contributions of visual and auditory cortex to tactile perception in healthy adult volunteers using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (brillonline.com)
  • We found that anodal stimulation over visual cortex selectively improved tactile spatial acuity, but not frequency sensitivity. (brillonline.com)
  • In summary, our results suggest a two-phase cortical activation upon oddball stimulation, with oddball tones first reactivating the adapted auditory cortex circuitry and subsequently triggering delayed reverberating network activity. (uzh.ch)
  • Metabolism of the auditory cortex in long-term sensorineural deprivation during poor cochlear electrical stimulation. (insa-lyon.fr)
  • Pure ton stimulation at different frequencies clearly showed the isofrequency bands and the tonotopic organization in the primary audi … More tory cortex (AI). (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has been well documented that neurons in the auditory cortex of anaesthetized animals generally display transient responses to acoustic stimulation, and typically respond to a brief stimulus with one or fewer action potentials. (elsevier.com)
  • Results from functional imaging and electrophysiology suggest that responses in auditory cortex can be modulated by stimulation of other sensory modalities. (mpg.de)
  • 10%). Furthermore, in 10% of trials, auditory stimulation led to an early termination of the sleep spindle oscillation around 150-250 msec following stimulus onset. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study we aimed to compare the effect of two upcoming forms of transcranial electrical neuromodulation: alternating current stimulation (tACS) and random noise stimulation (tRNS), both applied on the auditory cortex. (utdallas.edu)
  • In the rodent auditory system, the primary cortex is subdivided into two regions, both receiving direct inputs from the auditory thalamus: the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF). (nature.com)
  • For sound perception, auditory signals have to travel a long way from the cochlea, through the cochlear nuclei, superior olivary complex, inferior colliculus, and auditory thalamus up to the auditory cortex where two regions, A1 and AAF, receive them in parallel. (nature.com)
  • (B) Retrograde labeling of auditory thalamus (MGN) after insertion of DiI into remaining brain block after A1 tangential slice has been cut. (nih.gov)
  • This suggests that the spike latency tuning is not simply inherited from the thalamus, but can be largely reconstructed by local circuits in the cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Auditory thalamus neurons did not show SSA, and their responses were poorly fitted by the same model. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. (elsevier.com)
  • Auditory sensory processing is primarily initiated via projections ( red ) from the ventral subdivision of the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus to layers 4 and 3c of the core. (blogspot.dk)
  • Neonatal lesion of visual and auditory midbrain of ferret pups is sufficient to divert retinal projections to adjacent, deafferented auditory thalamus (MGN), which then carries visual information to auditory cortex [ 16 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Crook JM, Kisvárday ZF, and Eysel UT (1996) GABA-induced inactivation of functionally characterized sites in cat visual cortex (area 18): effects on direction selectivity. (springer.com)
  • Crook JM, Kisvárday ZF, and Eysel UT (1998) Evidence for a contribution of lateral inhibition to orientation tuning and direction selectivity in cat visual cortex: reversible inactivation of functionally characterized sites combined with neuroanatomical tracing techniques. (springer.com)
  • Although many neurons in the auditory cortex are known to be selective for FM direction, the synaptic mechanisms underlying this selectivity are not well understood. (jneurosci.org)
  • Previous studies of both visual and auditory neurons have suggested two general mechanisms for direction selectivity: (1) differential delays of excitatory inputs across the spatial/spectral receptive field and (2) spatial/spectral offset between excitatory and inhibitory inputs. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we have examined the contributions of both mechanisms to FM direction selectivity in rat primary auditory cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, both synaptic mechanisms are likely to contribute to FM direction selectivity in the auditory cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • Imig TJ, Irons WA, Samson FR (1990) Single-unit selectivity to azimuthal direction and sound pressure level of noise bursts in cat high-frequency primary auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Massive congratulations to Julia Erb from the @ObleserLab being now in press at @eLife with her N=64-fMRI-encoding/decoding monster "Temporal selectivity declines in the aging human auditory cortex", with Lea-Maria Schmitt and myself as co-authors. (auditorycognition.com)
  • Monaural deprivation disrupts development of binaural selectivity in auditory midbrain and cortex. (scienceopen.com)
  • Sensitivity and selectivity of neurons in auditory cortex to the pitch, timbre, and location of sounds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent studies have shown that this code is modulated by task conditions so that during auditory tasks it provides better selectivity to sound source location than during idle listening. (aalto.fi)
  • Therefore, we conducted magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings in which auditory spatial selectivity of the human cortex was probed with an adaptation paradigm while subjects performed a visual task. (aalto.fi)
  • This enhancement in auditory spatial selectivity was independent of the direction of visual orientation. (aalto.fi)
  • I gave a talk this morning about mixed selectivity in parietal cortex and have also heard great talks from a number of other labs. (churchlandlab.org)
  • To explain the behavior of the slope-sensitive phasic cells, we have developed an auditory model, consisting of six stages: the inner hair cell (IHC), the primary auditory nerve (AN), the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB), and the A1 neuron. (actapress.com)
  • Moore, D.R. (1994) Auditory brainstem of the ferret: Long survival following cochlear removal progressively changes projections from the cochlear nucleus to the inferior colliculus. (springer.com)
  • While the functions of different neuronal types in the CN and the SOC are quite well understood, the nature of the code at the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate (MGB) and primary auditory cortex (A1) levels are less well understood. (biologists.org)
  • Using in vivo targeted whole-cell recordings from excitatory and inhibitory neurons of mouse primary auditory cortex, we report two temporally distinct components of membrane potential responses encoding oddball tones that break stimulus regularity. (uzh.ch)
  • Bendor D, and Wang X (2005) The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Cant NB and Benson CG (2003) Parallel auditory pathways: projection patterns of the different neuronal populations in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei. (springer.com)
  • The neuronal response to tones as a function of intensity was topographically studied with multiple-unit recordings in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats. (springer.com)
  • Based on this finding we could expect that in patient with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus the input from unimpaired ear has not been transfered sufficiently to the bilateral hemisphere and this loss of input has resulted in reorganization in neuronal activity of the auditory cortex. (epfl.ch)
  • To test this hypothesis we compare the amplitude of the neuronal activity bold response of the auditory cortex in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere to the hearing ear in response to different frequency tones. (epfl.ch)
  • We provide evidence for the existence of a neuronal network of secondary and higher-order areas belonging to the auditory and motor modality that is important in the integration of auditory and motor domains. (uzh.ch)
  • Overall our findings suggest that visual influences in auditory cortex might be more than just a simple response modulation, but make neuronal firing more reliable, and hence enhance the information encoded in auditory cortex about the environment. (mpg.de)
  • In the present study, we sought to bridge some of these divisions by examining activity related to pitch in both neurons and neuronal ensembles within the auditory cortex of the rhesus macaque, a primate species with similar pitch perception and auditory cortical organisation to humans. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Utilizing anatomical, electrophysiological, imaging and optogenetics approaches the authors of the study were able to analyze individual neuronal cells connecting the auditory cortex and the lateral amygdala in the brains of mice. (neuro-central.com)
  • METHODS: We compared neuronal (n = 269) and multiunit activity (MUA), as well as local field potentials (LFP) in rat core auditory cortex (A1) during NREM sleep, comparing responses to sounds depending on the presence or absence of sleep spindles. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Because neuronal somal volume depends on both the number of axonal terminations onto and furnished by the neuron, we hypothesized that axon terminal densities are reduced in feedforward but not feedback auditory pathways in subjects with schizophrenia. (blogspot.dk)
  • As with other primary sensory cortical areas, auditory sensations reach perception only if received and processed by a cortical area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory processing in cortex is the visual system and that other sensory systems are first and foremost compared to this model. (springer.com)
  • This SSA could be a correlate of auditory sensory memory at the level of single A1 neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, we propose that a major function of SSA in A1 neurons is to encode auditory sensory memory on multiple time scales. (jneurosci.org)
  • The purpose of this frequency map (known as a tonotopic map) is unknown and is likely to reflect the fact that the sensory epithelium of the auditory system, the cochlea , is arranged according to sound frequency. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, using simultaneously recorded cortical populations and morphologically identified pyramidal cells, we compare the laminar structure of spontaneous and sensory-evoked population activity in rat auditory cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These sensory cortices send signals to the amygdala through the association cortex. (umn.edu)
  • These results reveal a clear double-dissociation in the crossmodal contributions of visual and auditory cortex to tactile perception, and support a supramodal brain organization scheme in which visual and auditory cortex comprise distributed networks that support shape and frequency perception, independent of sensory input modality. (brillonline.com)
  • A network for sensory-motor integration: what happens in the auditory cortex during piano playing without acoustic feedback? (uzh.ch)
  • Although often denoted as sensory integration, the exact function of these multisensory influences is unclear, and it remains to be shown whether they actually make the auditory neurons more reliable or informative about the acoustic environment. (mpg.de)
  • Specifically, their scans revealed that schizophrenia patients with a history of regular hallucinations had abnormalities in primary sensory processing-in what scientists call the tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Findings of age-related inhibitory changes within mammalian auditory circuits are similar to age and deafferentation plasticity changes observed in other sensory systems. (biologists.org)
  • The auditory cortex represents spatial locations differently from other sensory modalities. (aalto.fi)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Responses in core auditory cortex are well preserved regardless of sleep spindles recorded in that area, suggesting that thalamocortical sensory relay remains functional during sleep spindles, and that sensory disconnection in sleep is mediated by other mechanisms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. (elsevier.com)
  • Collectively, these data show that the PRh integrates auditory information from the MG and ACx and that auditory driven inhibition dominates the postsynaptic responses in a non-sensory cortical region downstream from the ACx. (elsevier.com)
  • Plasticity is an important feature of A1, especially for processing the behavioral significance of sensory signals such as speech, music and other forms of auditory communication. (grantome.com)
  • This deficit may contribute to impairments in auditory sensory processing in this disorder. (blogspot.dk)
  • Loss of sensory input from peripheral organ damage, sensory deprivation, or brain damage can result in adaptive or maladaptive changes in sensory cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • Our findings imply that inhibitory plasticity may play a role in reorganizing sensory cortex after cross-modal invasion, suggesting clinical strategies for recovery after brain injury or sensory deprivation. (hindawi.com)
  • Loss of sensory drive as a result of deprivation or deafferentation can lead to a compensatory plastic reorganization of the affected sensory cortex. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, in deaf and blind subjects, the spared sensory cortex can be taken over by sensory inputs from other sensory modalities [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The modern divisions of the auditory cortex are the core (which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory cortex, A3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many areas in the neocortex, the functional properties of the adult primary auditory cortex (A1) are highly dependent on the sounds encountered early in life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study reveals a distinct role of two primary auditory cortices in tone processing and highlights the complexity of sound encoding at the cortical level. (nature.com)
  • Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the mouse auditory cortex, we asked whether any tone properties are processed differently in these two primary auditory fields. (nature.com)
  • Our study reveals a crucial role of AAF in processing tone offsets, and thereby the possibility of distinct functions in sound processing for these two primary auditory cortices. (nature.com)
  • The mammalian primary auditory cortex has a tonotopic arrangement at large spatial scales (greater than 300 microns). (nih.gov)
  • Bar-Yosef O, Rotman Y, and Nelken I (2002) Responses of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex to bird chirps: effects of temporal and spectral context. (springer.com)
  • Brosch M and Schreiner CE (1997) Time course of forward masking tuning curves in cat primary auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Clarey JC, Barone P, Irons WA, Samson FK, and Imig TJ (1995) Comparison of noise and tone azimuth tuning of neurons in cat primary auditory cortex and medial geniculate body. (springer.com)
  • Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). (jneurosci.org)
  • Imig TJ, Brugge JF (1978) Relationship between binaural interaction columns and commissural connections of the primary auditory field (AI) in the cat. (springer.com)
  • Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM (1984) Role of cat primary auditory cortex for sound localization behavior. (springer.com)
  • Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative localisation task. (nature.com)
  • Citation Query Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex. (psu.edu)
  • Probabilistic mapping and volume measurement of human primary auditory cortex. (psu.edu)
  • A detailed observation of the structural organization of primary auditory cortex is given, as well as a review of recent morphological data about secondary auditory areas. (scirp.org)
  • In accordance with this scheme, the auditory cortical area was divided into a primary auditory field (A1) and several other fields surrounding A1. (scirp.org)
  • As a rule, the auditory cortex contains a primary auditory field (core) that is surrounded by the auditory belt and parabelt. (scirp.org)
  • The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory ( sound ) information. (wikidoc.org)
  • The primary auditory cortex is about the same as Brodmann areas 41 and 42. (wikidoc.org)
  • The primary auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe . (wikidoc.org)
  • Studies in the marmoset monkey have shown that pitch-selective neurons are located in a cortical region near the anterolateral border of the primary auditory cortex. (wikidoc.org)
  • To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kelly, J.B., Judge, P.W. and Phillips, D.P. (1986b) Representation of the cochlea within the primary auditory cortex of the ferret (Mustela putorius). (springer.com)
  • J.B. and Judge, P.W. (1994) Binaural organization of primary auditory cortex in the ferret (Mustela putorius). (springer.com)
  • Spectral integration in primary auditory cortex: laminar processing of afferent input, in vivo and in vitro. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Laminar diversity of dynamic sound processing in cat primary auditory cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We implanted optetrode assemblies into the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult PV-Cre:Ai32 mice ( Figure 1a ) to isolate regular spiking (RS) putative pyramidal neurons based on their spike shape and estimate the strength of local inhibition on RS units during optogenetic activation of PV-expressing GABA neurons ( Figure 1b-c ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the auditory region of the temporal lobe would benefit from the availability of image contrast that allowed direct identification of the primary auditory cortex, as this region cannot be accurately located using gyral landmarks alone. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Thus we conclude that T1- and T2*-weighted imaging sequences do demonstrate the relatively high myelin levels that are characteristic of the deep layers in primary auditory cortex and allow it and some of the surrounding areas to be reliably distinguished. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The focus is on how the responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex 'adapt' when there are two or more tones. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The second experiment investigates the responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of anaesthetised guinea pigs to alternating tone sequences. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Age-related postsynaptic GABA A R changes in IC and primary auditory cortex (A1) involve changes in the subunit makeup of GABA A Rs. (biologists.org)
  • We demonstrate similar responses, in primary and non-primary auditory cortex, to two different types of broadband pitch above the macaque lower limit in both neurons and local field potential (LFP) gamma oscillations. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • The STG is known to play a key role in the recognition of prosody and spoken words, as it forms the primary auditory cortex of the human brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We propose the analysis of the information coding properties of individual neurons as one way to quantitatively determine whether the representation of our acoustic environment in (primary) auditory cortex indeed benefits from multisensory input. (mpg.de)
  • We investigated whether the gray matter volume of primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus [HG]) was associated with abnormal patterns of auditory γ activity in schizophrenia, namely impaired γ synchronization in the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and increased spontaneous broadband γ power. (elsevier.com)
  • [1] This tonotopy is in general maintained up to primary auditory cortex in mammals , [2] however it is often found that cells in primary and non-primary auditory cortex have spatio-temporal receptive fields , rather than being strictly responsive or phase-locking their action potentials to narrow frequency regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first, anatomical abnormalities were noted in neurons located in the primary auditory cortex (Sweet et al. (blogspot.dk)
  • The importance of comparing the pattern of synaptophysin staining in different cortical layers is to determine whether feedforward pathways (which convey information from auditory relay centers in the medial geniculate forward to auditory cortex) or feedback pathways (which send information from higher-order areas back to primary auditory cortex) are more affected. (blogspot.dk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reduction of SY-IR puncta density is selective for feedforward circuits within primary auditory cortex of subjects with schizophrenia. (blogspot.dk)
  • In our previous work with this model, we found that primary auditory cortical areas of ferrets rewired with ectopic visual inputs (cross-modal auditory cortex, abbreviated as XMAC) retain substantial auditory function, but sound frequency tuning and tonotopy are compromised [ 19 , 20 ] much as can occur in humans with peripheral hearing loss [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the mouse auditory cortex, we found that AAF neurons have significantly stronger responses to tone offset than A1 neurons. (nature.com)
  • Local field potential (LFP) and laminar analyses suggest that the differences in sound responses between these two primary cortices are both of subcortical and intracortical origin. (nature.com)
  • LFP analysis indicates that offset responses are not emergent in the cortex, but are of subcortical origin. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this study is to compare auditory evoked cortical responses to syllables and tones in developmental dyslexia and controls (paired with age, gender). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evans EF, Whitfield IC (1964) Classification of unit responses in the auditory cortex of the unanaesthetized and unrestrained cat. (springer.com)
  • We also measured the amplitude of responses within these areas, and within the auditory cortex, to a peripheral visual motion stimulus that was attended or ignored. (psu.edu)
  • This raised the question: are the animals' brains responding directly to the ultrasound or to responses of the auditory system? (the-scientist.com)
  • The presence of visual speech suppressed responses to auditory speech, more so for words with a visual head start. (elifesciences.org)
  • We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. (uzh.ch)
  • Spatio-temporal responses to pure tones, frequency-modulated (FM) sounds and a complex sound with two FM components (CFM) presented to the ear contralateral to the recording cortex were studied. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Knowing they were in remission enabled the team to compare their auditory cortex responses in a non-hallucinatory state to those of people who never experience hallucinations. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The distribution and nature of responses to broadband sounds associated with pitch in the macaque auditory cortex. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Responses in Rat Core Auditory Cortex are Preserved during Sleep Spindle Oscillations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We measured the responses of neurons in auditory cortex of male and female ferrets to artificial vowels of varying fundamental frequency (f(0)), or periodicity, and compared these with the performance of animals trained to discriminate the periodicity of these sounds. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also found that blocking inhibition unmasked visual responses of some auditory neurons in cross-modal AC. (hindawi.com)
  • Andersen RA, Knight PL, Merzenich MM (1980) The thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections of AI, AII and the anterior auditory field (AAF) in the cat: evidence for two largely segregated systems of connections. (springer.com)
  • Although previous work with anesthetized animals has examined how cortical excitation can help to improve auditory processing, the role of evoked inhibition across the cortex has been mostly overlooked. (redorbit.com)
  • Calford MB and Semple MN (1995) Monaural inhibition in cat auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • In the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii), cortical auditory neurons mediate, via corticofugal projection, a highly focused positive feedback to subcortical neurons matched in tuning to a particular acoustic parameter in the frequency or time domain, and a widespread lateral inhibition to unmatched subcortical neurons. (umn.edu)
  • Here, we address these unanswered questions by measuring changes in PV-mediated intracortical inhibition alongside hyperexcitability and receptive field plasticity from individual regular spiking (RS) putative pyramidal neurons over a several month period surrounding varying degrees of auditory nerve damage. (elifesciences.org)
  • The lateral inhibition is necessary for the localization of the active site on the auditory cortex. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Overall, our data suggest a role for increased inhibition in reducing the effectiveness of the abnormal visual inputs and argue that decreased inhibition is not responsible for compromised auditory cortical function after cross-modal invasion. (hindawi.com)
  • By the time sound stream representations reach the end of the auditory pathways brainstem inhibition processing ensures that the right pathway is solely responsible for the left ear sounds and the left pathway is solely responsible for the right ear sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erulkar SD, Rose JE, Davies PW (1956) Single unit activity in the auditory cortex of the cat. (springer.com)
  • The researchers also found that the rodents' neurons showed comparable electrical activity in the auditory cortex regardless of where in the brain the researchers directed the ultrasound. (the-scientist.com)
  • Based on the activity in the auditory cortex and motor cortex, researchers were able to predict whether a participant was listening to music that was upbeat or sad. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • MVPA revealed that activity in the auditory cortex in particular as well as in the primary motor cortices reliably discriminated the emotion categories. (ncirl.ie)
  • First, the latency of excitatory inputs changes systematically with the stimulus location (visual) or frequency (auditory) ( Fig. 1 A , B , differential latency model). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), egocentric selection shifts the best frequencies of collicular neurons not only toward the best frequency of electrically stimulated cortical neurons but also towards the frequency of a repetitively delivered acoustic stimulus (tone burst), resulting in local reorganization of the frequency map in the subcortical nuclei (Yan & Suga 1998), and also the auditory cortex (Chowdhury & Suga 1998). (umn.edu)
  • Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. (uzh.ch)
  • Finally, active ON states and inactive OFF periods during slow waves in NREM sleep affected the auditory response in opposite ways, depending on stimulus intensity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A widely postulated mechanism for pitch processing in the early central auditory system is the phase-locking and mode-locking of action potentials to frequencies in a stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of hearing aids favors amplification and modification of the sound stimulus so that it reaches the eardrum with quantity increase and quality, promoting and stimulating the auditory skills. (intechopen.com)
  • Subjective tinnitus is characterized by the perception of auditory signals experienced in the absence of any internal or external source of sound. (pnas.org)
  • This work focuses on the following features of the human vision: the color perception mechanism, the perceptual decomposition of visual information in multiple processing channels, contrast sensitivity, pattern masking , and detection/pooling mechanism present in the primary visual cortex . (psu.edu)
  • We fill a basic gap in our understanding of the sensorimotor processing of speech by examining the synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions over different speech rates, a fundamental parameter delimiting successful perception. (sciencemag.org)
  • visual speech can provide a head start on perception when mouth movements begin before auditory vocalization. (elifesciences.org)
  • Age changes in the central auditory system are well known to affect speech perception. (springer.com)
  • Impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia: The deficit starts in the auditory cortex. (inserm.fr)
  • The organization of pitch perception mechanisms in the primate cortex is controversial, in that divergent results have been obtained, ranging from a single circumscribed 'pitch centre' to systems widely distributed across auditory cortex . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
  • Behaviorally- engaged neuromodulators have a wide range of effects in cortex and throughout the rest of the brain, raising the questions of how attention and neuromodulation govern cortical networks to induce modification of these circuits, and how such changes in turn affect auditory perception and behavior. (grantome.com)
  • Phonological and morphological structures in speech perception, auditory linguistic processing in children with cochlear implants, individual differences in lexical processing in auditory speech perception. (essex.ac.uk)
  • Although the core region of the primate auditory cortex has functionally defined sound frequency preference maps, how the map is organized in the auditory areas of the belt and parabelt regions is not well known. (eneuro.org)
  • Schematic diagram of feedforward and feedback pathways in the auditory core (area 41) and lateral belt cortices of primate. (blogspot.dk)
  • Averbeck BB and Romanski LM (2006) Probabilistic encoding of vocalizations in macaque ventral lateral prefrontal cortex. (springer.com)
  • Neurons in the lateral belt areas of rhesus monkey auditory cortex prefer complex sounds to pure tones, but functional specializations of these multiple maps in the superior temporal region have not been determined. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in. (mysciencework.com)
  • Mapping auditory core, lateral belt, and parabelt cortices in the human superior temporal gyrus. (mysciencework.com)
  • The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). (mysciencework.com)
  • Serial reconstructions of the auditory cortex in humans were made showing the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. (mysciencework.com)
  • A different pattern was observed throughout anterolateral HG and posterior and middle portions of lateral STG (non-core auditory cortical areas), where activity was significantly greater during listening compared to speaking. (elsevier.com)
  • Bregman AS (1990) Auditory Scene Analysis: The Perceptual Organization of Sound . (springer.com)
  • maps' of perceptual experience arranged topographically on the cortex (18-21). (psu.edu)
  • We measured perceptual sensitivity before, during, and after tDCS application over either visual cortex or auditory cortex. (brillonline.com)
  • In the auditory system, conductive hearing loss associated with childhood ear infections can produce long-lasting deficits in auditory perceptual acuity, much like amblyopia in the visual system. (scienceopen.com)
  • These findings highlight a remarkable degree of competitive plasticity between aural representations and suggest that the enduring perceptual sequelae of childhood hearing loss might be traced to maladaptive plasticity during critical periods of auditory cortex development. (scienceopen.com)
  • However, we still know surprisingly little about how neurons in the auditory brain, specifically the auditory cortex, might form representations of these perceptual characteristics from the information that the ear provides about sound acoustics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As a reliable and valid measures of perceptual auditory laterality, dichotic listening has been successfully applied in studies in many countries and languages. (cambridge.org)
  • Voicing" explained 69% and 18% of the variance in the perceptual auditory laterality in the Norwegian and the Estonian sample, respectively. (cambridge.org)
  • For example, unilateral destruction, in a region of the auditory pathway above the cochlear nucleus, results in slight hearing loss, whereas bilateral destruction results in cortical deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the authors cut the guinea pigs' auditory nerves or removed their cochlear fluid, the guinea pigs stopped responding to the ultrasound and to audible noise. (the-scientist.com)
  • Moore, D.R. (1990) Auditory brainstem of the ferret: Early cessation of developmental sensitivity to cochlear removal in the cochlear nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Age-related presynaptic changes in the cochlear nucleus include reduced glycine levels, while in the auditory midbrain and cortex, GABA synthesis and release are altered. (biologists.org)
  • Auditory and Visual Electrophysiology of Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Implications for Cross Modal Plasticity. (essex.ac.uk)
  • In prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants, auditory cortex responds poorly to auditory signals because it has been permanently taken over by cross-modal inputs [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • As a result of this maladaptive cross-modal plasticity, deaf patients with cochlear implants exhibit poorer performance in auditory speech recognition tasks than hearing controls [ 9 , 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ultrasound activates auditory pathways in the rodent brain (red arrows) regardless of where in the brain the ultrasound-generating transducer is placed. (the-scientist.com)
  • A novel paradigm for rapid and simultaneous evaluation of auditory and visual pathways. (essex.ac.uk)
  • In short, the study demonstrated that axon terminal densities are reduced in feedforward but not feedback auditory pathways. (blogspot.dk)
  • This is the interaural time difference (ITD) cue and is measured by signal processing in the two central auditory pathways that begin after the cochlea and pass through the brainstem and mid-brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound streams arriving from below the head, above the head, and over behind the head (the vertical plane) are localised again by signal processing in the central auditory pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the structure and function of the auditory cortex has been studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and electrocorticography. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetic source imaging was used to determine whether tonotopy in auditory cortex of individuals with tinnitus diverges from normative functional organization. (pnas.org)
  • their existence sheds new light on the functional architecture of the human auditory cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Here we measure the functional 2-dimensional spatial connectivity pattern of the supragranular auditory cortex on micro-column scales. (nih.gov)
  • In both chapters, we focused on basic aspects of auditory cortical structure in the mammalian phylogenetic tree rather than on their functional organization. (scirp.org)
  • What is known about the human auditory cortex comes from a base of knowledge gained from studies in mammals , including primates, used to interpret electrophysiologic tests and functional imaging studies of the brain in humans. (wikidoc.org)
  • The functional organization of the auditory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Importantly, the auditory cortices, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal regions showed increased activity during listening conditions requiring valuation, but did not predict reward value, which was instead predicted by increasing functional connectivity of these regions with the nucleus accumbens as the reward value increased. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this thesis we combined the recovered spatial information with response properties from neighbouring neurons, to characterise the functional topographic organisation in deep layers of core auditory cortex. (bl.uk)
  • The study, published in the journal Current Biology , involved conducting five different experiments using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine the activity in the early visual cortex in 10 volunteer subjects. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In particular, it will be important to understand how such functional segregation interacts with hemispheric lateralization, a feature of the auditory cortex that characterizes the human brain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. (elifesciences.org)
  • A team of researchers has reported new evidence about the cause of auditory hallucinations, suggesting that in schizophrenia , and perhaps other illnesses, it may be traceable to an abnormality in the functional organization of part of the brain's auditory cortex. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The team used functional MRI imaging driven by a high-powered magnet to compare the auditory cortex of 16 patients with schizophrenia with those of 22 unaffected controls. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The mammalian auditory system is plastic, maintaining the capacity for structural and functional reorganization all throughout life. (grantome.com)
  • Bridge H and Parker AJ (2007) Topographical representation of binocular depth in the human visual cortex using fMRI. (springer.com)
  • Florian Beissner and Christian Henke, "Methodological Problems in fMRI Studies on Acupuncture: A Critical Review with Special Emphasis on Visual and Auditory Cortex Activations," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , vol. 2011, Article ID 607637, 7 pages, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Processing of auditory spatial cues in human cortex: an fMRI study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The team also noted a kind of "scrambling" in the way patients' auditory cortices mapped the range of sounds presented during the fMRI scanning. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual dimorphism within the auditory cortex can be seen in humans between males in females through the planum temporale, encompassing Wernicke's region, for the planum temporale within males has been observed to have a larger planum temporale volume on average, reflecting previous studies discussing interactions between sex hormones and asymmetrical brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the auditory cortex in humans leads to a loss of any awareness of sound, but an ability to react reflexively to sounds remains as there is a great deal of subcortical processing in the auditory brainstem and midbrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar time scales are known for the auditory memory span of humans, as measured both psychophysically and using evoked potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • This SSA might play a role in stream segregation and in binding of auditory objects over many time scales, a property that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • The early visual cortex hasn't previously been known to process auditory information, and while there is some anatomical evidence of interconnectedness in monkeys, our study is the first to clearly show a relationship in humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Current evidence indicates that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. (mysciencework.com)
  • Similarities between these data and the previous demonstrations that phantom limb pain is highly correlated with cortical reorganization suggest that tinnitus may be an auditory phantom phenomenon. (pnas.org)
  • Based on previous findings from our group reporting a close association of phantom limb pain and reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex ( 8 , 9 ), we hypothesized that tinnitus might be a phantom phenomenon ( 10 ) related to alterations of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Beain 2013) has shown that bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally driven reorganization. (epfl.ch)
  • 1995) Topographic reorganization in the striate cortex of the adult cat and monkey is cortically mediated. (springer.com)
  • It also evokes such reorganization according to auditory experience based on associative learning (Gao and Suga, 1998). (umn.edu)
  • Our results indicate that different music-induced emotions have distinct representations in regions supporting auditory processing, motor control, somatosensation and interoception but do not strongly rely on limbic and medial prefrontal regions critical for emotions with survival value. (ncirl.ie)
  • In the present study, we investigated the spindle oscillation in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), medial geniculate body (MGB) and auditory cortex (AC). (hku.hk)
  • The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to be an essential brain region for sensorimotor gating. (elsevier.com)
  • Such observations have long puzzled researchers across disciplines and raised serious questions regarding the role of the auditory cortex in encoding ongoing acoustic signals. (elsevier.com)
  • Coding of environmental acoustic signals occurs at all levels of the central auditory pathway. (biologists.org)
  • In natural auditory environments, speech signals can be subjected to various kinds of external, "additive" distortions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The primary goal of this project is to determine how acoustic signals are represented, processed, and transmitted in cortex. (grantome.com)
  • These experiments will provide both basic information about circuitry as well as provide insights as to how auditory signals are processed in cortex. (grantome.com)
  • In agreement with recent imaging studies from upper layers of mouse auditory cortex that report smooth tonotopy on a large scale, but fractured tonotopy on a fine scale. (bl.uk)
  • In previous research, we found that auditory cortical tuning and tonotopy were impaired by cross-modal invasion of visual inputs. (hindawi.com)
  • Specifically, whether neurons in auditory cortex represent spatial cues or an integrated representation of auditory space across cues is not known. (nature.com)
  • Some of those with spatial hearing loss are unable to integrate the auditory representations of the left and right hemifields, and consequently are unable to maintain any representation of auditory space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data systematised here provide a necessary base for an in-depth analysis of acoustic information processing in the auditory cortex and for an integrative scheme of sound encoding by the brain's auditory centres. (scirp.org)
  • The goal of Simon's research program is to understand how acoustic modulations, the building blocks of speech and other natural sounds are encoded in the auditory cortex. (umd.edu)
  • How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. (cryptogon.com)
  • We comment on the significance of these results for auditory cortical processing of acoustic and non-acoustic information. (strath.ac.uk)
  • The auditory system needs to be able to analyse complex acoustic waveforms. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Aging and acoustic trauma may result in partial peripheral deafferentation in the central auditory pathway of the mammalian brain. (biologists.org)
  • A new paper is about to appear in Neu-roim-age on Acoustic cue selec-tion and dis-crim-i-na-tion under degra-da-tion: Dif-fer-en-tial con-tri-bu-tions of the infe-ri-or pari-etal and pos-te-ri-or tem-po-ral cor-tices by Math-ias Scharinger, Mol-ly J. Hen-ry, Jonas Obleser [ UPDATE ] Link added. (auditorycognition.com)
  • That AC extracts acoustic features follows from the location of primary AC in the transverse temporal gyri (TTG), the first stop in the cortex in an assumed processing hierarchy starting from the outside world of moving air molecules and ending with language comprehension in 'higher' cortical region(s). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). (elsevier.com)
  • To evaluate this possibility, magnetic source imaging was used to determine the tonotopic organization of the auditory cortex in groups of tinnitus subjects and healthy controls. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, if the team's findings are replicated, they will indicate that deviance in the organization of the auditory system actually begins prior to the development of both hearing and speech-and on average, 15-20 years before the onset of psychotic symptoms in people with first-episode episode psychosis, which often marks the onset of schizophrenia. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • This means that the tonotopic organization or other abnormalities in the organization of the auditory cortex are potential early-life biomarkers for vulnerability to hallucinations as well as schizophrenia, the team said. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • Neurons in the auditory cortex are organized according to the frequency of sound to which they respond best. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this article, the authors examine evidence that the auditory cortex is necessary for processing the pitch, timbre, and location of sounds, and document how neurons across multiple auditory cortical fields might represent these as trains of action potentials. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings from rat auditory cortical neurons in layer 4 revealed that the onset latency of their aggregate thalamic input exhibited nearly flat tuning for sound frequency, whereas their spike latency tuning was much sharper with a broadly expanded dynamic range. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, auditory cortical neurons have wide spatial receptive fields and together they form a population rate code of sound source location. (aalto.fi)
  • A significant challenge in auditory neuroscience is to understand how speech and other natural sounds are analyzed and encoded in the auditory cortex of the human brain. (umd.edu)
  • Nourski, KV , Steinschneider, M & Rhone, AE 2016, ' Electrocorticographic activation within human auditory cortex during dialog-based language and cognitive testing ', Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , vol. 10, no. (elsevier.com)
  • Moore, D.R. (1992) Trophic influences of excitatory and inhibitory synapses on neurones in the auditory brainstem. (springer.com)
  • The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem . (wikipedia.org)
  • this is evident by measuring the auditory brainstem response using EEG . (wikipedia.org)
  • The auditory cortex's function may help explain why particular brain damage leads to particular outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons of the auditory cortex of the brain are able to respond to pitch. (wikidoc.org)
  • Simon will use MEG and extracellular recording in complementary ways, to investigate how temporal modulations are encoded by the auditory cortex in the brain. (umd.edu)
  • This vibration then triggers auditory signaling and indirectly activates the auditory cortex and other brain regions, rather than ultrasound having a direct effect on the activity of the neurons. (the-scientist.com)
  • Interaction between auditory areas of the brain and the reward system drive pleasure when we listen to music. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Study reports a pervasive neuromodulation system strongly influences sound processing in a key auditory region of the brain. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • We find organised structures and patterns everywhere, with columnar and layered design being a hallmark of brain cortex. (bl.uk)
  • Scientists studying brain process involved in sight have found the visual cortex also uses information gleaned from the ears as well as the eyes when viewing the world. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Using a special algorithm that can identify unique patterns in brain activity, the researchers were able to discriminate between the different sounds being processed in early visual cortex activity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • According to a study conducted by researchers from CNRS and Inserm at the Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS / Inserm / Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), amusics exhibit altered processing of musical information in two regions of the brain: the auditory cortex and the frontal cortex, particularly in the right cerebral hemisphere. (inserm.fr)
  • The scientists observed that, when hearing and memorizing notes, amusics exhibited altered sound processing in two regions of the brain: the auditory cortex and the frontal cortex, essentially in the right hemisphere. (inserm.fr)
  • Information about the right auditory hemifield joins with the information about the left hemifield once it has passed through the corpus callosum (CC) - the brain white matter that connects homologous regions of the left and right hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of egocentric selection is apparently different between the two species of bats studied and, perhaps, between different portions of a frequency map of the central auditory system of the mustached bat, reflecting the shape and sharpness of frequency-tuning curves. (umn.edu)
  • Salicylate-induced tinnitus is associated with changes related to central auditory neuroplasticity. (deepdyve.com)
  • DNA repair enzymes such as pol γ and OGG1 may provide novel pharmacological targets to promote DNA repair and rescue the central auditory system in patients with degenerative diseases. (springer.com)
  • The difficulty for compression of speech in the elderly may be due solely to hearing loss, but may be linked to degenerative issues of the central auditory system. (intechopen.com)
  • Age is a factor that interferes with the central auditory processing. (intechopen.com)
  • Research has shown spatial hearing loss to be a leading cause of central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both peripheral hearing and central auditory pathway problems can interfere with early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This result suggests that the auditory pathway in tinnitus patients is less capable to convey the sound bilaterally and it could be a probable cause of their tinnitus. (epfl.ch)
  • Fig. 1 shows the primary ascending auditory pathway. (biologists.org)
  • We addressed this issue using a ferret model in which the extent of cross-modal visual invasion of the auditory pathway can be manipulated (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • The reduction of auditory input that conveys to auditory cortex leads to the changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activation of the corresponding neurons in this area and is possibly the cause of tinnitus. (epfl.ch)
  • The experiments of Aim 1 will determine the patterns of connections between the pyramidal neurons and the different types of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in cortex and characterize the properties of synaptic transmission between each neuron. (grantome.com)
  • Our results therefore support the model that cortical spindles in the auditory system are originated in the MGB and are modulated by inhibitory inputs from the TRN. (hku.hk)
  • To determine whether inhibitory plasticity is responsible for this process, we measured pre- and postsynaptic changes in inhibitory connectivity in ferret auditory cortex (AC) after cross-modal plasticity. (hindawi.com)
  • Sensitivity to f(0) was found in all five auditory cortical fields examined, with most of those neurons exhibiting either low-pass or high-pass response functions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • New evidence about the origins of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia suggests vulnerability for them may be traceable to an abnormality in the way the brain's auditory cortex is organized at the beginning of life to represent different frequencies. (bbrfoundation.org)
  • The modern data describing a partitioning of mammalian auditory cortex into subfields are presented. (scirp.org)
  • The data are considered from the perspective of possible homologies existing between the auditory cortices in different mammalian species. (scirp.org)
  • Khorunzhii, G. and Egorova, M. (2018) Mammalian Auditory Cortex Structure as the Basis of Cortical Sound Processing. (scirp.org)
  • At present, there are extensive data about the morphological structure of the mammalian auditory cortex obtained in numerous studies with different experimental approaches and methods [1] - [20]. (scirp.org)
  • Despite this, information about partitioning of the auditory cortex into separate sub-regions and about its connectivity among different mammalian orders has not been summarized in detail. (scirp.org)
  • The first part of this review contains a detailed description of the auditory fields' disposition in the temporal lobe of the neocortex among a significant number of mammalian species. (scirp.org)
  • For each mammalian order, we separately describe primary and secondary auditory fields as well as the auditory parabelt, their disposition within the auditory cortex, tonotopic organization and the relative size of these areas. (scirp.org)
  • In the same year, David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel began investigating properties of neurons in the visual cortex of cats, processing in the mammalian visual system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The auditory cortex takes part in the spectrotemporal, meaning involving time and frequency, analysis of the inputs passed on from the ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • By some estimates, only 30% of the neurons projecting to primary AC are part of ascending inputs from subcortical structures, whereas 70% are from other cortical regions and at least 20% of those come from non-auditory regions [ 13 - 15 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The cortex then filters and passes on the information to the dual stream of speech processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, natural speech sentences and sounds containing speech-like temporal dynamic features are employed to probe the human auditory system. (umd.edu)
  • In the context of speech, existing data suggest an interaction between auditory and speech-motor cortices, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • First, using magnetoencephalography, we measure synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions while participants listen to syllables at various rates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Visual information about speech content from the talker's mouth is often available before auditory information from the talker's voice. (elifesciences.org)
  • Relationship between auditory and visual speech. (elifesciences.org)
  • Any given visual speech feature, such as the open mouth visible when pronouncing 'd', is incompatible with many auditory phonemes (red) and compatible with a few auditory phonemes (green). (elifesciences.org)
  • B ) Visual speech provides a processing head start on auditory speech (yellow region) as shown by auditory and visual speech feature asynchrony for the word 'drive. (elifesciences.org)
  • Audiovisual speech is composed of visual mouth movements (green line showing visual mouth area) and auditory speech sounds (purple line showing auditory sound pressure level). (elifesciences.org)
  • Lip and mouth movements (visual speech onset, green bar) occur prior to vocalization (auditory speech onset, purple bar). (elifesciences.org)
  • Time zero is the auditory speech onset. (elifesciences.org)
  • This word is classified as 'mouth-leading' as visual mouth movements begin before auditory speech. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although there is a range in the relative onset of auditory and visual speech, most audiovisual words provide a visual head start. (elifesciences.org)
  • For instance, in an audiovisual recording of the word 'drive' ( Figure 1B ) the visual onset of the open mouth required to enunciate the initial 'd' of the word preceded auditory vocalization by 400 ms, allowing the observer to rule out incompatible auditory phonemes (and rule in compatible phonemes) well before any auditory speech information is available. (elifesciences.org)
  • Results are explained by an active hypothesis-and-test mechanism where speech production (SP) regions are neurally re-used to predict auditory objects associated with available context. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • a) What do we hear and what does auditory cortex do with speech? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A reasonable place to start, at least for spoken language, would seem to be with audition and the role of auditory cortex (AC) in hearing speech. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The auditory cortex was previously subdivided into primary (A1) and secondary (A2) projection areas and further association areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blindsight is residual visual capacity in a field defect secondary to damaged striate cortex without conscious awareness. (psu.edu)
  • Multiscale imaging data suggest there is no ultrasonic field or secondary auditory cortex in the mouse. (biorxiv.org)
  • Recent studies suggest that cross-modal integration does not only occur in higher association cortices but also in early stages of auditory processing, possibly in primary or secondary auditory cortex. (mpg.de)
  • This automatic processing occurs in the secondary auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This negativity originated in the auditory cortex, more precisely in the supratemporal lobe (which corresponds with the secondary auditory cortex) with greater activity from the right hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006) suggest that there is automatic and rapid processing of melodic properties in the secondary auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study suggests that these two dynamic and complex systems, the external and internal worlds, systematically communicate and are coupled via modulation mechanism, leading to a reverberating flow of information embedded in oscillating waves in human cortex. (umd.edu)