Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques: Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Basal Nucleus of Meynert: A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Critical Period (Psychology): A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Electrophysiological Processes: The functions and activities of living organisms or their parts involved in generating and responding to electrical charges .Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Hearing Loss, Unilateral: Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Singing: Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.

Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat. (1/1840)

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)

Episodic retrieval activates the precuneus irrespective of the imagery content of word pair associates. A PET study. (2/1840)

The aim of this study was to evaluate further the role of the precuneus in episodic memory retrieval. The specific hypothesis addressed was that the precuneus is involved in episodic memory retrieval irrespective of the imagery content. Two groups of six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six [15O]butanol-PET scans. In each of the six trials, the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of 1500 MBq of [15O]butanol. For Group 1, 12 word pair associates were presented visually, for Group 2 auditorily. The subjects of each group had to learn and retrieve two sets of 12 word pairs each. One set consisted of highly imaginable words and another one of abstract words. Words of both sets were not related semantically, representing 'hard' associations. The presentations of nonsense words served as reference conditions. We demonstrate that the precuneus shows consistent activation during episodic memory retrieval. Precuneus activation occurred in visual and auditory presentation modalities and for both highly imaginable and abstract words. The present study therefore provides further evidence that the precuneus has a specific function in episodic memory retrieval as a multimodal association area.  (+info)

Single cortical neurons serve both echolocation and passive sound localization. (3/1840)

The pallid bat uses passive listening at low frequencies to detect and locate terrestrial prey and reserves its high-frequency echolocation for general orientation. While hunting, this bat must attend to both streams of information. These streams are processed through two parallel, functionally specialized pathways that are segregated at the level of the inferior colliculus. This report describes functionally bimodal neurons in auditory cortex that receive converging input from these two pathways. Each brain stem pathway imposes its own suite of response properties on these cortical neurons. Consequently, the neurons are bimodally tuned to low and high frequencies, and respond selectively to both noise transients used in prey detection, and downward frequency modulation (FM) sweeps used in echolocation. A novel finding is that the monaural and binaural response properties of these neurons can change as a function of the sound presented. The majority of neurons appeared binaurally inhibited when presented with noise but monaural or binaurally facilitated when presented with the echolocation pulse. Consequently, their spatial sensitivity will change, depending on whether the bat is engaged in echolocation or passive listening. These results demonstrate that the response properties of single cortical neurons can change with behavioral context and suggest that they are capable of supporting more than one behavior.  (+info)

The magnitude and phase of temporal modulation transfer functions in cat auditory cortex. (4/1840)

Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) in response to periodic click trains are presented for simultaneous recordings from primary auditory cortex, anterior auditory field, and secondary auditory cortex in 21 cats. The multiunit records could be separated in to 215 single-unit spike trains that allowed a reliable estimate of a group delay, which represents the cumulative delay for responses to repetitive stimuli. For approximately two-thirds of the 215 single units the group delay was within 7.5 msec of the response latency to the first clicks in the trains. For the remaining units, the group delay was on average approximately 14 msec higher, and this may result from differences in synaptic properties. These findings were similar in the three cortical areas studied. The findings are modeled based on presynaptic facilitation and depression and pyramidal cell calcium kinetics, and a quantitative description of the magnitude of the tMTF was obtained that resulted in substantially shorter depression time constants (20 msec) than reported for visual cortex (300 msec). A small amount (0-5.5%) of facilitation that decayed with a time constant of 60 msec was obtained. Auditory cortical cells apparently have much faster recovery mechanisms than visual cortical cells. This allows for the ability of the auditory cortex to reliably track the rhythms that occur in natural sounds.  (+info)

Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex. (5/1840)

Neurons in the rat primary auditory cortex (A1) generally cannot respond to tone sequences faster than 12 pulses per second (pps). To test whether experience can modify this maximum following rate in adult rats, trains of brief tones with random carrier frequency but fixed repetition rate were paired with electrical stimulation of the nucleus basalis (NB) 300 to 400 times per day for 20-25 days. Pairing NB stimulation with 5-pps stimuli markedly decreased the cortical response to rapidly presented stimuli, whereas pairing with 15-pps stimuli significantly increased the maximum cortical following rate. In contrast, pairing with fixed carrier frequency 15-pps trains did not significantly increase the mean maximum following rate. Thus this protocol elicits extensive cortical remodeling of temporal response properties and demonstrates that simple differences in spectral and temporal features of the sensory input can drive very different cortical reorganizations.  (+info)

Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. (6/1840)

Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.  (+info)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. (7/1840)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. This paper examines neuron responses in rat primary auditory cortex (AI) during sound stimulation of the two ears designed to simulate sound motion in the horizontal plane. The simulated sound motion was synthesized from mathematical equations that generated dynamic changes in interaural phase, intensity, and Doppler shifts at the two ears. The simulated sounds were based on moving sources in the right frontal horizontal quadrant. Stimuli consisted of three circumferential segments between 0 and 30 degrees, 30 and 60 degrees, and 60 and 90 degrees and four radial segments at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. The constant velocity portion of each segment was 0.84 m long. The circumferential segments and center of the radial segments were calculated to simulate a distance of 2 m from the head. Each segment had two trajectories that simulated motion in both directions, and each trajectory was presented at two velocities. Young adult rats were anesthetized, the left primary auditory cortex was exposed, and microelectrode recordings were obtained from sound responsive cells in AI. All testing took place at a tonal frequency that most closely approximated the best frequency of the unit at a level 20 dB above the tuning curve threshold. The results were presented on polar plots that emphasized the two directions of simulated motion for each segment rather than the location of sound in space. The trajectory exhibiting a "maximum motion response" could be identified from these plots. "Neuron discharge profiles" within these trajectories were used to demonstrate neuron activity for the two motion directions. Cells were identified that clearly responded to simulated uni- or multidirectional sound motion (39%), that were sensitive to sound location only (19%), or that were sound driven but insensitive to our location or sound motion stimuli (42%). The results demonstrated the capacity of neurons in rat auditory cortex to selectively process dynamic stimulus conditions representing simulated motion on the horizontal plane. Our data further show that some cells were responsive to location along the horizontal plane but not sensitive to motion. Cells sensitive to motion, however, also responded best to the moving sound at a particular location within the trajectory. It would seem that the mechanisms underlying sensitivity to sound location as well as direction of motion converge on the same cell.  (+info)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the Cat. (8/1840)

Neural correlates of gap detection in three auditory cortical fields in the cat. Mimimum detectable gaps in noise in humans are independent of the position of the gap, whereas in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) they are position dependent. The position dependence in other cortical areas is not known and may resolve this contrast. This study presents minimum detectable gap-in-noise values for which single-unit (SU), multiunit (MU) recordings and local field potentials (LFPs) show an onset response to the noise after the gap. The gap, which varied in duration between 5 and 70 ms, was preceded by a noise burst of either 5 ms (early gap) or 500 ms (late gap) duration. In 10 cats, simultaneous recordings were made with one electrode each in AI, anterior auditory field (AAF), and secondary auditory cortex (AII). In nine additional cats, two electrodes were inserted in AI and one in AAF. Minimum detectable gaps based on SU, MU, or LFP data in each cortical area were the same. In addition, very similar minimum early-gap values were found in all three areas (means, 36.1-41.7 ms). The minimum late-gap values were also similar in AI and AII (means, 11.1 and 11.7 ms), whereas AAF showed significantly larger minimum late-gap durations (mean 21.5 ms). For intensities >35 dB SPL, distributions of minimum early-gap durations in AAF and AII had modal values at approximately 45 ms. In AI, the distribution was more uniform. Distributions for minimum late-gap duration were skewed toward low values (mode at 5 ms), but high values (+info)

The auditory cortex is the most highly organized processing unit of sound in the brain. This cortex area is the neural crux of hearing, and-in humans-language and music. The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These structures are formed concentrically around one another, with the primary cortex in the middle and the tertiary cortex on the outside. The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring frequencies.[23] Tonotopic mapping is preserved throughout most of the audition circuit. The primary auditory cortex receives direct input from the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and thus is thought to identify the fundamental elements of music, such as pitch and loudness. An evoked response study of congenitally deaf kittens used local field potentials to measure cortical plasticity in the auditory cortex. These kittens were stimulated and ...
A major challenge for sensory processing in the brain is considering stimulus context, such as stimulus probability, which may be relevant for survival. Excitatory neurons in auditory cortex, for example, adapt to repetitive tones in a stimulus-specific manner without fully generalizing to a low-probability deviant tone ("oddball") that breaks the preceding regularity. Whether such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) also prevails in inhibitory neurons and how it might relate to deviance detection remains elusive. We obtained whole-cell recordings from excitatory neurons and somatostatin- and parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in layer 2/3 of mouse auditory cortex and measured tone-evoked membrane potential responses. All cell types displayed SSA of fast ("early") subthreshold and suprathreshold responses with oddball tones of a deviant frequency eliciting enlarged responses compared with adapted standards. SSA was especially strong when oddball frequency matched neuronal preference. In ...
It is well established that auditory cortex is plastic on different time scales and that this plasticity is driven by the reinforcement that is used to motivate subjects to learn or to perform an auditory task. Motivated by these findings, we study in detail properties of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that is related to reward feedback. We recorded from the auditory cortex of two monkeys while they were performing an auditory categorization task. Monkeys listened to a sequence of tones and had to signal when the frequency of adjacent tones stepped in downward direction, irrespective of the tone frequency and step size. Correct identifications were rewarded with either a large or a small amount of water. The size of reward depended on the monkeys performance in the previous trial: it was large after a correct trial and small after an incorrect trial. The rewards served to maintain task performance. During task performance we found three successive periods of neuronal firing in auditory cortex that
Schuller, Gerd; ONeill, W. E.; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne (1991): Facilitation and delay sensitivity of auditory cortex neurons in CF-FM bats, Rhinolopus rouxi and Pteronotus p. parnellii. In: European Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 3, No. 11: pp. 1165-1181 ...
In Pressl. Basura GL, Koehler S, and Shore SE. . Stimulus-timing dependence of auditory-somatosensory plasticity in auditory cortex neurons after noise induced temporary threshold shifts and tinnitus. Journal of Neurophysiology: In Press, 2015. Article featured on JNP homepage.
A novel method is presented for creating a probability map from histologically defined cytoarchitectonic data, customised for the anatomy of individual fMRI volunteers. Postmortem structural and cytoarchitectonic information from a published dataset is combined with high resolution structural MR images using deformable registration of a region of interest. In this paper, we have targeted the three sub-areas of the primary auditory cortex (located on Heschls gyrus); however, the method could be applied to any other cytoarchitectonic region. The resulting probability maps show a significantly higher overlap than previously generated maps using the same cytoarchitectonic data, and more accurately span the macroanatomical structure of the auditory cortex. This improvement indicates a high potential for spatially accurate fMRI analysis, allowing more reliable correlation between anatomical structure and function. We validate the approach using fMRI data from nine individuals, taken from a published ...
Behaviorally-relevant sounds such as conspecific vocalizations are often available for only a brief amount of time; thus, goal-directed behavior frequently depends on auditory short-term memory (STM). Despite its ecological significance, the neural processes underlying auditory STM remain poorly understood. To investigate the role of the auditory cortex in STM, single- and multi-unit activity was recorded from the primary auditory cortex (A1) of two monkeys performing an auditory STM task using simple and complex sounds. Each trial consisted of a sample and test stimulus separated by a 5-s retention interval. A brief wait period followed the test stimulus, after which subjects pressed a button if the sounds were identical (match trials) or withheld button presses if they were different (non-match trials). A number of units exhibited significant changes in firing rate for portions of the retention interval, although these changes were rarely sustained. Instead, they were most frequently observed during
Via: PLoS Biology:. How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. To address this question, we used intracranial recordings from nonprimary auditory cortex in the human superior temporal gyrus to determine what acoustic information in speech sounds can be reconstructed from population neural activity. We found that slow and intermediate temporal fluctuations, such as those corresponding to syllable rate, were accurately reconstructed using a linear model based on the auditory spectrogram. However, reconstruction of fast temporal fluctuations, such as syllable onsets and offsets, required a nonlinear sound representation based on temporal modulation energy. Reconstruction accuracy was highest within the range of spectro-temporal fluctuations that have been found to be critical for speech intelligibility. The decoded speech representations allowed readout and identification of individual words directly from brain activity during single trial ...
Author: Kayser, C et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009-12; Title: Multisensory interactions in primate auditory cortex: fMRI and electrophysiology
Brasselet, R., Panzeri, S., Logothetis, N. K., & Kayser, C. (2012). Neurons with stereotyped and rapid responses provide a reference frame for relative temporal coding in primate auditory cortex. J Neurosci, 32(9), 2998-3008. doi:10.1523/jneurosci.5435- ...
A wireless neural prosthetic device for a primary auditory cortex of a patient includes either a speech processor or a stimulating device for receiving and processing information and a wireless electrode arranged in the primary auditory cortex having a plurality of electrical contacts. The electrode can be arranged in the patients primary auditory cortex and each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical contacts can be arranged to approximately tonotopically match the primary auditory cortex.
We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to study the large-scale organization of ferret auditory cortex in response to complex sounds. Cortical responses were collected during continuous stimulation by sequences of sounds with varying frequency, period, or interaural level differences. We used a set of stimuli that differ in spectral structure, but have the same periodicity and therefore evoke the same pitch percept (click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, and iterated ripple noise). These stimuli failed to reveal a consistent periodotopic map across the auditory fields imaged. Rather, gradients of period sensitivity differed for the different types of periodic stimuli. Binaural interactions were studied both with single contralateral, ipsilateral, and diotic broadband noise bursts and with sequences of broadband noise bursts with varying level presented contralaterally, ipsilaterally, or in opposite phase to both ears. Contralateral responses were generally largest and ipsilateral
Puschmann, S., Brechmann, A. and Thiel, C. M. (2013), Learning-dependent plasticity in human auditory cortex during appetitive operant conditioning. Hum. Brain Mapp., 34: 2841-2851. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22107 ...
How do arousal-related changes in sensory representations impact the ability of the pyramidal cell population to discriminate frequencies? At face value, the reduction in sparseness of activated cells and broadening of frequency tuning should increase overlap in cell ensembles activated by different frequencies. This implies that increased arousal would degrade rather than improve frequency discrimination. To address this, we analyzed interneuronal correlations that contribute to population coding: signal correlations (rsignal), a measure of tuning similarity between pairs of neurons and noise correlations (rnoise), a measure of how much the trial-to-trial response variability of a pair of neurons is correlated (19, 20). Consistent with previous studies in the auditory cortex (21⇓⇓-24), mean rsignal and rnoise values were small and positive (n = 4,938 cell pairs, 8 experiments, Fig. 2 C and D1). Interneuronal correlations were significantly modulated by arousal (Fig. 2C, 2-way ANOVA, ...
Front Neural Circuits. 2014 Mar 11;8:15. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2014.00015. eCollection 2014. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Direct brain recordings from neurosurgical patients listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex.
Despite vast literature on catecholaminergic neuromodulation of auditory cortex functioning in general, knowledge about its role for long-term memory formation is scarce. Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerb …
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore the fact that for most neuroscientists the standard model of sensory...
A GENESIS GUI for providing inputs to an auditory cortex model ======================================================================*/ //=============================== // Function Definitions //=============================== // Display the parameters for the specified input function show_params(input_num) str control_form = /input_control int input_num, row_num setfield {control_form}/input_num value {input_num} float frequency, delay, width, interval str pulse_src = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /spikepulse str spike_out = {input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ] @ /soma/spike // this assumes set_pulse_params has been called so that abs_refract != 0 row_num = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_row} setfield {control_form}/targ_row value {row_num} frequency = {getfield {{input_source} @ [ @ {input_num} @ ]} input_freq} setfield {control_form}/spikefreq value {frequency} delay = {getfield {pulse_src} delay1 } float width = {getfield {pulse_src} ...
When two sounds are presented in quick succession, the neural response to the second sound can decrease relative to when it is presented alone. Previous two-tone experiments have not determined whether the frequency tuning of cortical suppression was determined by the receptive field of the neuron or the exact relationship between the frequencies of the two tones. In the first experiment, it is shown that forward suppression does depend on the relationship between the two tones. This confirmed that cortical forward suppression is frequency specific at the shortest possible timescale ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25;106(34):14611-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0907682106. Epub 2009 Aug 10. Clinical Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A neural prosthetic device for an auditory cortex of a patient has a support arranged in the auditory cortex with a plurality of electrical contacts and is connected to a speech processor for receiving and processing audio information and outputting processed electrical signals. Each of the plurality of electrical contacts independently outputs electrical discharges in accordance with the processed electrical signals. The plurality of electrical-contacts are arranged to approximately tonotopically match the auditory cortex. Methods and apparatus for selectively treating or inactivating neurons within the brain of a patient. The apparatus includes a dual purpose multicontact neuron-monitoring electrode assembly and an introducer tube for introducing the electrode assembly within the patient in the vicinity of the target tissue. The apparatus and methods of the instant invention are particularly suited to performing magnetic pallidotomy for the treatment of Parkinsons disease.
The goal of this study was to understand the spontaneous neuronal activities and acoustic responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI), and the modulation of different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) on different layers of the auditory cortex (AC) especially AI, through in vivo intracellular recordings and/or extracellular recordings in adult urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. One hundred and eighty nine neurons/units in AC, distributed among all six cortical layers, were recorded intracellularly and/or extrcellularly. Thirty-one of forty intracellular recorded neurons (77.50 %) and one hundred and thirty of one hundred and forty nine extracellular recorded units (87.25%) showed excitatory responses to a noise burst stimulus applied to the contralateral ear of the animals. The extracellularly recorded neurons showed synchronized spikes with the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), action potential (AP) and/or rhythmic oscillation of the intracellularly recorded ...
In the next part of the study, we focused on the neuronal plasticity in the auditory cortex. The plasticity of synapse is widely accepted as a candidate mechanism of learning and memory in the brain. From the first published long term potentiation (LTP) induction experiment by Tim Bliss and colleagues in 1972, most experimenters have induced LTP through high frequency or repeated stimuli. Such artificial stimulus patterns in the experimental preparation are, however, uncommon in natural condition. The hippocampus is widely believed to serve only as a memory buffer instead of the location to store permanent memory. The cerebral cortex is regarded as the site for long term memory storage. In a parallel study by Chen and colleagues in our laboratory, they have found that an artificial visuoauditory memory trace could be induced in the auditory cortex through conditioning a combined stimulus of electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex and a visual stimulus with foot shock in the behaving rat. ...
This study addresses the temporal fidelity and spatial topography of auditory cortex suppression during vocalization and resolves a controversy in the animal versus human literature. We first examined averaged ECoG responses across auditory electrodes in seven different subjects. We found a reduction in the N100 component of the ECoG auditory ERP as well as a reduction of induced spectral responses that peaked at 100 Hz, corresponding with the γHigh band. However, examining each auditory electrode with a γHigh response revealed differential degrees of suppression across auditory cortex. Moreover, within each subject different regions of auditory cortex exhibited different types of self-speech modulation of ECoG auditory responses. Single-trial analysis of these electrodes revealed a consistent response across the different trials. Both highly suppressed and nonsuppressed electrodes revealed the same pattern of response in single-trials across the experimental session. Only a few sites ...
Stimuli were generated digitally in MATLAB (MathWorks) at a sampling rate of 97.7 kHz using custom software, converted to analog signals (Tucker-Davies Technologies), power amplified (Crown Audio), attenuated (Tucker-Davies Technologies), and played from a loudspeaker (Fostex FT-28D or B&W-600S3) situated ∼1 m in front of the animal. The loudspeaker had a flat frequency response curve (±5 dB) across the range of frequencies of the stimuli used, with a calibrated level (at 1 kHz) of ∼90 dB SPL at a set level of 0 dB attenuation.. Two-pip stimuli consisted of two short 20-40 ms long tone pips, with one pip centered on an estimated best frequency (BF) to reduce search space. Since we were interested in neurons that did not respond to pure tones, estimating BF of such neurons was a difficult task. Usually, we first defined a narrow search range (usually 0.5 octaves) based on tone responses in the middle cortical layers in the neighborhood of the present electrode track. We then used a wide ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of auditory synaptic inputs to gerbil perirhinal cortex. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2015/8/14. Y1 - 2015/8/14. N2 - The representation of acoustic cues involves regions downstream from the auditory cortex (ACx). One such area, the perirhinal cortex (PRh), processes sensory signals containing mnemonic information. Therefore, our goal was to assess whether PRh receives auditory inputs from the auditory thalamus (MG) and ACx in an auditory thalamocortical brain slice preparation and characterize these afferent-driven synaptic properties. When the MG or ACx was electrically stimulated, synaptic responses were recorded from the PRh neurons. Blockade of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors dramatically increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory potentials. Stimulation of the MG or ACx also evoked calcium transients in most PRh neurons. Separately, when fluoro ruby was injected in ACx in vivo, anterogradely ...
Little is known about the underlying neurobiology of rhythm and beat perception, despite its universal cultural importance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study rhythm perception in musicians and nonmusicians. Three conditions varied in the degree to which external reinforcement versus internal generation of the beat was required. The "volume" condition strongly externally marked the beat with volume changes, the "duration" condition marked the beat with weaker accents arising from duration changes, and the "unaccented" condition required the beat to be entirely internally generated. In all conditions, beat rhythms compared with nonbeat control rhythms revealed putamen activity. The presence of a beat was also associated with greater connectivity between the putamen and the supplementary motor area (SMA), the premotor cortex (PMC), and auditory cortex. In contrast, the type of accent within the beat conditions modulated the coupling between premotor and auditory cortex, ...
Any of a class of small interneurons in the cerebellum, with multiple processes that synapse on the dendrites of Purkinje cells, the action of which they inhibit, also found in the cerebral cortex, where spiny stellates are excitatory and non-spiny stellates are inhibitory. They are especially abundant in the somatosensory cortex, the primary visual cortex (Area V1), and the primary auditory cortex. Compare basket cell, Golgi cell, pyramidal cell. [From Latin stellatus starry, from stella a star] ...
Deletion of PTEN gene in a subset of auditory cortical neurons increases the length and density of dendritic spines (right panels)."Its long been hypothesized that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) arise from a partial disruption of long-range connections in the brain during development," explains Professor Tony Zador, who led the study. "Our finding that PTEN-deficient neurons receive stronger inputs suggests that one way this disruption can be caused is by signal enhancement." His teams work appears in the Journal of Neuroscience on February 1.. Although ASDs could arise from mutations in any of dozens of candidate genes, a core triad of symptoms defines all cases: impaired language, impaired social interaction, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. "The challenge therefore has been to understand how this diverse set of candidate genes and the pathways they control converge to cause the common signature of ASDs," Zador says. The auditory cortex, which plays a critical role in auditory ...
Keywords: Communications Biophysics, Electrical Responses to Clicks and Tone Pips as Recorded from the Auditory Cortex, Analog Correlator for Electroencephalography, Auditory Sensitization, Electrophysiological Results, Electronic Device for the Measurement of the Latency of Neurals ...
Article: Synaptic properties of thalamic input to the subgranular layers of primary somatosensory and auditory cortices in the mouse. ...
Brain, Human, Amygdala, Extremity, Language, Lower Extremity, Neuroimaging, Organization, Regulation, Arousal, Auditory Cortex, Humans, Learning, Magnetic, Magnetic Resonance, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Music, Prefrontal Cortex, Scales, Time
A new study reveals exactly how the brains motor cortex, seemingly in anticipation of movement, can tweak the volume control in the auditory cortex.
Complexity such as that revealed in Modha and Singhs diagrams always comes to my mind when I read about someones "brain inspired" AGI architecture -- say, Hierarchical Temporal Memory architectures (like Numenta or DeSTIN, etc.) that consist of a hierarchy of layers of nodes, passing information up and down in a manner vaguely reminiscent of visual or auditory cortex. Such architectures may be quite valuable and interesting, but each of them captures a teensy weensy fraction of the architectural and dynamical complexity in the brain. Each of the brain regions in Modha and Singhs diagram is its own separate story, with its own separate and important functions and structures and complex dynamics; and each one interacts with a host of others in specially configured ways, to achieve emergent intelligence. In my view, if one wants to make a brain-like AGI, ones going to need to emulate the sort of complexity that the actual brain has -- not just take some brain components (e.g. neurons) and ...
Tinnitus, the chronic perception of ringing or other phantom sounds, is typically associated with hearing loss. The reduction of auditory input that conveys to auditory cortex leads to the changes in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory activation of the corresponding neurons in this area and is possibly the cause of tinnitus. From the other hand a recent study (Gordon et al. Beain 2013) has shown that bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally driven reorganization. Based on this finding we could expect that in patient with unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus the input from unimpaired ear has not been transfered sufficiently to the bilateral hemisphere and this loss of input has resulted in reorganization in neuronal activity of the auditory cortex. To test this hypothesis we compare the amplitude of the neuronal activity bold response of the auditory cortex in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere to the hearing ear in response to different frequency tones. Ten tinnitus patients
Video articles in JoVE about auditory cortex include Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI, Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging, Stereotactically-guided Ablation of the Rat Auditory Cortex, and Localization of the Lesion in the Brain, High Resolution Quantitative Synaptic Proteome Profiling of Mouse Brain Regions After Auditory Discrimination Learning, Combined Shuttle-Box Training with Electrophysiological Cortex Recording and Stimulation as a Tool to Study Perception and Learning, Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, A Protocol for the Administration of Real-Time fMRI Neurofeedback Training, Reversible Cooling-induced Deactivations to Study Cortical Contributions to Obstacle Memory in the Walking Cat, Decoding Auditory Imagery with Multivoxel Pattern Analysis, Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice
Congenital amusia is a disorder characterized by impaired musical skills, which can extend to an inability to recognize very familiar tunes. The neural bases of this deficit are now being deciphered. According to a study conducted by researchers from CNRS and Inserm at the Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CNRS / Inserm / Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1), amusics exhibit altered processing of musical information in two regions of the brain: the auditory cortex and the frontal cortex, particularly in the right cerebral hemisphere. These alterations seem to be linked to anatomical anomalies in these same cortices. This work, published on April 2013 in the journal Brain, adds invaluable information to our understanding of amusia and, more generally, of the
Birn R.M., Converse A.K., Rajala A.Z., Alexander A.L., Bloek W.F., McMillan A.B, Christian B.T., Filla C.N, Murali D., Hurley S.A., Jenison R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2019) Changes in Endogenous Dopamine Induced by Methylphenidate Predict Functional Connectivity in Nonhuman Primates , Journal of Neuroscience 39:8 1436-1444.. Rajala A.Z., Jenison R.L., and Populin L.C. (2018) Neural correlate of auditory spatial attention allocation in the superior colliculus, Journal of Neurophysiology 119: 1450-1460.. Jenison R.L., Reale R.A., Armstrong A.L., Oya H., Kawasaki H. and Howard III M.A. (2015) Sparse Spectro-temporal Receptive Fields based on Multi-unit and High-gamma response in Human Auditory Cortex, PLoS ONE, 10(9). Rajala, A.Z., Jenison, R.L., and Populin, L.C. (2015) Decision making: effects of methylphenidate on temporal discounting in nonhuman primates. Journal of Neurophysiology, 114, 70-79. Jenison, R.L. (2014) Directional Influence between the Human Amygdala and Orbitofrontal Cortex at the ...
Mammalian hearing is a complex special sense that involves detection, localization, and identification of the auditory stimulus. The cerebral cortex may subserve higher auditory processes by providing direct modulatory cortical projections to the auditory brainstem. To support the hypothesis that co …
The following m files are included: discrimination_MLE.m Calculates the discrimination ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take an hour to run categorization_llikhd.m Calculates the identification ability of a given population of neurons. This program may take 4 minutes to run. Both scripts above use the following helper functions: MNRRS.m Gets the response of the population of neurons to a specific frequency. likhood.m The likelihood function (equation 2 in manuscript) get_params.m The parameters used for the simulation (population parameters and testing parameters) Editing this file will suffice to change population or testing parameters smth_gass_distr.m Helper function for get_params to redefine over-representation. categorization_llikhd also includes: binornd_sim.m The Bernoulli random process simulation (Eq 5 in paper) In addition, the following mat files are included: discr_temp.mat output expected at line 93 of discrimination_MLE to plot, use lines 98-103 ...
The average patient age at tadalafil 20mg lowest price diagnosis was 30.6 years and the mean followup was 65 months. Responses in the human auditory cortex to natural speech reveal a dual character.. The evolution of pharmacokinetics and clinically useful drug assays tadalafil cost at walmart has led to pharmacokinetic dosing, a more sophisticated and exact method of dosing certain agents. Recent data suggest that insulin/C-peptide deficiency may exert a primary and key effect in diabetic encephalopathy.. Since the human heart has a complex anatomy, the two-dimensional analysis of myocardial scintigrams obviously is not satisfactory. A range of factors influence health-related quality of life in people with heart failure. Atrophic and a mixed pattern tadalafil online of acne scars improved with a 1320-nm Nd:YAG laser. Recurrent episodes of upper airway blockage associated with Ascaris lumbricoides causing cardiopulmonary arrest in a young patient. The need to measure the level of surgical risk ...
5. Categorization of Species-Specific Vocalizations in the Non-Human Primate: Features Guiding Behavioral Discrimination and Neural Processing in the Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex (Gordon W. Gifford, and Yale E. Cohen)pp. 65- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Sensory Striatum Is Permanently Impaired by Transient Developmental Deprivation. AU - Mowery, Todd M.. AU - Penikis, Kristina B.. AU - Young, Stephen K.. AU - Ferrer, Christopher E.. AU - Kotak, Vibhakar C.. AU - Sanes, Dan. PY - 2017/6/20. Y1 - 2017/6/20. N2 - Corticostriatal circuits play a fundamental role in regulating many behaviors, and their dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. In contrast, sensory disorders, like hearing loss (HL), are commonly linked with processing deficits at or below the level of the auditory cortex (ACx). However, HL can be accompanied by non-sensory deficits, such as learning delays, suggesting the involvement of regions downstream of ACx. Here, we show that transient developmental HL differentially affected the ACx and its downstream target, the sensory striatum. Following HL, both juvenile ACx layer 5 and striatal neurons displayed an excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and lower firing rates. After hearing was restored, ...
The scientists found that this learned behaviour was permanent and when they mapped oxytocins effect in the brain of the mice, they found it was working on the left hemisphere of the auditory cortex. In other words they believe that oxytocin was controlling the volume of "social information" that was being processed by individual nerve cells, similar to the way a dimmer switch can turn a light up or down ...
Dr Catia Andreassi, UCL Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology: Bridging funding to support a post-doctoral RA working on understanding the role of mRNA transport and local translation in axons of developing neurons.. Dr Maria Arantzazu Barrios Lafuente, UCL Division of Biosciences: Bridging funds for an intermediate career scientist working with c.elegans in the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology.. Dr Daniel Bendor, UCL Psychology and Language Sciences: Contribution towards electrophysiology equipment for a new Investigator recruited from MIT to work on neural circuits in the auditory cortex.. Professor Frances Brodsky, UCL Division of Biosciences: Start-up funds for the provision of postdoctoral RA salaries for a new senior recruit specialising in the biochemical properties of clathrin and its role in the development of Type 2 Diabetes.. Dr Steven Buckingham, UCL Division of Medicine: Bridging funding for a postdoctoral RA pending PI grant applications. His research focuses on ion ...
Report on the Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Workshop Malcolm Slaney, Dan Ellis, Dave Rosenthal Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 19 and 20th, 1995. The first workshop on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA) was held August 19 and 20th at the 1995 IJCAI (International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence) in Montreal. Organized by Hiroshi Okuno and David Rosenthal, the workshop was attended by about thirty people doing work on scientific and engineering models of human audition and signal processing. Perhaps the workshop will best be remembered as the largest gathering to date of people interested in computer models of auditory scene analysis (ASA). The attendees were nearly evenly split between those that are interested in understanding human auditory perception and those that want to solve problems in auditory perception, perhaps using some of the techniques of auditory scene analysis. Al Bregman served as keynote speaker for the conference. His book, Auditory Scene ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural properties of fundamental function encoding of sound selectivity in the female avian auditory cortex. AU - Inda, Masahiro. AU - Hotta, Kohji. AU - Oka, Kotaro. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) use their voices for communication. Song structures in the songs of individual males are important for sound recognition in females. The caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and nidopallium (NCM) are known to be essential higher auditory regions for sound recognition. These two regions have also been discussed with respect to their fundamental functions and song selectivity. To clarify their functions and selectivity, we investigated latencies and spiking patterns and also developed a novel correlation analysis to evaluate the relationship between neural activity and the characteristics of acoustic factors. We found that the latencies and spiking patterns in response to song stimuli differed between the CMM and NCM. In addition, our correlation analysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The use of middle latency response in the diagnosis of cortical deafness. AU - Vedder, J. S.. AU - Barrs, D. M.. AU - Fifer, Robert. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - Bilateral cortical lesions resulting in true deafness were first reported approximately 100 years ago. A detailed map of the auditory cortex, however, was derived only within the past 50 years, primarily from investigation in the cat and subhuman primate. The few human studies have shown the primary auditory cortex to be located around the posterior two-thirds of the sylvian fissure, especially in the anterior and posterior transverse temporal gyri -or Heschls gyri- on the superior portion of the temporal lobe. Each organ of Corti has extensive bilateral projections to the primary auditory cortex, although experiments by Celesia have shown larger contralateral than ipsilateral response to auditory stimulation. This bilateral distribution of ascending auditory pathways makes deafness secondary to a single cortical ...
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules that are now thought to regulate the expression of many mRNAs. They have been implicated in the etiology of a variety of complex diseases, including Tourettes syndrome, Fragile x syndrome, and several types of cancer. RESULTS: We hypothesized that schizophrenia might be associated with altered miRNA profiles. To investigate this possibility we compared the expression of 264 human miRNAs from postmortem prefrontal cortex tissue of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 13) or schizoaffective disorder (n = 2) to tissue of 21 psychiatrically unaffected individuals using a custom miRNA microarray. Allowing a 5% false discovery rate, we found that 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed in prefrontal cortex of patient subjects, with 15 expressed at lower levels (fold change 0.63 to 0.89) and 1 at a higher level (fold change 1.77) than in the psychiatrically unaffected comparison subjects. The expression levels of 12 selected miRNAs were ...
2001). In musicians, there was predominant activation of the left secondary auditory cortex and the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, non-musicians had activation of the right secondary auditory cortex for the same task. In addition, there was activation of the bilateral PT in the musician cohort. , more activation with younger onset). Activation of the left PT was most pronounced in musicians with perfect pitch. , mean volume) in musicians in comparison with non-musicians (Schlaug 2003). PET, fMRI) in normal subjects that the neural basis of music-evoked emotions involves connectivity between the networks that mediate musical perception and more primitive mesiolimbic structures (Griffiths 2001; Blood et al. 1999; Blood and Zatorre - 2001; Brown et al. 2004; Menon and Levitin 2005; Koelsch 2010; Salimpoor et al. 2011). Early studies by Blood and colleagues used PET scans and measurements of alterations in cerebral blood flow that were related to affective responses to ...
The transverse temporal gyri, also called Heschls gyri (/ˈhɛʃəlz ˈdʒaɪraɪ/) or Heschls convolutions, are gyri found in the area of primary auditory cortex buried within the lateral sulcus of the human brain, occupying Brodmann areas 41 and 42. Transverse temporal gyri are superior to and separated from the planum temporale (cortex involved in language production) by Heschls sulcus. Transverse temporal gyri are found in varying numbers in both the right and left hemispheres of the brain and one study found that this number is not related to the hemisphere or dominance of hemisphere studied in subjects. Transverse temporal gyri can be viewed in the sagittal plane as either an omega shape (if one gyrus is present) or a heart shape (if two gyri and a sulcus are present).[1] Transverse temporal gyri are the first cortical structures to process incoming auditory information. Anatomically, the transverse temporal gyri are distinct in that they run mediolaterally (toward the center of the ...
en] The identification of the brain structures and neurotransmitters responsible for the generation and/or modulation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) may contribute to a clearer understanding of its functional significance, and may have clinical implications. In this context, some findings suggest that the scalp-recorded MMN reflects activity from multiple neuronal ensembles within or in the immediate vicinity of the primary auditory cortex and with possible contribution from the frontal cortex. However, few data are available concerning the influence of neurotransmitter systems on the MMN. In this study, the relationship between both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems and the MMN were investigated in 34 healthy volunteers. Noradrenergic and dopaminergic activities were assessed with the apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests. The results showed no significant relationship between either growth hormone (GH) responses to apomorphine or clonidine and the MMN amplitude or latency. ...
Hearing loss leads to a reorganization of the pathways in the central auditory system.12,20,22,23 These changes may occur rapidly24 and lead to abnormal interactions between auditory and other central pathways.20Analogous changes in the somatosensory system linked to phantom pain25 led us to suggest that there are similarities between neuropathic pain and tinnitus.12 In patients with gaze-evoked tinnitus, lateral eye movements failto produce the inhibition of the auditory cortex observed in controls.20 The absence of this phenomenon, called cross-modal inhibition, may contribute to the false perception of sounds.. Levine hypothesized that a reduction in auditory-nerve input leads to disinhibition of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and an increase in spontaneous activity in the central auditory system, which is experienced as tinnitus.26 This mechanism could explain the temporary ringing sensation that may follow exposure to noise,27 the effects of some drugs such as furosemide, and spontaneous ...
In the auditory domain, Josef Rauschecker is often credited with originating the view that auditory cortex is subdivided into two processing streams, a dorsal "where" stream and a ventral "what" stream (Rauschecker, 1998; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009). However, the idea of dual auditory streams predates Rauscheckers influential papers by several decades. Deutsch and Roll proposed separate "what" and "where" mechanisms for hearing in their 1976 report (Deutsch and Roll, 1976) citing then recent animal neurophysiological evidence for the distinction (Evans and Nelson, 1973). And a historical precedent to a dual-stream model of audition goes even farther back to the work of Poljak who in 1926 discussed the various subdivisions in "the connections of the acoustic nerve" and came to a conclusion that foreshadowed current dual-stream ideas by the better part of a century ...
The so-called cocktail party-problem has already kept scientists busy for decades. How is it possible for the brain to filter familiar voices out of background noise? It is a long-standing hypothesis that we create a kind of sound library in the auditory cortex of the brain during the course of our lives. Professor Christian Leibold and Dr. Gonzalo Otazu, members of the Bernstein Center Munich and engaged at the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität (LMU) Munich now show in a new model how the brain can compare stored and perceived sounds in a particularly efficient manner. Figuratively speaking, current models operate on the following principle: An archivist (possibly the brain region thalamus) compares the incoming sound with the individual entries in the library, and receives the degree of matching for each entry. Usually, however, several entries fit similarly well, so the archivist does not know which result is actually the right one. The new model is different: as previously the archivist ...
Vitrectomy. A limited conjunctival peritomy was created with Westcott scissors to expose the supranasal and, separately, the supratemporal and inferotemporal
How Can Stress Affect The Ear Ringing All of us experience a ringing in the ears at some time or other in our lives. Some people, unfortunately, are afflicted with a constant sound in their head which has no external … Continue reading →. ...
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The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex that is under the Sylvian fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain.[3] The temporal lobe is involved in auditory perception and is home to the primary auditory cortex. It is also important for the processing of semantics (meaning) in both speech and vision. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory. An area in the Sylvian fissure is the first place where auditory signals from the cochlea reach the cerebral cortex. This part of the cortex (primary auditory cortex) is involved in hearing. Other areas of the temporal lobes are involved in high-level auditory processing. In humans this includes speech, for which the left temporal lobe in particular seems to be specialized. Wernickes area, which spans the region between temporal and parietal lobes, plays a key role (with Brocas area, which is in the frontal lobe). The functions of the left temporal lobe extends to ...
Cerebral (18) F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has shown altered auditory pathway activity in tinnitus. However, the corresponding studies involved only small samples and analyses were restricted to the auditory cortex in most studies. Evidence is growing that also limbic, frontal, and parietal areas are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic tinnitus. These regions are considered to mediate perceptual, attentional, and emotional processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was the systematic evaluation of metabolic brain activity in a large sample of tinnitus patients. Ninety one patients with chronic tinnitus underwent FDG-PET. The effects of tinnitus severity (assessed by a tinnitus questionnaire score), duration and laterality were evaluated with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) in whole brain analyses. In addition, region of interest analyses were performed for primary auditory areas. Tinnitus duration correlated positively with brain metabolism in right ...
The cerebral cortex is typically described as comprising three parts: the sensory, motor, and association areas. These sensory areas receive and process information from the senses. The senses of vision, audition, and touch are served by the primary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex and primary somatosensory cortex. The cerebellar cortex is the thin gray surface layer of the cerebellum, consisting of an outer molecular layer or stratum moleculare, a single layer of Purkinje cells (the ganglionic layer), and an inner granular layer or stratum granulosum. The cortex is the outer surface of the cerebrum and is composed of gray matter.[1] The motor areas are located in both hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. Two areas of the cortex are commonly referred to as motor: the primary motor cortex, which executes voluntary movements, and; the supplementary motor areas and premotor cortex, which select voluntary movements. In addition, motor functions have been attributed to: the posterior parietal ...
New location of critical area provides hints on origin of language. Scientists have long believed that human speech is processed towards the back of the brains cerebral cortex, behind auditory cortex where all sounds are received - a place famously known as Wernickes area after the German neurologist who proposed this site in the late 1800s based on his study of brain injuries and strokes.. But, now, research that analyzed more than 100 imaging studies concludes that Wernickes area is in the wrong location. The site newly identified is about 3 centimeters closer to the front of the brain and on the other side of auditory cortex - miles away in terms of brain architecture and function.. The finding, published online this week in the Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), means that "textbooks will now have to be rewritten," says the studys senior author, Josef Rauschecker, Ph.D., a professor in the department of neuroscience at Georgetown University ...
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Previous studies have reported primary auditory cortex plasticity following vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with a sound. Does this phenomenon extend to other fields in the auditory pathway? In this podcast, Editor-in-Chief Bill Yates talks with Dr. Michael S. Borland and Dr. Crystal Engineer (both from the University of Texas at Dallas) about their recent study, which is the first to to document both cortical and subcortical plasticity following VNS-sound pairing. Listen to learn about auditory plasticity, potential therapies for auditory processing disorders, and more! Listen Now. August 14, 2019. ...
Subject: Re: neural coorelates of auditory selective attention (development)? From: Rick ,[email protected], Date: Sun, 26 Oct 2008 14:03:59 -0500 List-Archive: I think only a couple or one of these addresses the question directly, but their bibliographies might lead somewhere r =============== Woldorff, M. G., Gallen, C. C., Hampson, S. A., Hillyard, S. A., Pantev, C., Sobel, D. & Bloom, F. E. (1993) Modulation of Early Sensory Processing in Human Auditory Cortex During Auditory Selective Attention. PNAS, 90, 8722-8726. Y. S. Sininger &Cone-Wesson, B. (2004) Asymmetric Cochlear Processing Mimics Hemispheric Specialization. Science, 305, 1581. Van-orden, G. C. (2002) Intentional contents and self-control. Ecological Psychology.; 14, 87-109. Rauschecker, J. P. (1995) Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 36-43. On 10/26/08, Gaab, Nadine ,[email protected], wrote: , Hello List! ...
Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and
A study was conducted to determine whether newborn infants organize auditory streams in a manner similar to that of adults. A series of three experiments investigated the ability of three- to four-day-old infants to discriminate repeated rising and falling four-tone sequences in two configurations of source timbre and spatial position. It was hypothesized that if the sequences were organized into two auditory streams on the basis of timbre and spatial position, one of the configurations should be discriminable from its reversal, while the other should not. The sequences were tested with different pitch and temporal intervals separating the tones. Sequences were discriminated for the first configuration by adults at both fast tempo/small interval and slow tempo/large interval combinations, while only the latter was discriminated by newborns as measured with a non-nutritive, high-amplitude sucking paradigm. Neither adults nor infants could discriminate the sequence reversals for the second ...
Agnosia is a rare neurological condition in which an individual may face difficulty to recognize a familiar person, sound or object. It is due to occurrence of lesions in the brain. Medical conditions such as dementia, stroke, head injury or any other neurological condition may lead to development of agnosia. Moreover, there are several conditions that may cause brain lesions and are associated with agnosia.. People suffering from agnosia can still interact with others normally. As such agnosia affects a single pathway when brain suffers a certain damage. The pathway might connect primary sensory areas that store information and knowledge. The primary sensory regions mainly include visual or auditory cortices. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, neurological disorders are responsible for 4.5%-11% of all illnesses including low or high income economies.. Brain imaging techniques such as CT or MRI with or without angiographic protocols is required to characterize a central ...
Top-down mediated decreases of beta activity in auditory cortex prior to a predictable distractor in an auditory working memory task is associated with increased representation of to-be-memorized information.
Sevy, A.B.G., Bortfeld, H, Huppert, T.J., Beauchamp, M.S., Tonini, R.E., Oghalai, J.S. Neuroimaging with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Demonstrates Speech-Evoked Activity in the Auditory Cortex of Deaf Children Following Cochlear Implantation. Hearing Research. 2010 Dec; 270: 39-47. Click here to download the PDF ...
PLANT SCIENCE. Active transport of aromas. Adebesin et al. found that rather than simply diffusing out of cells, volatile organic compounds in petunias require an active transporter for release (see also Eberl and Gershenzon).. NEURODEVELOPMENT. Building the neural tube. Zagorski et al. describe a gene regulatory network that responds to noisy signals to build robustness and accuracy into tissue patterning during development.. Reopening a critical period. Blundon et al. show that the auditory cortex of adult mice acquires juvenile flexibility if adenosine signaling is disrupted (see also Kehayas and Holtmaat). ...
Additional revisions to JCAHO standards in January 2002, included integration of Environment of Care activities into the hospital-wide patient safety program. 611. An antecedent viral illness has been reported in commercal cases. The MMN diminution with shortermore posterior clefts suggests that dif- ferences in auditory cortex function are one of the un- i mechanisms of the lady in cymbalta commercial type-malcognition association.
Tinnitus is usually a minor annoyance that eventually passes, but for those that suffer from chronic tinnitus, it is much more than this.
Association areas --, association cortex generic term denoting the large expanses of the cerebral cortex that are not sensory or motor in the customary sense, but are involved in advanced stages of sensory information processing, multisensory integration, or sensorimotor integration. See: cerebral cortex. Synonym: association areas. ...
All CAEP clinical practice guidelines and endorsements follow a standardized path to ensure quality and acceptance. Please submit your thoughts/ideas for new CAEP guidelines to to Shanna Scarrow at [email protected] who will guide you through the process. Please submit your endorsements to Sara Alfazema at [email protected] ...
Tonotopy, the orderly representation of sound frequency is a fundamental organizing principle of the auditory system. However, the mechanisms by which precise t...
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This is another release on Tukuringra netlabel, which contains various experiments with synthetic and natural sounds, ranging from calm to harsh. Cover art by Mira Jain DOWNLOAD
Developmental dyslexia is a frequent learning disability. The aim of this study is to compare auditory evoked cortical responses to syllables and tones in developmental dyslexia and controls (paired with age, gender). The study is conducted in 3 groups of subjects :8-10 years ; 11-17 years and 18-25 years. We suppose that cortical responses should be different in developmental dyslexia and controls ...
Developmental dyslexia is a frequent learning disability. The aim of this study is to compare auditory evoked cortical responses to syllables and tones in developmental dyslexia and controls (paired with age, gender). The study is conducted in 3 groups of subjects :8-10 years ; 11-17 years and 18-25 years. We suppose that cortical responses should be different in developmental dyslexia and controls ...
Picks disease, also known as frontotemporal amnesia, is caused by atrophy of the frontotemporal lobe.[11] Emotional symptoms include mood changes, which the patient may be unaware of, including poor attention span and aggressive behavior towards themselves and/or others. Language symptoms include loss of speech, inability to read and/or write, loss of vocabulary and overall degeneration of motor ability.[12]. Temporal lobe epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures; symptoms include a variety of sensory (visual, auditory, olfactory, and gustation) hallucinations, as well as an inability to process semantic and episodic memories.[13]. Schizophrenia is a severe psychotic disorder characterized by severe disorientation. Its most explicit symptom is the perception of external voices in the form of auditory hallucinations. The cause of such hallucinations has been attributed to deficits in the left temporal lobe, specifically within the primary auditory cortex. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tuning in to the voices. T2 - A multisite fMRI study of auditory hallucinations. AU - Ford, Judith M.. AU - Roach, Brian J.. AU - Jorgensen, Kasper W.. AU - Turner, Jessica A.. AU - Brown, Gregory G.. AU - Notestine, Randy. AU - Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda. AU - Greve, Douglas. AU - Wible, Cynthia. AU - Lauriello, John. AU - Belger, Aysenil. AU - Mueller, Bryon A.. AU - Calhoun, Vince Daniel. AU - Preda, Adrian. AU - Keator, David. AU - OLeary, Daniel S.. AU - Lim, Kelvin O.. AU - Glover, Gary. AU - Potkin, Steven G.. AU - Mathalon, Daniel H.. PY - 2009/1. Y1 - 2009/1. N2 - Introduction: Auditory hallucinations or voices are experienced by 75% of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. We presumed that auditory cortex of schizophrenia patients who experience hallucinations is tonically "tuned" to internal auditory channels, at the cost of processing external sounds, both speech and nonspeech. Accordingly, we predicted that patients who hallucinate would show less auditory cortical ...
The first brain image of an individual with psychosis was completed as far back as 1935 using a technique called pneumoencephalography[81] (a painful and now obsolete procedure where cerebrospinal fluid is drained from around the brain and replaced with air to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray picture).. The purpose of the brain is to collect information from the body (pain, hunger, etc.), and from the outside world, interpret it to a coherent world view, and produce a meaningful response. The information from the senses enter the brain in the primary sensory areas. They process the information and send it to the secondary areas where the information is interpreted. Spontaneous activity in the primary sensory areas may produce hallucinations, which the secondary areas misinterpret as information from the real world.. For example, a PET or fMRI scan of a person who claims they hear voices may show activation in the primary auditory cortex, or parts of the brain ...
Beat deafness, a recently documented form of congenital amusia, provides a unique window into functional specialization of neural circuitry for the processing of musical stimuli: Beat-deaf individuals exhibit deficits that are specific to the detection of a regular beat in music and the ability to move along with a beat. Studies on the neural underpinnings of beat processing in the general population suggest that the auditory system is capable of pre-attentively generating a predictive model of upcoming sounds in a rhythmic pattern, subserved largely within auditory cortex and reflected in mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components. The current study examined these neural correlates of beat perception in two beat-deaf individuals, Mathieu and Marjorie, and a group of control participants under conditions in which auditory stimuli were either attended or ignored. Compared to control participants, Mathieu demonstrated reduced behavioral sensitivity to beat omissions ...
Auditory Research. Individuals with Rett syndrome experience challenges with language processing. Abnormal neural processing of sounds appears to play a critical role in their communication difficulties. Our previous research has demonstrated that extensive speech training improves the ability to accurately discriminate speech sounds and alters auditory cortex responses. Recent studies in both humans and rodent models suggest that IGF-1 therapy could improve many of the symptoms observed in Rett syndrome. Our teams believe that IGF-1 therapy may improve speech processing in RTT patients. We are evaluating the ability of IGF-1 to reverse speech processing problems in Mecp2 (RTT model) rats using significant real world problems experienced by Rett syndrome patients. ...
The disclosure herein describes a system for conducting automatically an audiometric test using a data processing means, in which are stored a series of tone frequencies, amplitude levels and time periods, and including a circuitry enabling the application of stimuli to a subject. Depending on each response received from the subject in answer to a given tone frequency, the apparatus will (1) continue the test utilizing a different amplitude level for the same tone frequency, (2) register the minimum threshold of the tone frequency, (3) continue the test utilizing a different tone frequency, or (4) register an aberration. The apparatus also enables the application of a vocal test to a subject in which the subject must indicate which word in a series of displayed words was heard.
Music can trigger emotional responses in a more direct way than any other stimulus. In particular, music-evoked pleasure involves brain networks that are part of the reward system. Furthermore, rhythmic music stimulates the basal ganglia and may trigger involuntary movements to the beat. In the present study, we created a continuously playing rhythmic, dance floor-like composition where the ambient noise from the MR scanner was incorporated as an additional instrument of rhythm. By treating this continuous stimulation paradigm as a variant of resting-state, the data was analyzed with stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM), which was used for exploring functional dependencies and interactions between core areas of auditory perception, rhythm processing, and reward processing. The sDCM model was a fully connected model with the following areas: auditory cortex, putamen/pallidum, and ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens of both hemispheres. The resulting estimated parameters were compared to ...
In parallel with the auditory afferent system, the auditory efferent system is active in all parts of the auditory pathways from auditory cortex to the cochlea....
In another paper in the journal Experimental Neurology, Kilgard led a team that paired vagus nerve stimulation with audio tones of varying speeds to alter the rate of activity within the rats brains. The team reported that this technique induced neural plasticity within the auditory cortex, which controls hearing.. "Our goal is to use the brains natural neuromodulatory systems to enhance the effectiveness of standard therapies," Dr. Rennaker said.. The UT Dallas researchers are working with a device developed by MicroTransponder, a biotechnology firm affiliated with the University. MicroTransponder currently is testing a vagus nerve stimulation therapy on human patients in Europe in hopes of reducing or eliminating the symptoms of tinnitus, the debilitating disorder often described as "ringing in the ears.". "Understanding how brain networks self-organize themselves is vitally important to developing new ways to rehabilitate patients diagnosed with autism, dyslexia, stroke, schizophrenia and ...
For purposes of electronic evaluation, electrical activity in the speech centre of the brain can be translated in to the subjects verbal thoughts. RNM can send encoded signals to the auditory cortex of the brain directly bypassing the ear. This encoding helps in detecting audio communication. It can also perform electrical mapping of the brains activity from the visual centre of the brain, which it does by bypassing the eyes and optic nerves, thus projecting images from the subjects brain onto a video monitor. With this visual and audio memory, both can be visualised and analysed. This system can, remotely and non-invasively, detect information by digitally decoding the evoked potentials in 30-50Hz, 5 millwatt electromagnetic emissions from the brain. The nerves produce a shifting electrical pattern with a shifting magnetic flux which then puts on a constant amount of electromagnetic waves. There are spikes and patterns which are called evoked potentials in the electromagnetic emission from ...
This week the John D and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation (whose tag line is burned into the auditory cortex of any NPR listener) released the 25 names of
a neural structure that serves as the last of a series of processing centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. ...
Notes: Once this step is complete, you should no longer need Administrative privileges on your computer; you should be able to download Master CPU Firmware, ROBOTC firmware, and ROBOTC programs in a permissions-restricted account. Only future updates to ROBOTC and the VEX Cortex Device Driver will require Administrative privileges. Exception: On some computers, Windows may prompt you to "install new hardware" each time the Cortex is plugged in on a different USB port. To alleviate the issue, connect the updated VEX Cortex on each USB port as an administrator (no need to redownload firmware), or dedicate one USB port for communication with the VEX Cortex. You only need to download the Firmware once, when you first start using a VEX Cortex with ROBOTC, or when you upgrade to a newer version of ROBOTC. You do not need to re-download the firmware every time you want to download code. If the download fails, disconnect the VEX Cortex from your computer and turn it off. Then reconnect it to the ...
Notes: Once this step is complete, you should no longer need Administrative privileges on your computer; you should be able to download Master CPU Firmware, ROBOTC firmware, and ROBOTC programs in a permissions-restricted account. Only future updates to ROBOTC and the VEX Cortex Device Driver will require Administrative privileges. Exception: On some computers, Windows may prompt you to "install new hardware" each time the Cortex is plugged in on a different USB port. To alleviate the issue, connect the updated VEX Cortex on each USB port as an administrator (no need to redownload firmware), or dedicate one USB port for communication with the VEX Cortex. You only need to download the Firmware once, when you first start using a VEX Cortex with ROBOTC, or when you upgrade to a newer version of ROBOTC. You do not need to re-download the firmware every time you want to download code. If the download fails, disconnect the VEX Cortex from your computer and turn it off. Then reconnect it to the ...
13 year old boy. decreased vision symptoms od starting 5 yrs prior, child didnt tell anyone about the symptoms for at least first year. h/o laser by outside eye md. this is a historical case from memory, ?ntravitreat anti-VEGF/ and steroids. complains vision slowly declining, but adsds vision not useful for several years. comes in to get a second opinion. exam od: vision ~20/400, dx: coats with leaking miliary aneurysms. scheduled for laser of angiographically leaking aneurysms, particularly in the supratemporal quadrant ...
The paper develops a simple three-sector model of a developing country with nominal wage rigidity, in which one sector is thought of as the primary sector and the other two are sectors in which the country can diversify. The paper then analyzes the relationship between the market structure of the nonprimary sectors and equilibrium adjustments to shocks in the primary sector. In particular, the paper examines under what conditions the country should promote one nonprimary sector over another. Among other things, it argues that developing countries should promote those sectors that are more integrated with the outside world
Tinnitus affects more than 50 million Americans. There is no cure for chronic tinnitus, but here are a few methods to help minimize its effects.
A new neuroimaging study conducted by researchers from the Montreal Neurological Institute of McGill University and the Université de Montréal at the International laboratory for Brain Music and Sound Research (BRAMS), has found that tone-deaf or amusic individuals have more grey matter in specific regions of the brain related to processing musical pitch, namely the right interior frontal gyrus and the right auditory cortex, as compared to those who are musically intact. The study, published in a recent issue of the prestigious Journal of Neuroscience, sheds light on the neurological basis for congenital amusia. Music, at all times of the year, but especially during the holidays, produces a kind of pleasure which human nature cannot do without, according to Confucius. Unfortunately, for about 4% of the population, music is less pleasure and more cacophony. Congenital amusia, or tone-deafness is a life-long disorder that impairs a persons ability to perceive or produce music, preventing otherwise
Heilbron, M., & Chait, M. (2018). Great expectations: is there evidence for predictive coding in auditory cortex?. Neuroscience ... are gyri found in the area of primary auditory cortex buried within the lateral sulcus of the human brain, occupying Brodmann ... The transverse temporal gyri are active during auditory processing under fMRI for tone and semantic tasks.[2] Transverse ... The role of transverse temporal gyri in auditory processing of tone is demonstrated by a study by Wong, Warrier et. al. (2008 ...
Role of right auditory cortex in fine pitch resolution[edit]. The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated ... in the secondary auditory cortex, and the primary auditory cortex in the medial section of Heschl's gyrus (HG). ... The right auditory cortex is primarily involved in perceiving pitch, and parts of harmony, melody and rhythm.[14] One study by ... Auditory-motor interactions[edit]. Feedforward and feedback interactions[edit]. An auditory-motor interaction may be loosely ...
"Reading and subcortical auditory function". Cerebral Cortex. 19 (11): 2699-707. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhp024. PMC 2758683. PMID ... April 2003). "Auditory and visual automatic attention deficits in developmental dyslexia". Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 16 (2): ... Temple CM (August 2006). "Developmental and acquired dyslexias". Cortex. 42 (6): 898-910. doi:10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70434-9. ... auditory (e.g., reading aloud or mentally "hearing" sounds described), or even the logical intelligence (e.g., considering " ...
Wang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Thomas; Snider, Ross K.; Liang, Li (2005). "Sustained firing in auditory cortex evoked by preferred stimuli ... Square dependence between an auditory stimulus pressure and the firing rate [33] Square Dependence between Auditory Stimulus ... The shape of the firing rate in response to an auditory stimulus pulse [20][21][22][23][24] The Firing Rate has the same shape ... Tommerdahl, M.; Delemos, K. A.; Whitsel, B. L.; Favorov, O. V.; Metz, C. B. (1999-07-01). "Response of anterior parietal cortex ...
In bat auditory cortexEdit. In the auditory system of bats, like in auditory systems of other vertebrates, primary sensory ... This FM-FM sensitive region is only one example of a feature detector in the bat auditory cortex. A CF-CF sensitive region also ... In FM-FM regions of the auditory cortex, Suga et al. (1993) identified combination-sensitive neurons which receive inputs from ... They observed that the cat striate cortex contained more cells than the lateral geniculate, and they reasoned that the cortex ...
"Modified activity of the human auditory cortex during auditory hallucinations". American Journal of Psychiatry. 149 (2): 255- ... McCarthy-Jones, Simon (2012). Hearing voices: the histories, causes, and meanings of auditory verbal hallucinations. Cambridge ... Romme, Marius A.J. (1996). Understanding voices: coping with auditory hallucinations and confusing realities. Runcorn, Cheshire ... Rector, Neil A.; Seeman, Mary V. (September 1992). "Auditory hallucinations in women and men". Schizophrenia Research. 7 (3): ...
"Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex". Nature Neuroscience. 1 (8): 727-731. doi:10.1038 ... it may be due at least partially to the delayed development of the prefrontal cortex in human children.[9][10] Researchers have ... suggested that delayed development of the prefrontal cortex and an associated delay in the development of cognitive control may ...
Increased volume and activation of the left auditory cortex has been observed in people with Williams syndrome, which has been ... Similar sizes of the auditory cortex have been previously reported only in professional musicians. The earliest observable ... Wengenroth, Martina; Blatow, Maria; Bendszus, Martin; Schneider, Peter (2010). "Leftward Lateralization of Auditory Cortex ... Some other strengths that have been associated with Williams syndrome are auditory short-term memory and facial recognition ...
"Spectro-temporal response field characterization with dynamic ripples in ferret primary auditory cortex". J. Neurophysiol. 85 ( ...
"Three-dimensional analysis of spontaneous and thalamically evoked gamma oscillations in auditory cortex". Journal of ... The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... essential for proper cortex lamination and cerebellum development. Its phenotype is similar to the widely researched reeler ...
Pyramidal cells from the primary auditory cortex project directly on to the cochlear nucleus. This is important in the acoustic ... Weedman DL, Ryugo DK (1996). "Projections from auditory cortex to the cochlear nucleus in rats: synapses on granule cell ... In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ... M Manto; C De Zeeuw (2012). "Diversity and Complexity of Roles of Granule Cells in the Cerebellar Cortex". The Cerebellum. 11 ( ...
The primary auditory cortex is located on the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex. This region is important in music ... The medial prefrontal cortex along with the primary auditory cortex has also been implicated in tonality, or determining pitch ... These areas include the primary motor cortex, the Brocas area, the cerebellum, and the primary auditory cortices. The imaging ... The frontal cortex has been found to be involved in processing melodies and harmonies of music. For example, when a patient is ...
... that the primary auditory cortex (A1) was functionally distinct from the auditory association cortex, in that it was void of ... Primary auditory cortex (A1) Superior temporal cortex (STG/STS/PT) Audio visual cross modal interactions are known to occur in ... neural representations of visual stimuli in human auditory cortex correlate with illusory auditory perceptions". PLoS ONE. 8 (9 ... That is, late activation has been observed in the striate cortex, markedly after activation of the prefrontal cortex in ...
... a linguistic auditory signal is first sent from the auditory cortex to Wernicke's area. The lexicon is accessed in Wernicke's ... In addition to dysphasia, anomia and auditory processing disorder can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore ... Hearing problems, such as otitis media with effusion, and listening problems, auditory processing disorders, can lead to ... This is then sent from Broca's area to the motor cortex for articulation.[11] ...
It is then the responsibility of the auditory cortex (AC) of the right hemisphere (on its own) to map the whole auditory scene ... The stream arrives at both the right and left auditory cortices for eventual speech processing by the left hemisphere. In a ... Its caudal and splenium portions contain fibres that originate from the primary and second auditory cortices, and from other ... Aging 33(7), 2012 Tervaniemi M, Hugdahl K; Lateralization of auditory-cortex functions; Brain Research Reviews 43, 2003 Van den ...
Auditory cortex Brodmann area 22. ... of the cytoarchitectonically-defined region of cerebral cortex ...
"Sustained firing in auditory cortex evoked by preferred stimuli". Nature. 435 (7040): 341-346. doi:10.1038/nature03565. PMID ... Square dependence between an auditory stimulus pressure and the firing rate. [33]. Square Dependence between Auditory Stimulus ... The shape of the firing rate in response to an auditory stimulus pulse. [20][21][22][23][24]. The Firing Rate has the same ... Tommerdahl, M.; Delemos, K. A.; Whitsel, B. L.; Favorov, O. V.; Metz, C. B. (1999-07-01). "Response of anterior parietal cortex ...
... on how silent lip-reading activates the auditory cortex [8], in Science, while she was a doctoral student. This finding and her ... Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 11, No. 12, 1110-1123. Osterbauer, R.A., Matthews, P.M., Jenkinson, M., Beckmann, C.F., Hansen, P.C. & ... Calvert, G.A., Campbell, R., Brammer, M.J. (2000) FMRI evidence of crossmodal binding in the human heteromodal cortex. Current ... multisensory representation of limb position in human premotor cortex. Nature Neuroscience. (1):17-8 Calvert, G.A., Bullmore, E ...
Lamminmäki, Satu; Hari, Riitta (2000). "Auditory cortex activation associated with octave illusion". NeuroReport. 11 (7): 1469- ... The octave illusion is an auditory illusion discovered by Diana Deutsch in 1973. It is produced when two tones that are an ... Deutsch, D. (1974). "An auditory illusion". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 55 (S1): S18-S19. doi:10.1121/ ... Deutsch, D. (1981). "The Octave Illusion and Auditory Perceptual Integration. In Tobias, J.V., and Schubert, E.D". Hearing ...
Silent lip reading activates the auditory cortex. When sounds are matched or mismatched with the movements of the lips, ... The ABR, also known as the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) test or auditory brainstem evoked potential (ABEP) test ... The human ear is able to detect differences in pitch through the movement of auditory hair cells found on the basilar membrane ... Specific inhibitory responses that take place in the visual cortex help create a visual focus on a specific point rather than ...
Penhune, V. B.; Zatorre, R. J.; Feindel, W. H. (1999). "The role of auditory cortex in retention of rhythmic patterns in ... Zatorre, R. J.; Halpern, A. R. (2005). "Mental concerts: musical imagery and auditory cortex". Neuron. 47: 9-12. doi:10.1016/j. ... Johnsrude, I. S.; Penhune, V. B.; Zatorre, R. J. (2000). "Functional specificity in the right human auditory cortex for ... Bendor, D.; Wang, X. (2005). "The neuronal representation of pitch in primate auditory cortex". Nature. 436: 1161-1165. doi: ...
Part of the auditory cortex also can represent aspects of speech such as its consonantal features. Mirror neurons have been ... At least some cortical areas neurobiologically active during both sign and vocal speech, such as the auditory cortex, are ... Okada, K.; Hickok, G. (2006). "Left posterior auditory-related cortices participate both in speech perception and speech ... in the auditory cortex". Nature. 397 (6715): 116. Bibcode:1999Natur.397..116N. doi:10.1038/16376. PMID 9923672. Goodale, E.; ...
Belin, P.; Zatorre, R. J.; Lafaille, P.; Ahad, P.; Pike, B. (2000-01-20). "Voice-selective areas in human auditory cortex". ... after the spectrotemporal analysis conducted by the auditory cortex, the STS is responsible for interpretation of vocal input ... Pure auditory agnosia (agnosia without aphasia) is found in a patients who can't identify non-speech sounds such as coughing, ... Phonagnosia is characterized as an inability to recognize familiar voices, while having other auditory abilities. Patients ...
... six tonotopic maps have been identified in the primary auditory cortex. their anatomical locations along the auditory cortex. ... Mar 2004). "Tonotopic organization in human auditory cortex revealed by progressions of frequency sensitivity" (PDF). J ... projects through the vestibulocochlear nerve and associated midbrain structures to the primary auditory cortex via the auditory ... Tonotopy in the auditory system begins at the cochlea, the small snail-like structure in the inner ear that sends information ...
1997). "Activation of auditory cortex during silent lipreading". Science. 276 (5312): 593-6. doi:10.1126/science.276.5312.593. ... 1991 Seeing Speech: visual information from lip movements modifies activity in the human auditory cortex". Neuroscience Letters ... These studies and many more point to a role for vision in the development of sensitivity to (auditory) speech in the first half ... Havy, M., Foroud, A., Fais, L., & Werker, J.F. (in press; online January 26, 2017). The role of auditory and visual speech in ...
Corbetta, M.; Shulman, G.L.; Miezin, F.M. & Petersen, S.E. (1995). "Superior parietal cortex activation during spatial ... Camos, V. & Tillmann, B. (2008). "Discontinuity in the enumeration of sequentially presented auditory and visual stimuli". ... A 2008 study also demonstrated subitizing and counting in auditory perception.[8] Even though the existence of subitizing in ... these findings support the idea that subitizing is a general perceptual mechanism extending to auditory and tactile processing ...
"Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex". Nature Neuroscience. 1 (8): 727-731. doi:10.1038 ... it may be due at least partially to the delayed development of the prefrontal cortex in human children.[9][10] Researchers have ... suggested that delayed development of the prefrontal cortex and an associated delay in the development of cognitive control may ...
... hyperactivity in the auditory cortex and increased functional connectivity between the auditory cortex and cerebellum were ... Surprisingly, the auditory cortex was not detected in this study. This may be due to the fact that most patients in these ... The thalamus, which regulates the flow of sensory information to and from the auditory cortex, has been thought to play a key ... 2009). Auditory attention activates peripheral visual cortex. PLoS One 4:e4645. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004645 ...
Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Werner Mühlnickel, Thomas Elbert, Edward Taub, and Herta Flor ... Reorganization of auditory cortex related to tinnitus might lead to a shift of the tinnitus frequency representation in the ... This study demonstrates that tinnitus is accompanied by a change of the tonotopic map in auditory cortex. Further, it is ... Similar plastic reorganizational changes occur in auditory cortex with increases and decreases in input (27, 28). At this time ...
In mammals, the auditory cortex is thought to be essential for this," says senior study author Dr. Robert C. Liu from the ... to the detection of pup isolation calls by performing electrophysiological recordings from cells in the auditory cortex of ... "We hypothesize that the observed auditory cortical inhibitory plasticity improves pup call detection in the mother mice in a ... "Although previous work with anesthetized animals has examined how cortical excitation can help to improve auditory processing, ...
... muscle overlying the right auditory cortex was removed, and a craniotomy (∼2 × 3 mm) was performed over the auditory cortex, ... Arousal regulates frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex. Pei-Ann Lin, Samuel K. Asinof, Nicholas J. Edwards, Jeffry S. ... Arousal regulates frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex. Pei-Ann Lin, Samuel K. Asinof, Nicholas J. Edwards, Jeffry S. ... Arousal regulates frequency tuning in primary auditory cortex. Pei-Ann Lin, Samuel K. Asinof, Nicholas J. Edwards, and Jeffry S ...
Laminar and columnar auditory cortex in avian brain. Yuan Wang, Agnieszka Brzozowska-Prechtl, and Harvey J. Karten ... Sensory Coding and Sensitivity to Local Estrogens Shift during Critical Period Milestones in the Auditory Cortex of Male ... Norepinephrine Modulates Coding of Complex Vocalizations in the Songbird Auditory Cortex Independent of Local Neuroestrogen ... was placed into individual layers of the telencephalon within the cortical region that is similar to mammalian auditory cortex ...
... which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory ... The auditory cortex plays an important yet ambiguous role in hearing. When the auditory information passes into the cortex, the ... The auditory cortex is divided into three separate parts: the primary, secondary, and tertiary auditory cortex. These ... The right auditory cortex has long been shown to be more sensitive to tonality, while the left auditory cortex has been shown ...
... listening to speech reveal that the acoustic speech signals can be reconstructed from neural activity in auditory cortex. ... Auditory cortex Is the Subject Area "Auditory cortex" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
auditory cortex;. EPSP,. excitatory postsynaptic potential;. LTD,. long-term depression;. LTP,. long-term potentiation;. Pn,. ... Developmental hearing loss eliminates long-term potentiation in the auditory cortex. Vibhakar C. Kotak, Andrew D. Breithaupt, ... Developmental hearing loss eliminates long-term potentiation in the auditory cortex. Vibhakar C. Kotak, Andrew D. Breithaupt, ... Developmental hearing loss eliminates long-term potentiation in the auditory cortex Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
While these spatial periodicities show anisotropy in auditory cortex, they are isotropic in visual cortex, indicating region ... Spatial pattern of intra-laminar connectivity in supragranular mouse auditory cortex.. Watkins PV1, Kao JP2, Kanold PO3. ... The mammalian primary auditory cortex has a tonotopic arrangement at large spatial scales (greater than 300 microns). This ... Here we measure the functional 2-dimensional spatial connectivity pattern of the supragranular auditory cortex on micro-column ...
Generation of spike latency tuning by thalamocortical circuits in auditory cortex.. Zhou Y1, Mesik L, Sun YJ, Liang F, Xiao Z, ... D, Relay of latency tuning from the thalamus to the cortex. Top, Spike latency tuning for individual thalamic neurons defined ... Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings from rat auditory cortical neurons in layer 4 revealed that the onset latency of their ... but can be largely reconstructed by local circuits in the cortex. Dissecting of thalamocortical circuits and neural modeling ...
In discussing parallels between the auditory cortex and the cortical processing of other sensory modalities, we cannot ignore ... Zatorre RJ and Belin P (2001) Spectral and temporal processing in human auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 11:946-953.PubMed ... Heil P and Irvine DRF (1998) The posterior field P of cat auditory cortex: coding of envelope transients. Cerebral Cortex 8:125 ... Fishman YI, Arezzo JC, and Steinschneider M (2004) Auditory stream segregation in monkey auditory cortex: effects of frequency ...
Understanding the functional organization of the human primary auditory cortex (PAC) is an essential step in elucidating the ... Mirror-symmetric tonotopic maps in human primary auditory cortex Neuron. 2003 Nov 13;40(4):859-69. doi: 10.1016/s0896-6273(03) ... Understanding the functional organization of the human primary auditory cortex (PAC) is an essential step in elucidating the ... Here we use silent, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla and a cortex-based analysis of functional ...
... 14.11.2007. The results of a study conducted by ... amplitude of signals measured in the human auditory cortex is increased to the same extent regardless of the type of auditory ... the neurons in the human auditory cortex tune into the frequency band attended to by the subjects. This facilitates the ... indicate that selective attention has significant effects on the activity of the human auditory cortex. ...
... of auditory cortex in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy control subjects while they performed an auditory oddball ... Right auditory cortex difference maps indicated regions where control subjects are greater than patients (orange) and where ... Auditory cortex mean activation maps. Mean activation maps from patients with schizophrenia (blue) and superimposed healthy ... Right auditory cortex discrimination results. Single-subject regional differences for cohort 1 (at University of British ...
Multiple Time Scales of Adaptation in Auditory Cortex Neurons Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Multiple Time Scales of Adaptation in Auditory Cortex Neurons. Nachum Ulanovsky, Liora Las, Dina Farkas and Israel Nelken ... Neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats show strong stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). In probabilistic settings, in ... Auditory thalamus neurons did not show SSA, and their responses were poorly fitted by the same model. In addition, SSA ...
... auditory thalamus (ONeill and Brimijoin, 2002), and the primary auditory cortex (A1) (Suga, 1965b; Mendelson and Cynader, 1985 ... Synaptic Mechanisms of Direction Selectivity in Primary Auditory Cortex. Chang-quan Ye, Mu-ming Poo, Yang Dan and Xiao-hui ... 1985) Sensitivity of cat primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons to the direction and rate of frequency modulation. Brain Res 327: ... 2007) Frequency-modulation encoding in the primary auditory cortex of the awake owl monkey. J Neurophysiol 98:2182-2195. ...
Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex (DYS-AUT). This study has been completed. ... The aim of this study is to compare auditory evoked cortical responses to syllables and tones in developmental dyslexia and ...
... response to tones as a function of intensity was topographically studied with multiple-unit recordings in the primary auditory ... cortex (AI) of barbiturate-anesthetized cats. The spatial... ... and VP in the cat auditory cortex. J Comp Neurol 265: 119-144 ... Primary auditory cortex Intensity Isofrequency domain Topography Cat This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Pattems of axon collateralization of identified supragranular pyramidal neurons in the cat auditory cortex. Cerebral Cortex 1: ...
Neurons firing in the auditory cortex of the brain. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. ... Since calcium levels rise in neurons when they become active, neurons in the mouses auditory cortex glow green when activated ...
Neural Ensemble Codes for Stimulus Periodicity in Auditory Cortex. Jennifer K. Bizley, Kerry M. M. Walker, Andrew J. King, Jan ... Neural Ensemble Codes for Stimulus Periodicity in Auditory Cortex. Jennifer K. Bizley, Kerry M. M. Walker, Andrew J. King, Jan ... Neural Ensemble Codes for Stimulus Periodicity in Auditory Cortex. Jennifer K. Bizley, Kerry M. M. Walker, Andrew J. King and ... Neural Ensemble Codes for Stimulus Periodicity in Auditory Cortex Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Penelope ... Selective memory retrieval of auditory what and auditory where involves the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex ... 1999) Auditory belt and parabelt projections to the prefrontal cortex in the rhesus monkey. J Comp Neurol 403(2):141-157. ... 2000) Mechanisms and streams for processing of "what" and "where" in auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97(22):11800-11806 ...
The primary auditory cortex (PAC) is central to human auditory abilities, yet its location in the brain remains unclear. We ... Human Primary Auditory Cortex Follows the Shape of Heschls Gyrus. Sandra Da Costa, Wietske van der Zwaag, Jose P. Marques, ... Human Primary Auditory Cortex Follows the Shape of Heschls Gyrus. Sandra Da Costa, Wietske van der Zwaag, Jose P. Marques, ... Normal variation in the frequency and location of human auditory cortex landmarks. Heschls gyrus: where is it? Cereb Cortex 8: ...
2005) Dynamics of auditory-vocal interaction in monkey auditory cortex. Cereb Cortex 15:1510-1523. ... Auditory cortex suppression during vocalization has often been attributed to the influence of motor cortex. Eliades et al. have ... The suppression of auditory cortex during vocalization has often been attributed to the influence of motor cortex. Current ... Auditory responses across subjects. To assess auditory cortex responses to speech during listening and production we first ...
... auditory cortex include Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI, Mapping the After- ... Stereotactically-guided Ablation of the Rat Auditory Cortex, and Localization of the Lesion in the Brain, High Resolution ... effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging, ... an Auditory Attention Example, Behavioral Determination of Stimulus Pair Discrimination of Auditory Acoustic and Electrical ...
  • Recently, it has been suggested that if a critical period does exist, it may be due at least partially to the delayed development of the prefrontal cortex in human children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have suggested that delayed development of the prefrontal cortex and an associated delay in the development of cognitive control may facilitate convention learning, allowing young children to learn language far more easily than cognitively mature adults and older children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic tinnitus patients have disrupted FC strength and causal connectivity mostly in non-auditory regions, especially the prefrontal cortex (PFC). (frontiersin.org)
  • Unidirectionally, the left SFG revealed increased effective connectivity to the left middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left posterior lobe of cerebellum (PLC), left postcentral gyrus, and right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) while the right SFG exhibited enhanced effective connectivity to the right supplementary motor area (SMA). (frontiersin.org)
  • This parallelism suggests the existence of a general mechanism that operates early in the processing stream on the abstract statistics of the auditory input, and is putatively related to the processes of constructing a new representation or detecting a deviation from a previously acquired model of the auditory scene. (jneurosci.org)
  • In a number of cases, brain areas are organized into topographic maps, where adjoining bits of the cortex correspond to adjoining parts of the body, or of some more abstract entity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual dimorphism within the auditory cortex can be seen in humans between males in females through the planum temporale, encompassing Wernicke's region, for the platnum temporale within males has been observed to have a larger platinum temporale volume on average, reflecting previous studies discussing interactions between sex hormones and asymmetrical brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe hearing loss is known to affect auditory processing in humans. (pnas.org)
  • These cellular mechanisms may serve as a substrate for use-dependent alteration of coding properties in the auditory cortex of adult and developing animals, including humans ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Similar time scales are known for the auditory memory span of humans, as measured both psychophysically and using evoked potentials. (jneurosci.org)
  • This SSA might play a role in stream segregation and in binding of auditory objects over many time scales, a property that is crucial for processing of natural auditory scenes in cats and of speech and music in humans. (jneurosci.org)
  • The early visual cortex hasn't previously been known to process auditory information, and while there is some anatomical evidence of interconnectedness in monkeys, our study is the first to clearly show a relationship in humans. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The goal of the present study was to determine whether the architectonic criteria used to identify the core, lateral belt, and parabelt auditory cortices in macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) could be used to identify homologous regions in humans (Homo sapiens). (mysciencework.com)
  • Current evidence indicates that auditory cortex in humans, as in monkeys, is located on the superior temporal gyrus (STG), and is functionally and structurally altered in illnesses such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. (mysciencework.com)
  • Serial reconstructions of the auditory cortex in humans were made showing the location of the lateral belt and parabelt with respect to gross anatomical landmarks. (mysciencework.com)
  • Humans retain a relatively strong auditory image for details in pitch, which can be improved with musical training. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaining an understanding of how to change the deficiencies in these animals can help lead to changes in the future for humans with auditory arrhythmia and other serious psychiatric disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poster presented at 3rd International Conference on Auditory Cortex (AC 2009), Magdeburg, Germany. (mpg.de)
  • In 2003 Scheich instigated the conference series International Conference on Auditory Cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information processing in the sensory cortex is modulated by changes in behavioral states such as those associated with arousal, attention, or task engagement ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Imig TJ, Adrian HO (1977) Binaural columns in the primary field (AI) of auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Dichotic listening tests are widely used to assess individuals for binaural integration, a type of auditory processing skill. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amblyaudia is a deficit in binaural integration of environmental information entering the auditory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binaural fusion or binaural integration is a cognitive process that involves the "fusion" of different auditory information presented binaurally, or to each ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binaural auditory system is highly dynamic and capable of rapidly adjusting tuning properties depending on the context in which sounds are heard. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the olfactory domain, different scents are piped to the two nostrils, while in the auditory domain, researchers often examine the effects of binaural sequences of pure tones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of this hypothesis, previous studies have shown that slow temporal features (3-5 Hz) in nonspeech acoustic signals lateralize to right-hemisphere auditory areas, whereas rapid temporal features (20-50 Hz) lateralize to the left hemisphere. (jneurosci.org)
  • The recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals also indicated that the auditory cortices were able to discriminate between the applied 180 Hz and 250 Hz vibration frequencies. (nih.gov)
  • These projections may allow diverse auditory signals to act on common ensembles of amygdaloid neurons and may therefore play a role in the integration of sensory messages leading to emotional reactions. (nih.gov)
  • In natural auditory environments, speech signals can be subjected to various kinds of external, "additive" distortions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When sound waves reach the ears, the energy they contain is converted into electrical signals, which are sent via the auditory nerves to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some patients with unilateral auditory verbal agnosia, there is evidence that the ability to acoustically process speech signals is affected at the prephonemic level, preventing the conversion of these signals into phonemes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An oversimplification of its role is to state that it: checks to ensure odor signals arose from actual odors rather than villi irritation, regulates motor behavior (primarily social and stereotypical) brought on by odors, integrates auditory and olfactory sensory info to complete the aforementioned tasks, and plays a role in transmitting positive signals to reward sensors (and is thus involved in addiction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the signals sent to the central auditory nervous system are representative of this complete picture, integrated information from both ears instead of a single ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • This highly varied strip of epithelial cells allows for transduction of auditory signals into nerve impulses' action potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The function of the organ of Corti is to transduce auditory signals and maximize the hair cells' extraction of sound energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal hearing subjects, the majority of the auditory signals that reach the organ of Corti in the first place come from the outer ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the auditory cortex are organized according to the frequency of sound to which they respond best. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, in vivo whole-cell recordings from rat auditory cortical neurons in layer 4 revealed that the onset latency of their aggregate thalamic input exhibited nearly flat tuning for sound frequency, whereas their spike latency tuning was much sharper with a broadly expanded dynamic range. (nih.gov)
  • Bitterman Y, Mukamel R, Malach R, Fried I, and Nelken I (2008) Ultra-fine frequency tuning revealed in single neurons of human auditory cortex. (springer.com)
  • Contrary to previous findings, the results of this study indicate that during selective attention, in addition to signal amplification, the neurons in the human auditory cortex tune into the frequency band attended to by the subjects. (innovations-report.com)
  • Here, normal hearing younger (20-31 years) and older participants (49-63 years) underwent a psychophysical notched noise experiment to estimate individual auditory filters, and an EEG experiment to investigate frequency-specific adaptation in auditory cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Our previous pharmacological studies on cortex-dependent frequency-modulated tone-sweep discrimination learning of Mongolian gerbils showed that auditory-cortical D 1/5 -dopamine receptor activity facilitates memory consolidation and anterograde memory formation. (nih.gov)
  • Calford, M.B., Rajan, R. and Irvine, D.R.F. 1993 Rapid changes in the frequency tuning of neurons in cat auditory cortex resulting from pure-tone-induced temporary threshold shift. (springer.com)
  • The effect of egocentric selection is apparently different between the two species of bats studied and, perhaps, between different portions of a frequency map of the central auditory system of the mustached bat, reflecting the shape and sharpness of frequency-tuning curves. (umn.edu)
  • Previous studies in the auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils on discrimination learning of the direction of frequency-modulated tones (FMs) revealed that long-term memory formation involves activation of the dopaminergic system, activity of the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and protein synthesis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By filtering the tinnitus frequency from the music the frequency profile of a song is changed affecting the reactions induced in certain areas of the auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In areas that are tonotopically organized, the frequency varies systematically from low to high along the surface of the cortex, but is relatively constant across cortical depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In two studies published today (May 24) in Neuron, researchers demonstrate that ultrasound activates the brains of rodents by stimulating an auditory response-not, as researchers had presumed, only the specific neurons where the ultrasound is focused. (the-scientist.com)
  • The cortex then filters and passes on the information to the dual stream model of speech processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human auditory cortex is engaged in monitoring the speech of interlocutors as well as self-generated speech. (jneurosci.org)
  • During speech production we continuously monitor our own voice and compensate for changes in auditory feedback ( Levelt, 1983 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, delaying a speaker's auditory feedback will disrupt fluent speech production ( Yates, 1963 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Although speech suppression in human auditory cortex is well accepted, the temporal dynamics of suppression and its stability at the level of single-trials remains unknown. (jneurosci.org)
  • A significant challenge in auditory neuroscience is to understand how speech and other natural sounds are analyzed and encoded in the auditory cortex of the human brain. (umd.edu)
  • The goal of Simon's research program is to understand how acoustic modulations, the building blocks of speech and other natural sounds are encoded in the auditory cortex. (umd.edu)
  • Cortical analysis of speech has long been considered the domain of left-hemisphere auditory areas. (jneurosci.org)
  • Right-hemisphere auditory cortex was 100% more accurate in following contours of the speech envelope and had a 33% larger response magnitude while following the envelope compared with the left hemisphere. (jneurosci.org)
  • Results provide evidence that the right hemisphere plays a specific and important role in speech processing and support the hypothesis that acoustic processing of speech involves the decomposition of the signal into constituent temporal features by rate-specialized neurons in right- and left-hemisphere auditory cortex. (jneurosci.org)
  • A recent hypothesis, called the "asymmetric sampling in time" (AST) hypothesis, has challenged the classical model by proposing that acoustical processing of speech occurs bilaterally in auditory cortex based on the component rates inherent to the speech signal ( Poeppel, 2003 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • A prediction of the AST hypothesis is that slow acoustic features in speech are processed in right-hemisphere auditory areas regardless of left-dominant asymmetries for language processing. (jneurosci.org)
  • How the human auditory system extracts perceptually relevant acoustic features of speech is unknown. (cryptogon.com)
  • In this study, natural speech sentences and sounds containing speech-like temporal dynamic features are employed to probe the human auditory system. (umd.edu)
  • In the context of speech, existing data suggest an interaction between auditory and speech-motor cortices, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. (sciencemag.org)
  • First, using magnetoencephalography, we measure synchronization between auditory and speech-motor regions while participants listen to syllables at various rates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Time zero is the auditory speech onset. (elifesciences.org)
  • The auditory imagery developed from lyrics or words generally is also considered a part of inner speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pure auditory agnosia (agnosia without aphasia) is found in a patients who can't identify non-speech sounds such as coughing, whistling, and crying but have no deficit in speech comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, Carl Wernicke, after whom Wernicke's area is named, proposed that different areas of the brain were specialized for different linguistic tasks, with Broca's area handling the motor production of speech, and Wernicke's area handling auditory speech comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within this, her research covers the roles of streams of processing in auditory cortex, hemispheric asymmetries, and the interaction of speech processing with attentional and working memory factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auditory verbal agnosia (AVA), also known as pure word deafness, is the inability to comprehend speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • The maintenance of the ability to process non-speech auditory information, including music, also remains relatively more intact than spoken language comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients with (nonverbal) auditory agnosia have a relatively more intact speech comprehension system despite their impaired recognition of nonspeech sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite an inability to comprehend speech, patients with auditory verbal agnosia typically retain the ability to hear and process non-speech auditory information, speak, read and write. (wikipedia.org)
  • Andersen RA, Knight PL, Merzenich MM (1980) The thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections of AI, AII and the anterior auditory field (AAF) in the cat: evidence for two largely segregated systems of connections. (springer.com)
  • The auditory cortex's function may help explaining why particular brain damage leads to particular outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurons of the auditory cortex of the brain are able to respond to pitch. (wikidoc.org)
  • Simon will use MEG and extracellular recording in complementary ways, to investigate how temporal modulations are encoded by the auditory cortex in the brain. (umd.edu)
  • Max Planck Research Group 'Auditory Cognition', Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers also found that the rodents' neurons showed comparable electrical activity in the auditory cortex regardless of where in the brain the researchers directed the ultrasound. (the-scientist.com)
  • This vibration then triggers auditory signaling and indirectly activates the auditory cortex and other brain regions, rather than ultrasound having a direct effect on the activity of the neurons. (the-scientist.com)
  • We find organised structures and patterns everywhere, with columnar and layered design being a hallmark of brain cortex. (bl.uk)
  • Results were related to architectonic subdivisions of auditory cortex in brain sections cut parallel to the surface of artificially flattened cortex (four cases) or cut in the coronal plane (one case). (nih.gov)
  • The vividness and detail of auditory imagery can vary from person-to-person depending on their background and condition of their brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sounds and noise in the surrounding environment is heard by the auditory system but only certain parts of the auditory information are processed in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segregation is the separation of important auditory messages and the unwanted information in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Information about the right auditory hemifield joins with the information about the left hemifield once it has passed through the corpus callosum (CC) - the brain white matter that connects homologous regions of the left and right hemispheres. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tonotopy in the auditory system begins at the cochlea, the small snail-like structure in the inner ear that sends information about sound to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • His main research interests are brain asymmetry and dichotic listening, cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, and neurobiology of auditory hallucinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also demonstrated that while the insular cortex plays a major role in feelings, it is not necessary for feelings to occur, suggesting that brain stem structures play a basic role in the feeling process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listening and playing music helps both of these areas of the brain to develop more, which was found to be correlated to having an improves auditory imagery in many performers in a study conducted at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, studies have shown that the entorhinal cortex may gate areas of the medial PFC, thereby inhibiting them from projecting to other brain areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amblyaudia is diagnosed when the scores from the two ears are significantly different with the individual's dominant ear score much higher than the score in the non-dominant ear Researchers interested in understanding the neurophysiological underpinnings of amblyaudia consider it to be a brain based hearing disorder that may be inherited or that may result from auditory deprivation during critical periods of brain development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "lazy ear" has been used to describe amblyaudia although it is currently not known whether it stems from deficits in the auditory periphery (middle ear or cochlea) or from other parts of the auditory system in the brain, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • This strengthening is due to new connections that are formed to brain cortices that no longer receive sensory input. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of auditory agnosia is caused by lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, specifically the temporal lobes and Wernicke's area. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of auditory agnosia is caused by lesions to the right hemisphere of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • His condition was very rare because auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds is usually associated with the right side of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could also reduce nociception, thermoception, and crude touch, but, since information from the spinothalamic tract is interpreted mainly by other areas of the brain (see insular cortex and cingulate gyrus), it is not as relevant as the other symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The auditory cortex in the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for processing beat and rhythm in music. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suga's work revealed much about the location and function of auditory system in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • the auditory brain analyzes and compares movements of both eardrums to extract physical cues and synthesize auditory objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phonagnosia is an auditory agnosia, an acquired auditory processing disorder resulting from brain damage, other auditory agnosias include cortical deafness and auditory verbal agnosia also known as pure word deafness. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most widely used schemes came from Korbinian Brodmann, who split the cortex into 52 different areas and assigned each a number (many of these Brodmann areas have since been subdivided). (wikipedia.org)
  • These nuclei extend to relay cells, which in turn innervate distinct areas of the cortex via thalamocortical fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Either specifically or nonspecifically, TC relay cells project specifically to organized areas of the cortex directly and nonspecifically project to large areas of cortex through the innervation of many interconnected collateral axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thalamocortical signaling is primarily excitatory, causing the activation of corresponding areas of the cortex, but is mainly regulated by inhibitory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Priebe and Ferster, 2008 ), whether it operates in the auditory cortex is unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although often denoted as sensory integration, the exact function of these multisensory influences is unclear, and it remains to be shown whether they actually make the auditory neurons more reliable or informative about the acoustic environment. (mpg.de)
  • It is possible that abnormal auditory input during the first two years of life may increase a child's risk for amblyaudia, although the precise relationship between deprivation timing and development of amblyaudia is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)