Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-340. B. J. Gantz, C. Turner, and K. E. Gfeller, "Acoustic plus ... The concept of combining simultaneous electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) for the purposes of better hearing was first ... For receiving sound) Cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brain stem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs) are ... provided the first detailed description of directly stimulation the auditory nerve in a human subject. The individuals ...
Hilali, S.; Whitfield, I. C. (October 1953). "Responses of the trapezoid body to acoustic stimulation with pure tones". The ... Attempts to electrically record from the auditory nerve began as early as 1896. Electrodes were placed into the auditory nerve ... When groups of auditory neurons are presented with harmonics, each neuron fires at one frequency and when combined, the entire ... It has been seen that when being played a pure tone, auditory nerve fibers will fire at the same frequency as the tone. Volley ...
... electric acoustic stimulation hearing implant systems and auditory brainstem implants. The company is headquartered in ...
... following acoustic stimulation. Using acoustic stimuli to activate the MOC reflex pathway, recordings have been made from ... These studies have measured the output of the auditory nerve (AN), with and without OCB stimulation. In 1956, Galambos ... Cody and Johnstone (1982) and Rajan and Johnstone (1988a; 1988b) showed that constant acoustic stimulation (which evokes a ... GALAMBOS, R. (Sep 1956). "Suppression of auditory nerve activity by stimulation of efferent fibers to cochlea" (PDF). J ...
... how automatic predictions about upcoming auditory events can be generated on the basis of regular environmental stimulation. ... Due to this mechanism, for example, incoming acoustic stimuli can be processed with astonishing speed as when comprehending ... Likewise, the specific processing of self-induced auditory stimuli-stimuli that a person creates by means of its own behavior- ... Bendixen, A., Grimm, S., Deouell, L. Y., Wetzel, N., Mädebach, A., & Schröger, E. (2010). The time-course of auditory and ...
Townsend GL, Cody DTR (1971). The averaged inion response evoked by acoustic stimulation: its relation to the saccule. Ann Otol ... Vestibular system Electrophysiology Evoked potential Auditory evoked potential Visual evoked potential Auditory brainstem ... VsEP assesses the non-auditory portions of the labyrinth and requires kinematic stimuli (i.e. motion) instead of sound stimuli ... Rosengren SM, Todd NPM, Colebatch JG (2005). Vestibular-evoked extraocular potentials produced by stimulation with bone- ...
"Stimulated acoustic emissions from within the human auditory system". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 64 (5 ... In the absence of external stimulation, the activity of the cochlear amplifier increases, leading to the production of sound. ... Auditory brainstem response Entoptic phenomenon Maryanne Amacher, a composer who used this phenomenon in her music Pure tone ... Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE)s are sounds that are emitted from the ear without external stimulation and are ...
... are sounds that are heard without any external acoustic stimulation. Endaural means "in the ear". Phenomena ... Endaural phenomena also need to be distinguished from auditory hallucinations, which are sometimes associated with psychosis. ...
Auditory brainstem implant Bone-anchored hearing aid Bone conduction Brain implant Ear trumpet Electric Acoustic Stimulation ... A 2015 literature review on the use of CI for people with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder found that description and ... Cochlear implants bypass most of the peripheral auditory system which receives sound and converts that sound into movements of ... Harrison RV, Gordon KA, Papsin BC, Negandhi J, James AL (2015). "Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) and cochlear ...
... and an electronic recording device to measure nystagmus evoked by procedures such as caloric stimulation of the ear Acoustic ... audiometry Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a neurologic tests of auditory brainstem function in response to auditory ( ... Tympanometry Acoustic reflex thresholds (ART) Acoustic reflectometry wide-band absorbance audiometry also called 3D ... to send nerve impulses to the central auditory processing areas of the brain, the auditory cortex, where sound is perceived and ...
Phonemic Restoration with Simulations of Cochlear Implants and Combined Electric-Acoustic Stimulation". Journal of the ... The effect occurs when missing phonemes in an auditory signal are replaced with a masking noise, resulting in the brain filling ... Neurally, the signs of interrupted or stopped speech can be suppressed in the thalamus and auditory cortex, possibly as a ... Key aspects of the speech signal itself are considered to be resolved somewhere in the interface between auditory and language- ...
FAY, R. R., & POPPER, A. N. (1974). Acoustic stimulation of the ear of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of ... Ladich, F., & Fay, R. R. (2013). Auditory evoked potential audiometry in fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 23(3), ...
The acoustic reflex (also known as the stapedius reflex, middle-ear-muscles (MEM) reflex, attenuation reflex, or auditory ... The protection of the organ of Corti, provided by the acoustic reflex against excessive stimulation (especially that of the ... the auditory nerve, brain stem, facial nerve and other components. Consequently, the absence of an acoustic reflex, by itself, ... the acoustic reflex is able to play a role against auditory fatigue. Moreover, the full tension of the stapedius muscle cannot ...
Both are auditory evoked potentials. Both use acoustic stimuli delivered through inserts (preferably). Both can be used to ... "Auditory Brainstem and Cortical Potentials Following Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Stimulation". Journal of Neuroscience Methods. ... The auditory structures that generate the auditory brainstem response are believed to be as follows: Wave I through III - ... Auditory steady state response is an auditory evoked potential, elicited with modulated tones that can be used to predict ...
Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-340. Skarzynski H, Lorens A, Piotrowska A, Anderson I (2006). ... Ipsilateral Electric Acoustic Stimulation of the Auditory System: Results of Long-Term Hearing Preservation. Audiology & ... above 1 kHz can be beyond the range of amplification possible via acoustic stimulation. Electric stimulation (CI), on the other ... Electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) is the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant together in the same ear. The hearing ...
In the IC, acoustic cues have been processed and filtered into separate streams, forming the basis of auditory object ... When stimulation from a sound reaches the ear, the eardrum deflects in a mechanical fashion, and the three middle ear bones ( ... Sound segregation refers the ability to identify acoustic components from one or more sound sources. The binaural auditory ... The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ...
Rhythmic auditory stimulation as entrainment and therapy technique in gait of stroke and Parkinson's disease patients. In Pratt ... They may also adjust frequency to synchronize with the periodic vibration of external acoustic or visual stimuli. The activity ... Musical auditory stimulation has also been demonstrated to improve immune function, facilitate relaxation, improve mood, and ... Thaut, M.H., Schleiffers, S., and Davis, W.B., Changes in EMG patterns under the influence of auditory rhythm. In Spintge, R. ...
... the sensory inner hair cells and electrically-motile outer hair cells of the organ of Corti and during acoustic stimulation ... Of these the limbal zone is the thinnest (transversally) and overlies the auditory teeth of Huschke with its inside edge ... However, recent genetic , mechanical and mathematical studies have highlighted the importance of the TM for healthy auditory ...
... a technique of recording electrical potentials generated in the inner ear and auditory nerve in response to sound stimulation, ... The flow of ions generates an AC current through the hair cell surface, at the same frequency as the acoustic stimulus. This ... The auditory nerve action potential is the most widely studied component in ECochG. The AP represents the summed response of ... Auditory stimuli in the form of broadband clicks 100 microseconds in duration are used. The stimulus polarity can be ...
The Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD) is an acoustic hailing device developed by LRAD Corporation to send messages and warning ... Personnel Halting and Stimulation Response, or PHaSR, is a non-lethal hand-held weapon developed by the United States Air Force ... Extra-aural (unrelated to hearing) bioeffects on various internal organs and the central nervous system included auditory ... The personnel halting and stimulation response rifle (PHASR) is a prototype non-lethal laser dazzler developed by the Air Force ...
Excitatory acoustic input comes from auditory nerve fibers and also from stellate cells of the VCN. Acoustic input is also ... Inferior colliculus - Contralateral stimulation. Periolivary nuclei (PON) - Ipsilateral and contralateral stimulation. Lateral ... By distributing acoustic input to multiple types of principal cells, the auditory pathway is subdivided into parallel ascending ... In contrast with the VCN that receives all acoustic input from the auditory nerve, the DCN receives input not only from the ...
Acoustic stimuli are received by the auditive organ and are converted to bioelectric signals on the organ of Corti. These ... Auditory perception is practically intact, and speech generation is maintained. Patients with this disorder will be aware of ... Children from lower socioeconomic statuses who receive less cognitive stimulation from their environment are at a greater ... Early auditory processing and word recognition take place in inferior temporal areas ("what" pathway), where the signal arrives ...
Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory. 1. Academic Press. p. 412. no one claims yet to have determined 'the' mel scale. John C ... paper Handbook for Acoustic Ecology Bark scale Mel-frequency cepstrum Fletcher-Munson curves. ... Steinberg (1937). "Positions of stimulation in the cochlea by pure tones". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 8 (3 ... Some non-mel auditory-frequency-scale formulas use the same form but with much lower break frequency, not necessarily mapping ...
Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic reflex, ... The cause of vestibular migraines is currently unclear; however, one hypothesized cause is that the stimulation of the ... In addition, lesions of the internal auditory canal may be associated with facial weakness on the same side. Due to a rapid ... Individuals with vestibular neuritis do not typically have auditory symptoms but may experience a sensation of aural fullness ...
Brainstem implant Auditory prosthesis that bypasses the cochlea and auditory nerve. This type of implant helps individuals who ... Neural stimulation To activate or energize a nerve through an external source. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF-1 von ... Also see acoustic neurinoma. Neurogenic communication disorder Inability to exchange information with others because of hearing ... Auditory perception Ability to identify, interpret, and attach meaning to sound. Auditory prosthesis Device that substitutes or ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... Chen C-J, Dai Y-T, Sun Y-M, Lin Y-C, Juang Y-J. Evaluation of Auditory Fatigue in Combined Noise, Heat and Workload Exposure. ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ... As with any type of hearing-related disorder, the related physiology is within the ear and central auditory system. With ...
Here, we show the effects of focal conditioning of the primary auditory cortex (FCAI) on auditory brainstem response (ABR) ... Thus, our comprehensive ABR approach confirms the role of the auditory cortex as instructor of lower auditory levels and ... Here, we show the effects of focal conditioning of the primary auditory cortex (FCAI) on auditory brainstem response (ABR) ... Thus, our comprehensive ABR approach confirms the role of the auditory cortex as instructor of lower auditory levels and ...
Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivi ... This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric ... Electric Stimulation / methods. Electrodes, Implanted. Guinea Pigs. Homeostasis. Noise*. Perceptual Masking. Grant Support. ... This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric ...
Eii) Population data showing the threshold EPSP during spontaneous activity and acoustic stimulation at the units CF for ... Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments.. Keine ... Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments ... Inhibition in the auditory brainstem enhances signal representation and regulates gain in complex acoustic environments ...
Microelectrode recordings were used to investigate the tonotopic organization of auditory cortex of macaque monkeys and guide ... Acoustic Stimulation * Animals * Auditory Cortex / anatomy & histology * Auditory Cortex / enzymology * Auditory Cortex / ... Tonotopic organization, architectonic fields, and connections of auditory cortex in macaque monkeys J Comp Neurol. 1993 Sep 15; ... Microelectrode recordings were used to investigate the tonotopic organization of auditory cortex of macaque monkeys and guide ...
The representation of frequency was mapped in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of C57BL/6J (C57) mice during young adulthood ( ... Acoustic Stimulation * Aging / physiology * Animals * Auditory Cortex / physiopathology* * Brain Mapping * Evoked Potentials, ... Plasticity of auditory cortex associated with sensorineural hearing loss in adult C57BL/6J mice J Comp Neurol. 1993 Mar 15;329( ... The representation of frequency was mapped in the primary auditory cortex (AI) of C57BL/6J (C57) mice during young adulthood ( ...
The spontaneous rate of this cell in the absence of acoustic stimulation was less than one spike per second. Figure 7C is ... although the binaural auditory cues available in the acoustic sound field are miniscule. Almost all of the acoustic afferents ... Physiology of the Auditory Afferents in an Acoustic Parasitoid Fly Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Physiology of the Auditory Afferents in an Acoustic Parasitoid Fly. Michael L. Oshinsky and Ronald R. Hoy ...
We also found that blocking inhibition unmasked visual responses of some auditory neurons in cross-modal AC. Overall, our data ... In previous research, we found that auditory cortical tuning and tonotopy were impaired by cross-modal invasion of visual ... and postsynaptic changes in inhibitory connectivity in ferret auditory cortex (AC) after cross-modal plasticity. We found that ... the effectiveness of the abnormal visual inputs and argue that decreased inhibition is not responsible for compromised auditory ...
Acoustic stimulation and recording protocol.. Acoustic stimuli were built in Matlab, converted to analog signals (DA3-2/RP-2; ... An interesting response property of auditory neurons that can be observed at various levels of the auditory pathway, but is ... 2002) in Integrative functions in the mammalian auditory pathway, The inferior colliculus: a hub for the central auditory ... temporal discharge patterns evoked by acoustic stimulation with pure tones and broadband noise, and spontaneous activity. ...
Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-340. B. J. Gantz, C. Turner, and K. E. Gfeller, "Acoustic plus ... The concept of combining simultaneous electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS) for the purposes of better hearing was first ... For receiving sound) Cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brain stem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs) are ... provided the first detailed description of directly stimulation the auditory nerve in a human subject. The individuals ...
The application of a classical fear conditioning behavioral paradigm for auditory prosthetic research in rats is described. ... Lim, H. H. Auditory Cortical Responses to Electrical Stimulation of the Inferior Colliculus: Implications for an Auditory ... Nonetheless, the risk of developing specificity to acoustic rather than neural stimulation is present. The use of band-pass ... Morgan, S. J., Paolini, A. G. Behavioral Determination of Stimulus Pair Discrimination of Auditory Acoustic and Electrical ...
Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation. Jeanne. Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: ... Theme Auditory Perception. Research on auditory perception at the LMA aims to understand how sound signals are processed by the ... Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation A majority of hearing impaired people suffers from social isolation because they ... human auditory system. This interdisciplinary research is at the boundary of Psychoacoustics, Neuroscience, Audiology, ...
Selective attention to speech versus nonspeech signals in complex auditory input could produce top-down modulation of cortical ... Acoustic Stimulation / methods. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Attention / physiology*. Brain Mapping*. Decision Making / ... Auditory Words A set of 256 different auditory words, each belonging to 1 of 32 rhyme "families" (example of a rhyme family: ... Electrophysiological studies of the human auditory cortex have revealed that selective auditory attention to concurrent sounds ...
... the major component of the late auditory evoked response, were measured during rapidly successive presentation of acoustic ... We tested the hypothesis that: (i) the amplitude of the N1m response and (ii) its decrement during rapid stimulation are ... To assess rapid auditory processing in the left auditory cortex, the amplitude and decrement of the N1m peak, ... These results suggest that neuronal and membrane functions are important for rapid auditory processing. This investigation ...
Acoustic stimulus generation and presentation. Both acoustic stimulation and electrophysiological measurements were collected ... on the back of the animal and the acoustic stimulation was presented in front of the subject 1 m away from its auditory meati ( ... auditory brainstem response. AEP. auditory evoked potentials. EFR. envelope following response. FFT. fast Fourier transform. r. ... 4A) was used to estimate the response of the subject to the acoustic stimulation. For each frequency, the peak responses at ...
C. A. von Ilberg, U. Baumann, J. Kiefer, J. Tillein, and O. F. Adunka, "Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system: a ... C. von Ilberg, J. Kiefer, J. Tillein et al., "Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. New technology for severe ... C. Von Ilberg, J. Kiefer, J. Tillein et al., "Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. New technology for severe ... W. K. Gstoettner, P. van de Heyning, A. Fitzgerald OConnor et al., "Electric acoustic stimulation of the auditory system: ...
Sensory stimulationLearning, Psychology ofAuditory perceptionListeningEducation. 3. Behavioral and neural selectivity for ... acoustic signatures of vocalizations So, Lam Tsz Nina. 2019. Theses. NeurosciencesBioacousticsSound production by animals ... SongbirdsAuditory perceptionNeurophysiologyDevelopmental neurophysiologyCommunicationNeurosciences. 2. How the Listener Half of ... 1. Influences of behavioral state and developmental vocal learning on neural coding in the songbird auditory system ...
2010). Acoustic stimulation of human medial olivocochlear efferents reduces stimulus-frequency and click-evoked otoacoustic ... Zhao, W., and Dhar, S. (2010). The effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. J. Assoc ... Ferber-Viart, C., Duclaux, R., Collet, L., and Guyonnard, F. (1995). Influence of auditory stimulation and visual attention on ... Harrison, W. A., and Burns, E. M. (1993). Effects of contralateral acoustic stimulation on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. J ...
Apparatus and method for combined acoustic mechanical and electrical auditory stimulation. US6259951 *. May 12, 2000. Jul 10, ... and that no synergetic effects between acoustic and electric stimulation is available. Electro-acoustic synergetic effects may ... Single channel auditory stimulation system. US4573994 *. Dec 7, 1981. Mar 4, 1986. The Johns Hopkins University. Refillable ... Method and apparatus for electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. US5458631 *. Mar 22, 1994. Oct 17, 1995. Xavier; Ravi. ...
Auditory Loss and Deafness Clinical Research Trial Listings in Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose, Throat) Pediatrics/Neonatology on ... Auditory Nerve Monitoring Using Intra-cochlear Stimulation in Subjects With Acoustic Neuroma ... Auditory Loss and Deafness Clinical Trials. A listing of Auditory Loss and Deafness medical research trials actively recruiting ... For patients without a functioning auditory nerve, there is an auditory brainstem implant (ABI), which is placed on the surface ...
Electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. ORL 61:334-340. Skarzynski H, Lorens A, Piotrowska A, Anderson I (2006). ... Ipsilateral Electric Acoustic Stimulation of the Auditory System: Results of Long-Term Hearing Preservation. Audiology & ... above 1 kHz can be beyond the range of amplification possible via acoustic stimulation. Electric stimulation (CI), on the other ... Electric acoustic stimulation (EAS) is the use of a hearing aid and a cochlear implant together in the same ear. The hearing ...
Recovery of the auditory threshold after strong acoustic stimulation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 24:131-141. ... Auditory fatigue in individuals having sustained an acoustic trauma (authors transl)]. Annales dOto-Laryngologie et de ... Patterns of hair cell damage after intense auditory stimulation. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology 78:1144-1168. ... Acute and chronic effects of acoustic trauma: Cochlear pathology and auditory nerve pathophysiology. In: Hamernik RP, Henderson ...
Acoustic stimulation. Source: http://media-2.web.britannica.com/. Auditory Pathway. Figure 3: Illustration of auditory pathway ... Cochlear implants: Bimodal Fitting is a combination of two different amplifications (electrical and acoustic stimulation) in ... and spiral ganglion cells which then convert acoustic signals into electrical signals and it go through the auditory system to ... A cochlear implant sends electrical signals to spiral ganglion cells and this electrical transmission go through auditory ...
Auditory Nerve Monitoring Using Intra-cochlear Stimulation in Subjects With Acoustic Neuroma. *Hearing Loss, Cochlear ... Subtotal Resection of Large Acoustic Neuromas With Possible Stereotactic Radiation Therapy. *Neuroma, Acoustic ... Evaluating the Pre-Positioning Frame for Robotic Acoustic Neuroma Removal Surgery. *Acoustic Neuroma ... Also searched for Vestibular schwannoma and Acoustic neuroma. See Search Details. Applied Filters: Recruiting Not yet ...
Activation of auditory neurons in response to an auditory stimulus applied at 80° and 1.1 kHz with intensity E0a = 17 (a) and ... The model includes auditory neurons coding both for the spatial and spectral features of the auditory stimuli and mimicking ... The model includes auditory neurons coding both for the spatial and spectral features of the auditory stimuli and mimicking ... fig4: Activation of auditory neurons in response to an auditory stimulus applied at 80° and 1.1 kHz with intensity E0a = 17 (a ...
Early Acoustic Evoked Potentials.-Somatosensory Evoked Potentials.-Transcranial magnetic stimulation.-Laser evoked potentials.- ... Tinnitus and auditory disturbances.-Intra-axial cranial nerve lesions.-Speech disorders.-Dysphagia.-Ataxia.-Pareses.-Sensory ...
  • Important factors for preserving residual hearing are: Special atraumatic soft electrodes Smallest possible acoustic trauma due to cochleostomy drilling Smallest possible mechanical trauma due to drilling and electrode insertion Avoidance of inflammatory and fibrotic reactions (contamination with blood, bone dust, middle ear bacteria, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the light source synchronizes the MR imager with the stimulation setup by applying an MR trigger signal to the imager after the photo resistors have disconnected the electrodes. (ajnr.org)
  • Electrodes are applied to the scalp and other areas of the body, and a series of stimulations are introduced. (capitalhealth.org)
  • In this study, we examined changes in the auditory brainstem response and CXCL12 / CXCR4 expression in newborn rat cochleae under different acoustic environments by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence analyses. (lww.com)
  • Our experiments demonstrate that the fly's nervous system is able to encode and localize the direction of a sound source, although the binaural auditory cues available in the acoustic sound field are miniscule. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sound localization is a fundamental task of the auditory system. (jneurosci.org)
  • We now turn to the question of how the fly's auditory system processes these small interaural cues. (jneurosci.org)
  • These alterations in temporal processing could underlie declines in the aging auditory system, which are unrelated to peripheral hearing loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • The chapter begins with a general discussion of the structure and function of the auditory system, with particular emphasis on the periphery, and the impact of noise on the peripheral auditory system. (nap.edu)
  • To date, much of our research, and that of others, has focused on the effect of deafening on the immature auditory system. (springer.com)
  • It is also known that, as the disease progresses, there is progressive impairment of the central nervous system, including the central auditory nervous system, either by direct effects of the virus on the central nervous system structures governing the maturational process or as a consequence of opportunist infections [13,15, (scielo.br)
  • Ashida G, Abe K, Funabiki K, Konishi M (2007) Passive soma facilitates submillisecond coincidence detection in the owl's auditory system. (springer.com)
  • The significance of the presbycusis problem is determined by its social importance, lack of data about its etiology, and need for clinical practice to accurately determine an impaired area of auditory system and to identify the presbycusis genesis. (intechopen.com)
  • Just like the muscles in our body, the auditory system functions on a "use it or lose it" basis. (boystownhospital.org)
  • Cochleostomy versus round window insertions: Influence on functional outcomes in electric-acoustic stimulation of the auditory system. (unc.edu)
  • The effect of egocentric selection is apparently different between the two species of bats studied and, perhaps, between different portions of a frequency map of the central auditory system of the mustached bat, reflecting the shape and sharpness of frequency-tuning curves. (umn.edu)
  • A series of experiments in rats and humans isolated the transcranial and transcutaneous mechanisms and showed that the reported effects of tACS on the motor system can be caused by transcutaneous stimulation of peripheral nerves. (nature.com)
  • Dr. Purves described the auditory system as one of the engineering masterpieces of the human body with an array of miniature acoustical detectors packed into a space no larger than a pea 1 . (vin.com)
  • Although humans are highly visual creatures, much of the human communication is mediated by the auditory system and indeed, deafness can be more debilitating than blindness. (vin.com)
  • These techniques however only allow for verification of morphologic integrity of the auditory system, but sound awareness cannot be appreciated with these methods. (vin.com)
  • The findings are consistent with the growing body of literature that shows that the mature central auditory system is malleable and is modified by experience. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Acoustic over-exposure to loud sounds is often stressful to the nervous system in general, and often traumatizes the inner ear, in particular. (hearinghealthmatters.org)
  • The difficulty for compression of speech in the elderly may be due solely to hearing loss, but may be linked to degenerative issues of the central auditory system. (intechopen.com)
  • The mechanisms and processes performed by the auditory system allow the recognition and interpretation of all kind of sounds. (scielo.br)
  • May - August 2005: Suppression of Otoacoustic Emissionsand the Efferent Auditory System. (oae.it)
  • All available evidence indicates that the dynamic properties of the Outer Hair Cells (OHCs) fall under the modulatory control of the medial efferent auditory system (Kujawa et al. (oae.it)
  • Warr (1992) and Warr & Guinan (1979) outlined two separate anatomic segments of the efferent auditory system, the lateral and medial. (oae.it)
  • Schematic presentation of the efferent auditory system and its connections to the afferent auditory system and the hair cells of the organ of Corti. (oae.it)
  • As a consequence of continuous developments of acoustic simulation on the speech processing strategy of the cochlear implant system in order to achieve higher quality of the transmitted speech quality, we interviewed and questionnaire surveys with help of the doctor in charge of the implantees to find out that the perceptual speech sound through the cochlear implant is much better than that of the acoustic simulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This finding suggests that the peripheral auditory system has unknown capability to adapt to the initial noisy speech to result in clean speech. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To reduce adaptation of the auditory system to the stimulation, 30 sec of stimulation alternated with 30 sec pause. (egms.de)
  • The massive c-Fos upregulation after unilateral stimulation in these inhibitory might indicate, that the system tends toward rebalancing of activity between ipsi- and contralateral part following unilateral hearing impairment. (egms.de)
  • There are also connections between the principal auditory centers and the cranial and spinal motor nuclei, which subserve acoustic reflexes, but little is known about them. (scribd.com)
  • These results suggest that neuronal and membrane functions are important for rapid auditory processing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that the excitotoxic response to acoustic overstimulation is followed by denervation of the inner hair cells and neuronal cell death over a period of days to months ( Kujawa and Liberman 2006 ). (physiology.org)
  • In the present study, we examined this hypothesis by blocking the removal of surface AMPARs during a normally nonexcitotoxic acoustic exposure and observing signs of neuronal excitotoxicity. (physiology.org)
  • Stimulation-mediated neuronal activity may trigger molecular changes via complex intracellular signaling cascades in which the transcription factor c-Fos is involved. (egms.de)
  • A complete audiogram was collected using auditory evoked potential techniques that included measurements of nine frequencies from 4 to 100 kHz presented as sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones. (biologists.org)
  • These results suggest that the reduction of surface AMPAR by endocytosis during excitatory stimulation plays an important role in limiting the excitotoxic damage to the neuron. (physiology.org)
  • How inflammation contributes to loss of residual hearing for profoundly deaf people undergoing cochlear implant surgery (in cases where performance will be compromised if the natural "acoustic hearing" of these implant recipients is lost during the surgical process). (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, optogenetic stimulation of SGNs restored auditory activity in deaf mice. (jci.org)
  • Some recent studies have shown that patients identified with AN show abnormal results on tests evaluating temporal processing, therefore suggesting "dys-synchronous" auditory activity. (lww.com)
  • Recently, advanced electrophysiological and imaging techniques have revealed reorganisation of the adult human auditory map, for example, after sudden unilateral hearing loss. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The fly, Ormia ochracea, possess a novel auditory organ, which allows it to detect airborne sounds. (jneurosci.org)