Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Hearing Loss, High-Frequency: Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Auditory Fatigue: Loss of sensitivity to sounds as a result of auditory stimulation, manifesting as a temporary shift in auditory threshold. The temporary threshold shift, TTS, is expressed in decibels.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Tinnitus: A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Speech Articulation Tests: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Speech Recognition Software: Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Otoscopy: Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.Tympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Speech, Esophageal: A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Otosclerosis: Formation of spongy bone in the labyrinth capsule which can progress toward the STAPES (stapedial fixation) or anteriorly toward the COCHLEA leading to conductive, sensorineural, or mixed HEARING LOSS. Several genes are associated with familial otosclerosis with varied clinical signs.Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Stapes Surgery: Surgery performed in which part of the STAPES, a bone in the middle ear, is removed and a prosthesis is placed to help transmit sound between the middle ear and inner ear.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Hearing Loss, Functional: Hearing loss without a physical basis. Often observed in patients with psychological or behavioral disorders.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.ReadingMultilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Voice Training: A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.

Speech intelligibility of the callsign acquisition test in a quiet environment. (1/147)

This paper reports on preliminary experiments aimed at standardizing speech intelligibility of military Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) using average power levels of callsign items measured by the Root Mean Square (RMS) and maximum power levels of callsign items (Peak). The results obtained indicate that at a minimum sound pressure level (SPL) of 10.57 dBHL, the CAT tests were more difficult than NU-6 (Northwestern University, Auditory Test No. 6) and CID-W22 (Central Institute for the Deaf, Test W-22). At the maximum SPL values, the CAT tests reveal more intelligibility than NU-6 and CID-W22. The CAT-Peak test attained 95% intelligibility as NU-6 at 27.5 dBHL, and with CID-W22, 92.4% intelligibility at 27 dBHL. The CAT-RMS achieved 90% intelligibility when compared with NU-6, and 87% intelligibility score when compared with CID-W22; all at 24 dBHL.  (+info)

Evaluation method for hearing aid fitting under reverberation: comparison between monaural and binaural hearing aids. (2/147)

Some hearing-impaired persons with hearing aids complain of listening difficulty under reverberation. No method, however, is currently available for hearing aid fitting that permits evaluation of hearing difficulty caused by reverberations. In this study, we produced speech materials with a reverberation time of 2.02 s that mimicked a reverberant environment (a classroom). Speech materials with reverberation times of 0 and 1.01 s were also made. Listening tests were performed with these materials in hearing-impaired subjects and normal-hearing subjects in a soundproof booth. Listening tests were also done in a classroom. Our results showed that speech material with a reverberation time of 2.02 s had a decreased listening-test score in hearing-impaired subjects with both monaural and binaural hearing aids. Similar results were obtained in a reverberant environment. Our findings suggest the validity of using speech materials with different reverberation times to predict the listening performance under reverberation of hearing-impaired persons with hearing aids.  (+info)

Decline of speech understanding and auditory thresholds in the elderly. (3/147)

A group of 29 elderly subjects between 60.0 and 83.7 years of age at the beginning of the study, and whose hearing loss was not greater than moderate, was tested twice, an average of 5.27 years apart. The tests measured pure-tone thresholds, word recognition in quiet, and understanding of speech with various types of distortion (low-pass filtering, time compression) or interference (single speaker, babble noise, reverberation). Performance declined consistently and significantly between the two testing phases. In addition, the variability of speech understanding measures increased significantly between testing phases, though the variability of audiometric measurements did not. A right-ear superiority was observed but this lateral asymmetry did not increase between testing phases. Comparison of the elderly subjects with a group of young subjects with normal hearing shows that the decline of speech understanding measures accelerated significantly relative to the decline in audiometric measures in the seventh to ninth decades of life. On the assumption that speech understanding depends linearly on age and audiometric variables, there is evidence that this linear relationship changes with age, suggesting that not only the accuracy but also the nature of speech understanding evolves with age.  (+info)

A comparison of word-recognition abilities assessed with digit pairs and digit triplets in multitalker babble. (4/147)

This study compares, for listeners with normal hearing and listeners with hearing loss, the recognition performances obtained with digit-pair and digit-triplet stimulus sets presented in multitalker babble. Digits 1 through 10 (excluding 7) were mixed in approximately 1,000 ms segments of babble from 4 to -20 dB signal-to-babble (S/B) ratios, concatenated to form the pairs and triplets, and recorded on compact disc. Nine and eight digits were presented at each level for the digit-triplet and digit-pair paradigms, respectively. For the listeners with normal hearing and the listeners with hearing loss, the recognition performances were 3 dB and 1.2 dB better, respectively, on digit pairs than on digit triplets. For equal intelligibility, the listeners with hearing loss required an approximately 10 dB more favorable S/B than the listeners with normal hearing. The distributions of the 50% points for the two groups had no overlap.  (+info)

Use of 35 words for evaluation of hearing loss in signal-to-babble ratio: A clinic protocol. (5/147)

Data from earlier studies that presented 70 words at 24 to 0 dB signal-to-babble (S/B) ratios indicated that most young listeners with normal hearing required 0 to 6 dB S/B ratios to attain 50% correct word recognition. Older listeners with hearing loss often required a >12 dB S/B ratio to attain 50% correct word recognition. In our study, we converted the Words in Noise test from one 70-word list into two 35-word lists for quicker administration by clinicians. Using baseline data from previous studies, we used two strategies to randomize the 35-word lists: based on recognition performance at each S/B ratio and based on recognition performance only. With the first randomization strategy, the 50% correct word-recognition points on the two lists differed by 0.5 dB for 72 listeners with hearing loss. With the second randomization strategy, 48 listeners with hearing loss performed identically on the two lists.  (+info)

Consistency of sentence intelligibility across difficult listening situations. (6/147)

PURPOSE: The extent to which a sentence retains its level of spoken intelligibility relative to other sentences in a list under a variety of difficult listening situations was examined. METHOD: The strength of this sentence effect was studied using the Central Institute for the Deaf Everyday Speech sentences and both generalizability analysis (Experiments 1 and 2) and correlation (Analyses 1 and 2). RESULTS: Experiments 1 and 2 indicated the presence of a prominent sentence effect (substantial variance accounted for) across a large range of group mean intelligibilities (Experiment 1) and different spectral contents (Experiment 2). In Correlation Analysis 1, individual sentence scores were found to be correlated across listeners in each group producing widely ranging levels of performance. The sentence effect accounted for over half of the variance between listener-ability groups. In Correlation Analysis 2, correlations accounted for an average of 42% of the variance across a variety of listening conditions. However, when the auditory data were compared to speech-reading data, the cross-modal correlations were quite low. CONCLUSIONS: The stability of relative sentence intelligibility (the sentence effect) appears across a wide range of mean intelligibilities, across different spectral compositions, and across different listener performance levels, but not across sensory modalities.  (+info)

Audiological evaluation of affected members from a Dutch DFNA8/12 (TECTA) family. (7/147)

In DFNA8/12, an autosomal dominantly inherited type of nonsyndromic hearing impairment, the TECTA gene mutation causes a defect in the structure of the tectorial membrane in the inner ear. Because DFNA8/12 affects the tectorial membrane, patients with DFNA8/12 may show specific audiometric characteristics. In this study, five selected members of a Dutch DFNA8/12 family with a TECTA sensorineural hearing impairment were evaluated with pure-tone audiometry, loudness scaling, speech perception in quiet and noise, difference limen for frequency, acoustic reflexes, otoacoustic emissions, and gap detection. Four out of five subjects showed an elevation of pure-tone thresholds, acoustic reflex thresholds, and loudness discomfort levels. Loudness growth curves are parallel to those found in normal-hearing individuals. Suprathreshold measures such as difference limen for frequency modulated pure tones, gap detection, and particularly speech perception in noise are within the normal range. Distortion otoacoustic emissions are present at the higher stimulus level. These results are similar to those previously obtained from a Dutch DFNA13 family with midfrequency sensorineural hearing impairment. It seems that a defect in the tectorial membrane results primarily in an attenuation of sound, whereas suprathreshold measures, such as otoacoustic emissions and speech perception in noise, are preserved rather well. The main effect of the defects is a shift in the operation point of the outer hair cells with near intact functioning at high levels. As most test results reflect those found in middle-ear conductive loss in both families, the sensorineural hearing impairment may be characterized as a cochlear conductive hearing impairment.  (+info)

Evidence that cochlear-implanted deaf patients are better multisensory integrators. (8/147)

The cochlear implant (CI) is a neuroprosthesis that allows profoundly deaf patients to recover speech intelligibility. This recovery goes through long-term adaptative processes to build coherent percepts from the coarse information delivered by the implant. Here we analyzed the longitudinal postimplantation evolution of word recognition in a large sample of CI users in unisensory (visual or auditory) and bisensory (visuoauditory) conditions. We found that, despite considerable recovery of auditory performance during the first year postimplantation, CI patients maintain a much higher level of word recognition in speechreading conditions compared with normally hearing subjects, even several years after implantation. Consequently, we show that CI users present higher visuoauditory performance when compared with normally hearing subjects with similar auditory stimuli. This better performance is not only due to greater speechreading performance, but, most importantly, also due to a greater capacity to integrate visual input with the distorted speech signal. Our results suggest that these behavioral changes in CI users might be mediated by a reorganization of the cortical network involved in speech recognition that favors a more specific involvement of visual areas. Furthermore, they provide crucial indications to guide the rehabilitation of CI patients by using visually oriented therapeutic strategies.  (+info)

*Audiology and hearing health professionals in developed and developing countries

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (ASHA) (1985). Guidelines for identification audiometry. ASHA, 27(5), 49-52. ... Pure-tone audiometry screening, in which there is typically no attempt to find threshold, has been found to accurately assess ... In regards to the pass/fail criteria for hearing screenings, the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) guidelines ... Furthermore, research has shown the importance of early intervention during the critical period of speech and language ...

*Sensorineural hearing loss

There are also other kinds of audiometry designed to test hearing acuity rather than sensitivity (speech audiometry), or to ... Other tests, such as oto-acoustic emissions, acoustic stapedial reflexes, speech audiometry and evoked response audiometry are ... Tympanometry and speech audiometry may be helpful. Testing is performed by an audiologist. There is no proven or recommended ... and difficulty understanding speech. Similar symptoms are also associated with other kinds of hearing loss; audiometry or other ...

*Audiometer

Bekesy audiometry typically yields lower thresholds and standard deviations than pure tone audiometry. Audiometer requirements ... An audiometer typically transmits recorded sounds such as pure tones or speech to the headphones of the test subject at varying ... Audiology Audiogram Audiometry Hearing test Pure tone audiometry IEC 60645-1. (November 19, 2001) "Audiometers. Pure-tone ... The most common type of audiometer generates pure tones, or transmits parts of speech. Another kind of audiometer is the Bekesy ...

*Tele-audiology

Georgeadis, A., Givens, G., Krumm, M., Mashimina, P., Torrens, J., and Brown, J. (2004) Speech-language pathologists providing ... Givens, G., Blanarovich, A., Murphy, T., Simmons, S., Balch, D., & Elangovan, S. (2003). Internet-based tele-audiometry System ... clinical services via Telepractice [Technical Report]. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Givens, G. & Elangovan, S ...

*Hearing aid

The presence of multiple speech signals makes it difficult for the processor to correctly select the desired speech signal. ... One approach is audiometry which measures a subject's hearing levels in laboratory conditions. The threshold of audibility for ... If the desired speech arrives from the direction of steering and the noise is from a different direction, then compared to an ... For example, speech and ambient noise will be amplified together. On the other hand, DHA processes the sound using digital ...

*CLRN1

2005). "Serial audiometry and speech recognition findings in Finnish Usher syndrome type III patients". Audiol. Neurootol. 10 ( ...

*Hearing aid

The presence of multiple speech signals makes it difficult for the processor to correctly select the desired speech signal. ... is adjusted using audiometry procedures.[30]. Functionality of hearing aid applications may involve a hearing test (in situ ... American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Retrieved 1 December 2014.. *^ Eisenberg, Anne (24 September 2005) The Hearing ... If the desired speech arrives from the direction of steering and the noise is from a different direction, then compared to an ...

*Intelligibility (communication)

However, "infinite peak clipping of shouted speech makes it almost as intelligible as normal speech." Clear speech is used when ... and audiometry. Intelligibility is negatively impacted by background noise and too much reverberation. The relationship between ... Such speech has increased intelligibility compared to normal speech. It is not only louder but the frequencies of its phonetic ... Additionally, different speech sounds make use of different parts of the speech frequency spectrum, so a continuous background ...

*Vestibular schwannoma

It involves a reduction in sound level, speech understanding and hearing clarity. In about 70 percent of cases there is a high ... Pure tone audiometry should be performed to effectively evaluate hearing in both ears. In some clinics the clinical criteria ... Routine auditory tests may reveal a loss of hearing and speech discrimination (the patient may hear sounds in that ear, but ...

*Hearing loss

In conjunction with speech audiometry, it may indicate central auditory processing disorder, or the presence of a schwannoma or ... As the name implies, a speech-in-noise test gives an indication of how well one can understand speech in a noisy environment. A ... understanding speech in the presence of background noise.. In quiet conditions, speech discrimination is approximately the same ... See also: Audiometry, Pure tone audiometry, Auditory brainstem response, and Otoacoustic emissions ...

*Vertigo

Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic reflex, ... such as slurred speech and double vision), and pathologic nystagmus (which is pure vertical/torsional).[16][20] Central ...

*Auditory brainstem response

Previously, brainstem audiometry has been used for hearing aid selection by using normal and pathological intensity-amplitude ... The transmitting coil, also an external component transmits the information from the speech processor through the skin using ... Advantages of hearing aid selection by brainstem audiometry include the following applications: evaluation of loudness ... Kiebling J (1982). "Hearing Aid Selection by Brainstem Audiometry". Scandinavian Audiology. 11: 269-275. Billings CJ, Tremblay ...

*Vertigo

Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic reflex, ... Central vertigo may have accompanying neurologic deficits (such as slurred speech and double vision), and pathologic nystagmus ...

*Balance disorder

Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic-reflex, ...

*Real ear measurement

Speech mapping (also known as output-based measures) involves testing with a speech or speech-like signal. The hearing aid is ... Audiometry Hearing impairment Stach, Brad (2003). Comprehensive Dictionary of Audiology (2nd ed.). Clifton Park NY: Thompson ... Using a real speech signal to test a hearing aid has the advantage that features that may need to be disabled in other test ... The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and American Academy of Audiology (AAA) recommend real ear measures as ...

*Music-specific disorders

Symptoms of this disease vary from lack of basic melodic discrimination, recognition despite normal audiometry, above average ... Another conspicuous symptom of amusia is the ability of the affected individual to carry out normal speech, however, he or she ... that working memory mechanisms for pitch information over a short period of time may be different from those involved in speech ...

*Hearing loss

In conjunction with speech audiometry, it may indicate central auditory processing disorder, or the presence of a schwannoma or ... As the name implies, a speech-in-noise test gives an indication of how well one can understand speech in a noisy environment. A ... As such, speech-in-noise tests can provide valuable information about a person's hearing ability, and can be used to detect the ... Speech perception - Another aspect of hearing involves the perceived clarity of a word rather than the amplitude of sound made ...

*Presbycusis

... or audiologist including pure tone audiometry and speech recognition may be used to determine the extent and nature of hearing ... Pure-tone audiometry for air conduction thresholds at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz is traditionally used to classify the degree of ... Tanakan was found to decrease the intensity of tympanitis and improve speech and hearing in aged patients, giving rise to the ... Patients typically express a decreased ability to understand speech. Once the loss has progressed to the 2-4kHz range, there is ...

*Auditory masking

... including pure tone audiometry, and the standard hearing test to test each ear unilaterally and to test speech recognition in ... It is also used in various kinds of audiometry, ... person in distinguishing between different consonants in speech ...

*Linguistic development of Genie

Audiometry tests confirmed Genie had regular hearing in both ears, doctors found no physical or mental deficiencies explaining ... She never used them in her own speech but appeared to understand them, and while she was generally better with the suffix -est ... During this time Genie also used a few verb infinitives in her speech, in all instances clearly treating them as one word, and ... These aspects of speech are typically either bilateral or originate in the right hemisphere, and split-brain and ...

*Amblyaudia

Children with amblyaudia experience difficulties in speech perception, particularly in noisy environments, sound localization, ... as indexed through pure tone audiometry). These symptoms may lead to difficulty attending to auditory information causing many ...

*Stimulus modality

Some hearing tests include the whispered speech test, pure tone audiometry, the tuning fork test, speech reception and word ... During a whispered speech test, the participant is asked to cover the opening of one ear with a finger. The tester will then ... In pure tone audiometry, an audiometer is used to play a series of tones using headphones. The participants listen to the tones ... Speech recognition and word recognition tests measure how well an individual can hear normal day-to-day conversation. The ...

*Auditory system

In humans, connections of these regions with the middle temporal gyrus are probably important for speech perception. The ... Auditory brainstem response and ABR audiometry test for newborn hearing Auditory processing disorder Noise health effects ... Scott SK, Johnsrude IS (February 2003). "The neuroanatomical and functional organization of speech perception". Trends Neurosci ... academic and speech/language developmental milestones are met . Impairment of the auditory system can include any of the ...

*List of MeSH codes (E01)

... audiometry, pure-tone MeSH E01.370.382.375.060.060 --- audiometry, speech MeSH E01.370.382.375.060.060.750 --- speech ... audiometry MeSH E01.370.382.375.060.050 --- audiometry, evoked response MeSH E01.370.382.375.060.055 --- ... speech articulation tests MeSH E01.450.150.100 --- blood chemical analysis MeSH E01.450.150.100.100 --- blood gas analysis MeSH ... discrimination tests MeSH E01.370.382.375.060.060.760 --- speech reception threshold test MeSH E01.370.382.375.200 --- dichotic ...

*Assistive Technology for Deaf and Hard of Hearing

... usually with the aim of making speech more intelligible, and to correct impaired hearing as measured by audiometry. Some ... Speech to text software is used when voice writers provide CART. C-Print is a speech-to-text (captioning) technology and ... and others use to convert speech to text. A trained operator uses keyboard or stenography methods to transcribe spoken speech ...

*KPC Medical College and Hospital

Sensitivity FNAC Lipid Profile Test LFT Speech Therapy Audiometry The departments in KPC Medical College are as follows: ...

*Audiology

Indian speech and hearing association (ISHA) is a professional platform of the audiologist and speech language pathologists ... has completed a TAFE Certificate Course in hearing aid audiometry and/or received in-house training from the hearing aid ... The second Audiology & Speech Language Therapy program was started in the same year, at T.N.Medical College and BYL Nair Ch. ... "CICIC::Information for foreign-trained audiologists and speech-language pathologists". Occupational profiles for selected ...

*Desiderio Passali

Audiologist and Speech Therapist at the University of Siena. In 2000 he was Director of the Graduate School of Audiology and ... Director of the ENT Clinic and Director of the School for Special Purpose Technicians Audiometry and guided restoration ... he was also the Director of the School of Specialization in ENT Clinic and Director of the School for Technicians Audiometry ...
Dr. Nils Morgenthaler, Vice President for Medical Affairs for the Bruker Daltonics Division, added: "We and our collaborators now have several years of experience with the research-use-only (RUO) MALDI Sepsityper workflow, and the feedback from our customers and collaborators has been very positive. So far, 21 peer reviewed scientific publications have evaluated this approach, in which the RUO MALDI Sepsityper workflow has been shown to provide approximately 80% correct identification at the species level, with the remaining 20% mostly unidentified, and with essentially no relevant misidentifications at the genus level. With further recent improvements and expansion in the IVD MALDI Biotyper reference library, this already excellent identification performance directly from blood culture is expected to improve even further. The recent CE-labeling of the kit underlines Brukers strategy to provide more and more workflows for clinical routine use on the IVD MALDI Biotyper platform. We believe that ...
How to be a Package-Dealing Theist - In a recent NRO essay, Michael Novak accuses atheists of trying to have the cake of theism, while eating it too. Novaks analysis is such a well-distilled statement of common confusions, that its worthwile working through the worst of it. Novak says,. Atheism is a long-term project. It is not completed when one ceases believing in God. It is necessary to carry it through until one empties from the world all the conceptual space once filled by God. One must also, for instance, abandon the conviction that the events, phenomena, and laws of the world we live in (those of the whole universe) cohere, belong together, have a unity. What is born from chance may be ruled by chance, quite insanely.. Most atheists one meets, however, take up a position rather less rigorous. To the big question Did the world of our experience, with all its seeming intelligibility and laws, come into existence by chance, or by the action of an agent that placed that intelligibility ...
Our sound absorption materials and reverberation time reduction solutions include acoustic wall panels, ceiling-suspended acoustic panels, decorative melamine cubes, absorbent wall coverings matched to any colour you desire and our innovative Kinetics wave baffles designed to reduce reverberation time measurements in large, open spaces like arenas and gymnasiums. The strategic use of such effective sound absorption products (many have been officially rated Class C) can dramatically improve the listening environment.. For the uninitiated, Reverberation Time is calculated as the time it takes for a sound to to 60 decibels below its original level in a given environment. Rooms with lots of reflective surfaces that bounce sound around are referred to by acousticians as live. A room with a very short reverberation time is referred to as dead. By placing the right kind of sound absorption products in a live room, we can absorb unwanted sound, preventing it from creating distracting ...
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Looking for online definition of speech audiometry in the Medical Dictionary? speech audiometry explanation free. What is speech audiometry? Meaning of speech audiometry medical term. What does speech audiometry mean?
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for average speech was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard. In this study, the HINT jury test measurements from a variety of background noise spectra and listening configurations of talker and listener are used in an effort to obtain a band importance function for the HINT, to potentially correlate the ...
We investigated how standard speech coders, currently used in modern communication systems, affect the intelligibility of the speech of persons who have common speech and voice disorders. Three standardized speech coders (viz., GSM 6.10 [RPE-LTP], FS1016 [CELP], FS1015 [LPC]) and two speech coders based on subband processing were evaluated for their performance. Coder effects were assessed by measuring the intelligibility of vowels and consonants both before and after processing by the speech coders. Native English talkers who had normal hearing identified these speech sounds. Results confirmed that (a) all coders reduce the intelligibility of spoken language; (b) these effects occur in a consistent manner, with the GSM and CELP coders providing the least degradation relative to the original unprocessed speech; and (c) coders interact with individual voices so that speech is degraded differentially for different talkers.. ...
The specific objective of this project is to assess the speech intelligibility using both subjective and objective methods of one of the new speech test methods developed at U.S. Army Research Lab called the Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT). This study is limited to the determination of speech intelligibility for the CAT in the presence of various background noises, such as pink, white, and multitalker babble.
Definition of Speech intelligibility with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
The original purpose of sound reinforcement was to deliver the spoken word to large groups of people in Utica. The design and installation of early systems was an engineering endeavor with objective performance criteria.
VirSyn has released version 1.3 of iVoxel, a vocoder app for iOS. iVoxel is not only an amazingly sounding vocoder for iPhone/iPod and iPad - the unique concept of iVoxel turns this vocoder into a singing machine going far beyond the capabilities of traditional and software vocoders on any platform. Changes in iVoxel
Some of the best mathcore Ive ever heard. Chaotic, dense, and heavy, with a screamo (thats the old definition, mind you) edge, and a few moments of strange, woozy beauty ...
Effects of Dietary Lysine and Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs - Energy;Lysine;Apparent Total Tract Digestibility;Performance;Weanling Pigs;
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What youll notice is that the reverberant sound level is now stretching out between the syllables and actually starting to mask some of the sharp spikes of the consonants. That means that some of the syllables are being buried or masked by the reverberant "noise". Depending on how far each new syllable is submerged into the reverberant noise, a listener will have varying degrees of difficulty in understanding those words. This is a bit like trying to listen to one person with a bunch of other people talking around you, it gets harder to pick out the sounds you want to hear from all the other conversations around you. The only difference here is that with the reverebrant sound field it is the same conversation repeated hundreds of times with a little bit of time offset. Have a listen: WAV File (180kB) / RealAudio File (41kB) / MP3 File (35kB) How bad can it get? Lets try a room with a 2 second reverb time. ...
bedahr writes The first version of the open source speech recognition suite simon was released. It uses the Julius large vocabulary continuous speech recognition to do the actual recognition and the HTK toolkit to maintain the language model. These components are united under an easy-to-use grap...
The Clear hearing aid is available in a variety of colours in the Completely-In-Canal, In-The-Ear, Micro Behind-The-Ear, Behind-The-Ear, Receiver-In-Canal and Receiver-In-The-Ear…. ...
In a communications system, consonant high frequency sounds are enhanced: the greater the high frequency content relative to the low, the more such high frequency content is boosted.
A method of circumstantial speech recognition in a vehicle. A plurality of parameters associated with a plurality of vehicle functions are monitored as an indication of current vehicle circumstances.
A method of circumstantial speech recognition in a vehicle. A plurality of parameters associated with a plurality of vehicle functions are monitored as an indication of current vehicle circumstances.
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MASTHEAD SKYLINEThe masthead is one consonant Q which is an The skyline is on a …
Assessment of outcome of hearing aid fitting in children should contain several dimensions: audibility, speech recognition, subjective benefit and speech production. Audibility may be: determined by means of aided hearing thresholds or real-ear measurements. For determining speech recognition, methods different from those used for adult patients must be used, especially for children with congenital hearing loss. In these children the development of the spoken language and vocabulary has to be considered, especially when testing speech recognition but also with regard to speech production. Subjective assessment of benefit to a large extent has to rely on the assessment by parents and teachers for children younger than school age. However, several studies have shown that children from the age of around 7 years can usually produce reliable responses in this respect. Speech production has to be assessed in terms of intelligibility by others, who may or may not be used to the individual childs ...
Speech is the most important communication modality for human interaction. Automatic speech recognition and speech synthesis have extended further the relevance of speech to man-machine interaction. Environment noise and various distortions, such as reverberation and speech processing artifacts, reduce the mutual information between the message modulated inthe clean speech and the message decoded from the observed signal. This degrades intelligibility and perceived quality, which are the two attributes associated with quality of service. An estimate of the state of these attributes provides important diagnostic information about the communication equipment and the environment. When the adverse effects occur at the presentation side, an objective measure of intelligibility facilitates speech signal modification for improved communication.. The contributions of this thesis come from non-intrusive quality assessment and intelligibility-enhancing modification of speech. On the part of quality, the ...
Objectives: To assess a group of post-lingually children after 10 years of implantation with regard to speech perception, speech intelligibility, and academic/occupational status.. Study Design: A prospective transversal study. Setting: Pediatric referral center for cochlear implantation. Patients: Ten post-lingually deafened children with Nucleus and Med-El cochlear implants.. Interventions: Speech perception and speech intelligibility tests and interview.. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures were score of Hint sentences recognition (silence and noise), speech intelligibility scores(write-down intelligibility and rating scale scores) and academic/ occupational status. ...
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. Uvulars may be stops, fricatives, nasals, trills, or approximants, though the IPA does not provide a separate symbol for the approximant, and the symbol for the voiced fricative is used instead. Uvular affricates can certainly be made but are rare: they occur in some southern High-German dialects, as well as in a few African and Native American languages. (Ejective uvular affricates occur as realizations of uvular stops in Lillooet, Kazakh and Georgian.) Uvular consonants are typically incompatible with advanced tongue root, and they often cause retraction of neighboring vowels. The uvular consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are: English has no uvular consonants, and they are unknown in the indigenous languages of Australia and the Pacific, though uvular consonants separate from velar consonants are believed to have existed ...
Finding the best fitting hearing aid for children is important in developmental year. Learn more about how hearing aids are fitted and evaluated.
Get this from a library! Speech recognition and coding : new advances and trends. [Antonio J Rubio Ayuso; Juan M López Soler; North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Scientific Affairs Division.;]
Physical changes induced in the spectral modulation sensors optically resonant structure by the physical parameter being measured cause microshifts of its reflectivity and transmission curves, and of the selected operating segment(s) thereof being used, as a function of the physical parameter being measured. The operating segments have a maximum length and a maximum microshift of less than about one resonance cycle in length for unambiguous output from the sensor. The input measuring light wavelength(s) are selected to fall within the operating segment(s) over the range of values of interest for the physical parameter being measured. The output light from the sensors optically resonant structure is spectrally modulated by the optically resonant structure as a function of the physical parameter being measured. The spectrally modulated output light is then converted into analog electrical measuring output signals by detection means. In one form, a single optical fiber carries both input light to and
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There is already an abundance of SID tunes based on sheet music, in particular by J. S. Bach. The problem is that all those SID tunes are terrible. Apparently, people have merely typed in the notes from the sheet music. This leads to quantized timing (where e.g. every quarter note lasts exactly 500 milliseconds, always), and while quantized timing may be perfectly fine for modern genres, it simply wont do for classical music.. The goal is not to play the right notes in the right order; thats the starting point. Then you have to adjust the timing of every single note, listening and re-listening, making sure that it doesnt sound mechanical. You have to add movement, energy, and emphasis (which, on an organ, has to be implemented by varying the duration of the notes, and the pauses between them, because theres no dynamic response). You need fermatas and ornaments. You have to realize that some jumps cannot be performed unless the organist lifts his hand, and so on, and so forth.. This album is ...
Simon is an open source speech recognition program that can replace your mouse and keyboard. The system is designed to be as flexible as possible and will work with any language or ...
Explore Nuance healthcare IT solutions including CDI, PowerScribe, Dragon Medical, speech recognition, coding and medical transcription
Explore Nuance healthcare IT solutions including CDI, PowerScribe, Dragon Medical, speech recognition, coding and medical transcription
InProceedings{Valentini-Botinhao2014, Title = {Intelligibility Analysis of Fast Synthesized Speech}, Author = {Cassia Valentini-Botinhao and Markus Toman and Michael Pucher and Dietmar Schabus and Junichi Yamagishi}, Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH)}, Year = {2014}, Address = {Singapore}, Month = sep, Pages = {2922-2926}, Abstract = {In this paper we analyse the effect of speech corpus and compression method on the intelligibility of synthesized speech at fast rates. We recorded English and German language voice talents at a normal and a fast speaking rate and trained an HSMM-based synthesis system based on the normal and the fast data of each speaker. We compared three compression methods: scaling the variance of the state duration model, interpolating the duration models of the fast and the normal voices, and applying a linear compression method to generated speech. Word recognition results for the ...
Here we have demonstrated deficits of flavour identification in two major clinical syndromes of FTLD, bvFTD and svPPA, relative to healthy control subjects. The profile of odour identification performance essentially paralleled flavour identification across subgroups, and there was a significant correlation between flavour and odour identification scores in the patient population. Chemosensory identification deficits here were not simply attributable to general executive or semantic impairment, since the deficits were demonstrated after adjusting for these other potentially relevant cognitive variables. An error analysis showed that identification of general flavour categories was better preserved overall than identification of particular flavours. This pattern would be difficult to explain were impaired flavour identification simply the result of impaired cross-modal labelling. Taken together, the behavioural data suggest that FTLD is often accompanied by a semantic deficit of flavour ...
The performance of the existing speech recognition systems degrades rapidly in the presence of background noise. A novel representation of the speech signal, which is based on Linear Prediction of the One-Sided Autocorrelation sequence (OSALPC), has shown to be attractive for noisy speech recognition because of both its high recognition performance with respect to the conventional LPC in severe conditions of additive white noise and its computational simplicity. The aim of this work is twofold: (1) to show that OSALPC also achieves a good performance in a case of real noisy speech (in a car environment), and (2) to explore its combination with several robust similarity measuring techniques, showing that its performance improves by using cepstral liftering, dynamic features and multilabeling ...
previous post , next post » Today at ISCSLP2016, Xuedong Huang announced a striking result from Microsoft Research. A paper documenting it is up on arXiv.org - W. Xiong, J. Droppo, X. Huang, F. Seide, M. Seltzer, A. Stolcke, D. Yu, G. Zweig, "Achieving Human Parity in Conversational Speech Recognition":. Conversational speech recognition has served as a flagship speech recognition task since the release of the DARPA Switchboard corpus in the 1990s. In this paper, we measure the human error rate on the widely used NIST 2000 test set, and find that our latest automated system has reached human parity. The error rate of professional transcriptionists is 5.9% for the Switchboard portion of the data, in which newly acquainted pairs of people discuss an assigned topic, and 11.3% for the CallHome portion where friends and family members have open-ended conversations. In both cases, our automated system establishes a new state-of-the-art, and edges past the human benchmark. This marks the first time ...
A method and apparatus for real time speech recognition with and without speaker dependency which includes the following steps. Converting the speech signals into a series of primitive sound spectrum parameter frames; detecting the beginning and ending of speech according to the primitive sound spectrum parameter frame, to determine the sound spectrum parameter frame series; performing non-linear time domain normalization on the sound spectrum parameter frame series using sound stimuli, to obtain speech characteristic parameter frame series with predefined lengths on the time domain; performing amplitude quantization normalization on the speech characteristic parameter frames; comparing the speech characteristic parameter frame series with the reference samples, to determine the reference sample which most closely matches the speech characteristic parameter frame series; and determining the recognition result according to the most closely matched reference sample.
An arrangement is provided for using a phoneme lattice for speech recognition and/or keyword spotting. The phoneme lattice may be constructed for an input speech signal and searched to produce a textual representation for the input speech signal and/or to determine if the input speech signal contains targeted keywords. An expectation maximization (EM) trained phoneme confusion matrix may be used when searching the phoneme lattice. The phoneme lattice may be constructed in a client and sent to a server, which may search the phoneme lattice to produce a result.
Envision a hearing aid fitting in which the patients audiogram is entered into the computer, the hearing aids are inserted into the patients ears, and, with the push of a button, the hearing aids are adjusted for the patients hearing loss. Youre done! Now you can spend the remainder of the appointment developing a rapport with the patient, counseling on communication techniques, and explaining the use and care of the new devices.. At first glance this might seem appealing, but we must remember that the typical goal of any hearing aid fitting is to achieve acceptable audibility for speech. Despite the sophistication of modern fitting software, initial-fit algorithms, also known as first-fit algorithms, are unable to guarantee appropriate audibility. Thus, it is inappropriate to rely exclusively on the fitting software.1-3. " ...while not a complete substitute for traditional real-ear measurement, Integrated Real-Ear Measurement offers a significant benefit to patients... ". Due to several ...