Audiometry, Evoked Response
Acoustic Impedance Tests
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced
Hearing Loss, Conductive
Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
Hearing Loss, Sensorineural
Ear Protective Devices
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Auditory Diseases, Central
Hearing Loss, Functional
Vestibular Function Tests
Auditory Perceptual Disorders
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/499)Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli. (+info)
A gene for fluctuating, progressive autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss, DFNA16, maps to chromosome 2q23-24.3. (2/499)The sixteenth gene to cause autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), DFNA16, maps to chromosome 2q23-24.3 and is tightly linked to markers in the D2S2380-D2S335 interval. DFNA16 is unique in that it results in the only form of ADNSHL in which the phenotype includes rapidly progressing and fluctuating hearing loss that appears to respond to steroid therapy. This observation suggests that it may be possible to stabilize hearing through medical intervention, once the biophysiology of deafness due to DFNA16 is clarified. Especially intriguing is the localization of several voltage-gated sodium-channel genes to the DFNA16 interval. These cationic channels are excellent positional and functional DFNA16 candidate genes. (+info)
Role of L-type Ca(2+) channels in transmitter release from mammalian inner hair cells I. Gross sound-evoked potentials. (3/499)Intracochlear perfusion and gross potential recording of sound-evoked neural and hair cell responses were used to study the site of action of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine in the guinea pig inner ear. In agreement with previous work nimodipine (1-10 microM) caused changes in both the compound auditory nerve action potential (CAP) and the DC component of the hair cell receptor potential (summating potential, or SP) in normal cochleae. For 20-kHz stimulation, the effect of nimodipine on the CAP threshold was markedly greater than the effect on the threshold of the negative SP. This latter result was consistent with a dominant action of nimodipine at the final output stage of cochlear transduction: either the release of transmitter from inner hair cells (IHCs) or the postsynaptic spike generation process. In animals in which the outer hair cells (OHCs) had been destroyed by prior administration of kanamycin, nimodipine still caused a large change in the 20-kHz CAP threshold, but even less change was observed in the negative SP threshold than in normal cochleae. When any neural contamination of the SP recording in kanamycin-treated animals was removed by prior intracochlear perfusion with TTX, nimodipine caused no significant change in SP threshold. Some features of the data also suggest a separate involvement of nimodipine-sensitive channels in OHC function. Perfusion of the cochlea with solutions containing Ni(2+) (100 microM) caused no measurable change in either CAP or SP. These results are consistent with, but do not prove, the notion that L-type channels are directly involved in controlling transmitter release from the IHCs and that T-type Ca(2+) channels are not involved at any stage of cochlear transduction. (+info)
The neural correlates of 'deaf-hearing' in man: conscious sensory awareness enabled by attentional modulation. (4/499)Attentional modulation of normal sensory processing has a two-fold impact on human brain activity: activation of a network of localized brain regions is associated with paying attention, and activation of specific sensory regions is enhanced relative to passive stimulation. The mechanisms underlying attentional modulation of perception in patients with lesions of sensory cortices are less well understood. Here we report a unique patient suffering from extensive bilateral destruction of the auditory cortices (including the primary auditory fields) who demonstrated conscious perception of the onset and offset of sounds only when selectively attending to the auditory modality. This is the first description of such an attentively modulated 'deaf-hearing' phenomenon and its neural correlates, using H(2)(15)O-PET. Increases in cerebral blood flow associated with conscious awareness of sound that was achieved by listening attentively (compared with identical auditory stimulation presented when the patient was inattentive) were found bilaterally in the lateral (pre)frontal cortices, the spared middle temporal cortices and the cerebellar hemispheres. We conclude that conscious awareness of sounds may be achieved in the absence of the primary auditory cortex, and that selective, 'top-down' attention, associated with prefrontal systems, exerts a crucial modulatory effect on auditory perception within the remaining auditory system. (+info)
A case-control auditory evaluation of patients treated with artemisinin derivatives for multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (5/499)The artemisinin derivatives are now used widely in areas with multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria such as Southeast Asia, but concerns remain over their potential for neurotoxicity. Mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys treated with high doses of intramuscular artemether or arteether develop an unusual pattern of focal damage to brain stem nuclei (particularly those involved in auditory processing). To investigate whether a similar toxic effect occurs in patients treated with these compounds, clinical neurologic evaluation, audiometry and early latency auditory evoked responses were measured in a single-blind comparison of 79 patients who had been treated with > or =2 courses of oral artemether or artesunate within the previous 3 years, and 79 age- and sex-matched controls living in a malaria-endemic area on the northwestern border of Thailand. There were no consistent differences in any of these test results between the cases and controls. This study failed to detect any evidence of significant neurotoxicity in patients treated previously with oral artemether or artesunate for acute malaria. (+info)
Noise-induced hearing loss. (6/499)Hearing loss caused by exposure to recreational and occupational noise results in devastating disability that is virtually 100 percent preventable. Noise-induced hearing loss is the second most common form of sensorineural hearing deficit, after presbycusis (age-related hearing loss). Shearing forces caused by any sound have an impact on the stereocilia of the hair cells of the basilar membrane of the cochlea; when excessive, these forces can cause cell death. Avoiding noise exposure stops further progression of the damage. Noise-induced hearing loss can be prevented by avoiding excessive noise and using hearing protection such as earplugs and earmuffs. Patients who have been exposed to excessive noise should be screened. When hearing loss is suspected, a thorough history, physical examination and audiometry should be performed. If these examinations disclose evidence of hearing loss, referral for full audiologic evaluation is recommended. (+info)
Effects of renal transplantation on hearing and ocular changes in a monozygotic twin with Alport's syndrome: comparison with other twin on hemodialysis. (7/499)AIM: To present a unique case of Alport's syndrome in monozygotic twins with two different treatment modalities - renal transplantation and hemodialysis, and to evaluate the effects of therapy on hearing and ophthalmological findings. METHODS: Pure-tone audiogram and ophthalmologic examinations were performed in both twins at the age of 30. At the age of 46, 4 years after renal transplantation in the first twin and after 6 years of hemodialysis in the second twin, both twins underwent control audiometric and ophthalmologic examinations. RESULTS: Control audiometric measurements showed the progression of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in the high-frequency range (>2,000 Hz) in both twins. The hearing threshold progressed from initial 50 dB in both twins at the time of the diagnosis to 55 dB in the twin on hemodialysis, and 85 dB in the twin with a transplanted kidney. Retinal blurry hyperpigmentations disappeared in the twin with a transplanted kidney. CONCLUSION: In comparison with hemodialysis, renal transplantation in Alport's syndrome may have deleterious effect on hearing, when associated with plasma hyperviscosity and hyperlipidemia, but may lead to regression of retinal hyperpigmentation. (+info)
No evidence of measles virus in stapes samples from patients with otosclerosis. (8/499)Otosclerosis is a localized bone dystrophy of unknown etiology mainly involving the stapes. The hypothesis of a persistent infection by the measles virus was based on the inconstant detection of the virus by various methods, including reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of patients' stapes samples. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of the measles virus in stapedial otosclerosis foci by different sensitive methods. Pathologic stapes samples were obtained from 35 patients suffering from otosclerosis. Measles virus detection was performed by (i) cocultures of Vero cells and primary cell cultures of bone samples (n = 7), (ii) immunofluorescence study of these cocultures (n = 3), and (iii) RT-PCR on RNA directly obtained from fresh frozen samples (n = 28) and on RNA extracted from the primary cell cultures (n = 2). Viral genomic regions coding for N (nucleoprotein) and M (matrix) proteins were separately amplified. PCR sensitivity was optimized on the measles virus Edmonston strain. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was used as a marker of total RNA recovery. PCR products were tested by Southern blot hybridization technique to improve sensitivity and specificity. PCRs amplifying the M and the N protein genes were able to detect the control measles virus RNA at titers as low as 0.1 and 0.01 50% tissue culture infective dose, respectively. With these highly sensitive methods, we could not evidence the presence of the measles virus in any of our bone samples or primary bone cell cultures. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis of persistent measles virus infection in otosclerosis. (+info)
High-frequency hearing loss can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis): This is the most common cause of high-frequency hearing loss and affects many people as they age.
2. Noise exposure: Exposure to loud noises, such as those from heavy machinery or music, can damage the hair cells in the inner ear and lead to high-frequency hearing loss.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis or labyrinthitis, can cause inflammation and damage to the inner ear and auditory nerve, leading to high-frequency hearing loss.
4. Trauma: A head injury or other trauma to the head or ear can cause damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve, resulting in high-frequency hearing loss.
5. Genetics: Some people may be born with a genetic predisposition to high-frequency hearing loss.
Symptoms of high-frequency hearing loss can include difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds, such as women's and children's voices, birds chirping, or the high notes of music. People with high-frequency hearing loss may also have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments or when background noise is present.
Treatment for high-frequency hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and can include hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address any underlying conditions that are contributing to the hearing loss. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have high-frequency hearing loss, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve communication and quality of life.
Types of Hearing Disorders:
1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of hearing loss is caused by a problem with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of hearing loss is caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. It is permanent and cannot be treated with medicine or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of hearing loss is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Tinnitus: This is the perception of ringing, buzzing, or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of the sound. It can be caused by exposure to loud noises, age, or certain medications.
5. Balance disorders: These are conditions that affect the balance center in the inner ear or the brain, causing dizziness, vertigo, and other symptoms.
Causes of Hearing Disorders:
1. Genetics: Some hearing disorders can be inherited from parents or grandparents.
2. Age: As we age, our hearing can decline due to wear and tear on the inner ear.
3. Exposure to loud noises: Prolonged exposure to loud sounds, such as music or machinery, can damage the hair cells in the inner ear and lead to hearing loss.
4. Infections: Certain infections, such as otitis media (middle ear infection), can cause hearing loss if left untreated.
5. Certain medications: Some medications, such as certain antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and aspirin at high doses, can be harmful to the inner ear and cause hearing loss.
Symptoms of Hearing Disorders:
1. Difficulty hearing or understanding speech, especially in noisy environments.
2. Ringing, buzzing, or other sounds in the ears (tinnitus).
3. Vertigo or dizziness.
4. Feeling of fullness or pressure in the ears.
5. Hearing loss that worsens over time.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Hearing Disorders:
1. Medical history and physical examination.
2. Audiometry test to measure hearing threshold and speech discrimination.
3. Otoscopy to examine the outer ear and ear canal.
4. Tympanometry to assess the middle ear function.
5. Otoacoustic emissions testing to evaluate the inner ear function.
Treatment options for hearing disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Hearing aids or cochlear implants to improve hearing.
2. Medications to treat infections or reduce tinnitus.
3. Surgery to remove earwax, repair the eardrum, or address middle ear problems.
4. Balance rehabilitation exercises to manage vertigo and dizziness.
5. Cognitive therapy to improve communication skills and address psychological effects of hearing loss.
Prevention and Management of Hearing Disorders:
1. Avoiding loud noises and taking regular breaks in noisy environments.
2. Wearing earplugs or earmuffs when exposed to loud sounds.
3. Getting regular hearing checkups and addressing any hearing issues promptly.
4. Managing chronic conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, that can contribute to hearing loss.
5. Encouraging open communication with family members and healthcare providers about hearing difficulties.
There are two main types of noise-induced hearing loss:
1. Acoustic trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs suddenly after a single exposure to an extremely loud noise, such as an explosion or a gunshot.
2. Cumulative trauma: This type of hearing loss occurs gradually over time as a result of repeated exposure to loud noises, such as machinery or music.
The risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss increases with the intensity and duration of noise exposure. Factors that can contribute to an individual's risk of developing NIHL include:
1. Loudness of the noise: Noises that are louder than 85 decibels can cause permanent damage to the hair cells in the inner ear.
2. Prolonged exposure: The longer an individual is exposed to loud noises, the greater their risk of developing NIHL.
3. Age: Older adults are more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to the natural aging process and the degeneration of the hair cells in the inner ear.
4. Genetics: Some individuals may be more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss due to genetic factors.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or otosclerosis, can increase an individual's risk of developing NIHL.
The symptoms of noise-induced hearing loss can vary depending on the severity of the damage. Some common symptoms include:
1. Difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds
2. Difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments
3. Ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus)
4. Muffled hearing
5. Decreased sensitivity to sounds
There is currently no cure for noise-induced hearing loss, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms. These include:
1. Hearing aids: These can help amplify sounds and improve an individual's ability to hear.
2. Cochlear implants: These are electronic devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
3. Tinnitus management: There are several techniques and therapies available to help manage tinnitus, including sound therapy, counseling, and relaxation techniques.
4. Speech therapy: This can help individuals with hearing loss improve their communication skills and better understand speech in noisy environments.
Prevention is key when it comes to noise-induced hearing loss. To reduce your risk of developing NIHL, you should:
1. Avoid loud noises whenever possible
2. Wear earplugs or earmuffs when exposed to loud noises
3. Take regular breaks in a quiet space if you are working in a loud environment
4. Keep the volume down on personal audio devices
5. Get your hearing checked regularly to identify any potential issues early on.
There are three main types of hearing loss: conductive, sensorineural, and mixed. Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the middle ear and its ability to transmit sound waves to the inner ear. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve, which can lead to permanent hearing loss. Mixed hearing loss is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
Symptoms of hearing loss may include difficulty hearing speech, especially in noisy environments, muffled or distorted sound, ringing or buzzing in the ears (tinnitus), and difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds. If you suspect you have hearing loss, it is important to seek medical advice as soon as possible, as early treatment can help improve communication and quality of life.
Hearing loss is diagnosed through a series of tests, including an audiometric test, which measures the softest sounds that can be heard at different frequencies. Treatment options for hearing loss include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices, as well as counseling and support to help manage the condition and improve communication skills.
Overall, hearing loss is a common condition that can have a significant impact on daily life. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing hearing loss, it is important to seek medical advice as soon as possible to address any underlying issues and improve communication and quality of life.
Symptoms of conductive hearing loss may include:
* Difficulty hearing soft sounds
* Muffled or distorted sound
* Ringing or other noises in the affected ear
* Difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy environments
Causes of conductive hearing loss can include:
* Middle ear infections (otitis media)
* Eardrum perforation or tearing
* Tubal erosion or narrowing
* Ossicular anomalies or abnormalities
* Certain head or neck injuries
* Tumors or cysts in the middle ear
Diagnosis of conductive hearing loss typically involves a physical examination and a series of tests, including:
* Otoscopy (examination of the outer ear and eardrum)
* Tympanometry (measurement of the movement of the eardrum)
* Acoustic reflex threshold testing (assessment of the acoustic reflex, which is a normal response to loud sounds)
* Otoacoustic emissions testing (measurement of the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound waves)
Treatment for conductive hearing loss depends on the underlying cause and may include:
* Antibiotics for middle ear infections
* Tubes inserted into the eardrum to drain fluid and improve air flow
* Surgery to repair or replace damaged ossicles or other middle ear structures
* Hearing aids or cochlear implants to amplify sound waves and improve hearing.
There is no cure for tinnitus, but there are several treatment options available to help manage the condition. These include sound therapy, which involves exposing the ear to soothing sounds to mask the tinnitus, and counseling, which can help individuals cope with the emotional effects of tinnitus. Other treatments may include medications to relieve anxiety or depression, relaxation techniques, and lifestyle changes such as avoiding loud noises and taking steps to reduce stress.
It is important for individuals who experience tinnitus to seek medical attention if the condition persists or worsens over time, as it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that requires treatment. A healthcare professional can evaluate the individual's hearing and overall health to determine the cause of the tinnitus and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
This type of hearing loss cannot be treated with medication or surgery, and it is usually permanent. However, there are various assistive devices and technology available to help individuals with sensorineural hearing loss communicate more effectively, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and FM systems.
There are several causes of sensorineural hearing loss, including:
1. Exposure to loud noises: Prolonged exposure to loud noises can damage the hair cells in the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss.
2. Age: Sensorineural hearing loss is a common condition that affects many people as they age. It is estimated that one-third of people between the ages of 65 and 74 have some degree of hearing loss, and nearly half of those over the age of 75 have significant hearing loss.
3. Genetics: Some cases of sensorineural hearing loss are inherited and run in families.
4. Viral infections: Certain viral infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis, can damage the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss.
5. Trauma to the head or ear: A head injury or a traumatic injury to the ear can cause sensorineural hearing loss.
6. Tumors: Certain types of tumors, such as acoustic neuroma, can cause sensorineural hearing loss by affecting the auditory nerve.
7. Ototoxicity: Certain medications, such as certain antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and aspirin at high doses, can be harmful to the inner ear and cause permanent hearing loss.
It is important to note that sensorineural hearing loss cannot be cured, but there are many resources available to help individuals with this condition communicate more effectively and improve their quality of life.
1. Otitis media (middle ear infection): This is an infection of the middle ear that can cause ear pain, fever, and hearing loss.
2. Acoustic neuroma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain. It can cause hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and balance problems.
3. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder of the inner ear that can cause vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
4. Presbycusis: This is age-related hearing loss that affects the inner ear and can cause difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds.
5. Ototoxicity: This refers to damage to the inner ear caused by certain medications or chemicals. It can cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
6. Meningitis: This is an infection of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord. It can cause hearing loss, headache, and other symptoms.
7. Otosclerosis: This is a condition in which there is abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss.
8. Cholesteatoma: This is a condition in which there is a buildup of skin cells in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms.
9. Eustachian tube dysfunction: This is a condition in which the tubes that connect the middle ear to the back of the throat do not function properly, leading to hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms.
10. Mastoiditis: This is an infection of the mastoid bone behind the ear that can cause hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms.
The exact cause of otosclerosis is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition typically affects one ear more than the other, and it is more common in women than men.
There are several subtypes of otosclerosis, including:
1. Juvenile otosclerosis: This type of otosclerosis affects children and adolescents and is characterized by a slow progression of hearing loss over several years.
2. Adult otosclerosis: This type of otosclerosis affects adults and is typically caused by exposure to loud noise or age-related wear and tear on the middle ear bones.
3. Otosclerotic fixation: This type of otosclerosis is characterized by a complete fixation of the stapes bone, which can cause complete deafness in the affected ear.
The symptoms of otosclerosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Hearing loss: Otosclerosis can cause hearing loss in the affected ear, which can range from mild to severe.
2. Tinnitus: Patients with otosclerosis may experience ringing, buzzing, or other sounds in the affected ear.
3. Balance difficulties: Otosclerosis can affect the balance center in the inner ear, leading to dizziness, vertigo, and other balance problems.
4. Ear fullness: Patients with otosclerosis may experience a feeling of fullness or pressure in the affected ear.
Diagnosis of otosclerosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, hearing tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment options for otosclerosis include:
1. Watchful waiting: In some cases, doctors may recommend a wait-and-see approach, monitoring the patient's condition over time to see if any changes occur.
2. Hearing aids: Patients with mild to moderate hearing loss due to otosclerosis may benefit from using hearing aids in the affected ear.
3. Stapedectomy: This surgical procedure involves removing the stapes bone and replacing it with a prosthesis. This can improve hearing in cases where the condition is caused by fixation of the stapes bone.
4. Otosclerosis injection therapy: Injecting medications such as corticosteroids into the middle ear can help reduce inflammation and improve hearing.
5. Cochlear implant: In severe cases of otosclerosis, a cochlear implant may be recommended to bypass the damaged inner ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
It's important to note that the most effective treatment approach will depend on the severity and location of the condition, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Consult with an otolaryngologist (ENT specialist) for a personalized evaluation and recommendations.
Some examples of central auditory diseases include:
1. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD): A condition where the brain has difficulty processing sounds, leading to difficulties with speech and language development, reading, and social interactions.
2. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD): A condition that affects the transmission of sound from the inner ear to the brain, leading to difficulties with hearing and understanding speech.
3. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM): A condition that causes chronic inflammation and infection of the middle ear, which can lead to hearing loss and difficulty processing sound.
4. Meniere's disease: A condition that affects the inner ear and causes vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss.
5. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain, leading to hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance difficulties.
6. Stroke or traumatic brain injury: These conditions can damage the auditory system and cause hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.
7. Cochlear implant complications: Complications related to the surgical implantation of a cochlear implant, such as infection or device malfunction, can affect the central auditory system.
8. Chronic tinnitus: A condition characterized by persistent ringing or other sounds in the ears that can lead to hearing loss and difficulty understanding speech.
9. Ototoxicity: Exposure to certain medications or chemicals can damage the inner ear and cause hearing loss or tinnitus.
10. Meningitis or encephalitis: Infections of the brain and its membranes can affect the auditory system and cause hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance difficulties.
These are just a few examples of central auditory diseases. The diagnosis and treatment of these conditions typically involve a team of healthcare professionals, including otolaryngologists (ENT specialists), neurologists, audiologists, and speech-language pathologists.
Functional hearing loss can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
- Auditory processing disorders: Difficulty understanding speech due to impaired ability to process sounds.
- Cognitive deficits: Memory or attention problems that affect the ability to understand spoken language.
- Brain injury: Traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other forms of brain damage can affect the auditory processing centers in the brain, leading to functional hearing loss.
- Neurological conditions: Certain neurological conditions such as autism, ADHD, or learning disabilities can also cause functional hearing loss.
In assessing functional hearing loss, an audiologist or a speech and language therapist may use a variety of tests to evaluate auditory processing skills, cognitive abilities, and speech understanding. Treatment options for functional hearing loss vary depending on the underlying cause but may include speech and language therapy, cognitive training, or the use of assistive devices such as hearing aids or cochlear implants.
The symptoms of bilateral hearing loss may include difficulty hearing speech, especially in noisy environments, difficulty understanding conversations when there is background noise, listening to loud music or watching television at a low volume, and experiencing ringing or buzzing sounds in the ears (tinnitus).
Bilateral hearing loss can be diagnosed with a thorough medical examination, including a physical examination of the ears, an audiometric test, and imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans.
Treatment options for bilateral hearing loss depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some possible treatment options include:
Hearing aids: These devices can amplify sounds and improve hearing ability.
Cochlear implants: These are electronic devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
Assistive listening devices: These include devices such as FM systems, infrared systems, and alerting devices that can help individuals with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
Speech therapy: This can help improve communication skills and address any difficulties with language development.
Medications: Certain medications may be prescribed to treat underlying conditions that are contributing to the hearing loss, such as infections or excessive earwax.
Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove excessive earwax or to repair any damage to the middle ear bones.
Vertigo can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* A feeling of spinning or swaying
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blurred vision
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abnormal eye movements
* Unsteadiness or loss of balance
To diagnose vertigo, a healthcare professional will typically conduct a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's symptoms and medical history. They may also perform tests such as the head impulse test or the electronystagmography (ENG) test to assess the function of the inner ear and balance systems.
Treatment for vertigo depends on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as anticholinergics, antihistamines, or benzodiazepines, as well as vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) to help the body adapt to the balance problems. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of vertigo.
In summary, vertigo is a symptom characterized by a false sense of spinning or movement of the surroundings, and can be caused by various conditions affecting the inner ear, brain, or nervous system. Diagnosis and treatment depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, VRT, and in some cases, surgery.
Some common examples of vestibular diseases include:
1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): A condition that causes brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
2. Labyrinthitis: An inner ear infection that causes vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Vestibular migraine: A type of migraine that causes vertigo, along with headaches and other symptoms.
4. Meniere's disease: A disorder of the inner ear that causes vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
5. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain, causing symptoms such as vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
6. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: A condition in which the bony covering of the superior canal in the inner ear is thin or absent, leading to symptoms such as vertigo, hearing loss, and sound sensitivity.
7. Perilymph fistula: A tear or defect in the membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear, causing symptoms such as vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
8. Ototoxicity: Damage to the inner ear caused by exposure to certain medications or chemicals, leading to symptoms such as vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
Diagnosis of vestibular diseases typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specialized tests such as the Electronystagmography (ENG) or Vestibular Function Tests (VFT). Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the symptoms, but may include medications, vestibular rehabilitation therapy, or surgery.
There are several subtypes of APD, including:
1. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): A disorder characterized by difficulty processing auditory information due to a deficit in the brain's ability to process speech and language.
2. Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD): A subtype of APD that is caused by a problem in the central nervous system, rather than in the inner ear.
3. Developmental Auditory Perceptual Disorder (DAPD): A disorder that affects children and adolescents, characterized by difficulty with auditory perception and processing.
4. Auditory Memory Deficit: A subtype of APD that is characterized by difficulty with auditory memory and recall.
5. Auditory Discrimination Deficit: A subtype of APD that is characterized by difficulty with distinguishing between similar sounds.
APD can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, premature birth, infections during pregnancy or childhood, and head trauma. Treatment for APD typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, such as auditory training and speech therapy, as well as assistive listening devices and technology.
In addition to the subtypes listed above, there are also several related conditions that may be classified as APD, including:
1. Auditory-Verbal Processing Disorder (AVPD): A disorder characterized by difficulty with auditory processing and language development.
2. Language Processing Deficit: A subtype of APD that is characterized by difficulty with language comprehension and processing.
3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that can also affect auditory perception and processing.
4. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that can also affect auditory perception and processing, as well as social communication and behavior.
5. Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD): A type of APD that is characterized by difficulty with central auditory processing, including the ability to understand speech in noisy environments.
1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.
Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.
Conditioned play audiometry
Behavioral observation audiometry
Visual reinforcement audiometry
Personal Track Safety
Audiology and hearing health professionals in developed and developing countries
Workplace health surveillance
Real ear measurement
Auditory brainstem response
Universal neonatal hearing screening
Sensorineural hearing loss
Neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease
Absolute threshold of hearing
Diagnosis of hearing loss
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High frequency audiometry5
- High frequency audiometry (above 8 kHz) is performed using the same procedure as normal air conduction audiometry. (interacoustics.com)
- High frequency audiometry is helpful when testing hearing impairments caused by ototoxicity, noise exposure, and acoustic traumas or in the assessment of patients with tinnitus. (interacoustics.com)
- High frequency audiometry headset (e.g. (interacoustics.com)
- Note high frequency audiometry is only available if the optional high frequency license is installed on the instrument. (interacoustics.com)
- Perform high frequency audiometry in the same way as you would perform normal air conduction audiometry. (interacoustics.com)
Evoked Response Audiometry1
- Brainstem evoked response audiometry in normal hearing subjects. (bvsalud.org)
- air- conduction audiometry measures hearing thresholds. (cdc.gov)
- Speech audiometry -- This tests your ability to detect and repeat spoken words at different volumes heard through a head set. (medlineplus.gov)
- MedRx's AVANT ARC combines the power of PC-based audiometry with the benefits of REM and live speech mapping into one compact device. (med-acoustics.com)
- Tone Audiometry: Narrow Band Noise (default), Speech Weighted Noise, White Noise. (med-acoustics.com)
- Speech Audiometry: Speech Weighted Noise (default), White Noise, External Recorded (opposite channel). (med-acoustics.com)
- The best clinic for audiometry tests is V - Listen Speech & Hearing Clinic. (vlistengurgaon.com)
- This document presents the fundamentals of speech audiometry in noise, general requirements for implementation and criteria for choice among the tests available in French according to the health-professional's needs. (bvsalud.org)
- Tympanometry (impedance audiometry). (nationwidechildrens.org)
- Always perform audiometry upon initial TMP diagnosis and again before any repair attempt, whether in the office or in the operating room. (medscape.com)
- Behavioral Audiometry Evaluation will test how a person responds to sound overall. (cdc.gov)
- Behavioral Audiometry Evaluation tests the function of all parts of the ear. (cdc.gov)
- Pure Tone Audiometry and Otoacoustic Emission Evaluation of Hearing Loss in Diabetic Patients in a Selected Urban Population of South-West Nigeria. (bvsalud.org)
- The current study is aimed to evaluate the hearing loss in Diabetic Mellitus patients in a selected urban population of south-west Nigeria using pure tone audiometry and otoacousticemission evaluation. (bvsalud.org)
- Pure Tone Audiometry Evaluation Method Effectiveness in Detecting Hearing Changes Due to Workplace Ototoxicant, Continuous Noise, and Impulse Noise Exposures. (illumina.com)
- An audiometry exam tests your ability to hear sounds. (medlineplus.gov)
- The Device Meets or exceeds all tests required in the ANSI S3.46-1997 Methods of Measurement of Real-Ear Performance Characteristics of Hearing Aids, along with the requirements of IEC/EN 61669:2001. (med-acoustics.com)
- De- recommendation is pure-tone audiometry, scriptive statistics, chi-squared tests and which is not suitable for children below 4 nonparametric tests when applicable were years of age . (who.int)
- User-operated 2AFC audiometrygave thresholds 1-2 dB lower at most frequencies compared to traditional audiometry. (dtu.dk)
- Pure tone audiometry is a basic clinical test used to determine a person's hearing sensitivity at specific frequencies, i.e., the softest sound that can be perceived in a quiet environment. (cdc.gov)
- Immittance audiometry -- This test measures the function of the ear drum and the flow of sound through the middle ear. (medlineplus.gov)
- Objective: To create a user-operated pure-tone audiometry method based on the method of maximum likelihood (MML) and the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm with high test-retest reliability without the need of an external operator and with minimal influence of subjects' fluctuating response criteria. (dtu.dk)
- Design: Test-retest reliability of the user-operated audiometry system was evaluated and the user-operated audiometry system was compared with traditional audiometry. (dtu.dk)
- Study sample: Test-retest reliability of user-operated 2AFC audiometry was tested with 38 naïve listeners. (dtu.dk)
- To assess whether a person is a good candidate for cochlear implant surgery, an audiometry test can be done. (vlistengurgaon.com)
- 1 This implies that the early detection of NIHL through audiometry among high risk workers is useful in the prevention of further hearing losses. (bmj.com)
- This guide is intended to help health care providers use audiometry to make informed and patient-centered decisions to prevent and manage ototoxicity resulting from second-line anti-TB injectables. (cdc.gov)
- Audiometry is a painless and non-invasive method of evaluating a person's hearing sensitivity. (vlistengurgaon.com)
- User-operated audiometry was developed as an alternative to traditional audiometry for research purposes among musicians. (dtu.dk)
- User-operated 2AFC audiometry was compared to traditional audiometry in 41 subjects. (dtu.dk)
- Results: The repeatability of user-operated 2AFC audiometry was comparable to traditional audiometry with standard deviation of differences from 3.9 dB to 5.2 dB in the frequency range of 250-8000 Hz. (dtu.dk)
- Conclusions: User-operated 2AFC audiometry does not require specific operating skills and the repeatability is acceptable and similar to traditional audiometry. (dtu.dk)
- User operated 2AFC audiometry is a reliable alternative to traditional audiometry. (dtu.dk)
- Study shows how iPhones and audiometry apps can be used to monitor for dangerous noise levels. (imedicalapps.com)
- Select Audiometry and click on Manual Input in the ribbon. (otoconsult.com)
- How do I enter results manually for audiometry? (otoconsult.com)
- At each frequency, the sound in each ear will be tested separately, starting with the right ear if the examinee number is even and the left ear if the examinee number is odd, unless while asking the audiometry questions the technician ascertains that the examinee hears better in one ear than in the other. (cdc.gov)
- air- conduction audiometry measures hearing thresholds. (cdc.gov)
- In addition the Audiometry Component of NHANES 2019-2020 will be augmented with a Word in Noise test administered to older adults, 70+ years of age. (nih.gov)
- Methods: We analyzed data from 3,698 U.S. adults 20-69 years of age who had been randomly assigned to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 Audiometry Examination Component. (nih.gov)
- In detailed audiometry, hearing is normal if you can hear tones from 250 to 8,000 Hz at 25 dB or lower. (medlineplus.gov)
- A literature search was conducted to see whether high-frequency audiometry (HFA) could be used for the early detection of hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- A further aim was to see whether any differences exist in the hearing threshold using conventional audiometry (CA) and HFA in workers of different age groups exposed to workplace noise. (nih.gov)
- Audiometry testing is used to identify and diagnose hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- The protocol designated as ''subject-fit'' assessed the attenuation achieved by subjects who were experienced in threshold audiometry, but naive with respect to the use of hearing protection , when they fit HPDs by following manufacturers' instructions without any experimenter assistance. (cdc.gov)
- Textbooks were referred to for description of clinical procedures that are widely known and accepted as the gold-standard, such as examination of ear and audiometry. (who.int)
- The inclusion criteria were the keywords "high frequency" and "audiometry" appearing anywhere in the article and the participation of unexposed people or a group exposed to workplace noise. (nih.gov)
- The CHS audiometry data includes two trials of both the left and right ears for frequencies PT, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 500. (nih.gov)