RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that are homologues of ELAV protein, Drosophila. They were initially identified in humans as the targets of autoantibodies in patients with PARANEOPLASTIC ENCEPHALOMYELITIS. They are thought to regulate GENE EXPRESSION at the post-transcriptional level.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.
A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
An intracellular ribonucleolytic protein complex that participates in POSTRANSCRIPTIONAL RNA PROCESSING and RNA DEGRADATION.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Nucleic acid sequences that are involved in the negative regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION by chromatin silencing.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.

Perspectives on the ARE as it turns 25 years old. (1/25)

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Tristetraprolin inhibits poly(A)-tail synthesis in nuclear mRNA that contains AU-rich elements by interacting with poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1. (2/25)

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Multilevel regulation of HIF-1 signaling by TTP. (3/25)

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dTIS11 Protein-dependent polysomal deadenylation is the key step in AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay in Drosophila cells. (4/25)

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AU-rich elements in the 3'-UTR regulate the stability of the 141 amino acid isoform of parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA. (5/25)

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AUF1/hnRNP D is a novel protein partner of the EBER1 noncoding RNA of Epstein-Barr virus. (6/25)

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The p38/MK2-driven exchange between tristetraprolin and HuR regulates AU-rich element-dependent translation. (7/25)

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The ribosome binding site of a mini-ORF protects a T3SS mRNA from degradation by RNase E. (8/25)

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Selective mRNA turnover is an important mechanism of eukaryotic gene regulation. The expression of proto‐oncogenes, lymphokines and cytokines is usually transient, requiring rapid mRNA removal through destabilization following the cessation of transcription. AU‐rich elements (AREs) located in their 3′ untranslated regions (3′ UTRs) comprise a major class of cis‐elements that target these mRNAs for rapid degradation (Caput et al., 1986; Shaw and Kamen, 1986; for reviews, see Belasco and Brawerman, 1993; Chen and Shyu, 1995). Loss of this negative regulatory control conferred by AREs has been shown to be associated with transforming phenotypes (Miller et al., 1984; Meijlink et al., 1985; Lee,W. et al., 1988). Besides mRNAs, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) can also be targeted by AREs for rapid degradation, presumably through similar decay pathway(s) (Fan et al., 1997). ARE‐mediated decay may also be differentially regulated. For instance, in a monocyte tumor cell line, c‐fos mRNA is ...
Mutation in the Purine Rich Element Binding Protein A Gene Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Autosomal Dominant Mental Retardation Type 5. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Complete information for SMG6 gene (Protein Coding), SMG6, Nonsense Mediated MRNA Decay Factor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
We found significant enrichment for Pumilio targets only in classes with zygotic decay contributions (classes IV and V; Figure 8a), consistent with its proposed role in zygotic decay activities [46]. The minor enrichment in Pumilio targets within the stable mRNA class (class I) was statistically insignificant.. Smaug targets were significantly enriched in classes III and V, both of which show maternal decay activities, while no enrichment is seen in the exclusively zygotic decay class IV (Figure 8b). These observations are in line with the maternal origin of Smaug [28]. Given that Smaug had been shown to be an important, maternally provided mRNA decay factor [43, 74], the absence of significant (P = 0.42) enrichment of its targets within the maternal decay only class (II) was somewhat unexpected. The maximum enrichment (13-fold) of Smaug targets was detected in the mixed decay class (V). A plausible explanation for these observations might be that Smaug requires additional, zygotic decay ...
TELO2 interacting protein 1 is a human homolog of the S. pombe Tel2 interacting protein 1, and is encoded by the TTI1 gene. It is part of the TTT complex that is required to stabilize the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family proteins. This complex regulates the response to DNA damage caused by radiation or DNA cross-linking agents. TTI1 also promotes the assembly, stabilizes, and maintains the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2; these complexes are responsible for regulating cell growth and survival in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. TTI1 is also known as Tel2 interacting protein 1 homolog (S. pombe); Tel2 interacting protein 1 homolog, KIAA0406, and smg-10 homolog, nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor (SMG10).. ...
TELO2 interacting protein 1 is a human homolog of the S. pombe Tel2 interacting protein 1, and is encoded by the TTI1 gene. It is part of the TTT complex that is required to stabilize the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinase (PIKK) family proteins. This complex regulates the response to DNA damage caused by radiation or DNA cross-linking agents. TTI1 also promotes the assembly, stabilizes, and maintains the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2; these complexes are responsible for regulating cell growth and survival in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. TTI1 is also known as Tel2 interacting protein 1 homolog (S. pombe); Tel2 interacting protein 1 homolog, KIAA0406, and smg-10 homolog, nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor (SMG10).. ...
The antitumor activities of cytolytic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells are being increasingly investigated and exploited in cancer immunotherapy. One mechanism by which these cells recognize tumor cells is by engagement of NKG2D, an activating receptor on cytolytic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, by MICA/B and ULBP family stress antigens.. In a study reported in Science Translational Medicine, Vantourout and colleagues showed that activation of EGFR is responsible for surface upregulation of NKG2D ligands in human epithelial cells in response to ultraviolet irradiation, osmotic shock, oxidative stress, and growth factor exposure. EGFR activation results in intracellular relocalization of adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1); AUF1 proteins normally destabilize NKG2D ligand mRNAs by targeting an AU-rich element that is conserved in the 3′ ends of most human, but not murine, NKG2D ligand genes. NKG2D ligand expression was positively correlated with EGFR ...
Many genes are essential for early development and, as their inactivation leads to early embryonic lethality, this precludes further investigation of their functions in late embryonic and postnatal development. The cKO strategy overcomes this obstacle and allows for dissection of gene function in a cell lineage-specific and temporally controlled fashion. In this study, we employed an SC-specific Cre line (i.e. Amh-Cre) to inactivate Upf2 exclusively in SCs at ∼E12.5 so that the role of Upf2 in SC development could be delineated. The dual-fluorescent reporter (Rosa26mTmG) line allows for easy and convenient determination of the onset of Cre activity when crossed with a specific Cre deletor line (Wu et al., 2012). Using this method, we detected Cre activity in Amh-Cre males at ∼E12.5, which is ∼2 days earlier than in an alternative Amh-Cre line (∼E14.5) (Gao et al., 2006; Kim et al., 2010). At E12.5, SC specification has completed and the testis cord has just become morphologically ...
Figure 7. siRNA-mediated depletion of 4E-T affects mRNA turnover. HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA against 4E-T or a control (Ctrl) siRNA (4AIII inverted). Protein and RNA were harvested for use in Western (C and D) and Northern (A, B, and E) analysis, respectively. (A and B) HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA against 4E-T or with control siRNA and later cotransfected with pTet-β-globin or pTet-β-globin c-fos or GM-CSF ARE and pTet Off. Cells were treated with doxycycline (1 μg/ml) ∼72 h after transfection to block transcription. Total RNA was isolated at 0.5, 2, 3, and 4 h for β-globin/GM-CSF ARE assays (A) and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 h for β-globin/c-fos ARE assays (B) and analyzed by Northern blot. GAPDH served as a loading control. mRNA half-lives were calculated from Northern blots and normalized against GAPDH levels. (C) Protein extracts were collected at 6 h after treatment with doxycycline (1 μg/ml) from cells that were transfected with the reporter plasmid and pTetOff and ...
Non-stop decay is a cellular mechanism of mRNA surveillance to detect mRNA molecules lacking a stop codon and prevent these mRNAs from translation. The non-stop decay pathway releases ribosomes that have reached the far 3 end of an mRNA and guides the mRNA to the exosome complex, or to RNase R in bacteria for selective degradation. In contrast to NMD, polypeptides do not release from the ribosome, and thus, NSD seems to involve mRNA decay factors distinct from NMD. Non-stop decay is a cellular pathway that identifies and degrades aberrant mRNA transcripts that do not contain a proper stop codons. Stop codons are signals in messenger RNA that signal for synthesis of proteins to end. Aberrant transcripts are identified during translation when the ribosome translates into the poly A tail at the 3 end of mRNA. A non-stop transcript can occur when point mutations damage the normal stop codon. Moreover, some transcriptions are more likely to preserve low scale of gene expression in a particular ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Therapies for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in the Developed and Developing World. AU - Rich, Jonathan D. AU - Jing, Z C. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. M3 - Chapter. SN - 978-1483571799. VL - 9. BT - ISHLT Monograph Series. A2 - Benza, Raymond. A2 - Corris, Paul. A2 - Park, Myung. A2 - Uber, Patricia A. A2 - Kirklin, James K. PB - BookBaby. ER - ...
Cth - Model 9514 C57BL/6 from Taconics GEM Collection. Genetically engineered mouse models for research. See the specs for these mice & start an order today.
TY - JOUR. T1 - CON (The window is closed). T2 - In patients with cirrhosis with ascites, the clinical risks of nonselective beta-blocker outweigh the benefits and should NOT be prescribed. AU - Aday, Ariel W.. AU - Rich, Nicole E.. AU - Mufti, Arjmand R.. AU - Tujios, Shannan R.. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85048328845&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85048328845&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1002/cld.699. DO - 10.1002/cld.699. M3 - Review article. C2 - 30992802. AN - SCOPUS:85048328845. VL - 11. SP - 123. EP - 127. JO - Clinical Liver Disease. JF - Clinical Liver Disease. SN - 2046-2484. IS - 5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How Can Animal Disease Risks be Better Managed?. AU - Carpenter, Tim. AU - Rich, Karl M.. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - Livestock farming is imbued with a variety of disease-related risks. The threat of disease, and actions taken (or not taken) to mitigate it, can impact both the broader livestock sector and potentially society at large if the disease is what is termed zoonotic i.e. impacting both animal and human health alike. Understanding the nature of these risks is crucial to improve policymaking and requires multidisciplinary toolkits. In this article we identify various frameworks from economics and epidemiology to analyze the impact of animal disease risks in livestock environments. From this, we examine the policy responses implemented to better manage risk, and conclude by identifying the current gaps in the decision process related to risk and uncertainty, which is a reflection of imperfect knowledge. Recent advances in our modeling frameworks have helped ...
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Adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AU-rich elements; AREs) are found in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code for proto-oncogenes, nuclear transcription factors, and cytokines. AREs are one of the most common determinants of RNA stability in mammalian cells. AREs are defined as a region with frequent adenine and uridine bases in a mRNA. They usually target the mRNA for rapid degradation. ARE-directed mRNA degradation is influenced by many exogenous factors, including phorbol esters, calcium ionophores, cytokines, and transcription inhibitors. These observations suggest that AREs play a critical role in the regulation of gene transcription during cell growth and differentiation, and the immune response. AREs have been divided into three classes with different sequences. The best characterised adenylate uridylate (AU)-rich Elements have a core sequence of AUUUA within U-rich sequences (for example WWWU(AUUUA)UUUW where W is A or U). This lies within a 50-150 ...
Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a protein naturally produced by the body. TTP targets messenger molecules that encode cytokines, proteins involved in inflammation. TTP binds to the messenger molecules and destabilizes them, which reduces cytokine levels and consequently reduces inflammation. 1. A study on mice has confirmed that TTP levels have a direct relationship to inflammation. When TTP levels were higher, the mice became resistant to inflammation. The researchers concluded that increasing TTP levels can help humans to avoid and treat inflammatory diseases like arthritis or multiple sclerosis.1. Additionally, TTPs effect on inflammation levels has a direct impact on bone health. A study conducted in 2018 at the University of Buffalo tested the importance of TTP for bone health by examining groups of mice altered to produce different amounts of the protein. The researchers bred one group of mice engineered not to produce TTP, one group engineered to overproduce the protein and an unaffected group ...
In inflammation, the post-transcriptional regulation of transiently expressed genes provides a potential therapeutic target. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is of the factors regulating decay of cytokine mRNAs. The aim of the present ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Examination of the Effect of Nongenetic Risk Factors on the Familial Risk of Breast Cancer among Relatives of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients. AU - Chen, Ping Ling. AU - Sellers, Thomas A.. AU - Potter, John D.. AU - Folsom, Aaron R.. AU - Sellers, Thomas A.. AU - Rich, Stephen S.. AU - Rich, Stephen S.. PY - 1994/10/1. Y1 - 1994/10/1. N2 - Relatives of postmenopausal breast cancer patients have a greater risk of breast cancer than do women with no family history of the disease. However, no study has previously examined the contribution of other breast cancer risk factors to risk in these relatives, thus precluding the ability to discern between shared environment or genes as the cause of familial aggregation. We conducted a nested case-control study of 251 index case families and 234 index control families. Incident breast cancer cases occurring in 1988-1989 and cancer-free controls were selected from a prospective cohort study. A pedigree development form was mailed to ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Photoporation and cell transfection using a violet diode laser. AU - Paterson, L.. AU - Agate, B.. AU - Comrie, M.. AU - Ferguson, R.. AU - Lake, T. K.. AU - Morris, J. E.. AU - Carruthers, A. E.. AU - Brown, C. T.A.. AU - Sibbett, W.. AU - Bryant, P. E.. AU - Gunn-Moore, F.. AU - Riches, A. C.. AU - Dholakia, K.. PY - 2005/10/31. Y1 - 2005/10/31. N2 - Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. This represents the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date.. AB - Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells is achieved by photoporation with a violet diode laser. This represents the simplest method of laser-assisted cell poration reported to date.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=27144453767&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=27144453767&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Conference contribution. AN - SCOPUS:27144453767. SN - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Iteration of human fibroblasts on poly(e-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide)/bioactive glass composites with or without precorrosion.. AU - Jaakkola, TK. AU - Hormia, M.. AU - Närhi, T.. AU - Rich, J. AU - Seppälä, Jukka. AU - Yli-Urpo, A.. PY - 2002/3. Y1 - 2002/3. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 81. SP - A392-A392. JO - Journal of Dental Research. JF - Journal of Dental Research. SN - 0022-0345. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement gene variants in relation to autoantibodies to beta cell specific antigens and type 1 diabetes in the TEDDY Study. AU - Törn, Carina. AU - Liu, Xiang. AU - Hagopian, William. AU - Lernmark, Åke. AU - Simell, Olli. AU - Rewers, Marian. AU - Ziegler, Anette G.. AU - Schatz, Desmond. AU - Akolkar, Beena. AU - Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna. AU - Chen, Wei Min. AU - Toppari, Jorma. AU - Mykkänen, Juha. AU - Ilonen, Jorma. AU - Rich, Stephen S.. AU - She, Jin-Xiong. AU - Sharma, Ashok Kumar. AU - Steck, Andrea. AU - Krischer, Jeffrey. PY - 2016/6/16. Y1 - 2016/6/16. N2 - A total of 15 SNPs within complement genes and present on the ImmunoChip were analyzed in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. A total of 5474 subjects were followed from three months of age until islet autoimmunity (IA: n = 413) and the subsequent onset of type 1 diabetes (n = 115) for a median of 73 months (IQR 54-91). Three SNPs within ITGAM were nominally associated (p , ...
Pillar II capital buffers include risks that are not sufficiently captured under Pillar I capital requirements taking into account institution-specific factors such as business model, activities, size, risk profile and risk appetite, and stress testing results. DTIs are responsible for developing and implementing internal capital targets and developing strategies to achieve those internal targets. OSFIs approach to assessing the adequacy of Pillar II capital buffers established by DTIs is outlined in guideline E-19 Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process and guideline E-18 Stress Testing.. Capital buffers are built-up during normal times to provide an institution with additional flexibility in times of stress. As noted in a statement by the Superintendent on April 3, 2020, regarding measures taken to support the resilience of financial institutions, OSFI considers that measured declines in bank capital ratios are acceptable in the current circumstances and entirely consistent with the ...
Nahrungsmittelallergien sind Erkrankungen, die durch immunologisch vermittelte, entzündliche Reaktionen auf Nahrungsmittelproteine bei individuellen Personen zustande kommen. Es werden IgE-vermittelte
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is cyclophilin involved in the immunosuppressive and nephrotoxic mechanism of action of cyclosporin A?. AU - Sigal, N. H.. AU - Dumont, F.. AU - Durette, P.. AU - Siekierka, John. AU - Peterson, L.. AU - Rich, D. H.. AU - Dunlap, B. E.. AU - Staruch, M. J.. AU - Melino, M. R.. AU - Koprak, S. L.. AU - Williams, D.. AU - Witzel, B.. AU - Pisano, J. M.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - In this report we have approached two questions relating to the mechanism of action of cyclosporin A (CsA). First, we address whether the major cytosolic protein for CsA, cyclophilin, is directly involved in mediating the immunosuppressive activity of this drug, and, in particular, whether inhibition of this proteins peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity results in inhibition of murine T cell activation. Second, we ask whether the nephrotoxicity observed with CsA is related to inhibition of PPIase-dependent pathways in cells other than lymphocytes. Using a series of 61 cyclosporin ...
Expression of IL17A and IL22 mRNA (Fig. 4 B), and frequencies of IL17A- and IL22-producing CD4 T or γδ T cells (Fig. 4, C and D) within peripheral LN or skin were found to be completely dependent on both IL23p19 and TNF signaling. Similarly, TNF mRNA levels within skin lesions were reduced in the absence of IL23, IL17A, and TNFR expression (Fig. 4 B). No impact was observed on numbers of TNF-producing cells at this site of inflammation (unpublished data), suggesting that other cell types, such as myeloid cells, constitute the source of this cytokine. Regarding IFN-γ production, both mRNA levels and CD4+ T cells proportions were comparable between groups (Fig. 4 B and not depicted).. Absence of TTP also leads to myeloid hyperplasia, characterized by increased proportions of F4/80+ macrophages and GR1+ neutrophils in the BM and the spleen (Taylor et al., 1996), accompanied by a slight reduction in B cell numbers in these lymphoid organs. This spontaneous granulocyte hyperplasia was recently ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sandrine Chamboredon, Delphine Ciais, Agnès Desroches-Castan, Pierre Savi, Françoise Bono, Jean-Jacques Feige, Nadia Cherradi].
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Die Entwicklung einer Lungenfibrose durch direkte radioaktive Strahleneinwirkung auf das periphere Lungengewebe konnte histo-pathologisch und funktionsanalytisch sowohl tierexperimentell [1, 8, 20,...
Im Rahmen einer klinischen Routineuntersuchung wurde bei 60 Patienten eine kernspintomographische Vitalitätsdiagnostik an einem 1,5 Tesla-System durchgeführt. Da es verschiedene Kontrastmittel gibt, ist wichtig, dass der Wirkstoff, auf den Sie allergisch reagiert haben, notiert wurde.
CFCA PAPER NO Property and financial matters upon the breakdown of de facto relationships Rachel Carson Reforms introduced in 2009 to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) have meant that most samesex
In the cytoplasm, the exosome interacts with AU rich element (ARE) binding proteins (e.g. KRSP and TTP), which can promote or ... Several proteins that stabilize or destabilize mRNA molecules through binding to AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region ... Lin, WJ; Duffy, A; Chen, CY (2007). "Localization of AU-rich element-containing mRNA in cytoplasmic granules containing exosome ... 2001). "AU binding proteins recruit the exosome to degrade ARE-containing mRNAs". Cell. 107 (4): 451-64. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674 ...
AU-rich element decayEdit. The presence of AU-rich elements in some mammalian mRNAs tends to destabilize those transcripts ... Chen, C.Y.A.; Shyu, A.B. (1995), "AU-rich elements: characterization and importance in mRNA degradation", Trends in Biochemical ... AU-rich elements also regulate the biosynthesis of proto-oncogenic transcription factors like c-Jun and c-Fos.[29] ... Rapid mRNA degradation via AU-rich elements is a critical mechanism for preventing the overproduction of potent cytokines such ...
Egon Wiberg, Heinz Goeltzer, Richard Bauer (1951). "Synthese von Magnesiumhydrid aus den Elementen (Synthesis of Magnesium ... In 1951 preparation from the elements was first reported involving direct hydrogenation of Mg metal at high pressure and ... Hydride from the Elements)" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B. 6b: 394.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Zaluska, ...
This article describes a work or element of fiction in a primarily in-universe style. Please help rewrite it to explain the ... Alternate forms of naquadah include liquid naquadah, used to power Goa'uld staff weapons,[9] and heavy liquid naquadah, used to ... is rich in neutronium, which leads it to be targeted by the Replicators.[18] The nanite Asurans are also based on neutronium, ... Fictional materials and elements [edit]. *Hoffan drug A drug made by the Hoffans, which prevents the individual from being fed ...
... (RNA Helicase associated with AU-rich element, also known as DHX36 or G4R1) is a 114-kDa human RNA helicase of the DEAH- ...
AU-rich elements Pillars link to original 1986 Cell publication discovering AU-rich elements mRNA Translational blockade by AU- ... rich elements Brief introduction to mRNA regulatory elements ARED: AU-rich element database Transterm page for AU-Rich Element ... Adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AU-rich elements; AREs) are found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs ... The best characterised adenylate uridylate (AU)-rich Elements have a core sequence of AUUUA within U-rich sequences (for ...
... and AU rich elements (ARE) also have roles in determining the length of the poly(A) tail. Research into the CPE has focused on ... The cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE) is a sequence element found in the 3' untranslated region of messenger RNA. While ... The most common eCPE sequence is UUUUUUUUUUUU while the sequence of C-CPE is generally a very C rich region with the occasional ... If the CPE has a nonconsensus sequence, a nearby Pumilio-binding element (PBE) is necessary for translational activation to ...
Aus dem heiligen Lande, appeared in 1862. Tischendorf's Eastern journeys were rich enough in other discoveries to merit the ... or which appears to comprise the elements of the others." "Those readings must be maintained which accord with New Testament ... Richard Nagel: deutsch ... Hrsg. Eugen Niethe Berlin, 1891 Ezra Abbot: The late Professor Tischendorf. Aus: The Unitarian ... Indeed, he was never rich, but he staunchly defended the rights of the monks at Saint Catherine's Monastery when he persuaded ...
"Tristetraprolin Recruits Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4E2 To Repress Translation of AU-Rich Element-Containing mRNAs. ". Mol ...
Children Youth and Environments Journal Friendship bench https://www.parksleisure.com.au/documents/item/2567 Louv, Richard ( ... This user-friendly text is a resource for stakeholders wanting to both view and consider elements to include in a playscape ... See Richard Louv's Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder, 2005). Urban playscapes are ...
Uranium occurs with copper, gold, silver, and rare earth elements (REE) in a large hematite-rich granite breccia complex in the ... Alternate scheme[edit]. The IAEA classification scheme works well, but is far from ideal, as it does not consider that similar ... Chalcopyrite-rich ore specimen from Olympic Dam: copper-rich sections of the deposits are usually also rich in uranium ... The uranium rich Dominion Reef is located at the base of the West Rand Supergroup. The Vaal Reef is the most uranium rich reef ...
Richard Farmer writes. "Setting the standards with a little help from Senator John - Crikey". Crikey.com.au. Archived from the ... Elements of the reforms were opposed by the Labor Party and Union movement. The Australian Council of Trade Unions called the " ... "parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au". parlinfoweb.aph.gov.au. 27 May 2004. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 28 November ... "Border Protection Bill 2001". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 28 November 2009. "Amended Border Protection Bill". Austlii.edu.au. ...
On 29/30 June 2014, UPDF elements of the AU-RTF clashed with Seleka fighters at Zako and Kono villages, in the Central African ... By March 2016 the Ugandan AU-RTF Commander was Colonel Richard Otto. Eventually another success was scored by the AU-RTF when ... Ongwen was transferred to U.S Special Forces and then Ugandan elements of the AU-RTF. AU-RTF operations were plagued with ... African Union (2015) The African Union-Led Regional Task Force for the elimination of the LRA, African Union Peace and Security ...
Richard Kuipers of Variety said "Odyssey is packed with stunning sights including a 50-ft., four-armed CGI villain but is let ... The AU Review. 2021-02-13. Retrieved 2021-02-15. "Movie Review - A Writer's Odyssey (2021)". Flickering Myth. 2021-02-14. ... down by a script that fails to fashion promising story elements into a consistently compelling whole." Narayan Liu of CBR.com ... Kuipers, Richard (2021-02-12). "'A Writer's Odyssey' Review: A Chinese New Year Tentpole Attraction Blends Fantasy and Reality ...
A local Fox 25 news reporter made the same move when he rhymed the unspoken word with rich. Rick Sanchez of CNN went on to ... Aldave, Cherryl (2003-01-29). "Forgotten Elements: A Bitch Iz A Bitch , Rappers Talk Hip Hop Beef & Old School Hip Hop". HipHop ... "King Lear". It.usyd.edu.au. Archived from the original on 2010-05-18. Retrieved 2012-05-03. Shakespeare, William (1602). ... On CNN's "Out in the Open," Rick Sanchez characterized the word without using it by saying, "Last night, we showed you a clip ...
Copper-rich alloys prone to stress cracking by ammonia.. *Au-Ag. Gold-silver. Noble metals. Used in jewelry.. *Au-Cu ... Role of elements[edit]. element. role volatility. corrosion resistance. cost. incompatibility description ... Au-Pd. Gold-Palladium. Improved corrosion resistance over Au-Cu and Au-Ni alloys. Used for joining superalloys and refractory ... Au-Ni. Gold-Nickel. Continuous series of solid solutions. Wider melting range than Au-Cu alloys but better corrosion resistance ...
... cs.au.dk/~amoeller/XML/schemas/xmlschema-problems.html Rick Jelliffe critique in May 2009, https://web.archive.org/web/ ... An element may belong to a substitution group; if element E is in the substitution group of element H, then wherever the schema ... The main components of a schema are: Element declarations, which define properties of elements. These include the element name ... Element declarations may be global or local, allowing the same name to be used for unrelated elements in different parts of an ...
UTR of TNFα contains an AU-rich element (ARE). Structure[edit]. TNF is primarily produced as a 233-amino acid-long type II ... Rick J, Kuster B, Superti-Furga G (February 2004). "A physical and functional map of the human TNF alpha/NF-kappa B signal ...
... the rich Islamic heritage of Mali and should not be allowed to be destroyed and put in harm's way by bigoted extremist elements ... "Mali : au moins 35 morts dans les affrontements entre islamistes et Touaregs à Gao" (in French). Jeune Afrique. Agence France- ... Two of our elements were hit in the skirmish but without gravity, they were treated and are doing well " According to Oumar ... "West African leaders meet on Mali crisis". The Daily Times. 30 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2013. ...
The wife of Martinez is believed to come from the very rich French settlers of the island; Collas de Mauvignié originally from ... G. Van Rijnberk, Un thaumaturge au XVIII (2) s. : Martines de Pasqually Sa vie, son oeuvre, son ordre I, Paris, Alcan, 1935; t ... According to the researches of George C. and the elements discovered by Michele Friot and Nahon, namely a certificate of ... Henri Bernard Catus May 27, 2009). The place of residence for Martinez, namely Leogane and Port-au-Prince, was French and ...
Richard Wolin, p. 282; Víctor Farías, Heidegger and Nazism, Temple University Press, 1989, p. 287 François Fédier, « Lettre au ... which was the element of French philosophy that was most dismissive of Heidegger's involvement with National Socialism after ... François Fédier, Heidegger vu de France, Lettre au professeur H. Ott, in Regarder Voir, Paris : Les Belles Lettres/ Archimbaud ... Richard Wolin, "French Heidegger Wars." in The Heidgegger Controversy, ed. ...
Brown, Richard E.; Brain, Joseph D.; Wang, Ning (1997). "The avian respiratory system: A unique model for studies of ... As learning progresses, the subsong is replaced with a more refined version containing elements of adult song, called plastic ... Melbourne, AU: Melbourne University Publishing. ISBN 978-1588342508. Starnberger, Iris; Preininger, Doris; Hödl, Walter (2014 ... Narins, Peter; Feng, Albert S.; Fay, Richard R. (2006). Hearing and sound communication in Amphibians. New York, NY: Springer. ...
All-Star Squadron was set during World War II on Earth-Two; as it was in the past of an alternate universe, all its events had ... Thomas, Roy (w), Kubert, Joe (p), Hoberg, Rick (i). "Vengeance from Valhalla" All-Star Squadron 18 (February 1983), DC Comics " ... if elements are used from them, they are subject to selective revision and updating as appropriate to mesh with future ... The series was set on DC's Earth-Two, an alternate universe in which Golden Age comic characters age in real time. ...
And in similarity, the true history and culture of the African people is embedded in the Traditional African religions. To ... Tamsier credited his old friend and mentor Jean Michel for teaching him the elements of vogue and for mentoring him, as well as ... directed by Richard Curtis and starring Hugh Grant, Liam Neeson and Colin Firth. He was also a film, television and theatre ... because African history and culture are deeply rooted in the Traditional African religions." Tamsier is also known for ...
Forums are an element of social media technologies which take on many different forms including blogs, business networks, ... Richard Scott (1996). Internet BBSs: a guided tour. ISBN 1-884777-30-9. "vBulletin Community Forum - FAQ: What is a bulletin ... Whirlpool.net.au Wowhead Wrong Planet XDA-Developers Yahoo! Groups (defunct) YCombinator Comparison of civic technology ...
Elements of the then-secret 4450th Tactical Group (USAF) were put on standby to fly the strike mission against Libya. Over 30 F ... Bernstein, Richard (23 April 1986). "FRENCH SAY THEY FAVORED STRONGER ATTACK ON LIBYA". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 June ... The Assembly of Heads of State of the African Union in its declaration said that the deliberate attempt to kill Libyans ... There were reports that Libya was attempting to become a nuclear power and Gaddafi's occupation of Chad, which was rich in ...
Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in History and Memory (2015) excerpt and text search Evans, Richard J. "From Hitler to ... Vortraege aus dem IfZG. Munich: Beck Verlag, 1983. Broszat, Martin. German National Socialism, 1919-1945. Santa Barbara, CA: ... From Kaiserreich to Third Reich: Elements of Continuity in German History 1871-1945 [trans of Bundnis der Eliten]. Winchester ... Atkinson, Rick. An Army at Dawn: The War in North Africa, 1942-1943. New York: Henry Holt & Company, 2002. Atkinson, Rick. The ...
The existence of the element fluorine had been well known for many years, but all attempts to isolate it had failed, and some ... Toon, Richard (1 September 2011). "The discovery of fluorine". Education in Chemistry. Vol. 48 no. 5. Royal Society of ... Lafont, O. (1 January 2008). "De l'apprentissage au Prix Nobel : le fabuleux destin d'Henri Moissan" [From apprenticeship to ... His newly developed arc furnace led to the production of borides and carbides of numerous elements (e.g. silicon boride), ...
They contain numerous erotic scenes as well as esoteric elements that one rarely finds in the more literary worlds of J. R. R. ... They are written in a rich, colorful prose, and even include a glossary of the language of the Giants. Sylf continued her saga ... A fourth volume, La Reine au Coeur Puissant [The Strong-Hearted Queen] (1979), carried on with a tale taking place in Ancient ... Christia Sylf was the pseudonym of Christiane Léonie Adélaïde Richard, born 28 September 1924 in Paris, died on 28 November ...
... the lack of what he considered formal education and civilizing elements in Africa contributed to the inferiority of the African ... Ludwig Riedel Francis de Castelnau Sigismund Ernst Richard Krone Peter Claussen Jean-Batiste Debret François-August Biard Mary ... Slenes, Robert W. "African Abrahams, Lucretias and Men of Sorrows: Allegory and Allusion in the Brazilian Anti-slavery ... Rugendas represented the work performed by black people as a civilizing element that allowed them to develop themselves and to ...
Eaton, Richard M. (1993). The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760. University of California. ISBN 978-0-520-20507- ... Chatterji, SK (1921). "Bengali Phonetics". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 2: 1. doi:10.1017/ ... Language is an important element of Bengali identity and binds together a culturally diverse region. ... Volume 18 of London Oriental and African Language Library. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9027273138. ...
Contributed by Richard B. Potts, B.A., Ph.D. *^ a b Ann Parson. "Neanderthals Hunted as Well as Humans, Study Says". National ... Kusimba, Sibel (2003). African Foragers: Environment, Technology, Interactions. Rowman Altamira. p. 285. ISBN 0-7591-0154-X.. ... Rick Weiss, "Chimps Observed Making Their Own Weapons", The Washington Post, February 22, 2007 ... "Mc2.vicnet.net.au. 2004-10-02. Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2010-01-31.. ...
Thorium TV - A review of the element. *EnergyFromThorium.com - Content-rich site on Thorium as a future energy source, and its ... Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn ୭ Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Uut Fl Uup Lv Uus Uuo ... Martin, Richard (2012). Super Fuel: Thorium, the Green Energy Source for the Future (1st ed.). Palgrave MacMillan. p. 240. ISBN ... Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press. ...
It was the fourth African-American Greek letter organization for women, and the first African-American sorority established on ... Northampton, Massachusetts, for example, was a late adopter because it had many rich families who dominated the political and ... Home economics and industrial education were new elements of the high school curriculum designed for unmistakably women's ... "M.northernstar.com.au. Retrieved 2016-05-27.. *^ Celeste Kimbrough (2004-03-18). "University of Pittsburgh to Honor First ...
Keynes, Richard (2000), Charles Darwin's zoology notes & specimen lists from H.M.S. Beagle, Cambridge University Press, ,http ... altres beuen sang de diverses aus i, fins i tot, dues espècies utilitzen branques petites o espines de cactus per extreure ... Element a Wikidata. Imprimeix/exporta. *Crear un llibre. *Baixa com a PDF ...
Michel Eugène Chevreul, De La Baguette Divinatoire du pendule dit explorateur at des table tournants au point de vue de ... Three British academics Richard N Bailey, Eric Cambridge and H. Denis Briggs carried out dowsing experiments at the grounds of ... Practitioners of reiki and other energy healers purport that a pendulum can be used to examine the chakras, elements of the ...
Wise, M. A. (1995). "Trace element chemistry of lithium-rich micas from rare-element granitic pegmatites". Mineralogy and ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay ... Being the first period 8 element, the undiscovered element ununennium (element 119) is predicted to be the next alkali metal ... "Elementymology & Elements Multidict. Retrieved 5 October 2010.. *^ Clark, Jim (2005). "Compounds of the Group 1 Elements". ...
Abdullah, Abu Ahmed (Autumn 1980). "The Peasant Economy in Transition : The Rise of the Rich Peasant in Permanently Settled ... The general disruption of many core elements of society brought a catastrophic breakdown of sanitary conditions and hygiene ... AU] as opposed to localised shortage due to natural disaster. Moreover, the urban middle-class were their overriding concern, ... Discontent, resentment, and fear of the Raj among rural agriculturalists and business and industrial elements in Greater ...
Richard Wagner * sw:Richard Wagner. Rio de Janeiro * sw:Rio de Janeiro. River * sw:Mto. Roald Amundsen * sw:Roald Amundsen. ... Chemical element * sw:Chemical element. Chemistry * sw:Chemistry. Chess * sw:Chess. Chicken * sw:Chicken. Child * sw:Child. ... African Union * sw:African Union. Age of Enlightenment * sw:Age of Enlightenment. Agriculture * sw:Kilimo. AIDS * sw:AIDS. ... Kama viungo vya Kiswahili bado ni vyekundu, ni alama ya kwamba ama jina halikusahihishwa bado, au hakuna makala bado. Mpangilio ...
James P. Allison, Mahlon DeLong, Michael N. Hall, Robert S. Langer, Richard P. Lifton and Alexander Varshavsky (2014) ... In addition to serving as rigid structural elements, supermodules simplified the initial assembly of the ID. Each supermodule ... http://www.abc.net.au/news/about/backstory/television/2018-09-25/how-abc-filmed-inside-super-kamiokande-observatory/10282850 ... Simon Donaldson, Maxim Kontsevich, Jacob Lurie, Terence Tao and Richard Taylor (2015) ...
"Law.uq.edu.au. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2010.. *^ "Misuse of Drugs Act 1975 No 116". legislation.govt.nz. July 2014. ... Burton, Richard (1856). First Footsteps in East Africa. ISBN 978-1-4191-1982-8.. [page needed] ... it also suggested that public discourse on the issue displayed elements of a moral panic.[86] Some Somali community ... The plant however is widely available and legal in East Africa, some African nations on the other hand such as South Africa ...
Zero (aus Ralph Breaks the Internet) (Imagine Dragons) (T). *Ricky Reed *Almost Free (Fidlar) (A) ... The Elements von TobyMac. *Holy Roar von Chris Tomlin. Bestes Roots-Gospel-Album (Best Roots Gospel Album): ... Love, a Beautiful Force von Vince Mendoza, Komponist (Vince Mendoza, Terell Stafford, Dick Oatts & Temple University Studio ... Love, a Beautiful Force von Vince Mendoza, Arrangeur (Vince Mendoza, Terell Stafford, Dick Oatts & Temple University Studio ...
Wollheim, Richard. Freud. London, Fontana Press, pp. 157-176 *^ Webster, Richard (2005). Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science and ... Witness to My Life & Quiet Moments in a War / Lettres au Castor et à quelques autres (1983) ... many key elements from Sartre's script survive in the finished film.[114] Despite their similarities as polemicists, novelists ... In 1932, Sartre discovered Voyage au bout de la nuit by Louis-Ferdinand Céline, a book that had a remarkable influence on him.[ ...
Richard Broderick (2013). King by Virtue: Reflections of the Lifelong Endeavor of King Bhumipol of Thailand (2nd ed.). Bangkok ... Bhumibol still played music with his Au Sau Wan Suk Band in later years, but was rarely heard in public.[152] In 1964, Bhumibol ... " ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม").[32] Notable elements associated with the
"Sydney.edu.au. 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-04-17.. *^ "The ANU Juris Doctor - ANU College of Law - ANU". Law.anu.edu.au. 2015-08 ... Hillsberg, Richard W.; McGiffert, David E.; Herbert, Williard A.; Lansdowne, Robert J.; Hyatt, Hudson; Chandler, Kent; Pederson ... and elements of a liberal education.[114] The bar associations in Canada were influenced by the changes at Harvard, and were ... "Smh.com.au. 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2017-04-17.. *^ Board, Victorian Legal Admissions. "Academic". www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au. ...
Dietitians may recommend that minerals are best supplied by ingesting specific foods rich with the chemical element(s) of ... African clawed frog).[39][48] In animals, supplemental boron has been shown to reduce calcium excretion and activate vitamin D. ... All of the remaining elements in a human body are called "trace elements". The trace elements that have a specific biochemical ... Elements considered possibly essential but not confirmed[edit]. Many ultratrace elements have been suggested as essential, but ...
Paul Richard Renwarin, Matuari Wo Tonaas (Jakarta, Indonesia: Penerbit Cahaya Pineleng, 2007), p. 35 ... Even without the actual practice of headhunting and other old traditions and customs these core elements of original Minahasa ... Canberra: Asia Pacific Linguistics Open Access Monographs , http://pacling.anu.edu.au/materials/Blust2013Austronesian.pdf, ... set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich ...
Thompson, Richard (1997). "Planetary Diameters in the Surya-Siddhanta" 11 (2). pp. 193-200 [193-6]. ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2010-03-13. Text ... Meeus, J.; Goffin, E. (April 1983). "Transits of Earth as seen from Mars". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 93 ( ... ശേഖരിച്ചത് 2007-08-08. -At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: ELEMENTS", "Target Body: Mars" and ... Kerr, Richard A. (March 4, 2005). "Ice or Lava Sea on Mars? A Transatlantic Debate Erupts". Science 307 (5714): 1390-1391. PMID ...
a b c Hammond, C. R. The Elements in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (edisi ke-ke-86). Boca ... Richard A. Muller (2010). Physics and Technology for Future Presidents: An Introduction to the Essential Physics Every World ... Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og ... 225Ac pertama kali diproduksi secara artifisial di Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) di Jerman menggunakan siklotron ...
The modern chemical symbol for sodium, Na, is an abbreviation of that element's New Latin name natrium, which was derived from ... The sodium carbonate is usually formed by absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by a highly alkaline, sodium-rich ... Trou au Natron. *Era Kohor crater on Emi Koussi. *Egypt *Wadi El Natrun (Natron Valley) ... crystallizing during the drying up of salt lakes rich in sodium carbonate. ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay ... The species has a rich history on the island but became extinct in Ireland in the 1900s due to persecution from landowners.[250 ... shelter from the elements and protection from nest predators. In forest of Finland, it has been estimated that perhaps only 1 ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay ...
A new African-American identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various ethnic groups and of European ... Broome, Richard (2005). Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800. Allen & Unwin. pp. 130-131. ISBN 978-1-74114-569-4. .. ... NBPA Website The emphasis is on the common experience and determination of the people of African, African-Caribbean and Asian ... African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify ...
The African Union (AU) is a supranational union consisting of fifty-five African states.[37] Established in 2001, the AU's ... If every possible human rights element is deemed to be essential or necessary, then nothing will be treated as though it is ... Natural law theories have featured greatly in the philosophies of Thomas Aquinas, Francisco Suárez, Richard Hooker, Thomas ... African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights *Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of ...
"Astro.phys.au.dk. 2001-02-14. Retrieved 2015-10-05.. *^ "Satellit fra Århus i rummet i 2003 - Aarhus" (in Danish). Jyllands- ... Carl Sophus Petersen; Vilhelm Andersen; Richard Jakob Paulli (1929). Illustreret dansk litteraturhistorie: bd. Den danske ... Knudsen, Jens Martin; Hjorth, Poul G. (1996) [1995]. Elements of Newtonian Mechanics (2nd ed.). Berlin: Springer Verlag. p. 367 ... In Larry Niven's 1999 novel Rainbow Mars, Ole Rømer is mentioned as having observed Martian life in an alternate history ...
"Abc.net.au. 2007-07-19. Retrieved 2010-03-15.. *^ "Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". nytimes.com. Retrieved 9 July 2017. ... Microbes in water cause the paper-element filters in the system to rot and fail, causing failure of the fuel pump due to ... This oil-rich algae can then be extracted from the system and processed into biodiesel, with the dried remainder further ... Weed's biofuel potential sparks African land grab, Washington Times, February 21, 2007, Karen Palmer ...
The Elements of King Crimson. Groupes liés. *Giles, Giles & Fripp. *McDonald and Giles ...
Mewaldt, Richard A. (1996). "Cosmic Rays". California Institute of Technology.. *^ Koch, L.; Engelmann, J. J.; Goret, P.; ... At distances of ≈94 AU from the Sun, the solar wind undergoes a transition, called the termination shock, from supersonic to ... The mass ratio of helium to hydrogen nuclei, 28%, is similar to the primordial elemental abundance ratio of these elements, 24 ... Kerr, Richard (31 May 2013). "Radiation Will Make Astronauts' Trip to Mars Even Riskier". Science. 340 (6136): 1031. doi: ...
Alexander Rich first proposed the concept of the RNA world in 1962,[1] and Walter Gilbert coined the term in 1986.[2] ... Tucker BJ, Breaker RR (Jun 2005). "Riboswitches as versatile gene control elements". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 15 ... or AU base pair. ... Transposable element *Class I or retrotransposon. *Class II or ... the molecular biologist Alexander Rich posited much the same idea in an article he contributed to a volume issued in honor of ...
Richard J. Gwyn (2008). John A: The Man Who Made Us. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-679-31476-9. .. ... The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are ... La Musique au Québec 1600-1875. by Michelle Pharand. Montreal: Les Éditions de l'Homme (1976) (. ISBN 0-7759-0517-8) ... Linda A. White; Richard Simeon (2009). The Comparative Turn in Canadian Political Science. UBC Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-7748- ...
... www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen65.html Appendix 2 Victoria][permanent dead link]; [www. ... Broome, Richard (2010). Aboriginal Australians: A History Since 1788. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-741-76554-0.. ... elements of the Northern Territory Emergency Response Act and continue control of the Australian Government over "Aboriginal ... www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen69.html Appendix 6 South Australia][permanent dead link] ...
AU-rich elements Pillars link to original 1986 Cell publication discovering AU-rich elements mRNA Translational blockade by AU- ... rich elements Brief introduction to mRNA regulatory elements ARED: AU-rich element database Transterm page for AU-Rich Element ... Adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AU-rich elements; AREs) are found in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs ... The best characterised adenylate uridylate (AU)-rich Elements have a core sequence of AUUUA within U-rich sequences (for ...
Adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) are found in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code ... AU-rich elements: characterization and importance in mRNA degradation Trends Biochem Sci. 1995 Nov;20(11):465-70. doi: 10.1016/ ... Adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) are found in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code ...
Involvement of microRNA in AU-rich element-mediated mRNA instability.. Jing Q1, Huang S, Guth S, Zarubin T, Motoyama A, Chen J ... AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3 untranslated region (UTR) of unstable mRNAs dictate their degradation. An RNAi-based screen ...
... which binds to AU-rich elements. Our study introduces the AREScore as a means to globally assess AU-rich elements and predict ... In mammals, AU-rich elements are known to cause rapid degradation of messenger RNAs and thereby suppress gene expression. In ... Using the AREScore algorithm, we observe that AU-rich elements correlate with reduced messenger RNA stability and expression ... Furthermore, it demonstrates the regulatory role of AU-rich elements in suppressing gene expression by accelerating messenger ...
AU-Rich Elements Regulate Drosophila Gene Expression Fatima Cairrao, Anason S. Halees, Khalid S. A. Khabar, Dominique Morello, ... AU-Rich Elements Regulate Drosophila Gene Expression Fatima Cairrao, Anason S. Halees, Khalid S. A. Khabar, Dominique Morello, ... AU-Rich Elements Regulate Drosophila Gene Expression Fatima Cairrao, Anason S. Halees, Khalid S. A. Khabar, Dominique Morello, ... AU-Rich Elements Regulate Drosophila Gene Expression Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Molecular and ...
Interactions of CCCH zinc finger proteins with mRNA: tristetraprolin-mediated AU-rich element-dependent mRNA degradation can ... zinc finger proteins has recently been shown to promote the turnover of certain mRNAs containing class II AU-rich elements ( ...
AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1, 37kDa)), Authors: Carsten Sekulla, Bogusz Trojanowicz, Cuong Hoang-Vu. Published in: ... heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1, 37kD). ... HNRNPD (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (AU-rich element RNA binding protein 1, 37kDa)). Written. 2009-11. Carsten ... Unraveling a cytoplasmic role for hnRNP D in the in vivo mRNA destabilization directed by the AU-rich element.. ...
The Protein Zfand5 Binds and Stabilizes mRNAs with AU-rich Elements in Their 3 prime Untranslated Regions ...
The most common cis element responsible for rapid mRNA decay in mammalian cells is the AU-rich element (ARE) present within the ... Tethering KSRP, a Decay-Promoting AU-Rich Element-Binding Protein, to mRNAs Elicits mRNA Decay. Chu-Fang Chou, Alok Mulky, ... Unraveling a cytoplasmic role for hnRNP D in the in vivo mRNA destabilization directed by the AU-rich element. Genes Dev. 13: ... AU-rich elements: characterization and importance in mRNA degradation. Trends Biochem. Sci. 20:465-470. ...
Helfer, Stephanie; Schott, Johanna; Stoecklin, Georg; Förstemann, Klaus (2012): AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay can occur ... AU-rich elements (AREs) are regulatory sequences located in the 3 untranslated region of many short-lived mRNAs. AREs are ... Thus, this sequence cannot serve as link between the miRNA and the AU-rich element mediated silencing pathways. Taken together ... Furthermore, the Drosophila miRNA originally proposed to recognize AU-rich elements, miR-289, is not detectably expressed in ...
AU-Rich Element RNA Binding Protein 1, 37kDa) (HNRNPD) Protein (His tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Escherichia coli (E. coli). ... AU-Rich Element RNA Binding Protein 1,... Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D (AU-Rich Element RNA Binding Protein 1, ... AU-Rich Element RNA Binding Protein 1, 37kDa) Protein * 115 anti-Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D (AU-Rich Element RNA ... AU-Rich Element RNA Binding Protein 1, 37kDa) (HNRNPD) Hintergrund Binds with high affinity to RNA molecules that contain AU- ...
Although SLC4A4 is normally devoid of AU-rich elements (AREs), a 3′ UTR motif that mediates post-transcriptional control of a ... AU-rich elements are among the most important regulatory elements that post-transcriptionally control the expression of many ... Sequence variations affecting AU-rich element function and disease. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2012;17:1846-60.View Article ... Hallmarks of cancer and AU-rich elements. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2017;8:e1368.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
Thus, the presence of adenylate- and uridylate-rich (AU-rich) elements (AREs) has been described in the 3-untranslated regions ... Thus, the presence of adenylate- and uridylate-rich (AU-rich) elements (AREs) has been described in the 3-untranslated regions ... Thus, the presence of adenylate- and uridylate-rich (AU-rich) elements (AREs) has been described in the 3-untranslated regions ... Thus, the presence of adenylate- and uridylate-rich (AU-rich) elements (AREs) has been described in the 3-untranslated regions ...
AU-rich element decayEdit. The presence of AU-rich elements in some mammalian mRNAs tends to destabilize those transcripts ... Chen, C.Y.A.; Shyu, A.B. (1995), "AU-rich elements: characterization and importance in mRNA degradation", Trends in Biochemical ... AU-rich elements also regulate the biosynthesis of proto-oncogenic transcription factors like c-Jun and c-Fos.[29] ... Rapid mRNA degradation via AU-rich elements is a critical mechanism for preventing the overproduction of potent cytokines such ...
RNA regulatory elements (RREs) are important post-transcriptional control features but studying them requires disrupting their ... Here we describe genome-engineering based evaluation of RNA regulatory element activity (GenERA), a clustered regularly ... and apply it in a multiplex fashion to analyse combinatorial interactions between sets of miRNA response elements (MREs), ... RNA regulatory elements (RREs) are an important yet relatively under-explored facet of gene regulation. Deciphering the ...
AU-rich element. BDGP. Berkeley Drosophila genome project. BSED. binding site enrichment detection ... H.J. Bussemaker, H. Li, E.D. Siggia: Regulatory element detection using correlation with expression, Nat. Genet. 27, 167-171 ( ...
AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3′ untranslated region are the best characterized signals that target a variety of short- ... AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′ untranslated region target the mRNAs encoding many protooncoproteins, cytokines, and ...
AU-rich elements (AREs) in 3-untranslated regions of mRNAs confer instability. They target mRNAs for rapid deadenylation and ... AU-rich elements (AREs) in 3-untranslated regions of mRNAs confer instability. They target mRNAs for rapid deadenylation and ... p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase stabilizes mRNAs that contain cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor AU-rich elements ... p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase stabilizes mRNAs that contain cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor AU-rich elements ...
T1 - Functionally Different AU- and G-rich cis-Elements Confer Developmentally Regulated mRNA Stability in Trypanosoma cruzi by ... Functionally Different AU- and G-rich cis-Elements Confer Developmentally Regulated mRNA Stability in Trypanosoma cruzi by ... Functionally Different AU- and G-rich cis-Elements Confer Developmentally Regulated mRNA Stability in Trypanosoma cruzi by ... Functionally Different AU- and G-rich cis-Elements Confer Developmentally Regulated mRNA Stability in Trypanosoma cruzi by ...
AU-rich element binding IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... This gene encodes a 3-5 exoribonuclease that specifically interacts with mRNAs containing AU-rich elements. The encoded ... mRNA 3-UTR AU-rich region binding IDA Inferred from Direct Assay. more info ... from both reference and alternate assemblies. Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here. ...
The AU-rich element (ARE) is an important instability determinant for a large number of early-response-gene mRNAs. AREs also ... The AU-rich element (ARE) is an important instability determinant for a large number of early-response-gene mRNAs. AREs also ... Identification of a novel AU-rich-element-binding protein which is related to AUF1 ... Identification of a novel AU-rich-element-binding protein which is related to AUF1 ...
The mRNAs regulated by p38 share common AU-rich elements (ARE) present in their 3-untranslated regions. AREs act as mRNA ... The involvement of AU-rich element-binding proteins in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-mediated mRNA stabilisation ... The involvement of AU-rich element-binding proteins in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-mediated mRNA stabilisation ... The mRNAs regulated by p38 share common AU-rich elements (ARE) present in their 3-untranslated regions. AREs act as mRNA ...
AU-rich elements. ATP. adenosine 5-triphosphate. BDH2. 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2 ...
AU-rich element. Introduction. Metabolites of arachadonic acid participate in normal and aberrant growth responses, including ... The Translational Silencer TIA-1 Binds the COX-2 AU-Rich Element.. Best characterized for their ability to mediate rapid mRNA ... AU-rich element-mediated translational control: complexity and multiple activities of trans-activating factors. Biochem. Soc. ... mRNA decay mediated by two distinct AU-rich elements from c-fos and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ...
AU-rich element. COX-2. cyclooxygenase-2. Cp. ceruloplasmin. DAPK. death-associated protein kinase. eIF. eukaryotic translation ... Identification of TIAR as a protein binding to the translational regulatory AU-rich element of tumor necrosis factor α mRNA. J ... Impaired on/off regulation of TNF biosynthesis in mice lacking TNF AU-rich elements: implications for joint and gut-associated ... to a specific element (GAIT element) in the 3′ UTR of Cp mRNA (82, 85). The GAIT element is a degenerate 29-nucleotide ...
AREsite: a database for the comprehensive investigation of AU-rich elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 39(Database issue): D66-D69. ... TTP and BRF proteins nucleate processing body formation to silence mRNAs with AU-rich elements. Genes Dev. 21: 719-735. ... AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay can occur independently of the miRNA machinery in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and ... Impaired on/off regulation of TNF biosynthesis in mice lacking TNF AU-rich elements: implications for joint and gut-associated ...
1997) The Elav-like RNA binding proteins bind to AU-rich elements and to the poly(A) of mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res 25:3564-3569. ... 1995) AU-rich elements: characterization and importance in mRNA degradation. Trends Biol Sci 20:465-470. ... 1998) RNA stabilization by the AU-rich element binding protein, HuR, an ELAV protein. EMBO J 17:3461-3470. ... These U-rich elements were originally described by Shaw and Kamen (1986), who found that they direct the rapid turnover of mRNA ...
2006) AU-rich elements and associated factors: are there unifying principles? Nucleic Acids Res 33:7138-7150. ... 1995) AU-rich elements: characterization and importance in mRNA degradation. Trends Biochem Sci 20:465-470. ... 2002) Highly selective actions of HuR in antagonizing AU-rich element-mediated mRNA destabilization. Mol Cell Biol 22:7268-7278 ... 2003) Heterogeneity in control of mRNA stability by AU-rich elements. J Biol Chem 278:12085-12093. ...
A novel mechanism for variable phenotypic expressivity in Mendelian diseases uncovered by an AU-rich element (ARE)-creating ... Editing inducer elements increases A-to-I editing efficiency in the mammalian transcriptome Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) RNA ... The human lncRNA LINC-PINT inhibits tumor cell invasion through a highly conserved sequence element It is now obvious that the ... PATTERNA: transcriptome-wide search for functional RNA elements via structural data signatures Establishing a link between RNA ...
AU-rich element (ARE)-mediated degradation (AMD), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A), poly(A) nuclease 2 (PAN2), processing ... The presence of multiple AREs (AU-rich elements) in the 3′-UTR (untranslated region) of HIF1A and the observation that HuR ... TTP and BRF proteins nucleate processing body formation to silence mRNAs with AU-rich elements ... USP52 was required for HIF1A mRNA stability, and we provide evidence that this acts through HIF1As AU-rich 3′-UTR, but is ...
  • Adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) are found in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of many messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that code for proto-oncogenes, nuclear transcription factors and cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of unstable mRNAs dictate their degradation. (nih.gov)
  • In mammals, AU-rich elements (AREs) are critical regulators of mRNA turnover. (asm.org)
  • In mammals, some major posttranscriptional regulators of mRNA levels are AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′untranslated region (3′UTR) of mRNAs ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Whereas class I AREs contain dispersed AUUUA motifs within U-rich regions, class II corresponds to tandem repeats of the UUAUUUA(U/A)(U/A) motif. (asm.org)
  • Class III AREs display U-rich regions devoid of the AUUUA motif. (asm.org)
  • The CCCH family of tandem zinc finger proteins has recently been shown to promote the turnover of certain mRNAs containing class II AU-rich elements (AREs). (uniprot.org)
  • This results in rapid and selected decay of adenylate-uridylate rich elements (AREs) containing mRNAs. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Inherently unstable mRNAs contain AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′ untranslated regions that act as mRNA stability determinants by interacting with ARE-binding proteins (ARE-BPs). (asm.org)
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) are regulatory sequences located in the 3' untranslated region of many short-lived mRNAs. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Although SLC4A4 is normally devoid of AU-rich elements (AREs), a 3′ UTR motif that mediates post-transcriptional control of a subset of genes, the mutation we describe creates a functional ARE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the presence of adenylate- and uridylate-rich (AU-rich) elements (AREs) has been described in the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of many unstable mammalian mRNAs. (elsevier.com)
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′ untranslated region target the mRNAs encoding many protooncoproteins, cytokines, and lymphokines for rapid degradation. (pnas.org)
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3′ untranslated region are the best characterized signals that target a variety of short-lived mRNAs, including those of protooncogenes, cytokines, and lymphokines, for rapid decay in mammalian cells ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • AU-rich elements (AREs) in 3'-untranslated regions of mRNAs confer instability. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This dysregulation is mediated through the adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) in the VEGF 3′-untranslated region (UTR), where an aberrant ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex is formed in the presence of mutant SOD1. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the cytoplasm, the RNA exosome complex is involved in general mRNA turnover and specifically degrades inherently unstable mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs) within their 3 untranslated regions, and in RNA surveillance pathways, preventing translation of aberrant mRNAs. (genecards.org)
  • The chapter begins with an overview of two large networks of mRNAs that contain conserved AU-rich elements (AREs) or GU-rich elements (GREs), and their role in mammalian cell physiology. (intechopen.com)
  • The two N-terminal tandem RRM domains can selectively bind AU-rich elements (AREs), while the third RRM domain (RRM3) contributes to interactions with the poly-A tail of target mRNA and other ligands. (nih.gov)
  • Binds with high affinity to RNA molecules that contain AU-rich elements (AREs) found within the 3'-UTR of many proto-oncogenes and cytokine mRNAs. (abcam.com)
  • Wig-1, also known as ZMAT3, is a p53 target gene that encodes an RNA-binding zinc-finger protein involved in the regulation of mRNA stability through binding to AU-rich elements (AREs). (nih.gov)
  • ELAV regulates neural-specific alternative splicing of specific transcripts, and HuD stabilizes specific mRNAs that are otherwise unstable due to AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′ untranslated region (UTR). (biologists.org)
  • The predominant function so far associated with the ELAV/Hu-family proteins is to act as regulators of mRNA stability through their interaction with the previously defined AU-rich elements (AREs) that usually reside within the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the transcripts. (biologists.org)
  • AREs are AU rich, generally but not always contain multiple copies of AUUUA pentanucleotide, and range in size between 50-150 nucleotides ( Chen and Shyu, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • Many angiogenic factors are encoded by labile transcripts bearing AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′-untranslated regions. (ahajournals.org)
  • AUF1 promotes rapid decay of mRNAs containing 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) AU-rich elements (AREs). (medworm.com)
  • Notably, we identified several AU-rich elements (AREs) and cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs). (springer.com)
  • Similar to other RNA-binding proteins, this class of proteins contain three RRMs, two of which are specific to ARE elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions of CCCH zinc finger proteins with mRNA: tristetraprolin-mediated AU-rich element-dependent mRNA degradation can occur in the absence of a poly(A) tail. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we show by gel mobility shift assay that the 44-nt ARE sequence interacts with a set of stage-specific AU-rich element RNA-binding proteins (ARE-BPs). (elsevier.com)
  • D'Orso, I & Frasch, ACC 2001, ' Functionally Different AU- and G-rich cis-Elements Confer Developmentally Regulated mRNA Stability in Trypanosoma cruzi by Interaction with Specific RNA-binding Proteins ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 276, no. 19, pp. 15783-15793. (elsevier.com)
  • The involvement of AU-rich element-binding proteins in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway-mediated mRNA stabilisation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transcript-specific regulation is generally mediated by the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with cognate cis -elements in the untranslated region (UTR) of the target transcripts, causing translational repression ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A vital clue to the mechanism of action of these proteins in vertebrates was provided by the observation that they bind in vitro to U-rich regulatory elements in the 3′-UTRs (3′-untranslated region) of mRNAs. (jneurosci.org)
  • AU-rich element degradation involves a number of different proteins, including proteins that bind to the AU regions of the mRNA. (scripps.edu)
  • Shortly before Shaw and Kamen's study, a comparison between the sequences of human and mouse GM-CSF cDNAs had revealed a striking 93% homology within an adenine- and uridine-rich subregion of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Binds to the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE), an uridine-rich sequence element (consensus sequence 5'-UUUUUAU-3') within the mRNA 3'-UTR. (uniprot.org)
  • Herein, we explored the role of the adenine and uridine-rich element (ARE)-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) in influencing mRNA stability of IL12p35, IL12/23p40, and IL23p19 subunits. (rupress.org)
  • The mechanism of this rapid turnover is not clear but has been ascribed to a specific endonuclease or an adenylate/uridylate-rich element (ARE)-dependent deadenylase ( Chen and Shyu, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Using a luciferase reporter assay, we show that this molecular effect is mediated through a portion of the VEGF 3′-untranslated region (UTR) that harbors a class II adenylate/uridylate-rich element. (jneurosci.org)
  • p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase stabilizes mRNAs that contain cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor AU-rich elements by inhibiting deadenylation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, mRNAs that contain these elements have a very short half-life and are usually present at a very low steady-state level. (jneurosci.org)
  • Evidence that tristetraprolin binds to AU-rich elements and promotes the deadenylation and destabilization of tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Human TZF binds AU-rich elements at the 3′ untranslated region and recruits decapping, deadenylation, and exonucleolytic enzymes to PBs for RNA turnover. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The epimastigote stage AU-rich element RNA-binding protein, named E-ARE-BP, and the trypomastigote stage ARE-BPs, named T-ARE-BPs, are efficiently competed by poly(U). UV cross-linking analysis showed that E-ARE-BP has an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa and is different from the 45-50-kDa ARE-BPs present in other stages of the parasite. (elsevier.com)
  • AU-rich element-mediated mRNA decay can occur independently of the miRNA machinery in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Drosophila S2-cells. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Furthermore, the Drosophila miRNA originally proposed to recognize AU-rich elements, miR-289, is not detectably expressed in flies or cultured S2 cells. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Thus, this sequence cannot serve as link between the miRNA and the AU-rich element mediated silencing pathways. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We use GenERA to survey the entire regulatory landscape of a 3′UTR, and apply it in a multiplex fashion to analyse combinatorial interactions between sets of miRNA response elements (MREs), providing strong evidence for cooperative activity. (nature.com)
  • The best characterised adenylate uridylate (AU)-rich Elements have a core sequence of AUUUA within U-rich sequences (for example WWWU(AUUUA)UUUW where W is A or U). This lies within a 50-150 base sequence, repeats of the core AUUUA element are often required for function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we describe genome-engineering based evaluation of RNA regulatory element activity (GenERA), a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 platform for in situ high-content functional analysis of RREs. (nature.com)
  • Involvement of microRNA in AU-rich element-mediated mRNA instability. (nih.gov)
  • MicroRNA-223 selectively targets distinct populations of transcripts harboring AU-rich elements . (mirbase.org)
  • The high degree of conservation of this motif implied a conserved function, but it was the Shaw and Kamen study that provided the first evidence for the function of this AU-rich element (ARE) ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These U-rich elements were originally described by Shaw and Kamen (1986) , who found that they direct the rapid turnover of mRNA. (jneurosci.org)
  • The AU-rich element (ARE) is an important instability determinant for a large number of early-response-gene mRNAs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This inherent instability is built into the 3' tail of the mRNA in the form of noncoding stretches of RNA called AU-rich elements. (scripps.edu)
  • ePAB also appears to be a key factor required for both known pathways (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-dependent and -independent) that mediate maternal mRNA translational activation upon oocyte maturation. (yale.edu)
  • RRM1 and RRM2 may cooperate in binding to an AU-rich RNA element (ARE) [ PMID: 9016658 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This gene encodes a 3'-5' exoribonuclease that specifically interacts with mRNAs containing AU-rich elements. (nih.gov)
  • Interacts with (AU)-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-UTR of target mRNA species. (rcsb.org)
  • AREsite-a database for ARE containing genes-has recently been developed with the aim to provide detailed bioinformatic characterization of AU-rich elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have generated a Drosophila ARE database (D-ARED) and established that about 16% of D. melanogaster genes contain the mammalian ARE signature, an AUUUA pentamer in an A/U-rich context. (asm.org)
  • Lots of genes, including inflammatory cytokines and cancer-causing oncogenes, have these AU-rich elements built in. (scripps.edu)
  • Class I ARE elements, like the c-fos gene, have dispersed AUUUA motifs within or near U-rich regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class II elements, like the GM-CSF gene, have overlapping AUUUA motifs within or near U-rich regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cis element responsible for rapid mRNA decay in mammalian cells is the AU-rich element (ARE) present within the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of a variety of short-lived mRNAs ( 2 , 10 ). (asm.org)
  • The mRNAs regulated by p38 share common AU-rich elements (ARE) present in their 3'-untranslated regions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Co-evolution across coding and non-coding regions suggests that it is not single motifs or regions, but the entire gene regulatory structure and specific combination of regulatory elements that define gene expression levels. (nature.com)
  • Cis-acting regulatory sequence elements are sequences contained in the 3′ and 5′ untranslated region, introns, or coding regions of precursor RNAs and mature mRNAs that are selectively recognized by a complementary set of one or more trans-acting factors to regulate posttranscriptional gene expression. (intechopen.com)
  • This chapter focuses on mammalian cis-acting regulatory elements that had been recently discovered in different regions: pre-processed and mature. (intechopen.com)
  • Within this context, intragenic non-coding RNA cis -regulatory elements (RREs) provide an essential post-transcriptional control layer, through regulation of RNA stability, localisation and processing 1 . (nature.com)
  • Transfection experiments allowed the identification of a novel cis-element that might be responsible for a positive effect on mRNA stability. (elsevier.com)
  • The highlighted study by Gray Shaw and Robert Kamen ( 4 ) identified elements in the noncoding region of an mRNA that controlled its stability. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our studies also suggest that RNA stability can partially be correlated to the existence of AU rich elements, but further mechanisms like the RNase activity of the up-regulated Zc3h12a have to be considered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specific protein domains mediate cooperative assembly of HuR oligomers on AU-rich mRNA-destabilizing sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Its turn-over is controlled by an AU-rich element (ARE) localized in the 3′-untranslated region, since a reporter gene lacking this sequence was stable in the trypomastigote stage (Di Noia, J. M., D'Orso, I., Sanchez, D. O., and Frasch, A. C. (2000) J. Biol. (elsevier.com)
  • Two different RNA binding activities for the AU-rich element and the poly(A) sequence of the mouse neuronal protein mHuC. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • One unifying concept states that posttranscriptional regulation is mediated by two major molecular components: cis-acting regulatory sequence elements and trans-acting factors. (intechopen.com)
  • Due to sequence similarities and amino acid composition these peptides can be classified into the cysteine-rich (e.g. defensin) and glycine-rich (e.g. hymenoptaecin) AMP groups, respectively. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The expression of these unstable mRNAs can be increased dramatically by factors that bind to the U-rich elements. (jneurosci.org)
  • To understand the mechanisms regulating COX-2 expression, we examined its posttranscriptional regulation mediated through the AU-rich element (ARE) within the COX-2 mRNA 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR). (rupress.org)
  • We previously identified an AU-rich element (ARE) within the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of COX-2 mRNA that confers posttranscriptional regulation by controlling both mRNA decay and protein translation ( 4 , 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • ZFP36L2 (L2) destabilizes AU-rich element (ARE)-containing transcripts and has been implicated in female fertility. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • By targeting the Rev response element of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by using Rev-KSRP fusion protein, we degraded viral mRNA, resulting in a dramatic reduction of viral replication. (asm.org)
  • Class III elements, like the c-jun gene, are a much less well-defined class-they have a U-rich region but no AUUUA repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study provides a genome editing-based multiplex strategy for direct functional interrogation of RNA cis -regulatory elements in a native cellular environment. (nature.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that elements within the 3′-nontranslated region (3′-NTR) of the (+) strand HCV genome are essential for initiation of (−) strand synthesis. (mcponline.org)
  • The C-terminal RNA binding motif of HuR is a multi-functional domain leading to HuR oligomerization and binding to U-rich RNA targets. (nih.gov)
  • We have developed methods which enable us to identify en masse , in vivo targets of RBPs such as HuR from cell lines and now for the first time, solid tissues as well. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This technique, in which no cross linking is used, allows one to en masse identify different in vivo mRNA targets which different RBPs interact with. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Differential mRNA decay rates are determined by specific cis -acting elements within the mRNA molecule. (asm.org)
  • Thus, ARE and GRE are functionally different cis-elements, which might regulate mucin expression throughout the parasite life cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability of this cis-acting mRNA element to regulate COX-2 protein levels and associated prostaglandin synthesis was observed in cells maintaining low to undetectable COX-2 levels ( 4 ). (rupress.org)
  • Further comparisons and mutation experiments suggested that a putative SBF-1 binding site and an AU-rich element in the 3′-UTR both down-regulated expression of the upstream GFP fused to the 3′-UTR. (springer.com)
  • Other, less conserved, cis-acting elements and their functional role in different steps of RNA maturation and metabolism will be discussed. (intechopen.com)