Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred C57BLDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Inbred BALB CBlood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred ICRBacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Reassortant Viruses: Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The columella is strong with a single fold near the body ; attenuated in front. The siphonal canal is short. The height of the ...
... sound attenuated pumps; utility trash pumps; diaphragm pumps; hydraulic power units with submersible pump ends; rotary, vacuum ...
"Live attenuated measles vaccine". EPI Newsletter / C Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas. 2 (1): 6. 1980. PMID ...
Thorax stout; abdomen rather long, attenuated; head broad; palpi broad and flattened in front, bristly on outer edge, third ...
The live attenuated vaccine containing strain Yersinia pestis EV is used for plague immunization. Attenuated vaccines have some ... Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature. Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, ... This most frequently occurs with live attenuated vaccines, where one of the vaccine components is more robust than the others ... Kaashoek MJ, Moerman A, Madic J, Rijsewijk FA, Quak J, Gielkens AL, Van Oirschot JT (1994). "A conventionally attenuated ...
Attenuate. Long and slender, as in some shells. Auditory. Connected with the hearing. Auricled. Eared, or with ear-like ...
Only attenuated vaccines are efficacious. Once DVE is present, depopulation, relocation and intensive disinfection are required ...
Rubini strain used mainly in Switzerland was attenuated by a higher number of passes through chicken embryos, and later proved ... Hilleman MR, Buynak EB, Weibel RE, Stokes J (February 1968). "Live, attenuated mumps-virus vaccine". The New England Journal of ...
Thomssen R. Live attenuated versus killed virus vaccines. Monographs in allergy. 1975;9:155-76. PMID 1090805. McLean AA. ... Such viruses are called attenuated. Live vaccines can be dangerous when given to people with a weak immunity (who are described ... The yellow fever virus vaccine, a live-attenuated strain called 17D, is probably the safest and most effective vaccine ever ... Vaccines can consist of live-attenuated or killed viruses, or viral proteins (antigens). Live vaccines contain weakened forms ...
elliptic to obovate; base attenuate; margin serrate. Inflorescence - present, where male flowers are clustered and unbranched. ...
A live, attenuated vaccine (which was proven very effective in clinical trials in Mexico) by the company AuRx has failed to ... "Live Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein E Deletion Mutant as a Vaccine Candidate Defective in Neuronal Spread". ... Halford WP, Püschel R, Gershburg E, Wilber A, Gershburg S, Rakowski B (2011). "A live-attenuated HSV-2 ICP0 virus elicits 10 to ... The fact that a live, attenuated vaccine induced better protection from HSV infection and symptoms is not new, because live- ...
The tail is slender and attenuated. There are three distinct color patters: most specimens are mottled brownish-lavender above ...
"In defence of the attenuated drug". Medical Century. 12 (9): 257-264. Copeland, R. S. (1906). Refraction, including muscle ...
The columella is attenuated in front. The siphonal canal is short and straight. This marine species was found off Unalaska ...
Some cases of attenuated phase-shifting masks also demonstrate the same benefit (see left). As phase-shift masks are applied to ... Attenuated phase-shift masks employ a different approach. Certain light-blocking parts of the mask are modified to allow a ... Attenuated phase-shift masks are already extensively used, due to their simpler construction and operation, particularly in ... There exist alternating and attenuated phase shift masks. A phase-shift mask relies on the fact that light passing through a ...
Red and orange light is the first to get attenuated, followed by yellows and greens. Blue is the less attenuated wavelength. In ... As opposite to air, water attenuates light exponentially. This results in hazy images with very low contrast. The main reasons ... This means that different color get attenuated faster than others, leading to color degradation. ...
The snout is attenuated and prolonged. The lower eyelid has an undivided transparent disk. The nostril pierced in the nasal. It ...
Shors p. 237 Thomssen, R. (1975). "Live attenuated versus killed virus vaccines". Monographs in allergy. 9: 155-76. PMID ...
The columella is attenuated in front. The siphonal is canal short. This marine species occurs off California, USA. Bouchet, P ...
Examples of live, attenuated vaccines include measles, mumps, rubella, MMR, yellow fever, varicella, rotavirus, and influenza ( ... Live attenuated vaccines have decreased pathogenicity. Their effectiveness depends on the immune systems ability to replicate ...
Lobes are attenuate. The siphuncle is within the dorsal septal flecture. Shouchangoceras is known from the Upper Permian of ...
ex Hook.; Striaria attenuate (Grev.) Grev.; Myriotrichia clavaeformis Harv.; Tilopteris mertensii (Turn.) Kütz.; Chordaria ...
attenuate Narrowing gradually. auricle (adjective auriculate): Ear-shaped lobe. awn Long, bristle-like appendage; e.g. ...
Leaves compound, digitate; apex acute to obtuse; base cuneate - attenuate; margin entire. Inflorescence is corymbose cymes. ...
The base of the shell is attenuated. It is marked by the very feeble continuations of the axial ribs, and 12 incised spiral ... The inner lip is slightly curved, decidedly oblique, revolute, and appressed to the attenuated base for almost its entire ...
The live attenuated influenza vaccine appears to protect particularly poorly against… ... www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current Personal View Urgent challenges in implementing live attenuated influenza ... Wendy Barclay Summary Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. ... Conflicting reports have emerged about the effectiveness of the live attenuated influenza vaccine. The live attenuated ...
Application of infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to in situ analysis of atheromatous plaques in aorta. In: ... Application of infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to in situ analysis of atheromatous plaques in aorta. / ... Application of infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy to in situ analysis of atheromatous plaques in aorta. Japanese ... Ex vivo infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopic studies have been carried out to observe the accumulation of ...
Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ... Prostate Attenuated Replication Competent Adenovirus (ARCA) CN706: A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive ...
... example attenuated) vaccines include: Viral: measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, rubella vaccine, Live attenuated influenza vaccine ... An attenuated vaccine is a vaccine created by reducing the virulence of a pathogen, but still keeping it viable (or "live"). ... Viruses may be attenuated via passage of the virus through a foreign host, such as: Tissue culture Embryonated eggs Live ... Attenuated vaccines also cannot be used by immunocompromised individuals. Activates all phases of the immune system (for ...
Attenuated total reflection (ATR) is a sampling technique used in conjunction with infrared spectroscopy which enables samples ... "FT-IR Spectroscopy-Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR)" (PDF). Perkin Elmer Life and Analytical Sciences. 2005. Archived (PDF) ... Jesse Greener, Bardia Abbasi, Eugenia Kumacheva, Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform spectroscopy for on-chip ...
Definition of attenuated vaccine. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... attenuated vaccine. Definition: live pathogens that have lost their virulence but are still capable of inducing a protective ...
attenuated synonyms, attenuated pronunciation, attenuated translation, English dictionary definition of attenuated. v. at·ten·u ... 1. To make slender, fine, or small: The drought attenuated the river to a narrow channel. 2. ... attenuated. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to attenuated: Attenuated total ... attenuated - reduced in strength; "the faded tones of an old recording". attenuate, faded, weakened ...
Beare, A. S. (‎1969)‎. Laboratory characteristics of attenuated influenza viruses. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ...
Attenuated virus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... attenuated virus. attention-getting, attentive, attentively, attenuant, attenuate, attenuated virus, attenuation, attenuator, ...
RNA virus mutator strains are attenuated in vivo. Nina F. Gnädig, Stéphanie Beaucourt, Grace Campagnola, Antonio V. Bordería, ... RNA virus mutator strains are attenuated in vivo. Nina F. Gnädig, Stéphanie Beaucourt, Grace Campagnola, Antonio V. Bordería, ... We next selected a subset of the most attenuated variants to look at the kinetics of viral infection in more detail (Fig. 5 E-I ... Mutator Variants Are Attenuated in Vivo.. As previously shown for the higher-fidelity polymerase variants, G64S of poliovirus ...
Recommendations for Using Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine LAIV is an option for vaccination of healthy persons aged 5--49 ... Attenuated influenza virus vaccines. Rev Med Virol 1994;4:279--92.. *Clements ML, Stephens I. New and improved vaccines against ... Using Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine for Prevention and Control of Influenza Supplemental Recommendations of the Advisory ... Development of cold-adapted recombinant live, attenuated influenza A vaccines in the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. Antiviral Res 1981;1: ...
Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine [LAIV] (The Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine). Brand name: FluMist Quadrivalent ... The nasal spray flu vaccine contains weakened (attenuated) viruses, so that they will not cause flu illness. The weakened ... or live attenuated nasal spray influenza vaccine (LAIV4) with no preference expressed for any one vaccine over another. ...
Brunner E.Y., Mizin V.I. (2013) Grape Polyphenols Attenuate Psychological Stress. In: Pierce G., Mizin V., Omelchenko A. (eds) ...
In this review, we discuss the various approaches that have been used to engineer miRNA-attenuated viruses, the steps that have ... The use of host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) to attenuate viruses has been accomplished in an array of biological contexts. The ... effective strategies have been developed to improve the safety and stability of miRNA-attenuated viruses. ... Live-attenuated vaccines are the most effective way to establish robust, long-lasting immunity against viruses. However, the ...
Live attenuated versus killed virus vaccines.. Thomssen R.. Abstract. The discussion of the problems of production and use of ...
live attenuated influenza vaccine. OR - odds ratio. RT-PCR - reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. VE - vaccine ... Live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccine in infants and young children. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(7):685-696pmid: ... Live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in children. J Infect Dis. 2015;211(3):352-360pmid:25165161. ... Seasonal Effectiveness of Live Attenuated and Inactivated Influenza Vaccine. Jessie R. Chung, Brendan Flannery, Mark G. ...
Attenuated glial reactions and photoreceptor degeneration after retinal detachment in mice deficient in glial fibrillary acidic ... Absence of GFAP and vimentin effectively attenuated reactive responses of retinal glial cells and monocyte infiltration. As a ... CONCLUSIONS: The absence of GFAP and vimentin attenuates RD-induced reactive gliosis and, subsequently, limits photoreceptor ...
Renal fibrosis is attenuated by targeted disruption of KCa3.1 potassium channels. Ivica Grgic, Eva Kiss, Brajesh P. Kaistha, ... Renal fibrosis is attenuated by targeted disruption of KCa3.1 potassium channels Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Genetic deficiency of KCa3.1 attenuates progression of renal fibrosis after UUO in mice. (A) PAS, collagen I/III, and αSMA ... Administration KCa3.1 blocker TRAM-34 attenuates development of UUO-induced renal fibrosis in wild-type mice. (A) PAS-, ...
Analysis of mononuclear cells in the adult mouse liver revealed that B cells represent as much as half of the intrahepatic lymphocyte population. Intrahepatic B cells (IHB cells) are phenotypically similar to splenic B2 cells but express lower levels of CD23 and CD21 and higher levels of CD5. IHB cells proliferate as well as splenic B cells in response to anti-IgM and LPS stimulation in vitro. VDJ gene rearrangements in IHB cells contain insertions of N,P region nucleotides characteristic of B cells maturing in the adult bone marrow rather than in the fetal liver. To evaluate whether B cells can have an impact on liver pathology, we compared CCl4-induced fibrosis development in B cell-deficient and wild-type mice. CCl4 caused similar acute liver injury in mutant and wild-type mice. However, following 6 weeks of CCl4 treatment, histochemical analyses showed markedly reduced collagen deposition in B cell-deficient as compared with wild-type mice. By analyzing mice that have normal numbers of B ...
Ischemia-reperfusion lung injury is a common cause of acute morbidity and mortality in lung transplant recipients and has been associated with subsequent development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Recognition of endogenous ligands released during cellular injury (damage-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs) by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR4, has increasingly been recognized as a mechanism for inflammation resulting from tissue damage. TLR4 is implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion injury of multiple organs including heart, liver, kidney and lung. Additionally, activation of TLRs other than TLR4 by DAMPs has been identified in tissues other than the lung. Because all known TLRs, with the exception of TLR3, signal via the MyD88 adapter protein, we hypothesized that lung ischemia-reperfusion injury was mediated by MyD88-dependent signaling. To test this hypothesis, we subjected C57BL/6 wildtype, Myd88-/-, and Tlr4-/- mice to 1 hr of left lung warm ischemia followed by 4
Monitoring of Attenuation in the Live-Attenuated Vaccines to Ensure Safety. A main concern with live-attenuated vaccines is the ... We also have recently developed another live-attenuated L. donovani parasite that lacks a gene that is part of the cytochrome c ... Subcutaneous injection of L. chagasi-attenuated parasites has been tested but failed to protect [130], though the nature of the ... Live-attenuated parasite vaccines intended for injection into healthy individuals will need to be manufactured under strictly ...
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha attenuates hepatic fibrosis in rats. Gut. 2010;59:236-246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Upregulation of miR-370 obviously attenuated the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. miR-370 was directly bound to the 3′UTR ...
... who should not get live attenuated influenza vaccine. ... Live Attenuated Influenza (Flu) nasal spray vaccine (LAIV), why ... What is the live attenuated influenza vaccine? The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is made from weakened influenza ... Who should not get the live attenuated influenza vaccine? Children less than 2 years of age, and women who are pregnant, or ...
... World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 28;19(12):1962-7. doi: 10.3748/wjg. ... Aim: To investigate whether curcumin could attenuate hepatitis in mice with paracetamol overdose. ...
Development of a live attenuated dengue virus vaccine using reverse genetics.. Blaney JE Jr1, Durbin AP, Murphy BR, Whitehead ... A live attenuated, tetravalent DEN virus vaccine candidate has been generated using reverse genetics that is able to provide ... introduction of an attenuating 30 nucleotide deletion (Delta30) mutation into the 3 untranslated region of DEN1 and DEN4; and ... by introduction of additional attenuating mutations that have been well characterized. ...
  • Abstract This paper proposes a direct and efficient method to discriminate between counterfeit and authentic Cialis and Viagra samples by combining attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with multivariate techniques. (safemedicines.org)
  • In Salmonella, deletion of gidA significantly attenuated both in vitro and in vivo virulence, and GidA was identified as a potential regulator of numerous genes and proteins associated with Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2 . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The new-generation tuberculosis vaccine candidate MTBVAC, a genetically engineered doubly attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant with deletions in phoP and fadD26 virulence genes has demonstrated comparable safety in different relevant animal models and superior protection in mice as compared to the only currently licensed tuberculosis vaccine Mycobacterium bovis BCG. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The use of host-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) to attenuate viruses has been accomplished in an array of biological contexts. (mdpi.com)
  • While escape is always a concern, effective strategies have been developed to improve the safety and stability of miRNA-attenuated viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • These chimeric viruses are infectious and attenuated in humans and other mammals and are useful in vaccine formulations for eliciting and immune responses against one or more PIVs, or against a PIV and non-PIV pathogen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A major roadblock has been the lack of convenient genetic tools to study this pathogen, with periods of up to a year of labor intensive effort just to generate one or two modified viruses, let alone to generate attenuated vaccine candidates. (jcvi.org)
  • The level of attenuation of each dengue vaccine component can be increased, if needed, by introduction of additional attenuating mutations that have been well characterized. (nih.gov)
  • However, interventions that address and attenuate oxidative and free radical stress, which has been historically seen as a major driving force in aging, pose potential treatment routes. (sciencemag.org)
  • We took advantage of this delivery pathway by conjugating an attenuated diphtheria toxin to siRNA, thereby achieving gene downregulation in patient-derived glioblastoma cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • We also showed that clarithromycin treatment, when administered from the first day of inoculation, attenuated both the bronchial epithelial damage and inflammatory cell migration in the submucosal tissue. (scirp.org)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse , 1 Dec. 2009, https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/nida-notes/2009/12/test-substance-attenuates-signs-cocaine-withdrawal-in-rats. (drugabuse.gov)
  • The two MDVs each acquired the cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive, attenuated phenotypes through serial passage in viral culture conducted at progressively lower temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • Attenuated MVs may have value as a novel replicating-virus therapy for this group of disorders. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Our findings suggest that oral administration of rosiglitazone attenuates the metalloprotease activity induced by CS, and the underlying mechanism might involve the activation of signaling pathways dependent on MAPKs or NFκB. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, MDVs provide the stably attenuated vehicles for presenting influenza HA and NA antigens, to which the protective antibody response is directed, to the immune system. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, PAHSAs delayed the onset of T1D and reduced its incidence by attenuating immune responses and exerting direct protective effects on β cell survival and function. (jci.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The absence of GFAP and vimentin attenuates RD-induced reactive gliosis and, subsequently, limits photoreceptor degeneration. (gu.se)
  • Conclusions: In addition to preventing influenza in 50% of participants, IIV4 attenuated illness severity and disease burden in children who had a breakthrough influenza episode despite vaccination. (medworm.com)
  • Conclusions: Supplements with bilberry, blackcurrant, mango or rose hip in the tested probiotic and oatmeal enriched beverage attenuated early-phase insulin response, but had no effect on the postprandial glycemic response. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similarly, Rhy attenuated senescence and improved cellular function by rescuing the impaired autophagy in Ang II-treated EPCs. (frontiersin.org)