Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
A delayed response interval occurring when two stimuli are presented in close succession.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. (1/71)

The information processing capacity of the human mind is limited, as is evidenced by the so-called "attentional-blink" deficit: When two targets (T1 and T2) embedded in a rapid stream of events are presented in close temporal proximity, the second target is often not seen. This deficit is believed to result from competition between the two targets for limited attentional resources. Here we show, using performance in an attentional-blink task and scalp-recorded brain potentials, that meditation, or mental training, affects the distribution of limited brain resources. Three months of intensive mental training resulted in a smaller attentional blink and reduced brain-resource allocation to the first target, as reflected by a smaller T1-elicited P3b, a brain-potential index of resource allocation. Furthermore, those individuals that showed the largest decrease in brain-resource allocation to T1 generally showed the greatest reduction in attentional-blink size. These observations provide novel support for the view that the ability to accurately identify T2 depends upon the efficient deployment of resources to T1. The results also demonstrate that mental training can result in increased control over the distribution of limited brain resources. Our study supports the idea that plasticity in brain and mental function exists throughout life and illustrates the usefulness of systematic mental training in the study of the human mind.  (+info)

Enhanced identification of smoking-related words during the attentional blink in smokers. (2/71)

The attentional blink (AB) occurs when ongoing processing of one target (T1) in a series of rapidly presented stimuli impairs processing of a subsequently presented second target (T2), such that T2 cannot be consciously perceived or reported. There is evidence that the AB can be influenced by the emotional or motivational salience of T2. We examined whether the AB could be attenuated by smoking-related stimuli in smokers. Heavy smokers (N=55) performed an AB task on two occasions, once following 12-h of abstinence and once following ad libitum smoking. T2s were either smoking-related or neutral (household-related) words, and lagged T1 by 0 to 7 distracter words. T1s were all neutral words. Each word was presented for 130 ms. Subjects were required to recall T1 and T2 immediately after each trial. There was a significant word type by lag interaction, whereby smoking-related T2s were recalled better than neutral T2s at early, but not late, lags. The word type effect at early lags was significantly associated with attentional bias assessed on the smoking Stroop task, but was not significantly moderated by abstinence. These data indicate that, in heavy smokers, smoking-related stimuli are more likely to engage conscious awareness than neutral words under conditions of limited attentional resources.  (+info)

Attentional blinks as errors in temporal binding. (3/71)

In the attentional blink [Raymond, J. E., Shapiro, K. L., & Arnell, K. M. (1992). Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: An attentional blink? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18(3), 849-860.], the second of two targets in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) stream is difficult to detect and identify when it is presented soon but not immediately after the first target. We varied the Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) of the items in the stream and the color of the targets (red from gray or vice versa), and looked at the responses to the second target. Exact responses to the second target (zero positional error) showed a typical attentional blink profile, with a drop in performance for an interval of 200-500 ms after the first target. Approximate responses (positional error no greater than 3 frames) showed no such drop in performance, although results were still dependent on color (better for red) and increased with increasing SOA. These findings are consistent with a two-stage model of visual working memory, where encoding of the first target disrupts attention to (and temporal binding of) the second target. We suggest that this disruption occurs within a certain time (approximately 0.5 s) after the first target, during which period salient distractors are as likely as the second target to enter working memory.  (+info)

The blinking spotlight of attention. (4/71)

Increasing evidence suggests that attention can concurrently select multiple locations; yet it is not clear whether this ability relies on continuous allocation of attention to the different targets (a "parallel" strategy) or whether attention switches rapidly between the targets (a periodic "sampling" strategy). Here, we propose a method to distinguish between these two alternatives. The human psychometric function for detection of a single target as a function of its duration can be used to predict the corresponding function for two or more attended targets. Importantly, the predicted curves differ, depending on whether a parallel or sampling strategy is assumed. For a challenging detection task, we found that human performance was best reflected by a sampling model, indicating that multiple items of interest were processed in series at a rate of approximately seven items per second. Surprisingly, the data suggested that attention operated in this periodic regime, even when it was focused on a single target. That is, attention might rely on an intrinsically periodic process.  (+info)

Noradrenergic neuromodulation of human attention for emotional and neutral stimuli. (5/71)

INTRODUCTION: Norepinephrine (NE) has a regulatory role in human attention. OBJECTIVE: To examine its role in emotional modulation of attention, we used an attentional blink (AB) paradigm, in the context of psychopharmacological manipulation, where targets were either emotional or neutral items. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We report behavioural evidence that beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol impairs attention independent of target valence. Furthermore, this effect is centrally mediated as administration of the peripheral beta-adrenergic antagonist nadolol did not impair attention. By contrast, increasing NE tone, using the selective NE reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, improves detection of emotional stimuli. CONCLUSION: In line with theoretical and animal models, these findings provide human behavioural evidence that the adrenergic system has a modulatory influence on selective attention that in some instances depends on item valence.  (+info)

Temporal selection is suppressed, delayed, and diffused during the attentional blink. (6/71)

 (+info)

Personal names do not always survive the attentional blink: Behavioral evidence for a flexible locus of selection. (7/71)

 (+info)

No differential attentional blink in dyslexia after controlling for baseline sensitivity. (8/71)

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The attentional blink is a phenomenon in visual perception where an individual fails to detect the second of two target stimuli presented in close succession within a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream of distractors. This occurs because the processing of the first target interferes with the ability to attend to and identify the second target when it appears within approximately 200-500 milliseconds after the first. The attentional blink is thought to reflect limitations in attentional resources and the capacity of working memory.

The refractory period, psychological, is a concept in sexual psychology that refers to the temporary inability of an individual to achieve further sexual arousal or orgasm after experiencing one. It is a normal part of the sexual response cycle and varies from person to person, as well as between different sexual experiences for the same individual.

During the refractory period, the body undergoes a recovery phase where it returns to its pre-aroused state. This period can last from minutes to hours, depending on various factors such as age, overall health, and fatigue level. It is important to note that this concept applies only to psychological aspects of sexual response and does not refer to the refractory period in cardiology or neurology, which refers to the time it takes for a nerve or muscle to respond to a second stimulus after an initial response.

Blinking is the rapid and repetitive closing and reopening of the eyelids. It is a normal physiological process that helps to keep the eyes moist, protected and comfortable by spreading tears over the surface of the eye and removing any foreign particles or irritants that may have accumulated on the eyelid or the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids).

Blinking is controlled by the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which sends signals to the muscles that control the movement of the eyelids. On average, people blink about 15-20 times per minute, but this rate can vary depending on factors such as mood, level of attention, and visual tasks. For example, people tend to blink less frequently when they are concentrating on a visual task or looking at a screen, which can lead to dry eye symptoms.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Serial learning is a form of learning in which new information or skills are acquired and organized in a sequential manner, with each piece of information building on the previous one. In other words, it involves learning items or concepts one at a time, in a specific order, rather than all at once. This type of learning is often used in situations where the material to be learned has a clear sequence, such as learning the alphabet, numbers, or days of the week.

In a medical context, serial learning may be used to teach complex medical procedures or concepts that have multiple steps or components. For example, a medical student may learn how to perform a physical examination by first learning how to take a patient's vital signs, then moving on to inspecting various parts of the body in a specific order. Through repeated practice and reinforcement, the student gradually builds up a sequence of skills and knowledge that becomes integrated into their long-term memory.

It is worth noting that some individuals may find serial learning more challenging than other forms of learning, particularly if they have difficulty with sequential processing or working memory limitations. Therefore, individualized instruction and accommodations may be necessary to support learners who struggle with serial learning tasks.

Visual pattern recognition is the ability to identify and interpret patterns in visual information. In a medical context, it often refers to the process by which healthcare professionals recognize and diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs or symptoms. This can involve recognizing the characteristic appearance of a rash, wound, or other physical feature associated with a particular disease or condition. It may also involve recognizing patterns in medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs.

In the field of radiology, for example, visual pattern recognition is a critical skill. Radiologists are trained to recognize the typical appearances of various diseases and conditions in medical images. This allows them to make accurate diagnoses based on the patterns they see. Similarly, dermatologists use visual pattern recognition to identify skin abnormalities and diseases based on the appearance of rashes, lesions, or other skin changes.

Overall, visual pattern recognition is an essential skill in many areas of medicine, allowing healthcare professionals to quickly and accurately diagnose medical conditions based on visible signs and symptoms.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

Perceptual masking, also known as sensory masking or just masking, is a concept in sensory perception that refers to the interference in the ability to detect or recognize a stimulus (the target) due to the presence of another stimulus (the mask). This phenomenon can occur across different senses, including audition and vision.

In the context of hearing, perceptual masking occurs when one sound (the masker) makes it difficult to hear another sound (the target) because the two sounds are presented simultaneously or in close proximity to each other. The masker can make the target sound less detectable, harder to identify, or even completely inaudible.

There are different types of perceptual masking, including:

1. Simultaneous Masking: When the masker and target sounds occur at the same time.
2. Temporal Masking: When the masker sound precedes or follows the target sound by a short period. This type of masking can be further divided into forward masking (when the masker comes before the target) and backward masking (when the masker comes after the target).
3. Informational Masking: A more complex form of masking that occurs when the listener's cognitive processes, such as attention or memory, are affected by the presence of the masker sound. This type of masking can make it difficult to understand speech in noisy environments, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is favorable.

Perceptual masking has important implications for understanding and addressing hearing difficulties, particularly in situations with background noise or multiple sounds occurring simultaneously.

Psychophysics is not a medical term per se, but rather a subfield of psychology and neuroscience that studies the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce. It involves the quantitative investigation of psychological functions, such as how brightness or loudness is perceived relative to the physical intensity of light or sound.

In medical contexts, psychophysical methods may be used in research or clinical settings to understand how patients with neurological conditions or sensory impairments perceive and respond to different stimuli. This information can inform diagnostic assessments, treatment planning, and rehabilitation strategies.

In a medical context, awareness generally refers to the state of being conscious or cognizant of something. This can include being aware of one's own thoughts, feelings, and experiences, as well as being aware of external events or sensations.

For example, a person who is awake and alert is said to have full awareness, while someone who is in a coma or under general anesthesia may be described as having reduced or absent awareness. Similarly, a person with dementia or Alzheimer's disease may have impaired awareness of their surroundings or of their own memory and cognitive abilities.

In some cases, awareness may also refer to the process of becoming informed or educated about a particular health condition or medical treatment. For example, a patient may be encouraged to increase their awareness of heart disease risk factors or of the potential side effects of a medication. Overall, awareness involves a deep understanding and perception of oneself and one's environment.

Ocular fixation is a term used in ophthalmology and optometry to refer to the ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze or visual focus on an object. It involves the coordinated movement of the extraocular muscles that control eye movements, allowing for clear and stable vision.

In medical terminology, fixation specifically refers to the state in which the eyes are aligned and focused on a single point in space. This is important for maintaining visual perception and preventing blurring or double vision. Ocular fixation can be affected by various factors such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, or visual processing disorders.

Assessment of ocular fixation is often used in eye examinations to evaluate visual acuity, eye alignment, and muscle function. Abnormalities in fixation may indicate the presence of underlying eye conditions or developmental delays that require further investigation and treatment.

Eyelids are the thin folds of skin that cover and protect the front surface (cornea) of the eye when closed. They are composed of several layers, including the skin, muscle, connective tissue, and a mucous membrane called the conjunctiva. The upper and lower eyelids meet at the outer corner of the eye (lateral canthus) and the inner corner of the eye (medial canthus).

The main function of the eyelids is to protect the eye from foreign particles, light, and trauma. They also help to distribute tears evenly over the surface of the eye through blinking, which helps to keep the eye moist and healthy. Additionally, the eyelids play a role in facial expressions and non-verbal communication.

Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory, is the system responsible for holding and processing limited amounts of information for brief periods of time, typically on the order of seconds to minutes. It has a capacity of around 7±2 items, as suggested by George Miller's "magic number" theory. Short-term memory allows us to retain and manipulate information temporarily while we are using it, such as remembering a phone number while dialing or following a set of instructions. Information in short-term memory can be maintained through rehearsal, which is the conscious repetition of the information. Over time, if the information is not transferred to long-term memory through consolidation processes, it will be forgotten.

'Task Performance and Analysis' is not a commonly used medical term, but it can be found in the field of rehabilitation medicine and ergonomics. It refers to the process of evaluating and understanding how a specific task is performed, in order to identify any physical or cognitive demands placed on an individual during the performance of that task. This information can then be used to inform the design of interventions, such as workplace modifications or rehabilitation programs, aimed at improving task performance or reducing the risk of injury.

In a medical context, task performance and analysis may be used in the assessment and treatment of individuals with disabilities or injuries, to help them return to work or other activities of daily living. The analysis involves breaking down the task into its component parts, observing and measuring the physical and cognitive demands of each part, and evaluating the individual's ability to perform those demands. Based on this analysis, recommendations may be made for modifications to the task or the environment, training or education, or assistive devices that can help the individual perform the task more safely and efficiently.

Overall, task performance and analysis is a valuable tool in promoting safe and effective task performance, reducing the risk of injury, and improving functional outcomes for individuals with disabilities or injuries.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

Color perception refers to the ability to detect, recognize, and differentiate various colors and color patterns in the visual field. This complex process involves the functioning of both the eyes and the brain.

The eye's retina contains two types of photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. Rods are more sensitive to light and dark changes and help us see in low-light conditions, but they do not contribute much to color vision. Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color perception and function best in well-lit conditions.

There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular range of wavelengths corresponding to blue, green, and red colors. The combination of signals from these three types of cones allows us to perceive a wide spectrum of colors.

The brain then interprets these signals and translates them into the perception of different colors and hues. It is important to note that color perception can be influenced by various factors, including cultural background, personal experiences, and even language. Some individuals may also have deficiencies in color perception due to genetic or acquired conditions, such as color blindness or cataracts.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Theory and instructions for attentional blink Computational Models of the Attentional Blink Attentional Blink App for win32 ( ... Attentional blinking occurs when the second target is in stage 1 which causes a delay. The attentional blink mirror a ... resulting in the attentional blink. The episodic distinctiveness hypothesis of the ST2 model suggests that the attentional ... In this model, the attentional blink is thought to take place because of an out of place item which is selected out of the ...
Raymond JE, Shapiro KL, Arnell KM (1992). "Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink?". ... Shapiro KL, Arnell KA, Raymond JE (Nov 1997). "The attentional blink". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 1 (8): 291-296. doi: ...
Attentional blink Semantic satiation Kanwisher, N (1987). "Repetition blindness: Type recognition without token individuation ...
Cognitive phenomena like attentional blink and its modulation by benzodiazepine has also been replicated in this model. In ... Silverstein DN, Lansner A (2011). "Is attentional blink a byproduct of neocortical attractors?". Frontiers in Computational ...
Ray Li, C.S.; Chen, S.H.; Lin, W.H.; Yang, Y.Y. (2005). "Attentional blink in adolescents with varying levels of impulsivity". ... attentional, motor, and non-planning impulsiveness). The BIS is the most widely used self-report measure of impulsive ...
Lacroix G., Constantinescu I., Cousineau D., de Almeida R., Segalowitz N., & von Grünau M.W. (2005). Attentional blink ... Galera C., von Grünau M.W., & Panagopoulos A. (2004). Size and shape of the attentional spotlight affect efficiency of ...
Marti, S.; Sigman, M.; Dehaene, S. (2012). "A shared cortical bottleneck underlying Attentional Blink and Psychological ... An experimental psychologist and cognitive scientist, Pashler is best known for his studies of human attentional limitations ( ...
Shapiro KL, Caldwell J, Sorensen RE (April 1997). "Personal names and the attentional blink: a visual "cocktail party" effect ...
Attentional blink Auditory masking Response priming Ogmen H, Breitmeyer B (2007). "Visual masking". Scholarpedia. 2 (7): 3330. ... it is possible that their results were confounded by the attentional aspect of the trials, and that the results may not ...
This effect was demonstrated using the attentional blink paradigm in which 2 target items are presented in close temporal ... An attentional blink?". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 18 (3): 849-60. doi:10.1037/0096- ... The typical finding is that participants often miss the second target item, as if there were a "blink" of attention following ... Other researchers have suggested arousal may also increase the duration of attentional focusing on the arousing stimuli, thus ...
... he has conducted functional neuroimaging experiments of masking and the attentional blink, which show that information that ... "Timing of the brain events underlying access to consciousness during the attentional blink". Nature Neuroscience. 8 (10): 1285- ...
... and attentional blink. The attentional blink relates to the psychological refractory period, inattentional blindness, and ... which explains the attentional blink and the serial nature of consciousness. A marked increase in the power of gamma waves ...
... participants displayed a significant attentional blink when required to identify the targets, but the attentional blink was ... Evans & Treisman explain these results by with the hypothesis that the attentional blink occurs because the identification ... inattentional blindness and attentional blink. Such studies show that when one's visual focused attention is engaged by a task ... inattentional blindness and attentional blink, and that these psychological phenomena occurred because engaging in a task ...
In an EEG study, the attentional blink effect was reduced, and P3b ERP amplitude decreased in a group of participants who ... The incidence of reduced attentional blink effect relates to an increase in detectability of a second target. A greater degree ... of attentional resources in the brain and steady meditation practice can lead to the reduction of the attentional blink due to ... It can also be reflected in tests of attentional performance, indexed in poorer performance in attention related tasks. The ...
The main limitations highlighted include capacity limits of the brain, attentional blink rate interferences, limited processing ... These limits to attentional resources sometimes lead to serial bottlenecks in parallel processing, meaning that parallel ... by Anne Treisman is one of the theories that integrates serial and parallel processing while taking into account attentional ...
A US study looked at how plants and animals are perceived using "attentional blink" (the ability to notice one of two rapidly ... doi:10.1002/ppp3.43 Benjamin Balas and Jennifer L. Momsen (Fall 2014). "Attention "Blinks" Differently for Plants and Animals ...
She points out that if expectation does not mediate instances of very closely linked phenomena such as attentional blink and ... inattentional blindness from failures of awareness such as attentional failures like the aforementioned attentional blink. It ... and attentional blink. The key aspect of inattentional blindness which makes it distinct from other failures in awareness rests ... Attentional capacity, or neurological salience, is a measure of how much attention must be focused to complete a task. For ...
Similarly, content that would normally be conscious can become unconscious through inattention (e.g. in the Attentional blink) ... Kiefer M, Brendel D (February 2006). "Attentional modulation of unconscious "automatic" processes: evidence from event-related ...
Attentional blink Auditory masking Pre-attentive processing Unconscious thought theory § Criticism of UTT Visual masking Fehrer ... Sumner, P., Tsai, P.-C., Yu, K., & Nachev, P.: Attentional modulation of sensorimotor processes in the absence of perceptual ...
Attentional blink The term Rapid Serial Visual Presentation is also used in Information Visualization to describe a computer ...
... in a shorter attentional blink) while long-term practice brings lasting improvement.: 144-145 Next, the authors turn to the ...
... found that individuals with a combination of low self-esteem and low attentional control are more likely to exhibit eye-blink ... Gyurak A, Ayduk O (2007). "Defensive physiological reactions to rejection: the effect of self-esteem and attentional control on ...
Similarly, participants registered more eye blinks when studying negative words than positive words (blinking rate has been ... Learning and memory are direct consequences of attentional processing: the more attention is directed or devoted toward ... Aside from studies of eye blinks and color naming, Baumeister and colleagues noted in their review of bad events versus good ... Fogarty, Christine; Stern, John A. (1989). "Eye movements and blinks: Their relationship to higher cognitive processes". ...
Adults diagnosed with ADHD but with no medication treatments tend to blink more and make more microsaccades. Microsaccades are ... These movements might serve the function of maintaining visibility during fixation, or might be related to attentional shifts ... Fried; Tsitsiashvili; Bonneh; Sterkin; Wygnanski-Jaffe; Epstein (2014). "ADHD subjects fail to suppress eye blinks and ...
Walter Murch suggests that this is because viewers are in fact used to cuts in their everyday lives through the act of blinking ... Hillstrom, Anne P.; Yantis, Steven (1 July 1994). "Visual motion and attentional capture". Perception & Psychophysics. 55 (4): ... When you turn to look at an object, for example, you normally blink, thus creating a visual break in continuity between what ... Murch, Walter (1995). In the blink of an eye : a perspective on film editing (1st ed.). Los Angeles: Silman-James Press. ISBN ...
Participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms initially show attentional bias to compulsive threat, but this bias is ... Effects of anticipatory anxiety on the acoustic blink reflex". Psychophysiology. 28 (5): 588-595. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1991. ... MacLeod, C.; Mathews, A.; Tata, P. (1986). "Attentional bias in emotional disorders". Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 95 (1): ... Different mental disorders have been associated with specific attentional biases. Participants with spider phobia, for example ...
Later, author Malcolm Gladwell referred extensively to Ambady's work in Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking. One of ... Ambady and colleagues discovered that sadness associated with social loss resulted in attentional bias towards vocal tone. In ... Thin-slicing Cross-race effect Neuroculture Perceptions of sexual orientation Gladwell, Malcolm, 1963- (2005). Blink : the ... the results established in the 1st and 2nd parts of the study concerning attentional bias toward vocal tone and increased ...
2000). "fMRI Studies of Stroop Tasks Reveal Unique Roles of Anterior and Posterior Brain Systems in Attentional Selection". ... with the turn signal indicator designed as arrows that are pointing the opposite way that the indicated turn signal is blinking ... Conversely, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aims to reduce the attentional conflict and is activated after the ... while the anterior cingulate cortex is used to select an appropriate response and allocate attentional resources. The posterior ...
... the proposed DINN could ideally determine when drivers blink, how often they blink, and for how long. From there, it could ... Evidence for a common attentional mechanism". Vision Research. 36 (12): 1827-1837. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(95)00294-4. PMID ... The 2021 video game Before Your Eyes registers and reads the player's blinking, and uses it as the main way of interacting with ... EOG is, however, a very robust technique for measuring saccadic eye movement associated with gaze shifts and detecting blinks. ...
For example, habituation of aggressive responses in male bullfrogs has been explained as "an attentional or learning process ... Correlation between facial involuntary movements and abnormalities of blink and corneal reflexes in Huntington's chorea. Mov. ... acoustic tones are delivered to participants through headphones and the subsequent eye-blink response is recorded directly by ...
Theory and instructions for attentional blink Computational Models of the Attentional Blink Attentional Blink App for win32 ( ... Attentional blinking occurs when the second target is in stage 1 which causes a delay. The attentional blink mirror a ... resulting in the attentional blink. The episodic distinctiveness hypothesis of the ST2 model suggests that the attentional ... In this model, the attentional blink is thought to take place because of an out of place item which is selected out of the ...
Still, its interesting to see that the attentional blink affects people differently depending on their interests (or ... Children induce an enhanced attentional blink in child molesters. Psychological Assessment, 20 (4), 397-402 DOI: 10.1037/ ...
Attentional Blink There are many stimuli in your environment of which you are not aware. You use attention to filter out ... This lapse in attention is known as attentional blink. In this assignment, you will experience the attentional blink for ... Assignment 2: Attentional Blink There are many stimuli in your environment of which you are not aware. You use attention to ... Attentional Blink March 13, 2023. /in Uncategorized /by Paul. .awasam-promo { background-color: #9ED5EA; text-align: center; ...
Dive into the research topics of The root cause of the attentional blink: First-target processing or disruption of input ... The root cause of the attentional blink: First-target processing or disruption of input control?. ...
This is a variation of an attentional blink task.. One session consists of five blocks. One block consists of 10 trials. One ...
Attentional Blink, ST,span class=mathrm,,sup,2,/sup,,/span, Subjects:. Q Science , QA Mathematics (inc Computing science) , ... There is evidence that conscious perception during the attentional blink is all-or-none, which contrasts with the finding of a ... The delayed consolidation hypothesis of all-or-none conscious perception during the attentional blink, applying the ST2 ... be explained by the delayed attentional enhancement/target consolidation that is known to arise during the attentional blink. ...
AREND, Isabel. Dividing attention between two stimuli: a review on the attentional blink effect. Aletheia [online]. 2005, n.22 ... Palavras-chave : Attention; Attentional blink; Cognitive psychology; Cognitive neuroscience. · resumo em Espanhol · texto em ... This effect was called the attentional blink (AB). The importance of the AB for understanding the underlying mechanisms ...
Shapiro KL, Arnell KA, Raymond JE (Nov 1997). "The attentional blink". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 1 (8): 291-296. doi: ... Raymond JE, Shapiro KL, Arnell KM (1992). "Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink?". ...
In an attentional blink paradigm, observers detected faces presented during the attentional blink period that could depict ... In an attentional blink paradigm, observers detected faces presented during the attentional blink period that could depict ... The fearful-face advantage is modulated by task demands: evidence from the attentional blink.. T. Stein;Peelen, Marius Vincent; ... Perceptual load of the blink-inducing target was manipulated by increasing flanker interference. For the low-load condition, ...
An attentional blink (AB) paradigm was used to directly compare and contrast semantic and repetition priming to reported versus ... An attentional blink (AB) paradigm was used to directly compare and contrast semantic and repetition priming to reported versus ... Semantic and repetition priming within the attentional blink: An event related brain potential (ERP) investigation study. ... Semantic and repetition priming within the attentional blink: An event related brain potential (ERP) investigation study / ...
Vul, E., Hanus, D., & Kanwisher, N. (2008). Delay of Selective Attention During the Attentional Blink. Vision Research. . 48(18 ... Delayed and Diffused During the Attentional Blink. Psychological Science. . 19(1): 55-61 ... OCraven, K., Downing, P., & Kanwisher, N. (2000) fMRI Evidence for Objects as the Units of Attentional Selection. Nature. . ... Fischer, J.*, Koldewyn, K.*, Jiang, Y., & Kanwisher, N. (2014). Unimpaired Attentional Disengagement and Social Orienting in ...
... and assessed its potential to train an attentional network in adolescents. A combined analysis of resting state functional ... McHugo, M., Olatunji, B. O. & Zald, D. H. The emotional attentional blink: what we know so far. Front Hum Neurosci 7, 151 (2013 ... such as a visual search task9 and attentional blink task33. Recent reviews on emotion-cognition interaction suggest that ... Patsenko, E.G., Adluru, N., Birn, R.M. et al. Mindfulness video game improves connectivity of the fronto-parietal attentional ...
Timing of the brain events underlying access to consciousness during the attentional blink. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1391-1400. doi: ... Note that blinks could be easily identified in the EEG of posterior scalp sites because the reference electrode was placed on ... Trials containing blinks, eye movements, strong muscle activity or other artifacts were completely removed from the data. Noisy ... Subjects were instructed to fixate on the cross in the middle of the screen, not to blink until the response screen had ...
2005) Timing of the brain events underlying access to consciousness during the attentional blink. Nat Neurosci 8:1391-1400. doi ... Eye blinks were removed from the data using adaptive spatial filtering based on individual blink templates computed from the ... As a result, signal differences related to poststimulus attentional capture were expected to be minimized. Thus, the ... Alternatively, one might argue that, because attentional resources had to be divided between the somatosensory and visual ...
Objects and events in the attentional blink. Psychological Science. 13: 410-5. PMID 12219806 DOI: 10.1111/1467-9280.00473 0.307 ... Within-modality and cross-modality attentional blinks in a simple discrimination task Perception and Psychophysics. 68: 54-61. ... Direct measurement of attentional dwell time in human vision. Nature. 369: 313-5. PMID 8183369 DOI: 10.1038/369313a0 0.302. ... Attentional functions of parietal and frontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). 15: 1469-84. PMID 15689522 DOI: ...
2012) PET evidence for a role for striatal dopamine in the attentional blink: functional implications. Journal of Cognitive ...
Lallier, M., Donnadieu, S., & Valdois, S. (2010). Visual attentional blink in dyslexic children: Parameterizing the deficit. ... Is the attentional deficit in the perception of rapid stimuli sequences amodal?. Cortex, 46(2), 231-241. Doi:10.1016/j.cortex. ... sluggish attentional shifting theory of dyslexia. Brain Research, 1302, 132-147. Doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.07.037 ... Behavioral and ERP evidence for amodal sluggish attentional shifting in developmental dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 48(14), 4125- ...
4. Switching costs and attentional blink. I. Reduced Capacity. 1. Low arousal. 2. Alcohol & drugs. J. Aging. K. Decision ...
The attentional blink paradigm has revealed a profound and long-lasting deficit in the temporal dynamics of visual processing ... Kimron L. Shapiro, Jane Raymond and Karen Arnell (2009) Attentional blink. Scholarpedia, 4(6):3320. ... Kaplan, R.F., Verfaellie, M., Meadows, M.E., Caplan, L.R., Pessin, M.S., and DeWitt, L.D. (1991). Changing attentional demands ... Corbetta, M., Kincade, M.J., Lewis, C., Snyder, A.Z., and Sapir, A. (2005). Neural basis and recovery of spatial attentional ...
Kang, Y., Park, D. C., Son, J. H., & Kim, E. H. (2012). The effect of cognitive training on the attentional blink: A meta- ...
... "attentional blink," as when you blink your eyes, you are briefly unaware of visual signals. ... close enough to fall within the typical attentional blink window.. The research group found that three months of rigorous ... "The conventional view is that attentional resources are limited. This shows that attention capabilities can be enhanced through ... For example, he suggests, "Attention training is worth examining for disorders with attentional components, like attention ...
Shapiro, K.L., Raymond, J.E., & Arnell, K.M. (1994). Attention to visual pattern information produces the attentional blink in ... Valdois, S., Gerard, C., Vanault, P., & Dugas, M. (1995). Perceptual developmental dyslexia: a visual attentional account? ...
... using an attentional blink test. In experienced meditators, results significantly improved whilst presenting increased theta ... This cognitive tract is broken up into two attentional tracts of its own: Top down and bottom-up processing. As explained by ... Raz, A.; Buhle, J. Typologies of attentional networks. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2006, 7, 367-379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... Lutz, A.; Slagter, H.A.; Rawlings, N.B.; Francis, A.D.; Greischar, L.L.; Davidson, R.J. Mental training enhances attentional ...
18]This effect was demonstrated using the attentional blink paradigm[19] in which 2 target items are presented in close ... Raymond JE, Shapiro KL, Arnell KM (1992). "Temporary suppression of visual processing in an RSVP task: an attentional blink?". ... The typical finding is that participants often miss the second target item, as if there were a "blink" of attention following ... It has been suggested that in contrast to the relatively automatic attentional modulation of memory for arousing information, ...
They then engaged in something called the attentional blink task, in which you watch images appear rapidly one after another. ...
The first Short Report will be "How Backward Masking Becomes Attentional Blink: Perception of Successive In-stream Targets" by ...
Bilingualism and the increased attentional blink effect: evidence that the difference between bilinguals and monolinguals ...
... or the attentional blink (for a review see Lamme, 2018). Participants who act on a stimulus without being able to report on it ... Unsurprisingly, participants with an external attentional focus on walking (category 4) were most likely to report the ... It has been postulated that attentional mechanisms are able to modulate the degree of awareness (Fazekas and Overgaard, 2018). ...
... your brain blinks. The blinks are momentary unconscious gaps in visual perception and came as a surprise to the team of ... Minds eye blink is closely related to "attentional blink" that has been studied by Cornelius Vanderbilt Professor of ... Attentional blink is a phenomenon that occurs when a person is presented with a rapid series of images. If the spacing between ... When your attention shifts from one place to another, your brain blinks. The blinks are momentary unconscious gaps in visual ...
... "attentional blink".. New knowledge of the active networking between plants, served by pheromone and fungal messaging, could be ...
  • Then, using principles from the ST2 model of temporal attention and working memory, we show how this all-or-none pattern can be explained by the delayed attentional enhancement/target consolidation that is known to arise during the attentional blink. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The episodic distinctiveness hypothesis of the ST2 model suggests that the attentional blink reflects a limitation of the visual system attempting to allocate unique episodic contexts to the ephemeral target stimuli presented in RSVP. (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] Other researchers have suggested arousal may also increase the duration of attentional focusing on the arousing stimuli, thus delaying the disengagement of attention from it. (wikidoc.org)
  • [16] Ochsner (2000) [17] summarized the different findings and suggested that by influencing the selectivity of attention and the attentional dwell time, the arousing stimuli are more distinctively encoded, resulting in more accurate memory of that stimuli. (wikidoc.org)
  • [18] This effect was demonstrated using the attentional blink paradigm [19] in which 2 target items are presented in close temporal proximity within a stream of rapidly presented stimuli. (wikidoc.org)
  • Når individer ser en serie med hyppig visuelle stimuli og blir bedt om å rapportere to mål (T1 og T2) blant distraherende stimuli, oppstår et oppmerksomhetsblink (AB), en redusert evne i rapportering av det andre målet når det følger det første målet innen 500ms. (uib.no)
  • When individuals view a rapid series of visual stimuli and are asked to report two targets (T1 and T2) among distractors, an attentional blink (AB) occurs that is, reduced performance in reporting the second target when it follows the first target within 500ms. (uib.no)
  • The ability to process stimuli that convey potential threat, under conditions of limited attentional resources, confers adaptive advantages. (dericbownds.net)
  • Employing an attentional blink paradigm, in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging, we manipulated the salience of the second of 2 face target stimuli (T2), by varying emotionality. (dericbownds.net)
  • In an attentional blink paradigm, observers detected faces presented during the attentional blink period that could depict either a fearful or a happy expression. (unitn.it)
  • An attentional blink (AB) paradigm was used to directly compare and contrast semantic and repetition priming to reported versus missed word. (unimore.it)
  • Handschack J, Rothkirch M, Sterzer P , Hesselmann G . No effect of attentional modulation by spatial cueing in a masked numerical priming paradigm using continuous flash suppression (CFS). (neurotree.org)
  • Handschack J, Rothkirch M, Sterzer P , Hesselmann G . Probing the attentional modulation of unconscious processing under interocular suppression in a spatial cueing paradigm. (neurotree.org)
  • Targets presented very close together in time with no intervening distractors (at "lag 1" or consecutively in the RSVP stream) are not affected by the attentional blink, even though items presented at greater lags with intervening distractors are significantly impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992) suggest that the attentional blink is produced by perceptual uncertainty amongst the target (T1) and following target (T2). (wikipedia.org)
  • There is evidence that conscious perception during the attentional blink is all-or-none, which contrasts with the finding of a continuum of perceptual strength in masking experiments. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Perceptual load of the blink-inducing target was manipulated by increasing flanker interference. (unitn.it)
  • The first Short Report will be "How Backward Masking Becomes Attentional Blink: Perception of Successive In-stream Targets" by Talis Bachman and Karita Hommuk. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • The blinks are momentary unconscious gaps in visual perception and came as a surprise to the team of Vanderbilt psychologists who discovered the phenomenon while studying the benefits of attention. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Ophir EA, Hesselmann G , Lamy D . The attentional blink unveils the interplay between conscious perception, spatial attention and working memory encoding. (neurotree.org)
  • The LPC can be related to attentional allocation processes which might support the maintenance of the more complex stimulus representation in the binding task. (bvsalud.org)
  • The precise adaptive significance behind the attentional blink is unknown, but it is thought to be a product of a two-stage visual processing system attempting to allocate episodic context to targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • When your attention shifts, your brain 'blinks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • When your attention shifts from one place to another, your brain blinks. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The 'mind's eye blinks' that occur every time your attention shifts are the sensory processing costs that we pay for this capability. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Hesselmann G , Knops A . No conclusive evidence for number-induced attentional shifts in a temporal order judgement task. (neurotree.org)
  • This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves. (nih.gov)
  • According to the hypothesis, targets presented during this refractory period cannot trigger a release of norepinephrine, resulting in the attentional blink. (wikipedia.org)
  • We address this question using the Attentional Blink approach with visual objects as targets. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Erez Y, Kadohisa M, Petrov P , Sigala N , Buckley MJ , Kusunoki M , Duncan J . Integrated neural dynamics for behavioral decisions and attentional competition in the prefrontal cortex. (neurotree.org)
  • Details of their study are described in a paper titled "Spiking suppression precedes cued attentional enhancement of neural responses in primary visual cortex " published online Nov. 23 by the journal Cerebral Cortex . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Michele A Cox et al, Spiking Suppression Precedes Cued Attentional Enhancement of Neural Responses in Primary Visual Cortex, Cerebral Cortex (2017). (medicalxpress.com)
  • These results suggest that the privileged access of fearful faces to awareness does not occur mandatorily, but instead depends on attentional resources. (unitn.it)
  • Research showed that mindfulness practice, which cultivates a nonreactive form of sensory awareness, resulted in reduced attentional blink after three months of intensive practice. (thepracticelondon.org)
  • Here, we created a video game, Tenacity, which models a specific mindfulness technique - focused attention on one's breathing - and assessed its potential to train an attentional network in adolescents. (nature.com)
  • We suggest that these data support a model in which a prefrontal "gate" mechanism controls conscious access of emotional information under conditions of limited attentional resources. (dericbownds.net)
  • Attentional blink (AB) is a phenomenon that reflects temporal limitations in the ability to deploy visual attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants could identify two faces when the temporal interval between them was 800 ms, but they could identify only the first target (overlooked the second target) when the separation was 200 ms, thus demonstrating the attentional blink. (eurekalert.org)
  • This effect was called the attentional blink (AB). (bvsalud.org)
  • Semantic and repetition priming effects were independent on the report accuracy of T2, that is, the word most often missed because of a T1-locked attentional blink effect. (unimore.it)
  • This effect is called "attentional blink," as when you blink your eyes, you are briefly unaware of visual signals. (wisc.edu)
  • Attentional blink is a phenomenon that occurs when a person is presented with a rapid series of images. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This theory suggests that the time for which target 1 continues to occupy attentional capacity is related directly to the difficulty of processing target 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, he suggests, "Attention training is worth examining for disorders with attentional components, like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (wisc.edu)
  • This seems to reveal the underlying representation of strength that can be found in the brain in the absence of attentional enhancement. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The term attentional blink was first used in 1992, although the phenomenon was probably known before. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this assignment, you will experience the attentional blink for yourself and will also read about practical implications of the phenomenon. (customizedassignments.com)
  • Researchers measured what is known as attentional blink , which is the time the brain takes to 'reset' in-between two experiences. (thepracticelondon.org)
  • The attentional blink is sometimes used to measure differences in attention between particular populations or experimental conditions One factor which influences the AB is emotional information. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lapse in attention is known as attentional blink. (customizedassignments.com)
  • The typical finding is that participants often miss the second target item, as if there were a "blink" of attention following the first target's presentation, reducing the likelihood that the second target stimulus is attended. (wikidoc.org)
  • We find large differences across categories in the attentional blink. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • This is a variation of an attentional blink task. (psychopy.org)
  • The fearful-face advantage is modulated by task demands: evidence from the attentional blink. (unitn.it)
  • They then engaged in something called the attentional blink task, in which you watch images appear rapidly one after another. (berkeley.edu)
  • 1994) suggest that an interference model may better explain the attentional blink effects than the inhibition model. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, the attentional blink is thought to take place because of an out of place item which is selected out of the series because of the interference within the items in the series. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated whether this advantage depends on currently available attentional resources. (unitn.it)
  • The conventional view is that attentional resources are limited. (wisc.edu)
  • Giesbrecht and Di Lollo (1998) suggest that the attentional blink over target 2 results when the person is busy processing target 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalencia del síndrome Meares-Irlen/Estrés Visual que afecta la lectura en niños de tercer grado. (irlen.com)
  • The root cause of the attentional blink: First-target processing or disruption of input control? (psu.edu)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'The root cause of the attentional blink: First-target processing or disruption of input control? (psu.edu)
  • 1996) suggest that the target 1 takes over parts of our attentional capacity, leading to a deficit of processing or recognizing target 2 when presented immediately after target 1. (wikipedia.org)