Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Capitalism: A political and economic system characterized by individual rights, by private or corporate ownership of capital goods, and by prices, production, and the distribution of goods that are determined mainly by competition in a free market. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.History of MedicineGross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.United StatesOrientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Strikes, Employee: Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Anthropology, Cultural: It is the study of social phenomena which characterize the learned, shared, and transmitted social activities of particular ethnic groups with focus on the causes, consequences, and complexities of human social and cultural variability.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Multi-Institutional Systems: Institutional systems consisting of more than one health facility which have cooperative administrative arrangements through merger, affiliation, shared services, or other collective ventures.Field Dependence-Independence: The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Armenia: An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Europe, EasternCost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.VietnamHealth Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Work Simplification: The construction or arrangement of a task so that it may be done with the greatest possible efficiency.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.IndiaFacial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Great BritainPerceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.RussiaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Age of Interruption Analysis paralysis Attention economy Attention management Culture shock Exocortex Filter bubble Glass ... Longstanding technological factors have been further intensified by the rise of social media and the attention economy. Not all ... Goldhaber, Michael H. (7 April 1997). "The Attention Economy and the Net". First Monday. 2 (4). Retrieved 9 February 2013. Pot ... "attention economy" of sorts will naturally emerge from information overload, allowing Internet users greater control over their ...
Attention economy Clickbait Kominers, Scott Duke. "Sticky content and the structure of the commercial web." In 2009 Workshop on ... which has the purpose of getting a user to return to that particular website or hold their attention and get them to spend ...
This is often referred to as attention economy. Currently there is no consensus among researchers on relative merits of these ... A knowledge economy include the concept of exchanging knowledge-based products and services. However, as discussed by Stewart ( ... 2000) describe the architecture and processes necessary to succeed in a digital economy. Knowledge markets may also be ... ISBN 1-57851-301-4. Shapiro, Carl; Varian, Hal R. (1998). Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. ...
In Synereo's Attention Economy, value is created by those who create attention-worthy content as well as those who deliver it ... Synereo operates in the Attention Economy space, flowing from the fundamental assumption that attention is a scarce commodity, ... In April, 2016, Synereo launched the Alpha phase of its Attention Economy app, Qrator, and began growing its user base. With ... Synereo later on redefined its focus turning towards creating tools for the Attention Economy as part of the company's core ...
ISBN 0-19-511168-0. Attention economy Attention management Business analytics Information ecology Knowledge management Thomas H ... Davenport, T. H.; Beck, J. C. (2001). The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Harvard Business ... ISBN 1-4221-0332-3. Davenport, Thomas H.; Leibold, M.; Voelpel, S. (2006). Strategic management in the innovation economy. ...
Attention, Economy and the Brain - Culture Machine, Vol 13 (2012). Red Stack Attack - Effimera, February 2014. Keynote: Capture ... Attention, Economy and the Brain (Culture Machine website) Red Stack Attack (Effimera website) Keynote: Capture All Work on ... Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy - Summer 2000. Failure to comply. Bioart, security and the market - ... Free Labor: Producing Culture for the Digital Economy (MIT website) Terranova, Tiziana (2000). "Free Labor: Producing Culture ...
Harsin, Jayson (February 24, 2015). "Regimes of Posttruth, Postpolitics, and Attention Economies". Communication, Culture & ... the attention economy marked by information overload and acceleration, user-generated content and fewer society-wide common ... and Attention Economies". Communication, Culture & Critique. 8 (2): 327-333. Richard Sambrook (January 2012). "Delivering trust ... Fact-checking and rumor-busting sites abound, but they are unable to reunite a fragmented set of audiences (attention-wise) and ...
Among his books are: Ökonomie der Aufmerksamkeit (The Economy of Attention). Munich: Hanser, 1998, Mentaler Kapitalismus ( ... "Franck, G. (December 7, 1999), 'The Economy of Attention', Telepolis" "Mentaler Kapitalismus: Eine politische Ökonomie des ...
online Estrada, D. and Lawhead, J. (2014) Gaming the Attention Economy. In The Handbook of Human Computation, Pietro Michelucci ... "Gaming the Attention Economy" in The Springer Handbook of Human Computation, Pietro Michelucci (ed.), (Springer, 2014) http:// ...
Economy of Attention'", Critical Mass, National Book Critics Circle, 27 January 2010. Scott McLemee, "Economy of Attention", ...
"Esther Dyson on the Attention Economy and the Quantification of Everything". EconTalk. Library of Economics and Liberty. Esther ... Dyson and her company EDventure specialized in analyzing the effect of emerging technologies and markets on economies and ...
With attention centered on producing cotton, the South's economy became very unbalanced. Many farmers went into debt and lost ... Some cite the maintenance of white supremacy, particularly in the economy, after the freeing of slaves in the South as one of ... to gather information about membership because he feared the violence would drive too much labor away from the state economy. ...
He also paid a lot of attention to the economy and agriculture; this allowed him to finance his expeditions. According to al- ... After the peace treaty with Hasan, Muawiyah turned his attention back to the Romans. In 674, Umayyad naval and army forces ... a good economy and therefore felt that people should not resent his past. On one occasion, Mu'awiya ascended the minbar and ...
As mayor, he is remembered for focusing his attention on improving the local economy. He arranged civic financing from the Gore ...
Missing or empty ,title= (help) [1] [2] [3] Slow movement Slow Journalism Attention economy. ... in order to draw the attention of consumers. http://en.slow-media.net/manifesto. Missing or empty ,title= (help) http:// ...
Thus, as the backbone of the European economy, SMEs require special support and attention. The European clusters are rooted in ... both the local and regional economy. They know exactly what their region requires and have an up-to-date view of their ( ...
Addiction by Design Attention economy Capitalism Consumtariat Television consumption O'Brien, Miles (30 January 2017). "Your ... such as attention and distraction and their effects on the user. After beginning to spread his ideas about the ethics of ... which advocates that people be aware of how commercial interests design mobile devices to capture as much attention as possible ...
Human-computer interaction Attention economy Genner, Sarah (3 January 2017). ON/OFF: Risks and Rewards of the Anytime-Anywhere ...
He devoted most attention to political economy, which he studied with great thoroughness and care. While residing in Dublin, he ... Cairnes' exposition of the province and method of political economy: He never suffers it to be forgotten that political economy ... and the essays on Political Economy and Land, and on Political Economy and Laissez-Faire, which have been referred to above. In ... such as those on Political Economy and Land, Political Economy and Laissez-Faire, are but reiterations of the same doctrine. ...
As president, Aquino focused her attention and energy to revitalize and rejuvenate the sagging economy. One of her boldest ... The economy posted a positive growth of 3.4% during her first year in office. But in the aftermath of the 1989 coup attempt, ... Aquino also encouraged the tourism sector to boost the national economy. Under her six-year term, the Department of Tourism ... she inherited an economy that was bankrupt and debt-ridden as a result of twenty years of misrule and mismanagement under the ...
With the fall of Communism, attention shifted to problems of transition economies. With a handful of exceptions, all currently ... feudalism and the mixed economy. It is widely held to be founded by the economist Calvin Bryce Hoover. Comparative economics ... though the substantial economic role of the state supports the alternative view that the mixed economy has emerged as the ...
Most people were farmers and agriculture dominated the economy, despite all the attention given to ships. The rural situation ... Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by raiding many of the coastal communities. In addition ... Governing a marginal colony that received little attention from London, the royal governor, Francis Legge (1772 to 1776) ... and the lack of external economies. When Scotia (now called DOSCO--Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation) finally closed in the ...
... an intrinsic part of the knowledge economy, has received relatively little attention. In recent years, due to significant ... "The Creative Economy: How People Make Money From Ideas", Penguin, 2001 "Creative Britain: New Talents for the New Economy", ... These people have the potential to be a key driver of the creative economy, but few see themselves as 'creative entrepreneurs ... Since the mid 20th century, commentators have observed the move towards a knowledge economy or information society where the ...
The new economy management authority will pay close attention to the construction of the scientific city. The provincial ...
... citizens turned their attention to establishing local government and to rebuilding the economy. In 1785 the 96 District was ... In the Plantation economy, the plantation owners took their cotton to market in Augusta or Hamburg and bought the majority of ... The county's agricultural economy began to suffer in the 1880s. The combination of a dramatic increase in the production of ... In this colonial period the economy was primarily a subsistence one in which the settlers consumed what they raised. Initially ...
Culture and economy[edit]. The Indus Valley civilisation was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural ... As early as 1826 Harappa, located in west Punjab, attracted the attention of Daya Ram Sahni, who gets credit for preliminary ...
This study will be of great interest not only to students of the political economies of France and Germany, but also to ... "The attention Vail pays to the political constraints and limitations, and the influence of different administrations on ... Vail] convincingly makes the case for the importance of key linkages between the political economy and welfare regimes.... One ... Vail challenges the dominant theoretical approaches within comparative political economy. Recasting Welfare Capitalism is a ...
The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the ... their signal exposure and attention, and the diversity of senders surviving the contest for attention. Application of the ... A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes ... Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. ...
"Mega-Trend Attention Economy"". trendone. Iskold, Alex (March 1, 2007). "The Attention Economy". ReadWriteWeb. ""Eyeball" ... Attention management Attention (disambiguation) Continuous partial attention Post-scarcity economy Imagination age Cognitive ... Social attention can also be associated to collective attention, i.e. how "attention to novel items propagates and eventually ... Attention economy is also relevant to the social sphere. More specifically, long term attention can also be considered ...
Duckworth argues it is Walsh whos taken the focus off the economy with his remarks, and that she too has been contacted by ... representing a variety of stances on abortion Friday sought to turn the conversation from social issues back to the economy in ...
The Attention Economy: Is it Too Much? By Tamar Weinberg Web 2.0 is not only over hyped, but innovators add features to web ...
attention economy. Jenny Odell Wants You to Put Down Your Phone and Smell the Roses ...
... the economy of attention that defines these situations has changed. Is it possible to pay attention when sending a text message ... The New Economy of Attention. 13. It is our contention that the presence of laptops and other networked devices within "live" ... Attention, diffused and de-centered, is the focal value of this new economy in which the force of symbols, rhetoric, and ... Designing Choreographies for the "New Economy of Attention" Eric Gordon ,eric_gordon_at_emerson_dot_edu,, Emerson College ...
Marketing In An Attention Economy. Posted byMax Kalehoff August 6, 2006. August 7, 2011. Leave a comment on Marketing In An ... Attention Economy Last June, at the Innovation Marketing CMO Summit, led by Corante and Columbia Business School, John Hagel ... value creation is shifting from businesses driven by economies of scale in production to businesses driven by economies of ... First, we are moving from a world of relatively scarce shelf-space to relatively scarce attention. Second, costs of production ...
Attention Economy Michael H. Goldhaber: The Attention Economy: The Natural Economy of the Net Joe Matheny: The Attention ... The Attention Economy: Is the Marketing World Ready for a New Consumer Culture? , Relevantly Speaking. May 7, 2008 at 4:23 pm. ... Home Featured Top Post The Attention Economy: Is the Marketing World Ready for a New Consumer... ... The Attention Economy: Is the Marketing World Ready for a New Consumer Culture?. By ...
Because the economy needs emergency attention now.. Al DAmato, a former U.S. senator from New York, is the founder of Park ... The economy needs emergency attention now. Posted Friday, September 11, 2020 11:36 am ... have pumped several trillion dollars into the economy to keep Americans afloat. That prevented the economy from falling into a ... Make no mistake, its the economy that New Yorkers are especially worried about. A recent poll listed it as their No. 1 concern ...
When it comes to telling the story of our dire economy, it seems Republican politicians have lifted their strategy from the ... Pay No Attention to the Politicians Behind the Curtain!. When it comes to telling the story of our dire economy, it seems ... We must stop penalizing low-income families who are not the culprits of the demise of our economy. How much longer will we ... Meanwhile, they have created a mess out of our economy through massive Bush-era tax breaks for corporations and wealthy people ...
Attention functions in the information economy the same way control of material resources functions in the industrial economy. ... Even if attention doesnt instantly translate into income online, it can help secure it offline. As currencies, attention and ... Beware entities that amass attention even if they never convert it into financial assets. The real power of Google and Facebook ... In this account, the internet functions as another successive layer of alienation built on the material economy. If a great ...
Yes, we are living in the New Economy. At the same time, however, we are also living in the Attention Economy. ... Having conducted substantial research on the Attention Economy, we have concluded that attention can be managed. Indeed, it ... "attention industries," implications for leadership, and much more (The Attention Economy, Thomas H. Davenport and John C. Beck ... THE STRATEGY AND STRUCTURE OF FIRMS IN THE ATTENTION ECONOMY. by: Thomas H. Davenport, John C. Beck, John C. BeckIssues: March ...
One of his key concepts is thus the principle of economy of attention:. On seeking for some clue to the law underlying these ... The Philosophy of Style: Herbert Spencer on the Economy of Attention and the Ideal Writer (1852). "To have a specific style is ... The same principle of economy of attention, Spencer argues, holds true of the creation of powerful imagery:. Not only in the ... Spencer uses this attention economy to admonish against saturation and advises on the proper sequence to achieve literary ...
The bottom line is there is no data yet to verify how well news publishers manage to convert social media attention to digital ... Attention economy: Facebook delivers traffic but no money for news media. Posted By: Merja Mullylahtion: November 02, 2018. In ... Home Digital Attention economy: Facebook delivers traffic but no money for news media ... The bottom line is there is no data yet to verify how well news publishers manage to convert social media attention to digital ...
If you like a accurate download Reclaiming the Night Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention in Pubs and Clubs, you may meet ... This download Reclaiming the Night Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention in Pubs and Clubs 2016 is you the First trauma. not ... Mail Us On [email protected] clean-energy download Reclaiming the Night Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention in ... The download Reclaiming the Night Time Economy: Unwanted Sexual Attention is Proudly snuffed. You come part has ever work! The ...
Re: Living & Motivation~Scientific-Method~Will~Monetary-Based-Economy ___. (,). (,). (,). (,) caduceus. ==. )_). ). om. ==. ___ ... Re: Living & Motivation~Scientific-Method~Will~Monetary-Based-Economy Yearly growth of the crown. Great yearly growth of the ... Re: Living & Motivation~Scientific-Method~Will~Monetary-Based-Economy Scientific Method Applied to Social Direction. ,- ... Re: Living & Motivation~Scientific-Method~Will~Monetary-Based-Economy Recombination is essential for optimization/distribution ...
Publishing in the Attention Economy. Skains, R. Lyle Published: Not yet published - available from February 2019 ...
... the technologists are really just building better ad-brokering services for the attention deficit economy - an economy that ... Obey > Facebook and Attention-Economy Deficit Disorder. A couple of days ago here in the US, the Mueller investigation indicted ... Facebook won the lion share of the attention economy by training us to obey their signals, select from their menus and activity ... In this scenario Uber paints itself as a friend of the flex-worker as opposed to being a parasite of the Gig Economy. Arent ...
The image and its capture have been at the centre of our fascination to discover ourselves and our surroundings. The urge to create and document has led us to design tools that have allowed us to…
Attention Economy. 16/5 2014 9/6 2014 *Press release. *Press images ...
The Attention Economy Is a Malthusian Trap. *Derek Thompson. Big tech companies now trade at one of the smallest premiums in ... The Attention Economy Is a Malthusian Trap. *Derek Thompson. Big tech companies now trade at one of the smallest premiums in ... it seemed to draw from his attention to language. "Theres so much so in sorrow," he said at one point. "Let me down from here ... it seemed to draw from his attention to language. "Theres so much so in sorrow," he said at one point. "Let me down from here ...
A single woman explores the real-life Pemberley, dons Regency-style dresses and walks the streets of Bath looking for a novel sort of inspiration.
Humana is accelerating its move into directly providing health care, with new deals and planned investments that are expected to expand the number of physicians under its umbrella to more than 2,600.
Economy Home *Real Time Economics. *Bankruptcy. *Central Banking. *Private Equity. *Strategic Intelligence ...
  • Nigerians' approval of President Muhammadu Buhari has dropped in 2016 as perceptions of the economy and corruption remain poor. (gallup.com)
  • The algorithm economy, such as Algorithmia, operates in two ways: Developers can "share" their algorithms with others -- and get paid -- or companies can place a bounty -- the amount they would be willing to pay -- on an algorithm they would like to use. (techtarget.com)
  • My research suggests these enquiries should pay attention to the impact of Facebook and the lessons we've already learned about the social platform. (themediaonline.co.za)
  • Facebook won the lion share of the attention economy by training us to obey their signals, select from their menus and activity feeds, narrow our choices and filter out the rest of the world. (seam.tv)
  • The overt hostility among European opinion leaders to attention-economy companies such as Google and Facebook is not translated into use behavior. (lirneasia.net)
  • Yin Yang Yoga In the attention economy brands and individuals, that is living and breathing human beings compete for continual growth of likes and followers on different platforms from YouTube to podcasts on ITunes, Facebook, Instagram to Snapchat. (melissawest.com)
  • Some writers have even speculated that "attention transactions" will replace financial transactions as the focus of our economic system (Goldhaber 1997, Franck 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, over the past few months, Congress and President Trump - along with the Federal Reserve - have pumped several trillion dollars into the economy to keep Americans afloat. (liherald.com)
  • This could pump another trillion dollars into the economy, including more help for ordinary Americans to pay for rent and food, and additional assistance to struggling small businesses to keep their doors open and provide desperately needed jobs. (liherald.com)
  • Instead, we argue that the emerging social media provide new methods for choreographing attention in line with the performative conventions of any given situation. (digitalhumanities.org)
  • Two new books argue that the attention economy is unsustainable-for people, and for the planet. (psmag.com)
  • Our concern is not to critique the new social media as extensions of a shallow and historicall amnesiac mass culture, nor alternatively to take a position on the efficiency of new technologies for delivering educational content or their efficacy at meeting students "where they live," and thereby entering into the competition for their time and attention. (digitalhumanities.org)
  • Attention Washington: The US economy, the top concern of voters, is barely moving. (csmonitor.com)
  • This article builds on the theories of Jacques Derrida, Richard Lanham, and Sidney Dobrin to suggest new theories and methodologies for understanding how attention operates within complex media ecologies at a macroscopic level. (digitalhumanities.org)
  • He investigates debt across time and across cultures and finds it to be a primary institution, preceding exchange, money and any notion of "the economy. (alternet.org)
  • Democrats, while often echoing those same concerns, also emphasize the role of government as an investor in the economy, as well as the notion that federal deficits should be closed partly through higher taxes - especially on high-income households. (csmonitor.com)
  • For months, experts and major media organizations have proclaimed imminent economic reform, even declaring that "North Korea has virtually abandoned the planned economy. (latimes.com)
  • They can also efficiently expedite modification approvals with strict attention given to the adherence of your institutions modification standards, policies, procedures and loss mitigation goals as well complying with the applicable HAMP, Feddie Mac or Fannie Mae loan modification guidelines. (outsource2india.com)
  • This phrase suggests that the object it describes has, during the process of attention accretion, become more than its accounting - the trending object acquires value. (digitalhumanities.org)
  • That challenge underlines one of the most pressing problems for leaders: They simply do not have enough attention to give and to go around, to meet the unrelenting demands of and for information. (iveybusinessjournal.com)
  • It is the act of persuading people that you are paying enough attention to them that you're able to keep them fully engaged and aligned with what it is you're doing. (zdnet.com)
  • News companies believe they can turn this attention into money, but so far with little success. (themediaonline.co.za)
  • Nearly every broadcast of cable news, sports journalism, or entertainment media relies on this phrase to justify the attention paid to a particular event or topic of interest. (digitalhumanities.org)
  • Ed. v. Center for Management in the Information Economy, Business and Information Technologies Project (BIT) (Working Paper). (springer.com)
  • 43Folders.com is Merlin Mann 's website about finding the time and attention to do your best creative work. (43folders.com)
  • A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. (repec.org)