Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Child Behavior Disorders
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Lewy Body Disease
Multiple System Atrophy
Severity of Illness Index
Receptors, Dopamine D4
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
Nursing home characteristics and the development of pressure sores and disruptive behaviour. (1/275)OBJECTIVE: To determine how nursing home characteristics affect pressure sores and disruptive behaviour. METHOD: Residents (n = 5518, aged > or =60 years) were selected from 70 nursing homes in the National Health Care chain. Homes were classified as high- or low-risk based on incidence tertiles of pressure sores or disruptive behaviour (1989-90). Point-prevalence and cumulative incidence of pressure sores and disruptive behaviour were examined along with other functional and service variables. RESULTS: The overall incidence of pressure sores was 11.4% and the relative risk was 4.3 times greater in high- than low-risk homes; for disruptive behaviour, the incidence was 27% and the relative risk was 7.1 times greater in the high-risk group. At baseline, fewer subjects in homes with a high risk of pressure sores were white or in restraints, but more had received physician visits monthly and had had problems with transfers and eating. High-risk homes also had fewer beds and used less non-licensed nursing staff time. At follow-up (1987-90), 52% of homes in the low-risk group and 35% of those in the high-risk group had maintained their risk status; low-risk homes were more likely to have rehabilitation and maintenance activities. Having multiple clinical risk factors was associated with more pressure sores in high- (but not low-) risk homes, suggesting a care-burden threshold. By logistic regression, the best predictor of pressure sores was a home's prior (1987-88) incidence status. Interestingly, 67% of homes with a high risk of pressure sores were also high-risk for disruptive behaviour, while only 27% of homes with a low risk of pressure sores were high-risk for disruptive behaviour. A threshold effect was also observed between multiple risk factors and behaviour. More homes with a high risk of disruptive behaviour (68%) remained at risk over 4 years, and the best predictor of outcome was a home's previous morbidity level. CONCLUSION: Nursing-home characteristics may have a greater impact than clinical factors on pressure sores and disruptive behaviour in long-stay, institutionalized elders. (+info)
An evaluation of the properties of attention as reinforcement for destructive and appropriate behavior. (2/275)The analogue functional analysis described by Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, and Richman (1982/1994) identifies broad classes of variables (e.g., positive reinforcement) that maintain destructive behavior (Fisher, Ninness, Piazza, & Owen-DeSchryver, 1996). However, it is likely that some types of stimuli may be more effective reinforcers than others. In the current investigation, we identified 2 participants whose destructive behavior was maintained by attention. We used concurrent schedules of reinforcement to evaluate how different types of attention affected both destructive and appropriate behavior. We showed that for 1 participant praise was not an effective reinforcer when verbal reprimands were available; however, praise was an effective reinforcer when verbal reprimands were unavailable. For the 2nd participant, we identified a type of attention that effectively competed with verbal reprimands as reinforcement. We then used the information obtained from the assessments to develop effective treatments to reduce destructive behavior and increase an alternative communicative response. (+info)
A descriptive analysis of social consequences following problem behavior. (3/275)The social consequences delivered for problem behavior during functional analyses are presumed to represent common sources of reinforcement; however, the extent to which these consequences actually follow problem behavior in natural settings remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether access to attention, escape, or tangible items is frequently observed as a consequence of problem behavior under naturalistic conditions. Twenty-seven adults who lived in a state residential facility and who exhibited self-injurious behavior, aggression, or disruption participated. Observers recorded the occurrence of problem behavior by participants as well as a variety of consequences delivered by caregivers. Results indicated that attention was the most common consequence for problem behavior and that aggression was more likely to produce social consequences than were other forms of problem behavior. (+info)
Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance. (4/275)BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the relationships between psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis and psychosocial impairment. AIMS: To examine these contemporaneous relationships and prognostic significance in a large general population sample. METHOD: Symptoms of major depression, conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were assessed by interview in two waves of the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent behavioural Development (2800 children aged 8-16 years). RESULTS: Many children below the DSM-III-R diagnostic threshold, especially for depression, had symptom-related impairment, whereas many children reaching the symptom threshold for conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were little impaired. Impairment score was linearly related to symptom count, with no evidence of any additional impairment at the diagnostic threshold. For depression, only symptoms predicted later symptoms and diagnosis. For conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, impairment was additionally predictive of later symptoms and diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Impairment, in addition to symptoms, is important for both nosology and prognosis. (+info)
Unintentional injury in preschool boys with and without early onset of disruptive behavior. (5/275)OBJECTIVE: To determine subsequent risk of unintentional injury among preschool boys diagnosed with ODD, boys with comorbid ODD and ADHD, and boys matched demographically to the clinical sample; to test predictive validity of a measure of injury proneness; and to examine factors that might predict injury beyond clinic status. METHODS: Seventy-nine consecutive clinic-referred preschool-age boys and 76 demographically matched boys without disruptive behavior participated in a 2-year prospective longitudinal design. Time 1 assessment included clinical diagnosis, parent-reported injury proneness, attachment, and verbal abilities. Injury history was measured 1 and 2 years later. RESULTS: Clinic-referred children had more injuries than the comparison group. Children with comorbid ODD and ADHD had approximately the same injury rate as those with ODD but not ADHD. Parent-reported injury proneness was unrelated to subsequent injuries. Neither attachment nor verbal ability predicted injury significantly beyond clinic status. CONCLUSIONS: Children with early disruptive behavior are at increased risk of unintentional injury and therefore should be considered prime candidates for injury prevention campaigns. (+info)
The influence of activity choice on problem behaviors maintained by escape versus attention. (6/275)This study assessed whether the function of an individual's problem behavior was related to the effectiveness of an intervention involving choice among tasks. Analogue functional analyses were conducted with 7 students with various diagnoses to determine whether problem behaviors were maintained by escape or attention. Following identification of the function of each student's problem behavior, reversal designs were used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention that allowed the students to choose their own instructional tasks. Results showed that students who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior showed substantial reductions in such behavior when they were provided with opportunities to choose among tasks. On the other hand, students who displayed attention-maintained problem behavior did not show any effects as a result of the choice intervention. These findings are discussed in terms of the effective use of behavior management programs involving choice and the reduction of problem behavior. (+info)
Developmental trajectories of childhood disruptive behaviors and adolescent delinquency: a six-site, cross-national study. (7/275)This study used data from 6 sites and 3 countries to examine the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood and to analyze its linkage to violent and nonviolent offending outcomes in adolescence. The results indicate that among boys there is continuity in problem behavior from childhood to adolescence and that such continuity is especially acute when early problem behavior takes the form of physical aggression. Chronic physical aggression during the elementary school years specifically increases the risk for continued physical violence as well as other nonviolent forms of delinquency during adolescence. However, this conclusion is reserved primarily for boys, because the results indicate no clear linkage between childhood physical aggression and adolescent offending among female samples despite notable similarities across male and female samples in the developmental course of physical aggression in childhood. (+info)
An evaluation of a brief functional analysis format within a vocational setting. (8/275)We conducted and compared both brief and extended functional analyses of disruptive behaviors for 3 individuals with developmental disabilities who attended a vocational training program. Results demonstrated that the brief assessment identified the function of 2 of the 3 participants' disruptive behavior compared to the extended assessment. (+info)
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The most common symptoms of ADHD include difficulty paying attention, forgetfulness, fidgeting, interrupting others, and acting impulsively.
ODD is a disorder that is characterized by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures. Symptoms of ODD may include arguing with adults, refusing to comply with rules, deliberately annoying others, and blaming others for one's own mistakes.
CD is a disorder that is characterized by a pattern of aggressive and destructive behavior towards others. Symptoms of CD may include physical fights, property damage, and cruelty to animals.
The causes of AD/DBD are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development. These disorders often run in families, and individuals with AD/DBD are more likely to have a family history of these conditions. Additionally, certain environmental stressors, such as trauma or exposure to toxins, may increase the risk of developing AD/DBD.
There is no cure for AD/DBD, but they can be effectively managed with a combination of medication and behavioral therapy. Medications such as stimulants and non-stimulants are commonly used to treat ADHD, while behavioral therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) can help individuals with AD/DBD learn skills to manage their symptoms and behaviors.
In conclusion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are neurodevelopmental disorders that affect both children and adults. While they share some similarities, they also have distinct differences in terms of their symptoms and underlying causes. Effective management of these conditions requires a comprehensive approach that includes medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD and DBD can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
RBD can be diagnosed based on a combination of clinical features, including:
1. Abnormal behavior during REM sleep: This is the primary feature of RBD and is characterized by abrupt awakenings, aggressive or violent behaviors, and/or talking in a loud, angry tone.
2. Sleep quality issues: Individuals with RBD may experience poor sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, or difficulty staying asleep.
3. Daytime symptoms: RBD can also cause daytime symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating.
4. Polysomnography (PSG): This is a sleep study that records various physiological activities during sleep, such as brain waves, muscle activity, and heart rate. PSG can help identify the presence of RBD and rule out other sleep disorders.
5. Actigraphy: This is a non-invasive sleep monitoring device that records movement and can be used to diagnose RBD.
6. Clinical evaluation: A thorough clinical evaluation, including a review of the individual's medical history and a physical examination, can help identify other potential causes of the symptoms.
Treatment for RBD typically involves a combination of medications and behavioral interventions, such as:
1. Clonazepam: This is a benzodiazepine that can help reduce the frequency and intensity of abnormal behaviors during REM sleep.
2. Melatonin: This is a hormone that can help regulate sleep-wake cycles and improve sleep quality.
3. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): This type of therapy can help individuals with RBD manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.
4. Sleep schedule modification: Changing the individual's sleep schedule to avoid napping during the day and promoting good sleep hygiene can help reduce the frequency and intensity of abnormal behaviors.
5. Relaxation techniques: Teaching individuals with RBD relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing and progressive muscle relaxation, can help them manage their symptoms and improve their overall quality of life.
6. Environmental modifications: Making changes to the individual's sleep environment, such as removing any sharp objects or dangerous substances from the bedroom, can help reduce the risk of injury or harm during abnormal behaviors.
It is important to note that treatment for RBD should be tailored to the individual and may take time to find the most effective approach. It is also important to work with a healthcare provider who has experience in treating sleep disorders.
1. Predominantly Inattentive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of inattention, such as difficulty paying attention to details or making careless mistakes. Individuals with this type may have trouble sustaining their focus during tasks and may appear daydreamy or easily distracted.
2. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: This type is characterized by symptoms of hyperactivity, such as fidgeting, restlessness, and an inability to sit still. Individuals with this type may also exhibit impulsivity, such as interrupting others or speaking out of turn.
3. Combined Type: This type is characterized by both symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.
The symptoms of ADHD can vary from person to person and may change over time. Some common symptoms include:
* Difficulty sustaining attention during tasks
* Easily distracted or interrupted
* Difficulty completing tasks
* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Difficulty sitting still or remaining quiet
* Interrupting others or speaking out of turn
* Impulsivity, such as acting without thinking
The exact cause of ADHD is not fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to differences in brain structure and function, as well as genetic factors. There is no cure for ADHD, but medication and behavioral therapy can help manage symptoms and improve functioning.
ADHD can have significant impacts on daily life, including academic and social difficulties. However, with proper treatment and support, many individuals with ADHD are able to lead successful and fulfilling lives.
People with Antisocial Personality Disorder may exhibit a range of symptoms, including:
* A lack of empathy or remorse for harming others
* Impulsivity and a tendency to act on whim without considering the consequences
* Aggressive or violent behavior
* A disregard for the law and a willingness to engage in criminal activity
* Difficulty forming and maintaining relationships
* Inability to feel guilt or remorse
* Inability to take responsibility for one's actions
* A tendency to manipulate others for personal gain
It is important to note that Antisocial Personality Disorder is not the same as Asperger's Syndrome or Autism Spectrum Disorder, which are separate neurodevelopmental disorders. However, people with Antisocial Personality Disorder may also have co-occurring conditions such as substance use disorders or other mental health conditions.
Treatment for Antisocial Personality Disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy may be effective in helping individuals with this condition to understand and change their behavior. Medications such as antidepressants and antipsychotics may also be used to help manage symptoms.
It is important to note that Antisocial Personality Disorder is a complex and challenging condition to treat, and it is not uncommon for individuals with this disorder to have difficulty adhering to treatment plans or engaging in therapy. However, with the right treatment and support, it is possible for individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder to learn new coping skills and make positive changes in their lives.
1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A disorder marked by a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder (CD): A disorder characterized by a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the child violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
4. Anxiety Disorders: A group of disorders that cause excessive fear, worry, or anxiety that interferes with daily life.
5. Mood Disorders: A group of disorders that affect a child's mood, causing them to feel sad, hopeless, or angry for extended periods of time.
6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors.
7. Tourette Syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, often involving involuntary sounds or words.
8. Selective Mutism: A disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of speaking in certain situations, such as school or social events.
9. Separation Anxiety Disorder: A disorder characterized by excessive and persistent anxiety related to separation from home or loved ones.
10. Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A group of disorders that include ODD, CD, and conduct disorder, which are characterized by a pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules.
These disorders can be challenging to diagnose and treat, but early identification and intervention can make a significant difference in a child's outcome. It is important for parents and caregivers to seek professional help if they notice any signs of these disorders in their child.
Some common types of mental disorders include:
1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.
Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.
Some common types of parasomnias include:
1. Sleepwalking (somnambulism): Getting out of bed and walking around while asleep.
2. Sleep talking (talking in one's sleep).
3. Sleep eating (eating while asleep).
4. Sleep driving (driving while asleep).
5. Sexsomnia (engaging in sexual activities while asleep).
6. Night terrors (intense fear or anxiety while asleep).
7. Sleep paralysis (temporary inability to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up).
8. REM sleep behavior disorder (acting out dreams while asleep).
Parasomnias can be dangerous, as they can lead to injuries or accidents, and can also cause sleep disruption and daytime fatigue. Treatment options for parasomnias include medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes, such as establishing a regular sleep schedule and avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime.
The main types of sleep-wake transition disorders include:
1. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, often accompanied by stress, anxiety, or depression.
2. Sleep maintenance insomnia: Waking up frequently during the night and having difficulty returning to sleep.
3. Sleep-wake cycle disorders: Disruptions in the normal sleep-wake cycle, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) or advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS).
4. Circadian rhythm disorders: Disruptions in the body's internal clock, which can cause difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep.
5. Sleep-related movement disorders: Disorders that cause involuntary movements during sleep, such as restless leg syndrome (RLS) or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD).
6. Sleep-related eating disorders: Consuming food during sleep, often due to a lack of awareness or control over one's eating habits.
7. Sleepwalking and sleep driving: Performing activities during sleep that are normally done while awake, such as walking or driving.
8. Nightmare disorder: Experiencing nightmares that cause fear, anxiety, or distress.
9. Sleep terror disorder: Exhibiting intense fear or anxiety during sleep, often accompanied by screaming or thrashing.
10. Sleep paralysis: Being unable to move or speak while falling asleep or waking up, often accompanied by hallucinations.
These sleep-wake transition disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and may be caused by a variety of factors such as stress, certain medications, sleep environment, or underlying medical conditions. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and its causes, but may include lifestyle changes, medication, or behavioral therapy.
There are several types of narcolepsy, including:
* Type 1 narcolepsy: This is the most common form of the disorder, and it is characterized by the presence of cataplexy and low levels of hypocretin-1, a neurotransmitter that helps regulate sleep and wakefulness.
* Type 2 narcolepsy: This form of narcolepsy is similar to type 1, but it does not involve cataplexy. Instead, people with type 2 narcolepsy may experience other symptoms such as memory loss, anxiety, and depression.
* Narcolepsy with cataplexy: This is a subtype of type 1 narcolepsy that is characterized by the presence of both cataplexy and low levels of hypocretin-1.
* Narcolepsy without cataplexy: This is a subtype of type 2 narcolepsy that is characterized by the absence of cataplexy and low levels of hypocretin-1.
There is no cure for narcolepsy, but medications such as stimulants, modafinil, and sodium oxybate can help manage symptoms. Behavioral interventions such as scheduled napping and exercise can also be helpful in managing the disorder.
Psychomotor agitation is a common symptom of many mental health disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. It can also be caused by medications such as stimulants, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines.
Some common signs and symptoms of psychomotor agitation include:
* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Purposeless movement of limbs (e.g., pacing, fiddling with objects)
* Increased muscle tension
* Difficulty sitting still
* Excessive talking or movement
* Increased heart rate and blood pressure
* Agitation or irritability
Psychomotor agitation can be assessed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for psychomotor agitation depend on the underlying cause, but may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, or hospitalization in severe cases.
It is important to note that psychomotor agitation can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, so it is essential to seek professional medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of psychomotor agitation, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life.
There are several types of mood disorders, including:
1. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyed. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
2. Bipolar Disorder: This is a condition that involves periods of mania or hypomania (elevated mood) alternating with episodes of depression.
3. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD): This is a condition characterized by persistent low mood, lasting for two years or more. It can also involve changes in appetite, sleep patterns, and energy levels.
4. Postpartum Depression (PPD): This is a condition that occurs in some women after childbirth, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
5. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): This is a condition that occurs during the winter months, when there is less sunlight. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, lethargy, and a lack of energy.
6. Anxious Distress: This is a condition characterized by excessive worry, fear, and anxiety that interferes with daily life.
7. Adjustment Disorder: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences a significant change or stressor in their life, such as the loss of a loved one or a job change. It is characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of interest in activities.
8. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): This is a condition that occurs in some women during the premenstrual phase of their menstrual cycle, characterized by feelings of sadness, anxiety, and a lack of energy.
Mood disorders can be treated with a combination of medication and therapy. Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), are commonly used to treat mood disorders. These medications can help relieve symptoms of depression and anxiety by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain.
Therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT), can also be effective in treating mood disorders. CBT helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to their depression, while IPT focuses on improving communication skills and relationships with others.
In addition to medication and therapy, lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can also be helpful in managing mood disorders. Support from family and friends, as well as self-care activities such as meditation and relaxation techniques, can also be beneficial.
It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of depression or anxiety persist or worsen over time. With appropriate treatment, individuals with mood disorders can experience significant improvement in their symptoms and overall quality of life.
Some common types of anxiety disorders include:
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Excessive and persistent worry about everyday things, even when there is no apparent reason to be concerned.
2. Panic Disorder: Recurring panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of intense fear or anxiety that can occur at any time, even when there is no obvious trigger.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Excessive and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others.
4. Specific Phobias: Persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, situation, or activity that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed.
5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Recurring, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that are distressing and disruptive to daily life.
6. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): Persistent symptoms of anxiety, fear, and avoidance after experiencing a traumatic event.
Anxiety disorders can be treated with a combination of psychotherapy, medication, or both, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of symptoms. With appropriate treatment, many people with anxiety disorders are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Bipolar Disorder Types:
There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:
1. Bipolar I Disorder: One or more manic episodes with or without depressive episodes.
2. Bipolar II Disorder: At least one major depressive episode and one hypomanic episode (a less severe form of mania).
3. Cyclothymic Disorder: Periods of hypomania and depression that last at least 2 years.
4. Other Specified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types.
5. Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: Symptoms that do not meet the criteria for any of the above types, but there is still a noticeable impact on daily life.
Bipolar Disorder Causes:
The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Some potential causes include:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of bipolar disorder are more likely to develop the condition.
2. Brain structure and function: Imbalances in neurotransmitters and abnormalities in brain structure have been found in individuals with bipolar disorder.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as serotonin, dopamine, and cortisol have been linked to bipolar disorder.
4. Life events: Traumatic events or significant changes in life circumstances can trigger episodes of mania or depression.
5. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as multiple sclerosis or stroke, can increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms:
The symptoms of bipolar disorder can vary depending on the individual and the specific type of episode they are experiencing. Some common symptoms include:
1. Manic episodes: Increased energy, reduced need for sleep, impulsivity, and grandiosity.
2. Depressive episodes: Feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities.
3. Mixed episodes: A combination of manic and depressive symptoms.
4. Hypomanic episodes: Less severe than full-blown mania, but still disrupt daily life.
5. Rapid cycling: Experiencing four or more episodes within a year.
6. Melancholic features: Feeling sad, hopeless, and worthless.
7. Atypical features: Experiencing mania without elevated mood or grandiosity.
8. Mood instability: Rapid changes in mood throughout the day.
9. Anxiety symptoms: Restlessness, feeling on edge, and difficulty concentrating.
10. Sleep disturbances: Difficulty falling or staying asleep, or oversleeping.
11. Substance abuse: Using drugs or alcohol to cope with symptoms.
12. Suicidal thoughts or behaviors: Having thoughts of harming oneself or taking actions that could lead to death.
It's important to note that not everyone with bipolar disorder will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely between individuals.
Types of Olfaction Disorders:
1. Hyposmia: A decrease in the ability to perceive odors, often accompanied by a loss of taste.
2. Hyperosmia: An increased sensitivity to odors, which can be unpleasant and overwhelming.
3. Phantosmia: The perception of strange or foul odors that are not present in the environment.
4. Parosmia: A distortion of the sense of smell, where familiar odors are perceived differently or are distorted.
5. Anosmia: A complete loss of the sense of smell.
Causes of Olfaction Disorders:
1. Head trauma or injury to the head or face.
2. Infections such as colds, sinusitis, or meningitis.
3. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
4. Hormonal changes due to pregnancy, menopause, or thyroid disorders.
5. Certain medications such as antidepressants, antihistamines, or decongestants.
6. Environmental exposure to toxic chemicals or pollutants.
7. Genetic conditions such as Kallmann syndrome or anosmia type 1.
Symptoms of Olfaction Disorders:
1. Difficulty smelling familiar odors or perceiving odors that are not present in the environment.
2. Distortion or alteration of the sense of smell, such as perceiving odors differently than usual.
3. Loss of taste or a decreased ability to perceive flavors.
4. Difficulty distinguishing between different odors or flavors.
5. Increased sensitivity to certain odors or fragrances.
6. Nausea, dizziness, or headaches due to altered olfactory processing.
7. Behavioral changes such as irritability or anxiety due to the loss of the sense of smell.
Diagnosis of Olfaction Disorders:
1. Medical history and physical examination to identify any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the olfactory dysfunction.
2. Sniffing tests to assess the function of the nasal cavity and olfactory system.
3. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans to rule out any structural abnormalities in the brain or sinuses.
4. Psychophysical testing to evaluate the threshold and discrimination of different odors.
5. Genetic testing to identify inherited conditions that may be contributing to the olfactory dysfunction.
Treatment of Olfaction Disorders:
1. Addressing underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the olfactory dysfunction, such as treating a sinus infection or adjusting medications.
2. Using nasal decongestants or antihistamines to reduce swelling in the nasal passages and improve odor detection.
3. Employing olfactory training techniques such as smell exercises to improve odor identification and discrimination.
4. Using assistive technology such as electronic noses or olfactory prostheses to enhance the perception of odors.
5. Providing counseling and support to individuals with olfactory dysfunction to address any psychological or social implications of the disorder.
Prognosis and Quality of Life:
The prognosis for olfaction disorders varies depending on the underlying cause, but in general, the condition can be managed with appropriate treatment and lifestyle modifications. The quality of life for individuals with olfactory dysfunction can be significantly impacted, as the loss of the sense of smell can affect daily activities such as cooking, social interactions, and enjoyment of hobbies and interests. However, with proper treatment and support, many individuals with olfaction disorders are able to adapt and lead fulfilling lives.
The symptoms of Lewy body disease can vary from person to person, but they often include:
1. Cognitive problems, such as difficulty with memory, attention, and decision-making.
2. Slowness of movement, rigidity, and tremors, similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease.
3. Visual hallucinations and sleep disturbances.
4. Balance problems and falls.
5. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety.
Lewy body disease can be difficult to diagnose, as it can resemble other conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. A definitive diagnosis is usually made through an autopsy after death, but a clinical diagnosis can be made based on a combination of symptoms and medical imaging studies.
There is no cure for Lewy body disease, but medications and therapies can help manage its symptoms. Treatment options may include cholinesterase inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and antidepressants, as well as physical, occupational, and speech therapy. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to regulate medication or improve cognitive function.
Lewy body disease is a relatively rare condition, affecting about 1% of people over the age of 65. It is more common in men than women, and the risk of developing the disease increases with age. There is currently no known cause for Lewy body disease, but research suggests that it may be linked to genetic factors and exposure to certain environmental toxins.
In summary, Lewy body disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain and nervous system, characterized by abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies. It can cause a range of cognitive and motor symptoms, and diagnosis can be challenging. There is no cure for the disease, but medications and therapies can help manage its symptoms.
The term "multiple system atrophy" was first used in 1985 to describe this condition, which was previously known as "parkinsonism-dementia." MSA is classified into two main types: cerebellar type (MSA-C) and parkinsonian type (MSA-P). The cerebellar type is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, loss of coordination, and balance problems, while the parkinsonian type is characterized by parkinsonism, rigidity, and bradykinesia.
The exact cause of MSA is not known, but it is believed to be related to abnormal protein accumulation in the brain and mitochondrial dysfunction. There is currently no cure for MSA, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and improving quality of life. The progression of MSA is variable and can range from several years to several decades.
MSA is a rare disorder, with an estimated prevalence of 5-10 cases per million people worldwide. It affects both men and women equally, and the symptoms typically begin in adulthood, although some cases may present in children or older adults. The diagnosis of MSA is based on a combination of clinical features, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, including dopamine transporter scans and CSF analysis.
There are several prominent features of MSA that distinguish it from other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. These include:
1. Autonomic dysfunction: MSA is characterized by a range of autonomic dysfunctions, including orthostatic hypotension, urinary incontinence, and constipation.
2. Cerebellar ataxia: MSA is often associated with progressive cerebellar ataxia, which can lead to difficulties with coordination, balance, and gait.
3. Pyramidal signs: MSA can also present with pyramidal signs, such as bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremors, which are similar to those seen in Parkinson's disease.
4. Dysphagia: Many individuals with MSA experience difficulty swallowing, known as dysphagia, which can increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia.
5. Cognitive impairment: Some people with MSA may experience cognitive impairment, including memory loss and confusion.
6. Sleep disorders: MSA can also be associated with sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and restless leg syndrome.
7. Emotional changes: MSA can cause significant emotional changes, including depression, anxiety, and apathy.
8. Impaired speech and language: Some individuals with MSA may experience impaired speech and language, including slurred speech and difficulty with word-finding.
9. Dysautonomia: MSA can also cause dysautonomia, which can lead to a range of symptoms, such as orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, and abnormal sweating.
10. Bladder and bowel dysfunction: MSA can cause bladder and bowel dysfunction, including urinary frequency, urgency, and constipation.
It is important to note that not all individuals with MSA will experience all of these symptoms, and the severity of the disease can vary greatly between individuals. If you suspect you or a loved one may be experiencing symptoms of MSA, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, affecting approximately 1% of the population over the age of 60. It is more common in men than women and has a higher incidence in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups.
The primary symptoms of Parkinson's disease are:
* Tremors or trembling, typically starting on one side of the body
* Rigidity or stiffness, causing difficulty with movement
* Bradykinesia or slowness of movement, including a decrease in spontaneous movements such as blinking or smiling
* Postural instability, leading to falls or difficulty with balance
As the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
* Difficulty with walking, gait changes, and freezing episodes
* Dry mouth, constipation, and other non-motor symptoms
* Cognitive changes, such as dementia, memory loss, and confusion
* Sleep disturbances, including REM sleep behavior disorder
* Depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms
The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The disease is associated with the degradation of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. This deficiency disrupts the normal functioning of the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved in movement control, leading to the characteristic symptoms of the disease.
There is no cure for Parkinson's disease, but various treatments are available to manage its symptoms. These include:
* Medications such as dopaminergic agents (e.g., levodopa) and dopamine agonists to replace lost dopamine and improve motor function
* Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure that involves implanting an electrode in the brain to deliver electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and balance
* Speech therapy to improve communication and swallowing difficulties
* Occupational therapy to improve daily functioning
It is important for individuals with Parkinson's disease to work closely with their healthcare team to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and improves their quality of life. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with Parkinson's disease are able to manage their symptoms and maintain a good level of independence for several years after diagnosis.
Types of Substance-Related Disorders:
1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.
1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.
1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.
1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.
Cataplexy is often associated with narcolepsy, a neurological disorder that affects the brain's ability to regulate sleep-wake cycles. However, it can also occur in people without narcolepsy. In these cases, cataplexy may be a symptom of another condition or a side effect of certain medications.
The exact cause of cataplexy is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance in the brain chemicals that regulate muscle tone and emotion. Treatment for cataplexy typically involves addressing any underlying conditions or adjusting medications that may be contributing to the condition. In some cases, botulinum toxin injections may be recommended to reduce muscle stiffness and spasms.
Examples of 'Cataplexy' in a sentence:
1. The patient experienced cataplexy during laughing attacks, causing temporary paralysis of their limbs.
2. The doctor diagnosed the patient with cataplexy, a symptom of their narcolepsy.
3. The medication side effect was causing cataplexy, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
Types of Cognition Disorders: There are several types of cognitive disorders that affect different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some common types include:
1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head that disrupts brain function, resulting in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes.
3. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cognitive impairment and other symptoms.
5. Parkinson's Disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and cognition.
6. Huntington's Disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms.
7. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD): A group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language.
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A condition that develops after a traumatic event, characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, avoidance, and hypervigilance.
9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not severe enough to interfere with daily life.
Causes and Risk Factors: The causes of cognition disorders can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common risk factors include:
1. Genetics: Many cognitive disorders have a genetic component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Age: As people age, their risk of developing cognitive disorders increases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and poor diet can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
4. Traumatic brain injury: A severe blow to the head or a traumatic brain injury can increase the risk of developing cognitive disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can cause cognitive disorders if they damage the brain tissue.
6. Stroke or other cardiovascular conditions: A stroke or other cardiovascular conditions can cause cognitive disorders by damaging the blood vessels in the brain.
7. Chronic substance abuse: Long-term use of drugs or alcohol can damage the brain and increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
8. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, can increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
9. Depression and anxiety: Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
10. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive disorders.
It's important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop a cognitive disorder, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop a cognitive disorder. If you have concerns about your cognitive health, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.
There are several types of learning disorders, including:
1. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words. Individuals with dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing letters, sounds, or word patterns.
2. Dyscalculia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. Individuals with dyscalculia may have difficulty with numbers, quantities, or mathematical concepts.
3. Dysgraphia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to write and spell words. Individuals with dysgraphia may have difficulty with hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, or language processing.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to focus, pay attention, and regulate their behavior. Individuals with ADHD may have difficulty with organization, time management, or following instructions.
5. Auditory Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand auditory information. Individuals with auditory processing disorder may have difficulty with listening, comprehension, or speech skills.
6. Visual Processing Disorder: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to process and understand visual information. Individuals with visual processing disorder may have difficulty with reading, writing, or other tasks that require visual processing.
7. Executive Function Deficits: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan, organize, and execute tasks. Individuals with executive function deficits may have difficulty with time management, organization, or self-regulation.
Learning disorders can be diagnosed by a trained professional, such as a psychologist, neuropsychologist, or learning specialist, through a comprehensive assessment that includes cognitive and academic testing, as well as a review of the individual's medical and educational history. The specific tests and assessments used will depend on the suspected type of learning disorder and the individual's age and background.
There are several approaches to treating learning disorders, including:
1. Accommodations: Providing individuals with accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the option to take a test orally, can help level the playing field and enable them to succeed academically.
2. Modifications: Making modifications to the curriculum or instructional methods can help individuals with learning disorders access the material and learn in a way that is tailored to their needs.
3. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of therapy can help individuals with learning disorders develop strategies for managing their challenges and improving their academic performance.
4. Assistive technology: Assistive technology, such as text-to-speech software or speech-to-text software, can help individuals with learning disorders access information and communicate more effectively.
5. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms associated with learning disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
6. Multi-sensory instruction: Using multiple senses (such as sight, sound, and touch) to learn new information can be helpful for individuals with learning disorders.
7. Self-accommodations: Teaching individuals with learning disorders how to identify and use their own strengths and preferences to accommodate their challenges can be effective in helping them succeed academically.
8. Parental involvement: Encouraging parents to be involved in their child's education and providing them with information and resources can help them support their child's learning and development.
9. Collaboration: Collaborating with other educators, professionals, and family members to develop a comprehensive treatment plan can help ensure that the individual receives the support they need to succeed academically.
It is important to note that each individual with a learning disorder is unique and may respond differently to different treatments. A comprehensive assessment and ongoing monitoring by a qualified professional is necessary to determine the most effective treatment plan for each individual.
1. Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
2. Sleep apnea: pauses in breathing during sleep
3. Narcolepsy: excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden attacks of sleep
4. Restless leg syndrome: uncomfortable sensations in the legs during sleep
5. Periodic limb movement disorder: involuntary movements of the legs or arms during sleep
6. Sleepwalking: walking or performing other activities during sleep
7. Sleep terrors: intense fear or anxiety during sleep
8. Sleep paralysis: temporary inability to move or speak during sleep
9. REM sleep behavior disorder: acting out dreams during sleep
10. Circadian rhythm disorders: disruptions to the body's internal clock, leading to irregular sleep patterns.
Sleep disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, such as stress, anxiety, certain medications, sleep deprivation, and underlying medical conditions like chronic pain or sleep apnea. Treatment for sleep disorders may include lifestyle changes (such as establishing a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine and alcohol before bedtime, and creating a relaxing sleep environment), medications, and behavioral therapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia). In some cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you or someone you know may have a sleep disorder, as untreated sleep disorders can lead to serious health problems, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and depression. A healthcare professional can help diagnose the specific sleep disorder and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
There are many different types of ANS diseases, including:
1. Dysautonomia: a general term that refers to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.
2. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): a condition characterized by rapid heart rate and other symptoms that occur upon standing.
3. Neurocardiogenic syncope: a form of fainting caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure.
4. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system and other parts of the brain.
5. Parkinson's disease: a neurodegenerative disorder that can cause autonomic dysfunction, including constipation, urinary incontinence, and erectile dysfunction.
6. Dopamine deficiency: a condition characterized by low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which can affect the ANS and other body systems.
7. Autonomic nervous system disorders associated with autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and lupus.
8. Trauma: physical or emotional trauma can sometimes cause dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.
9. Infections: certain infections, such as Lyme disease, can affect the autonomic nervous system.
10. Genetic mutations: some genetic mutations can affect the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.
Treatment for ANS diseases depends on the specific condition and its underlying cause. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, or other bodily functions. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and stress management techniques, can also be helpful in managing symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or repair damaged nerves.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines Autistic Disorder as a pervasive developmental disorder that meets the following criteria:
A. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity (e.g., abnormal or absent eye contact, impaired understanding of facial expressions, delayed or lack of response to social overtures).
2. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships (e.g., difficulty initiating or sustaining conversations, impairment in understanding social norms, rules, and expectations).
3. Deficits in using nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction (e.g., difficulty with eye contact, facial expressions, body language, gestures).
B. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., hand flapping, head banging, repeating words or phrases).
2. Insistence on sameness, inflexibility, and adherence to routines or rituals.
3. Preoccupation with specific interests or activities that are repeated in a rigid and restricted manner (e.g., preoccupation with a particular topic, excessive focus on a specific activity).
C. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period and significantly impact social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.
D. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during a medical or neurological condition (e.g., intellectual disability, hearing loss).
It is important to note that Autistic Disorder is a spectrum disorder and individuals with this diagnosis may have varying degrees of severity in their symptoms. Additionally, there are several other Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) that have similar diagnostic criteria but may differ in severity and presentation. These include:
A. Asperger's Disorder: Characterized by difficulties with social interaction and communication, but without the presence of significant delay or retardation in language development.
B. Rett Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that is characterized by difficulties with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
C. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder: Characterized by a loss of language and social skills that occurs after a period of normal development.
It is important to consult with a qualified professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist, for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management
Mental disorders diagnosed in childhood
Parent-child interaction therapy
Regulation-focused psychotherapy for children
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Emotional and behavioral disorders
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder controversies
Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form
Wediko Children's Services
Oppositional defiant disorder
List of MeSH codes (F03)
Management of Tourette syndrome
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Societal and cultural aspects of Tourette syndrome
Mental health in education
Low arousal theory
Parent management training
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive
Risk factors of schizophrenia
Direct Behavior Rating
Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance
Digital media use and mental health
Foreign policy of the George H. W. Bush administration
Special education in the United States
Transcendental Meditation in education
Central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during spaceflight
History of Ghana
NIMH » Attention Deficit, Disruptive Behaviors, and Disorders of Behavioral Dysregulation
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5 Common Behavioral Issues in Kids and When to Be Concerned
- Moreover, despite high comorbidity of callous-unemotional traits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), no research has attempted to distinguish neural correlates of pediatric callous-unemotional traits and ADHD. (nih.gov)
- This study will evaluate the effectiveness of an integrative group psychosocial therapy combined with stimulant medication in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder plus impairments in mood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- There has been increasing recognition that many children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit depressive and manic-like symptoms suggestive of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BP). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common diagnosis in childhood, characterized by persistent impairing inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with symptoms recognized in patients before age 12. (health.mil)
- CDC has activities focused on improving the lives of children and families affected by disruptive behavior disorders and related conditions, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . (cdc.gov)
- The types of behavior that increased are found in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and other so-called disruptive behavior disorders. (scientificamerican.com)
- 1. Executive Function Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (nih.gov)
- 2. Effect of an Ecological Executive Skill Training Program for School-aged Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. (nih.gov)
- 3. [Executive function characteristic in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid disruptive behavior disorders]. (nih.gov)
- 4. Cognitive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Difficulties: A Developmental Perspective. (nih.gov)
- 5. Parent ratings of executive function in young preschool children with symptoms of attention-deficit/-hyperactivity disorder. (nih.gov)
- 7. Parent-reported executive function behaviors and clinician ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children treated with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. (nih.gov)
- 8. The divergent impact of COMT Val158Met on executive function in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (nih.gov)
- 9. [Characteristics of executive function in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism]. (nih.gov)
- 10. Evaluating executive function in schoolchildren with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (nih.gov)
- 12. Neurobehavioral and hemodynamic evaluation of Stroop and reverse Stroop interference in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (nih.gov)
- 13. Hot and Cool Executive Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder. (nih.gov)
- 16. NIRS-based neurofeedback training in a virtual reality classroom for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. (nih.gov)
- 17. Neuropsychological Profile Related with Executive Function of Chinese Preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Neuropsychological Measures and Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version. (nih.gov)
- 18. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools. (nih.gov)
- Risk variants and polygenic architecture of disruptive behavior disorders in the context of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (nih.gov)
- Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric disorder often comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs). (nih.gov)
- This article describes the Australian Twin Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Project (ATAP), the results of research conducted using this database and plans for future studies. (edu.au)
- The most common is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Karen Pine, professor of psychology at the University of Hertfordshire, examined the effects of EEG (electroencephalography) biofeedback, a learning strategy that detects brain waves, on children with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (naset.org)
- Although there's a wide range of possible explanations, the most common disruptive behavior disorders include Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD). (brainbalancecenters.com)
- PURPOSE: To examine trends in off-label antipsychotic use for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with and without a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder. (bvsalud.org)
- We identified 165 794 commercially-insured youth 3-18-year-old who had a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and classified them into subgroups with and without disruptive behavior disorders comorbidities. (bvsalud.org)
- Logistic regression estimated the odds of antipsychotic use associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavior disorders, adjusting for age, sex, study year, and other psychotropic use. (bvsalud.org)
- RESULTS: Over 70% of the 165 794 youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were 5-14-year-old and male, and 12% had disruptive behavior disorders. (bvsalud.org)
- Adjusting for age, sex, study year, and other psychotropic use, youth with a comorbid disruptive behavior had a 2.5 (95% CI: 2.3, 2.7) higher likelihood of receiving an antipsychotic than youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and no comorbidities. (bvsalud.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic use was associated with comorbid disruptive behaviors in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (bvsalud.org)
- Several longitudinal studies have shown the partial symptomatic persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in clinic-based samples. (biomedcentral.com)
- Previous systematic reviews estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) worldwide as 5.6% to 7.2%.1,2 However, there is evidence that some ethnocultural groups, such as Black individuals, are underrepresented in studies.3,4 One systematic review found a higher prevalence of ADHD in Black than white youth, with evidence for a wide range in individual estimates for Black youth.3 Many factors may contribute to this variability. (chadd.org)
- Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood correlated with less involvement with religious activities and prayer, investigators found in a longitudinal study involving more than 8000 people. (chadd.org)
- Maternal psychiatric conditions could forecast the likelihood the offspring will develop attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in late adolescence, according to new research. (chadd.org)
- According to a recent study of babies and mothers in Australia, pregnant women with autoimmune disorders are significantly more likely to have a baby who later develops attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD. (chadd.org)
- People with attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) combined with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) share about the 80% of genetic variants associated with aggressive and antisocial behaviours. (chadd.org)
- In this video, Psych Congress Steering Committee member Rakesh Jain, MD, MPH, discusses an article he cowrote on nonstimulant treatment options for pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (chadd.org)
- Researchers assessed abnormalities in cortical and subcortical asymmetry in children and adolescents of different ADHD subtypes using data from the Peking University site in the "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-200 sample" dataset, which included 31 eligible ADHD (20 inattentive ADHD [ADHD-I], 11 combined ADHD [ADHD-C]), and 31 matched typically developing (TD) individuals. (chadd.org)
- Claims that many children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder, in fact, have RAD highlight the problems with diagnostic precision in this area (Levy and Orlans, 2000). (church4everychild.org)
- This program supports research on ADHD, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and other disruptive or repetitive behaviors (e.g. (nih.gov)
- 12 had callous-unemotional traits and either conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder, 12 had ADHD, and 12 were healthy comparison subjects. (nih.gov)
- Significant debate exists as to whether these children have a true comorbid mood disorder, making treatment of mood symptoms in ADHD children controversial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- ADHD is traditionally treated with stimulant medications and/or behavior modification therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The study will then evaluate the effectiveness of the integrative psychosocial treatment, called group behavior therapy, combined with stimulant medication in improving moods and enhancing treatment responses in children with ADHD and impairments in mood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 1 Since ADHD is the most common pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in the U.S., this condition has readiness and force health importance to the Department of Defense (DOD), and its high prevalence in the adolescent and adult civilian population affects the pool of military applicants. (health.mil)
- 2 Current DOD accession policy lists ADHD as disqualifying for military applicants if they meet any of the following conditions: ADHD medication prescribed in the previous 24 months, an educational plan or work accommodation after age 14, a history of comorbid mental health disorders, or documentation of adverse academic, occupational, or work performance. (health.mil)
- The prevalence of ADHD in U.S. children aged 2-17 is estimated to range from 9-11% with approximately two-thirds of children with ADHD having at least 1 other mental, emotional, or behavioral disorder. (health.mil)
- Although patients with ADHD are more likely to have comorbid mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, 4,6-8 patients receiving ADHD medications may be protected from the development of these associated mental health conditions. (health.mil)
- Just as for disruptive behavior, in general, behavior therapy is an effective treatment for ADHD. (cdc.gov)
- Experts recommend that children with ADHD ages 6 and older receive behavior therapy along with medication, and that children under 6 with ADHD receive behavior therapy first, before trying medicine for ADHD. (cdc.gov)
- Behavior therapy for young children with ADHD is most effective when it is delivered by parents. (cdc.gov)
- 14. Validating the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning for Children With ADHD and Their Typically Developing Peers. (nih.gov)
- We find a higher SNP heritability for ADHD + DBDs (h2SNP = 0.34) when compared to ADHD without DBDs (h2SNP = 0.20), high genetic correlations between ADHD + DBDs and aggressive (rg = 0.81) and anti-social behaviors (rg = 0.82), and an increased burden (polygenic score) of variants associated with ADHD and aggression in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs. (nih.gov)
- Our results suggest an increased load of common risk variants in ADHD + DBDs compared to ADHD without DBDs, which in part can be explained by variants associated with aggressive behavior. (nih.gov)
- This program is a five-year multi-site collaborative study intended to address a range of issues concerning ADHD as emphasized by the Institute of Medicine study "Research on Children and Adolescents with Mental, Behavioral, and Developmental Disorders," the NIMH "National Plan for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders," the "Healthy People 2000" objectives in the area of mental disorders in children and adolescents (6.3), and the existing literature. (nih.gov)
- The main focus of the project is ADHD in children and adolescents plus comorbid conditions including conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. (edu.au)
- ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder are highly correlated , and up to one-half of all children with ADHD may have a co-occurring oppositional defiant disorder. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Conduct disorder is also associated with ADHD. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Approximately 25% of children and 45% of teenagers with ADHD may develop conduct disorder. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- This book provides important scientific information, practical advice, and a thoughtful theological perspective on disorders such as depression, ADHD, PTSD, and eating disorders. (ivpress.com)
- A meta-analysis has revealed that 15% of adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD met full DSM-IV criteria for the disorder at age 25 years, while about 65% were in partial remission [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The findings revealed no evidence that stimulant treatment increases or decreases the risk for subsequent substance use disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD when they reach young adulthood. (medscape.com)
Mental health di4
- The church's response to child and adolescent mental health disorders has too often been characterized by fear and misinformation rather than grace or wisdom. (ivpress.com)
- Psychologist Matthew Stanford has written Grace for the Children to educate Christians about a range of common child and adolescent mental health disorders, from both scientific and biblical perspectives. (ivpress.com)
- Grace for the Children is a call for the church to pick up this mantle and to offer grace to children and adolescents suffering from mental health disorders. (ivpress.com)
- BACKGROUND: Cannabis use in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with a past diagnosis of mental health disorders. (bvsalud.org)
- The mothers responded to 130 questions designed to detect problematic behaviors on a 4-point scale ranging from "never" to "almost always' and to 86 questions on another test designed to measure cognitive function, such as memory . (scientificamerican.com)
- Michelle enjoys working with Couples in distress, Individuals who are wanting to resolve problems expressing as depression, anxiety or problematic behaviors and Parent Guidance for children's problems within Family therapy. (psychologytoday.com)
- Parents may often wonder what truly constitutes problematic behaviors or behavioral issues beyond normal childhood growing pains. (brainbalancecenters.com)
Types of disruptive behavior disorder1
- The most common types of disruptive behavior disorder are oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder . (childrenshospital.org)
- However, no research has examined amygdala response to emotional facial expressions in adolescents with disruptive behavior and callous-unemotional traits. (nih.gov)
- This long-awaited follow-up to the classic text Clinical Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment presents the latest research on substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescents 12-18 and emerging adults 18-25 years of age. (appi.org)
- Assessment in multisite randomized clinical trials of patients with autistic disorder: The autism RUPP network. (nih.gov)
- The research studies used approaches that involved therapists who were trained in specific behavior therapy programs, and that used a training manual and specific steps to work with parents on skills to help them manage their child's behavior. (cdc.gov)
- A parent's report about a child's behavior is certainly subjective," Engel said. (scientificamerican.com)
- In order to better understand a child's behavior, it's helpful to understand common issues that children with behavioral disorders experience. (brainbalancecenters.com)
- A primary emphasis of this program are studies which recognize heterogeneity within traditional clinical disorders and aim to identify predictive and stable biotypes using an RDoC research framework that links behavioral patterns and clinical symptoms to functional domains, neural circuits and physiological processes. (nih.gov)
- Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors. (nih.gov)
- Depressive symptoms are considered to be the result of deficits from one or more areas and are reflected in attending to negative events, setting unreasonable self-evaluation criteria for performance, setting unrealistic expectations, providing insufficient reinforcement, and excessive self-punishment. (azcourts.gov)
- Anxiety symptoms can also be signs of disruptive behavior disorder because anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders are often linked . (therecoveryvillage.com)
- For instance, a study in 2012 on 7-12-year-old boys found that oppositional defiant disorder was predictive of symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) . (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Often, these disorders showcase overlapping symptoms, and excessive refusal to obey authority figures is often apparent within cases of CD and ODD. (brainbalancecenters.com)
- The case examples that begin and end each chapter provide a realistic sense of what each disorder looks like and the difficulties involved in finding out what works for a particular child, as well as offering hope that symptoms can improve. (ivpress.com)
- Specify current severity: Reactive Attachment Disorder is specified as severe when a child exhibits all symptoms of the disorder, with each symptom manifesting at relatively high levels. (church4everychild.org)
- Over the years, these twins have become part of other twin studies and future plans include linking different twin databases to investigate the relationships between childhood behavior and adult conditions. (edu.au)
- Childhood disruptive behavior disorders are more common than disruptive behavior disorder in adults. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- More often than not, severe antisocial behavior in early childhood leads to a diagnosis of CD or ODD . (brainbalancecenters.com)
- Here is the most helpful guide available for Christian parents (and ministers) who want information about childhood and adolescent psychological disorders. (ivpress.com)
- Even developmental attachment research has no substantially validated measures of attachment in middle childhood or early adolescence, leaving the question of what constitutes clinical disorders of attachment even less clear. (church4everychild.org)
- Group behavior therapy sessions for child participants will focus on improving mood and ability to maintain friendships, practicing ways to better control emotions, and learning effective problem solving skills. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Disruptive behavior disorders, including oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, have a prevalence of 6.1% in the United States. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Disruptive behavior disorder statistics estimate that the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorder is 6.1% percent. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Disruptive behavior and personality disorders can also be linked. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- We specialize in providing individual, couples and family psychotherapy to adults with personality disorders, depression, anxiety, trauma and stress related disorders, substance abuse, emotional-regulation, obsessive-compulsive disorders and relationship difficulties. (multisiteadmin.com)
- Disruptive behavior disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, put children at risk for long-term problems including mental disorders, violence, and delinquency. (cdc.gov)
- Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS . (nih.gov)
- Oppositional defiant disorder - which is characterized by repeated angry outbursts and disobedience. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Oppositional defiant disorder usually develops before the age of 8 and conduct disorder can occur as early as 5 years old (mainly in boys). (therecoveryvillage.com)
- They often exhibit features of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder, such as regular fighting, dominating and pushing others around, or being spiteful (Dodge et al. (nih.gov)
- Children with oppositional defiant disorder display a persistent pattern of angry outbursts, arguments, and disobedience. (childrenshospital.org)
- What causes oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)? (childrenshospital.org)
- the additional criteria overlap with the disruptive behavior disorders, including conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and attention-deficit disorder. (church4everychild.org)
- This study will develop an integrative psychosocial treatment that includes aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychoeducational techniques for pediatric and adult mood disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 2012. Sustained decreases in risk exposure and youth problem behaviors after installation of the Communities That Care prevention system in a randomized trial. . (uw.edu)
- 2014. Youth problem behaviors 8 years after implementing the Communities That Care prevention system: A community-randomized trial. . (uw.edu)
Involve cruelty to animals and peo2
- For these reasons, it does not cover diagnoses such as pervasive developmental disorders, speech and language disorders, or the organic brain syndromes. (cdc.gov)
- Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 273-278. (nih.gov)
- EF may be compromised in some developmental disorders, such as Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. (bvsalud.org)
- Almost one-third of 6- to 12-year-old children diagnosed with major depression will develop bipolar disorder within a few years. (azcourts.gov)
- Boys with CD, in particular, tend to exhibit antisocial behavior. (brainbalancecenters.com)
- Depression and other patterns of manic-depressive disease are chemical disorders of the brain. (azcourts.gov)
- Relationships between level and change in family, school, and peer factors during two periods of adolescence and problem behavior at age 19. (uw.edu)
- Studies have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders display more physically aggressive behavior. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Participants who are still exhibiting mood problems will then be assigned randomly to receive 12 weeks of either group behavior therapy or community-based psychosocial treatment, while still continuing on their prescribed medications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Disruptive behavior disorder treatment consists mainly of psychosocial treatment, which seeks to improve interactions between children with DBD and their parents. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Depression in children often co-occurs with other mental disorders, most commonly anxiety, disruptive behavior, or substance abuse disorders, and with physical illnesses, such as diabetes. (azcourts.gov)
- Studies have shown a cyclical effect between eating disorders and depression. (azcourts.gov)
- Clinical depression can lead to eating disorders and eating disorders can lead to clinical depression. (azcourts.gov)
- The authors of the study reviewed every available research report from 1998 until 2016 that looked at treatment for disruptive behavior problems in children up to age 12 years. (cdc.gov)
- During this type of parent training in behavior therapy, parents work with a therapist to learn strategies to create structure, reinforce good behavior, provide consistent discipline, and strengthen the relationship with their child through positive communication. (cdc.gov)
- Praise and reward good behavior. (medlineplus.gov)
- 6. [Reliability and validity of behavior rating scale of executive function parent form for school age children in China]. (nih.gov)
- Because youth are not simply miniature adults, the book uses a developmentally informed approach to understand the onset of substance use and the trajectory to SUD and behavioral addictive disorders. (appi.org)
- The question of whether attachment disorders can reliably be diagnosed in older children and adults has not been resolved. (church4everychild.org)
- The application of meta-analysis within a matched-pair randomized control trial: An illustration testing the effects of Communities That Care on delinquent behavior. (uw.edu)
- E. The criteria are not met for autism spectrum disorder. (church4everychild.org)
- In older children, obesity, disruptive behaviors and attention deficit disorder are also linked to smoking. (nih.gov)
- The decision is based on the child's growth rate chart and behavior and cognition off medication. (medscape.com)
- It is clear that central attachment behaviors used for the diagnosis of RAD, such as proximity seeking, change markedly with development. (church4everychild.org)
- Scientists at Mount Sinai School of Medicine reported that mothers who had high levels of phthalates during their pregnancies were more likely to have children with poorer scores in the areas of attention, aggression and conduct. (scientificamerican.com)
- But she added that mothers have been found to be very accurate in assessing poor conduct, aggression and attention problems. (scientificamerican.com)
- From tantrums to negative interactions with other children, physical aggression is most certainly a behavior that needs to be addressed. (brainbalancecenters.com)
- More studies are needed to determine whether these approaches are effective for treating children's disruptive behavior problems. (cdc.gov)
- The children's scores were based on the answers that their mothers provided to standardized questions commonly used by psychiatrists and other clinicians to help diagnose attention deficit disorders. (scientificamerican.com)
- In this study, parents seeking help at a children's mental health center for managing their 3- to 8pyear-old children's behaviors were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Webster-Stratton's Parents and Children Series (PACS) parenting groups (146 families), the eclectic approach to treatment typically offered at the center (46 families), or a wait-list control group (18 families). (incredibleyears.com)
- These findings support he effectiveness of the PACS program, relative to typical service, for parents seeking help managing their children's behavior. (incredibleyears.com)
- A total of 85 children of a kindergarten public school from the state of SP, aged four and six years, were assessed at Trial Making Test for Preschoolers (TT-PE) and Attention Test for Cancellation (TAC). (bvsalud.org)
- Key Findings: Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Problems - What Works? (cdc.gov)
- Getting the right treatment early is key, so this new evidence is important for health professionals caring for a child with a disruptive behavior problem. (cdc.gov)
- Studies that used similar approaches to treatment were grouped into categories, for example, behavior therapy, which focuses on changing behavior by building skills and learning to manage behavior, client-centered therapy, which focuses on managing feelings, attitudes, and perceptions of others, or play therapy, which provides a way for children to communicate experiences and feelings through play. (cdc.gov)
- Parent behavior therapy has the strongest evidence as an effective treatment for disruptive behavior problems in children. (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, CDC works to help families get the right care at the right time by raising awareness, increasing treatment options for families and providers, and exploring ways to increase access to behavior therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Emerging research on developmental psychopathology and adolescent development has implications for how we view current prevention, intervention, and treatment paradigms, and Clinical Manual of Youth Addictive Disorders is indispensable in helping the reader understand and implement effective strategies for these patients and their families. (appi.org)
- In any case, when there are multiple disorders effecting a child, all of the disorders need to be treated at the same time for treatment to be effective. (azcourts.gov)
- and to focus on new behaviors outside treatment. (azcourts.gov)
- The research findings related to the risk factors, neurobiology, and treatment of each disorder are well documented and are summarized in a way that will be easily comprehended by the lay reader. (ivpress.com)
- To explore barriers to care and characteristics associated with respondent-reported perceived need for opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment and National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)â defined OUD treatment gap. (bvsalud.org)
- Parents are an essential part of treatment for their child's disruptive behavior disorder. (childrenshospital.org)
- Mothers in the PACS program reported fewer behavior problems and greater satisfaction with treatment than mothers in the eclectic treatment. (incredibleyears.com)
- No statistically significant associations were noticed between stimulant treatment and alcohol, drug, or nicotine use disorders. (medscape.com)
- During this medication dosing phase, study staff will collect weekly ratings of the child participant's behavior at home and school, and participants will be seen weekly by study doctors to monitor medication dosage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- When left untreated, disruptive behavior disorders can cause serious social and academic dysfunction. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- The following factors differentiated High from Low trajectories: male gender, more externalizing problems, fewer prosocial behaviors, school dysfunction, more home behavioral problems, and less perceived family support. (biomedcentral.com)
- Michelle approaches counseling with a broad understanding of what in a person's life and relationships might need a new kind of balance or understanding so that emotions can be healed, behaviors changed and relationships renewed. (psychologytoday.com)
- After 15 weeks, mothers in both treatments reported fewer child behavior problems than mothers on the wait list. (incredibleyears.com)
- Several risk factors can predispose a child to develop disruptive behavior disorders, including poverty, physical, emotional or sexual abuse, and family transitions, such as death or divorce. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Disruptive behavior disorders are a group of behavioral health conditions where children "disrupt" the people around them by acting out regularly. (therecoveryvillage.com)
- Group behavior therapy sessions for parent participants will teach parents ways to identify and address their child's mood problems, communicate better with their child, and work with school staff to address academic and behavioral problems. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology has published a study reviewing the research on treatments for disruptive behavior problems in children aged 12 years and under. (cdc.gov)
- This report also updates the evidence for what works best to treat children with disruptive behavior problems. (cdc.gov)
- Children exposed in the womb to chemicals in cosmetics and fragrances are more likely to develop behavioral problems commonly found in children with attention deficit disorders, according to a study of New York City school-age children published Thursday. (scientificamerican.com)
- Children were 2.5 times more likely to have attention problems that were "clinically significant" if their mothers were among those highest exposed to phthalates, the study found. (scientificamerican.com)
- 2011. Changes in self-control problems and attention problems during middle school predict alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use during high school. . (uw.edu)
- Some behavior problems point to a more serious issue that may require the help of a professional. (brainbalancecenters.com)
- Disruptive behavior disorders are a group of behavioral problems. (childrenshospital.org)