Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Large mass of nuclei forming the most caudal portion of the THALAMUS and overhanging the GENICULATE BODIES and the dorsolateral surface of the MIDBRAIN. It is divided into four parts: the lateral, medial, inferior, and oral pulvinar nuclei.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (1/8339)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

An analysis of multiple misplaced parental social contingencies. (2/8339)

This study analyzed the training of a mother to modify five subclasses of her attention to her young child's noncompliance with instructions, and also displayed the changes in her child's behavior correlated with these events. Training in four subclasses consisted of teaching the mother to withhold various forms of social attention to her daughter's undesired behavior; training in the fifth subclass involved introduction of a brief room-timeout procedure for noncompliance. The effectiveness of the parent-training procedure, consisting of initial instructions and daily feedback, was demonstrated through a multiple-baseline design across the five subclasses of parent behavior. Sequential decreased in the first three subclasses of the mother's social attention to undesired child behavior resulted in incomplete improvements in some child responses; however, a decrease in the fourth subclass resulted in a significant increase in undesired child behavior. Complete remediation of all child behaviors was achieved following the training of a timeout procedure for noncompliance. Postchecks conducted up to 16 weeks later showed that these effects were durable.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (3/8339)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study. (4/8339)

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

Unilateral neglect and disambiguation of the Necker cube. (5/8339)

Three groups of patients (right brain-damaged patients with or without left neglect, and left brain-damaged patients) and a group of healthy subjects, matched for age and educational level to the three groups of patients, were asked to report which of the two frontal surfaces of Necker cubes oriented in four different ways looked, at first sight, nearer to the viewer. The extent to which, and the way in which, disambiguation of the apparent perspective of Necker cubes occurred was found to vary across the four orientations and to be different in left-neglect patients compared with subjects of the other three groups. With normal subjects, the disambiguating factor is suggested to be a disposition to perceive the upper surface, which is nearly orthogonal to the frontal plane, as external to the cube. This would result from a navigation of the observer's spatial attention towards its target along a particular path that is altered in patients suffering from left neglect. It is suggested that comparison of the paths followed by the attentional vectors of normal subjects and left-neglect patients is potentially fruitful for a better understanding of the brain's normal mechanisms of spatial attention and of unresolved issues concerning the perception of the Necker cube.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (6/8339)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

Spatial attention affects brain activity in human primary visual cortex. (7/8339)

Functional MRI was used to test whether instructing subjects to attend to one or another location in a visual scene would affect neural activity in human primary visual cortex. Stimuli were moving gratings restricted to a pair of peripheral, circular apertures, positioned to the right and to the left of a central fixation point. Subjects were trained to perform a motion discrimination task, attending (without moving their eyes) at any moment to one of the two stimulus apertures. Functional MRI responses were recorded while subjects were cued to alternate their attention between the two apertures. Primary visual cortex responses in each hemisphere modulated with the alternation of the cue; responses were greater when the subject attended to the stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. The attentional modulation of the brain activity was about 25% of that evoked by alternating the stimulus with a uniform field.  (+info)

Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia. (8/8339)

Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.  (+info)

Subject: Re: neural coorelates of auditory selective attention (development)? From: Rick ,[email protected], Date: Sun, 26 Oct 2008 14:03:59 -0500 List-Archive: I think only a couple or one of these addresses the question directly, but their bibliographies might lead somewhere r =============== Woldorff, M. G., Gallen, C. C., Hampson, S. A., Hillyard, S. A., Pantev, C., Sobel, D. & Bloom, F. E. (1993) Modulation of Early Sensory Processing in Human Auditory Cortex During Auditory Selective Attention. PNAS, 90, 8722-8726. Y. S. Sininger &Cone-Wesson, B. (2004) Asymmetric Cochlear Processing Mimics Hemispheric Specialization. Science, 305, 1581. Van-orden, G. C. (2002) Intentional contents and self-control. Ecological Psychology.; 14, 87-109. Rauschecker, J. P. (1995) Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 36-43. On 10/26/08, Gaab, Nadine ,[email protected], wrote: , Hello List! ...
Authors: Petit, Laurent , Simon, Grégory , Joliot, Marc , Andersson, Frédéric , Bertin, Thomas , Zago, Laure , Mellet, Emmanuel , Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Purpose : Previous neuroimaging studies of oddball tasks and other paradigms measuring attention processes support right hemisphere dominance for attentional processes. Using an auditory selective attention task, we studied the functional asymmetry of the human brain in response to attended or unattended deviant tones. Secondly, we examined whether a congruency or a discrepancy between audio-spatial and visuo-spatial cued attentional resources may influence the activity elicited by an auditory selective attention task. Methods : We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study healthy adults as they performed an auditory oddball task in which a spatial-cued instruction indicated the …ear to attend a monaural deviant tone. We addressed the question of ...
Previous studies have shown that the perceptual organization of the visual scene constrains the deployment of attention. Here we investigated how the organization of multiple elements into larger configurations alters their attentional weight, depending on the pertinence or behavioral importance of the elements features. We assessed object-based effects on distinct aspects of the attentional priority map: top-down control, reflecting the tendency to encode targets rather than distracters, and the spatial distribution of attention weights across the visual scene, reflecting the tendency to report elements belonging to the same rather than different objects. In 2 experiments participants had to report the letters in briefly presented displays containing 8 letters and digits, in which pairs of characters could be connected with a line. Quantitative estimates of top-down control were obtained using Bundesens Theory of Visual Attention (1990). The spatial distribution of attention weights was assessed
The primary commodity in the world is attention. This is the resource whose scarcity matters most-every day, and as it adds up, in your life, in the lives of everyone you know, in the history of the world, in the world itself. The question then becomes: what should you focus your attention on? What issues or problems or features of the world are most worth your attention? You should train yourself to only pay attention to things that matter and things where your attention will pay off and things where your attention will luxuriate and amplify and be drawn to other things that you now realize matter.. We should teach this to children. To pay attention to how you pay attention and what it feels like. Teach them and ourselves how to decide what things are worth paying attention to.. Maybe some people are lucky enough to already be paying attention to only those things and other people need training in how to find those things interesting-because the eventual goal is to narrow the focus of your ...
Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were included only if they showed evidence of attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet; (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output, visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory and the conditional (no-go) component of responding. Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Although the task required attention to be equally shifted to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a greater area of activation in the
Negative priming refers to the situation in which an ignored item on an initial prime trial suffers slowed responding when it becomes the target item on a subsequent probe trial. In this experiment (and a replication), we demonstrate two ways in which stimulus consistency (matching) governs negative priming. First, negative priming for identical words occurred only when the prime distractor changed color when it became the probe target (i.e., constant cue to read the red word); negative priming disappeared when the prime distractor retained its color as the probe target (i.e., cue switches from read the red prime word to read the white probe word). Second, negative priming occurred for identical words, but not for semantically related words, whether related categorically or associatively. This pattern of results is consistent with a memory retrieval account, but not with an inhibition account of negative priming, and casts doubt on whether there is semantic negative priming for words.
To investigate the impact of exogenous covert attention on chromatic (blue and red) and achromatic visual perception in adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Exogenous covert attention, which is a transient, automatic, stimulus-driven form of attention, is a key mechanism for selecting relevant information in visual arrays. 30 adults diagnosed with ADHD and 30 healthy adults, matched on age and gender, performed a psychophysical task designed to measure the effects of exogenous covert attention on perceived color saturation (blue, red) and contrast sensitivity. The effects of exogenous covert attention on perceived blue and red saturation levels and contrast sensitivity were similar in both groups, with no differences between males and females. Specifically, exogenous covert attention enhanced the perception of blue saturation and contrast sensitivity, but it had no effect on the perception of red saturation. The findings suggest that exogenous covert attention is
Background. Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD. Method. Twelve SAD and 15 control participants performed a modified dot-probe task using angry-neutral and happy-neutral face pairs. The P1 component elicited by face pairs was analyzed to test the hypothesis that SAD participants would display early hypervigilance to threat-related cues. The PI component to probes replacing angry, happy or neutral faces was used to evaluate whether SAD participants show either sustained hypervigilance or decreased visual processing of threat-related cues at later processing Stages. Results. Compared to controls, SAD ...
Although, after reviewing Posners research, it may seem logical to conclude that covert and overt attention shifts utilize different neural mechanisms, other more recent studies have shown more overlap than not. Multiple studies have shown activity evident in the frontal cortex, concentrating in the precentral sulcus, the parietal cortex, specifically in the intraparietal sulcus, and in the lateral occipital cortex for both overt and covert attention shifts.[18] This is in support of the premotor theory of attention. While these studies may agree on the areas, they are not always in agreement on whether an overt or covert attentional shift causes more activation. Utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, Corbetta et al., found that overt and covert attention shift tasks showed activation within the same areas, namely, the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Additionally, this study reported that covert shifts of attention showed greater activity levels than in the ...
Debate continues over the hypothesis that children with language or literacy difficulties have a genuine auditory processing deficit. Several recent studies have reported deficits in frequency discrimination (FD), but it is unclear whether these are genuine perceptual impairments or reflective of the comorbid attentional problems that exist in many children with language and literacy difficulties. The present study investigated FD in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when their attentional state was altered with stimulant medication. Auditory thresholds were obtained using FD and frequency modulation detection (FM) tasks. In the FD task, participants judged which of 2 pairs contained a high-low frequency sound, and in the FM task, children judged which of two tones wobbled (i.e., modulated). Children with ADHD had significantly poorer and more variable FD performance when off compared to on stimulant medication, and did significantly worse than controls on all FD runs when
In several markets, firms compete not for consumer expenditure but instead for consumer attention. We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. Specifically, we identify (i) persistence in the elasticity of attention according to income and (ii) complete stability in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gating by inhibition during top-down control of willed attention. AU - Bengson, Jesse J.. AU - Liu, Yuelu. AU - Khodayari, Natalia. AU - Mangun, George R. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - In natural settings, the control of attention may be influenced both by external information as well as internal decision-making processes driven by intent (e.g. free will). In past studies of spatial attention, we and others have developed experimental paradigms that permit individuals to choose where to direct their attention on a trial-by-trial basis in the absence of instructive external cues - we term this willed attention. Here we investigate the electrophysiological correlates of willed attention by recording EEG activity when subjects decided to focus covert attention on one of two lateralized target locations versus when they decided to maintain attention at fixation. Independent of the direction of attention, decisions to attend, relative to decisions not to attend, resulted in ...
Michael Harper for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online A new study published this week in the journal PLoS ONE explains that active and healthy people are more likely to have better attention spans than those with sedentary lifestyles.. Researchers from the University of Granada carried out the study and found that physical activity, such as running or playing sports, can improve the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In addition to a longer attention span, active people were also found to have better cognitive abilities than their less active peers. To reach this conclusion, the University of Granada researchers compared cognitive performance by testing the sustained attention, time oriented attention and time perception of their subjects.. A group of 28 young males comprised the study´s subjects, many of them University of Granada students. These students, aged 17 to 23, showed a low level of physical aptitude and represented the less active ...
BACKGROUND: Attention is frequently impaired after stroke, and its impairment is associated with poor quality of life. Physical activity benefits attention in healthy populations and has also been associated with recovery after brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between objectively measured daily physical activity, attention network connectivity, and attention task performance after stroke. We hypothesized that increased daily physical activity would be associated with improved attention network function. METHODS: Stroke patients (n = 62; mean age = 67 years, SD = 12.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 27; mean age = 68 years, SD = 6 years) underwent cognitive testing and 7 minutes of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting-state. Patients were tested 3 months after ischemic stroke. Physical activity was monitored with an electronic armband worn for 7 days. Dorsal and ventral attention network function was examined using seed-based connectivity analyses. RESULTS:
In crowded visual scenes, attention is needed to select relevant stimuli. To study the underlying mechanisms, we recorded neurons in cortical area V4 while macaque monkeys attended to behaviorally relevant stimuli and ignored distracters. Neurons activated by the attended stimulus showed increased gamma-frequency (35 to 90 hertz) synchronization but reduced low-frequency (,17 hertz) synchronization compared with neurons at nearby V4 sites activated by distracters. Because postsynaptic integration times are short, these localized changes in synchronization may serve to amplify behaviorally relevant signals in the cortex. ...
Behavioral data. RT data for each of the attentional tasks performed before scanning and during PET scanning were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVAs. The value of informative cues was assessed in an ANOVA that compared the four task conditions (ST, S, T, N), of which N provided noninformative cues, whereas all other conditions provided valid cue information for 80% of the trials. The relative advantage and disadvantage for valid and invalid cues was assessed with an ANOVA on data from the two attention conditions in which cueing information was provided along one dimension only (i.e., S and T). The ANOVA tested for the effect of task condition (S, T), cue validity (valid, invalid), target side (left, right), and interval duration (short, long). A final ANOVA looked at data from the attention condition that used both spatially and temporally informative cues simultaneously (ST) and tested the effects of cue validity, target side, and interval duration.. PET and fMRI data. All functional images ...
The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when the fillers were threat/test-related words. To evaluate the effect of the test adaptation, the original ANT, which utilized no emotional distracter, was employed as a control task in Experiment 2. We then consolidated the data on efficiency of attentional networks, which were derived from both tasks. Contrasting the two tasks showed that TA reduced executive attention in the revised task only, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity provided by the adaptation from the original task. Taken together, these findings indicate
Traditionally, in selective visual attention tasks, participants search for a relevant visual target that occurs unpredictably at one of several locations (Posner, 1980). The classic finding is that participants attention can be cued to a certain location, resulting in shorter reaction times (RTs) and fewer errors if a cue is a valid indicator of the upcoming targets location (Posner, 1980) and its visual properties (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). Based on these methods, we recently developed an experimental setup in which a relevant target movie is presented next to an irrelevant distractor movie, and, with every cut, the positions of the two movies can switch or stay the same (Valuch & Ansorge, 2015; Valuch, Ansorge, Buchinger, Patrone, & Scherzer, 2014). The participants attentively viewed the target movie and avoided looking at the distractor movie. Whenever the movies switched locations, participants needed to make a saccadic eye movement to the new location of the target movie. ...
In this chapter we review psychological and physiological experiments on selective attention to touch stimuli. We explore the role of selective attention in tactile target detection and search, determining those tasks that benefit from attention and those which can be effectively performed pre-attentively. We also try to determine the stage at which attentional selection occurs. We review electrophysiological and human brain imaging (PET, fMRI, MEG, SEP) studies to assess how early in the somatosensory processing pathway attentional modulation occurs. There is some evidence that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can show attentional effects. However, a number of studies have suggested that there is a hierarchy to attentional modulation in the somatosensory system, with the greatest effects being observed in secondary and association areas.
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
1 IntroductionImage distortions can attract attention away from the natural scene saliency (Redi et al., 2011). Performance of viewers in visual search tasks and their fixation patterns are also affected by different types and amounts of distortions (Vu et al., 2008). In this paper, we have discussed the opinion that distortions could largely affect the performance of predictive models of visual attention, and simulated the effects of distorted low-level visual features on the saliency-based bottom-up visual attention. Saliency is a fast and pre-attentive mechanism for orienting visual attention to intrinsically important objects which pop-out more easily in a cluttered scene. Distortion of the low-level features that contribute to saliency may impair the readiness of the visual system in detection of salient objects, which may have major implications for critical situations like driving or locomotion. These distortions in natural life can be introduced by eye diseases such as cataract, or spectacles
Learn how to improve your attention span. A short attention span affects every action and area of life. Increasing it, would improve your life in many ways.
Orienting attention to locations in mnemonic representations engages processes that functionally and anatomically overlap the neural circuitry guiding prospective shifts of spatial attention. The attention-based rehearsal account predicts that the requirement to withdraw attention from a memorized location impairs memory accuracy. In a dual-task study, we simultaneously presented retro-cues and pre-cues to guide spatial attention in short-term memory (STM) and perception, respectively. The spatial direction of each cue was independent of the other. The locations indicated by the combined cues could be compatible (same hand) or incompatible (opposite hands). Incompatible directional cues decreased lateralized activity in brain potentials evoked by visual cues, indicating interference in the generation of prospective attention shifts. The detection of external stimuli at the prospectively cued location was impaired when the memorized location was part of the perceptually ignored hand. The ...
Studies have shown that there is a high probability that those who suffer from low attentional control also experience other mental conditions. Low attentional control is more common among those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),a disorder with persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities.[24] Also low attentional control is common in individuals with Schizophrenia and [25] Alzheimers disease,[26] those with social anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression,[27] and attention difficulties following a stroke.[25] Individuals also respond quicker, and have better overall executive control when they have low levels of anxiety and depression.[28] Low levels of attentional control are also thought to increase chances of developing a psychopathology because the ability to shift ones focus away from threat information is important in processing emotions.[29] More researchers are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occipital-parietal interactions during shifts of exogenous visuospatial attention. T2 - Trial-dependent changes of effective connectivity. AU - Indovina, Iole. AU - Macaluso, Emiliano. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. N2 - We studied neural interactions between brain areas involved in exogenous (stimulus-driven) control of visuospatial attention. With event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated changes of connectivity during shifts of spatial attention from an attended location to a previously unattended target location. Using a 3-T scanner, fMRI data were acquired from three healthy volunteers. According to a central visual cue, participants directed endogenous spatial attention to the left or the right visual hemifield for blocks of 56 s. Peripheral visual targets were presented unpredictably in either the attended hemifield (valid trials, 80%) or in the unattended hemifield (invalid trials, 20%) and participants performed a two-alternative ...
We investigated the nature of intrinsic fluctuations in sustained attention by examining distractor processing as a function of attentional state during a continuous performance task. We found evidence that periods of successful attentional performance were associated with greater depth of distractor processing, which was akin to states of low perceptual load. Specifically, we observed enhanced neural sensitivity to irrelevant distractors, as measured by repetition attenuation and error precursors, during periods of superior performance (in the zone epochs).. We also observed unique neural signatures of attentional states across large-scale networks, finding that more erratic, error prone performance (i.e., being out of the zone) is associated with greater engagement of classic TPN regions, whereas relatively stable, in the zone performance is associated with greater activity in TNN/DMN regions. The finding that DMN activity is associated with increased stability replicates our prior work ...
Many current models of working memory (WM) emphasize a close relationship between WM and attention. Recently it was demonstrated that attention can be dynamically and voluntarily oriented to items held in WM, and it was suggested that directed attention can modulate the maintenance of specific WM representations. Here we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the effects of orienting attention to a category of stimuli when participants maintained a variable number of faces and scenes in WM. Retro-cues that indicated the relevant stimulus type for the subsequent WM test modulated maintenance-related activity in extrastriate areas preferentially responsive to face or scene stimuli - fusiform and parahippocampal gyri respectively - in a categorical way. After the retro-cue, the activity level in these areas was larger for the cued category in a load-independent way, suggesting the modulation may also reflect anticipation of the probe stimulus. Activity in associative parietal and
Evidence from visual probe detection tasks suggests that anxious individuals exhibit biased (enhanced) selective attention to threat stimuli, such as angry and fearful faces. Attentional bias to threatening stimuli has been characterized by (1) facilitated attention to stimuli (vigilance), (2) difficulty disengaging attention away from stimuli, or (3) attentional avoidance of stimuli. The current study used event-related potentials (ERP) and behavioural performance measures to examine the effects of attentional bias towards ecologically threatening stimuli (emotional faces) in 18 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and 18 healthy controls during a dot probe task. Behavioural measures of target detection and the amplitude and latency of early (P100, N100) and late (P200, P300) ERPs were assessed during presentation of face pair displays and target probes. Processing of threat-face pairs did not reveal evidence of attentional bias in PTSD patients. Perceptual (P100) and cognitive ...
It is controversial whether the effects of aging on various cognitive functions have the same common cause or several different causes. To investigate this issue, we scanned younger and older adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different tasks: working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. There were three main results. First, in all three tasks, older adults showed weaker occipital activity and stronger prefrontal and parietal activity than younger adults. The occipital reduction is consistent with the view that sensory processing decline is a common cause in cognitive aging, and the prefrontal increase may reflect functional compensation. Secondly, older adults showed more bilateral patterns of prefrontal activity than younger adults during working memory and visual attention tasks. These findings are consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Finally, compared to younger adults, older adults showed ...
Selective visual attention serializes the processing of stimulus data to make efficient use of limited processing resources in the human visual system. This paper describes a connectionist network that exhibits a variety of attentional phenomena reported by Treisman, Wolford, Duncan, and others. As demonstrated in several simulations, a hierarchical, multiscale network that uses feature arrays with strong lateral inhibitory connections provides responses in agreement with a number of prominent behaviors associated with visual attention. The overall network design is consistent with a range of data reported in the psychological literature, and with neurophysiol-ogical characteristics of primate vision.. ...
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Analyzing a scene requires shifting attention from object to object. Although several studies have attempted to determine the speed of these attentional shifts, there are large discrepancies in their estimates. Here, we adapt a method pioneered by Carlson et al (2006) that directly measures pure attentional shift times. We also test if attentional shifts can be handled in parallel by the independent resources available in the two cortical hemispheres. We present 10 clocks, with single revolving hands, in a ring around fixation. Observers are asked to report the hand position on one of the clocks at the onset of a transient cue. The delay between the reported time and the veridical time at cue onset can be used to infer processing and attentional shift times. With this setup, we use a novel subtraction method that utilizes different combinations of exogenous and endogenous cues to determine shift times for both types of attention. In one experiment, subjects shift attention to an exogenously ...
I have an extremely active son. Hes two-and-a-half. Hes been active since I began feeling him move around inside me when I was five months pregnant. Like, non-stop. Did this fetus ever sleep? He certainly didnt sleep when I tried to sleep, and he was especially roused by my everyday activities, such as drinking water, walking and playing music. Olin wanted to run before he could walk. And he got bruises on his head trying. He is, by his very nature, an active kid.. Short Attention Spans in Toddlers are Normal. Being active is really different from having a short attention span. Having a long attention span is a function of age and training. Even toddlers who dont run around all the time like Olin does tend to have really short attention spans. Thats because the neurons in the brain that allow us to pay attention for long periods of time are still developing, according to Lise Eliot in Whats Going On In There: How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life. In other words, ...
Background: Catheterization is the most common cause of pain and distress in children, which causes physical and psychological dysfunctions and disrupts the treatment. Therefore, the control of this type of pain should be considered as a priority for nursing care. The audio-visual distraction can be used to reduce the intensity of pain. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of audio-visual distraction on catheterization pain among school-age children. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 64 school-age children assigned into intervention and control group in Qods Hospital during 2016. Oucher face pain intensity scale was utilized to evaluate the intensity level of pain. Catheterization duration was also recorded in this study. Data were analysed in SPSS software (Version.18) through descriptive statistics, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: The mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 7.8±1.4 and 7.7±1.6, respectively.
Traditionally, scientists have believed that separate areas of the brain controlled these two processes, with bottom-up attention occurring in the posterior parietal cortex and top-down attention occurring in the prefrontal cortex.. This has implications for conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects millions of people worldwide. People with ADHD have difficulty filtering information and focusing attention.. In the Wake Forest Baptist study, two monkeys were trained to detect images on a computer screen while activity in both areas of the brain was recorded. The visual display was designed to let one image pop out due to its color difference from the background, such as a red circle surrounded by green. To trigger bottom-up attention, neither the identity nor the location of the pop-out image could be predicted before it appeared. The monkeys indicated that they detected the pop-out image by pushing a lever.. The neural activity associated with ...
A new study from Microsoft Corp. a human attention span is 8 seconds, showing the affect of increasingly digitalized lifestyle on the brain
Orienting spatial attention to locations in the extrapersonal world has been intensively investigated during the past decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is also possible to shift attention to locations within mental representations held in working memory. This is an important issue, since the allocation of our attention is not only guided by external stimuli, but also by their internal representations and the expectations we build upon them. The present experiment used behavioural measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether spatial orienting to mental representations can modulate the search and retrieval of information from working memory, and to identify the neural systems involved, respectively. Participants viewed an array of coloured crosses. Seconds after its disappearance, they were cued to locations in the array with valid or neutral cues. Subsequently, they decided whether a probe stimulus was presented in the array. The behavioural results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attentional control of the processing of neutral and emotional stimuli. AU - Pessoa, Luiz. AU - Kastner, Sabine. AU - Ungerleider, Leslie G.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - A typical scene contains many different objects that compete for neural representation due to the limited processing capacity of the visual system. At the neural level, competition among multiple stimuli is evidenced by the mutual suppression of their visually evoked responses and occurs most strongly at the level of the receptive field. The competition among multiple objects can be biased by both bottom-up sensory-driven mechanisms and top-down influences, such as selective attention. Functional brain imaging studies reveal that biasing signals due to selective attention can modulate neural activity in visual cortex not only in the presence but also in the absence of visual stimulation. Although the competition among stimuli for representation is ultimately resolved within visual cortex, the source of ...
The objective of this research was to measure the effects of energising drinks containing caffeine and glucose, upon mental activity during sustained selective attention. Non-invasive electrophysiological brain recordings were made during a behavioural study of selective attention in which participants received either energising or placebo drinks. We tested specifically whether energising drinks have significant effects upon behavioural measures of performance during a task requiring sustained visual selective attention, as well as on accompanying components of the event-related potential (ERPs) related to information processing in the brain. Forty healthy volunteers were blindly assigned to receive either the energising drink or a similar-tasting placebo drink. The behavioural task involved identifying predefined target stimulus among rapidly presented streams of peripheral visual stimuli, and making speeded motor responses to this stimulus. During task performance, accuracy, reaction times and ongoing
We propose a novel object-of-interest (OOI) segmentation algorithm for various images that is based on human attention and semantic region clustering. As object-based image segmentation is beyond current computer vision techniques, the proposed method segments an image into regions, which are then merged as a semantic object. At the same time, an attention window (AW) is created based on the saliency map and saliency points from an image. Within the AW, a support vector machine is used to select the salient regions, which are then clustered into the OOI using the proposed region merging. Unlike other algorithms, the proposed method allows multiple OOIs to be segmented according to the saliency map.. © 2006 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Visual attention is a voluntary mechanism allows human to allocate our sensory and computational resources to the most valuable information embedded in the vast amount of incoming visual data. Neuromorphic prosthetics with high-level cognitive function can be used to complete increasingly sophisticated tasks. Inspired by recent developments in the field of attention modulation, we propose a biological neural attention model for online visual attention and implement this model on Xilinx ZYNQ 7000 System-on-chip system. ...
We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory
Mary Anna Dunn, Ed.D.. Originally posted on blogger.com., October 2012.. Among the concerns I have heard raised by enrichment providers, problems with distractibility and impulsiveness are certainly among the most common. Though it may be tempting to assume children with these issues all have ADHD, not every child who has issues with distractibility and impulse control has ADHD. Some are simply on the high end of active for any number of possible reasons.. Given that the relationship between the enrichment provider and the child is often very short term, it may not be necessary to know whether or not the child has ADHD or is struggling because of other, possibly temporary issues (such as adjusting to the unfamiliar environment of your program). What is important is this: if a childs distractibility or impulse control challenges are interfering with her own or her peers opportunities to thrive in your program, she needs your help.. Keep in mind that you are not going to fix this child. You ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective visual attention in patients with frontal lobe lesions or Parkinsons disease. AU - Lee, Sonia S.. AU - Wild, Krista. AU - Hollnagel, Caroline. AU - Grafman, Jordan. PY - 1999/2/1. Y1 - 1999/2/1. N2 - Visual selective attention and response competition were tested in patients with frontal lobe lesions or with Parkinsons disease, and matched normal controls. The target stimuli were presented with flanking distractors that were either compatible, incompatible, or neutral to the target stimulus. The distance between the target and distractors was systematically varied. A control condition without distractors was also included. Subjects response times to target stimuli and accuracy were measured. Both patient groups responded significantly slower and less accurately than their respective matched normal controls across all interference conditions and spatial distances. However, they did not show significantly greater interference or facilitation effects. Thus, the data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine and the mechanisms of cognition. T2 - Part I. A neural network model predicting dopamine effects on selective attention. AU - Servan-Schreiber, David. AU - Bruno, Randy M.. AU - Carter, Cameron S.. AU - Cohen, Jonathan D.. PY - 1998/5/15. Y1 - 1998/5/15. N2 - Background: Dopamine affects neural information processing, cognition, and behavior; however, the mechanisms through which these three levels of function are affected have remained unspecified. We present a parallel distributed processing model of dopamine effects on neural ensembles that accounts for effects on human performance in a selective attention task. Methods: Task performance is stimulated using principles and mechanisms that capture salient aspects of information processing in neural ensembles. Dopamine effects are simulated as a change in gain of neural assemblies in the area of release. Results: The model leads to different predictions as a function of the hypothesized location of dopamine effects. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slowed reaction time performance on a divided attention task in elderly with environmental chemical odor intolerance. AU - Bell, Iris R.. AU - Wyatt, James K.. AU - Bootzin, Richard R.. AU - Schwartz, Gary E.. N1 - Funding Information: Correspondence to: Dr. Iris Bell, Department of Psychiatry, Tucson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3601 S. Sixth Avenue, MS 116A. Tucson, AZ 85723, USA. This research was supported by a grant from the National Dairy Board administered in cooperation with the National Dairy Council. *Current Address: Section on Sleep DisordersICircadianM edicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham & Womens Hospital, Boston, MA USA.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Previous research has suggested an association between the subjective report of illness from environmental chemical odors and poorer cognitive task performance in persons with industrial levels of xenobiotic exposures. The present study investigated baseline morning performance on a computerized divided ...
The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of attention network test and demographic information to detect mild cognitive impairment via combining feature selection with support vector machine. AU - Lv, Shipin. AU - Wang, Xiukun. AU - Cui, Yifen. AU - Jin, Jue. AU - Sun, Yan. AU - Tang, Yiyuan. AU - Bai, Ying. AU - Wang, Yan. AU - Zhou, Li. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is now thought as the prodromal phase of Alzheimers disease (AD), and the usual method for diagnosing the disease would be a battery of neuropsychological assessment. The present study proposes to integrate a feature selection scheme with support vector machine (SVM) to identify patients with MCI by using attention network test (ANT) and demographic data. Forty-two patients with MCI and forty-five normal individuals underwent ANT recording, and the reaction time and accuracy of ANT and demographics (age, gender, and educational level) were selected as original features. To select features, we first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of menstrual-related pain on attentional interference. AU - Keogh, E.. AU - Cavill, R.. AU - Moore, D.J.. AU - Eccleston, C.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Pain-related attentional interference has been found in both chronic pain and laboratory-inducted pain settings. However, few studies have examined such interference effects during common everyday painful episodes. Menstrual cycle-related pain is a common pain that affects a large number of women on a regular basis. The purpose of the current study was, therefore, to examine the effects of menstrual pain on attentional interference. Fifty-two healthy adult women were tested during 2 different phases of their menstrual cycles: once during a nonpain phase (mid follicular), and once while experiencing menstrual pain (late luteal/early follicular). On each testing session, participants received a battery of 4 attentional interference tasks that included selective attention (flanker task), attention span (n-back task), ...
Bodenhausen, Galen. 1999. Resisting stereotype change: the role of motivation and attentional capacity in defending social beliefs. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 2(1): 5-16.
Press Release Title: NCCCOs Lift Safety Zone Attracts Worldwide Attention at CONEXPO. Details: Crane users from all over the world were drawn to NCCCOs activities at CONEXPO-CON/AGG in Las Vegas. In particular, the crane and rigging demonstrations featured in the Lift Safety Zone were a resounding success. NCCCO provides complete coverage of crane and rigging events at CONEXPO in its current special issue of its e-newsletter CCOnline. (Not signed up? Click here to subscribe for free!) ...
Variable Technologies garners global attention at Consumer Electronics Show (CES) with help of Atlanta public relations firm Write2Market.
Should Attention Training be Thought in Schools? Should attention training be thought in schools? Before I get into my personal answer, let me offer some background information. They say the currency on the internet is attention. Rightfully so as every webpage these days have been developed with the purpose of keeping you within its constraints,…
The present study demonstrates that controlled hypoglycemia causes attentional dysfunction in nondiabetic humans. A decline in the rate of information processing was demonstrable in visual and auditory selective attention and in attentional switching. By contrast, nonverbal intelligence was not affected by hypoglycemia.. Although previous investigators have attempted to demonstrate attentional problems during acute hypoglycemia using psychological tests, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to confirm dysfunction of subdivisions of attention during hypoglycemia using a test battery designed specifically to measure attention. The TEA was devised from the evidence on separable attention systems in the brain (10). Using the concept that attention is fractionated into different supramodal systems, it has been proposed that attention consists of at least three separate systems (10), as follows: a selection system is responsible for selecting relevant stimuli/processes and inhibiting ...
Analyses revealed significant impairments in patients neurocognitive test performance on all measures. After statistically controlling for age at RT and time from RT, significant associations were found between NAWM volumes and both attentional abilities and IQ, and between attentional abilities and IQ. Subsequent analyses supported the hypothesis that attentional abilities, but not memory, could explain a significant amount of the relationship between NAWM and IQ. The final developmental model predicting academic achievement based on NAWM, attentional abilities, and IQ explained approximately 60% of the variance in reading and spelling and almost 80% of the variance in math. ...
During skill execution, performers have been shown to attend to different aspects of movement, the external effects of ones action, or to other environmental information. A variety of psychological mechanisms have been proposed to account for the differential outcomes when adopting each attentional strategy. However, there is limited information about the extent to which different attentional foci change the workload demands of task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), and also with a secondary task that directed attention toward an aspect of skill execution (skill-focused) and an unrelated environmental stimulus (extraneous focus). Primary and secondary task performances were significantly greater in the extraneous focus compared to the skill-focused dual-task. Also, workload was significantly lower during the extraneous focus compared to ...
As is known to all, vitiligo is a kind of very stubborn skin disease, that vitiligo patients should pay attention to take a shower? How to take a shower is beneficial to the health of patients with vitiligo? This is a lot of patients issues of concern, to this, huahai vitiligo hospital experts point out that, in the bath, patients should pay attention to the following: ...
This report unifies past literature on mirror neurons, thought to participate in the imitation and interpretation of observed action (15, 16), with literature on gaze following, thought to mediate the sharing of attention between individuals (1, 2, 6, 9). Mirror neurons are motor neurons that discharge not only during enactment, but also during observation of a particular behavior (15, 16). LIP, although not classically a motor area, is active in gaze-related sensorimotor transformations (47-50), and its activity contributes to both overt (51) and covert shifts of attention (32, 41), and to maintenance of attention at fixation (52, 53). We here report that neurons in LIP respond not only when monkeys orient attention toward their RFs, but also when other monkeys are observed orienting in the same direction. These effects are detectable despite the irrelevance of social gaze cues to the behavioral task, and despite the fact that faces were presented outside the classical RFs of neurons. We find ...
Humans survive in environments that contain a vast quantity and variety of visual information. All items of perceived visual information must be represented within a limited number of brain networks. The human brain requires mechanisms for selecting only a relevant fraction of perceived information for more in-depth processing, where neural representations of that information may be actively maintained and utilized for goal-directed behavior. Object-based attention is crucial for goal-directed behavior and yet remains poorly understood. Thus, in the study we investigate how neural representations of visual object information are guided by selective attention. The magnitude of activation in human extrastriate cortex has been shown to be modulated by attention; however, object-based attention is not likely to be fully explained by a localized gain mechanism. Thus, we measured information coded in spatially distributed patterns of brain activity with fMRI while human participants performed a task ...
Shifts of covert visual attention induce changes in alpha power over posterior electrode sites. Initial analyses revealed that an early desynchronization was of little discriminative value regarding the direction of attention shifts. We believe that this early desynchronization may be related to the preparation of covert attention shifts. A subsequent synchronization, however, yielded distinctive topographic patterns for the different directions and served as a basis for classification.. Using regularized logistic regression, significant binary classification performance was obtained for each participant, with a mean accuracy of 73.65% for the best pair of directions. A classification accuracy of 70% was proposed as performance threshold above which BCI performance can be considered as robust [32, 33]. In the present study, six participants had a peak performance above 70%, and two participants had a performance that was slightly lower (66% and 69%). Interestingly, this figure is close to the ...
TY - THES. T1 - When attention takes over. T2 - attentional bias and its modification in substance use and addiction. AU - Heitmann, Janika. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - It has been proposed that selective attention for substance-relevant information might contribute to the persistence of addiction. To improve insight about which component of attentional bias is relevant to target during treatment, the first aim of this dissertation was to investigate whether substance use is most strongly related to attentional capture of substance cues or to a difficulty to redirect attention away from these cues. In a non-clinical sample it was found that alcohol use was related to a difficulty to disengage attention from alcohol cues. However, patients diagnosed with alcohol or cannabis addiction showed heightened attentional capture of substance cues, indicating that especially heightened attentional capture might be relevant in problematic substance use.The second aim of this dissertation was to test the ...
Clothing often focuses attention on the genitals and sexual arousal, rather than away from them. [52] At various times in Western history different parts of female anatomy have been eroticized: bellies and thighs in the Renaissance; buttocks, breasts, and thighs by the late 1800s (and relatively diminutive waists and bellies). Underwear design has historically emphasized these erogenous body parts: corsets in the 1800s de-emphasized the midriff and emphasized the breasts-using materials including whalebone and steel; the crinoline in the mid 1800s emphasized the waist; and the bustle, appearing in 1868, emphasized the buttocks.[53] Bathing suit design today focuses attention on the breasts and pubic region. E.B. Hurlock writes: When primitive peoples are unaccustomed to wearing clothing, putting it on for the first time does not decrease their immorality, as the ladies of missionary societies think it will. It has just the opposite effect. It draws attention to the body, especially for those ...
article{897de195-2872-4fbd-a994-ffa44f635d84, abstract = {,p,Gestalt psychology has traditionally ignored the role of attention in perception, leading to the view that autonomous processes create perceptual configurations that are then attended. More recent research, however, has shown that spatial attention influences a form of Gestalt perception: the coherence of random-dot kinematograms (RDKs). Using ERPs, we investigated whether temporal expectations exert analogous attentional effects on the perception of coherence level in RDKs. Participants were presented fixed-length sequences of RDKs and reported the coherence level of a target RDK. The target was indicated immediately after its appearance by a postcue. Target expectancy increased as the sequence progressed until target presentation; afterward, remaining RDKs were perceived without target expectancy. Expectancy influenced the amplitudes of ERP components P1 and N2. Crucially, expectancy interacted with coherence level at N2, but not at ...
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a change detection task in which we manipulated both target and distracter set sizes. We directly compared the IPS response as a function of the number of targets and distracters in the display and in VSTM. When distracters were not present, the posterior and middle segments of IPS showed the predicted asymptotic activity increase with an increasing target set size. When distracters were added to a single target, activity also increased as predicted. However, the addition of distracters to multiple targets suppressed both middle and posterior IPS activities, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and
This graphic is from a YouTube video created this month by one of two college students from South Korea who were working with me in Chicago. And this graphi…
Image of 21-year-old woman, who presented with a chronic nasal bone fracture and soft tissue swelling of the left lateral face. Review of electronic medical records revealed presentation to an outside hospital 9 months ago with oblique fracture of the right ring finger proximal phalanx, blowout fracture of the medial wall of the left orbit and similar soft tissue swelling of the left face. Traumatic findings separated in time suggest recurrent violence. Image courtesy of Elizabeth George, M.D.. ...
Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an irrelevant-change distracting effect, where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants processing manner, leading to a false-positive result. The current study conducted a strict examination of OBE in VWM, by probing whether irrelevant-features guided the deployment of attention in visual search. The participants memorized an objects colour yet ignored shape and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target line among distractor lines, each embedded within a different object. One object in the search display could match the shape, colour, or both dimensions of the memory item, but this object
In the present experiment, 25 adult subjects discriminated speech tokens ([ba]/[da]) or made pitch judgments on tone stimuli (rising/falling) under both binaural and dichotic listening conditions. We observed that when listeners performed tasks under the dichotic conditions, during which greater dem …
J. Allman, F. Miezin, & E. McGuinness (1985). Stimulus specific responses from beyond the classical receptive field: neurophysiological mechanisms for local-global comparisons in visual neurons. Annual Review of Neuroscience 8:407-430. N. Bruce & J. K. Tsotsos (2006). Saliency Based on Information Maximization. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 18:155-162. M. W. Cannon & S. C. Fullenkamp (1991). Spatial interactions in apparent contrast: inhibitory effects among grating patterns of different spatial frequencies, spatial positions and orientations. Vision Research 31:1985-1998. R. Carmi & L. Itti (2006). Visual Causes versus Correlates of Attentional Selection in Dynamic Scenes. Vision Research 46(26):4333-4345. F. Crick (1984). Function of the thalamic reticular complex: the searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences USA 81(14):4586-90. R. Desimone & J. Duncan (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of ...
A new framework for simulating the visual attention system in primates is introduced. The proposed architecture is an abstraction of existing approaches influenced by the work of Koch and Ullman, and Tompa. Each stage of the attentional hierarchy is chosen with consideration for both psychophysics and mathematical optimality. A set of attentional operators are derived that act on basic image channels of intensity, hue and orientation to produce maps representing perceptual importance of each image pixel. The development of such operators is realized within the context of a genetic optimization. The model includes the notion of an information domain where feature maps are transformed to a domain that more closely corresponds to the human visual system. A careful analysis of various issues including feature extraction, density estimation and data fusion is presented within the context of the visual attention problem ...
Popularity is self reinforcing. The attention garnered by popular options propels further interest in them. Yet rather than blindly follow the crowd, most pay attention to how well these items match their tastes. We model this role of social learning in guiding selective attention and market dynamics. We confirm that attention focuses on options that quickly achieve popularity. Information externalities render the chosen set smaller than socially optimal. This rationalizes antitrust policies that encourage early experimentation. When attention costs are based on Shannon entropy, optimal policies are computable. With rich data, optimal choices can be identified for all consumer types. You may purchase this paper on-line in .pdf format from SSRN.com ($5) for electronic delivery.. ...
write an opinion on this Look at something red in the room, and youll be more likely to notice something red out of the corner of your eye, elsewhere in the room. Researchers have known that this implicit attentional selection is outside conscious control and that we are unaware of its functioning.. Researchers, led by David Melcher of Oxford Brookes University and Zoltán Vidnyánszky of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, have developed an experimental technique for measuring the processing of visual input outside the focus of attention as a function of what subjects are concentrating on inside their attentional focus. Their technique will enhance study of this little-understood phenomenon, they said. The research is published in the June 2 issue of Neuron.. For example, they used their technique to show that, in the process of implicit attentional selection, different features of an object are automatically clustered. For example, subjects asked to pay attention ...
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The winter of 2013-14 disrupted the intermodal shipping industry in North America, causing service problems and impeding growth. However, intermodal now offers a number of attractive advantages for shippers, particularly as rail operations pour resources into their intermodal efforts to strengthen service and compete with trucking. Sites that specialize in intermodal utilize innovations to streamline the process and apply new resources to make for an increasingly efficient and effective distribution process.. ...
Figure 2: Deviations of ocular saccades when attention is allocated to a peripheral point. The figure reports an example of the experimental paradigm used by Sheliga, Riggio, and Rizzolatti (1995) to support the premotor theory of attention. The basic assumption was that if visuospatial attention involves an activation of oculomotor circuits, then this activation should influence an overt oculomotor response. In contrast, if attention is not related to oculomotion, there is no reason why such an influence should occur. The basic experimental situation was similar to that used in experiments on meridian effect (see Figure 1). Participants were instructed to fixate a central cross and to pay attention to one of the possible stimulus locations according to the cue. The major difference was that the measured variable was not a manual response but a vertical saccade directed to a box located below or above the fixation point. Specifically, the visual display comprised three filled and two empty ...
The ability of animals to communicate using gaze is a rich area of research. How domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) use and respond to the gaze of humans is...
Pay attention to the difference in child cerebral palsy and calcium cerebral palsy not heal,We have received a children in the family, more than 3 months have found some exceptions: lying in bed almost neck lift, hands and legs no e
Visual search can be facilitated by the learning of spatial configurations that predict the location of a target among distractors. Neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence implicates the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system in this contextual cueing effect, and electroencephalography (EEG) studies have identified the involvement of visual cortical regions related to attention.
Why Investors Should Pay Attention to Seattle Genetics Drug Trial - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
We should all know that diet is very important for us, kidney stones caused by not pay attention to diet, then we look on patients with kidney stones which have diet advice! Drink plenty of water: recommendations in the United States doctor
This population study suggests that FC in early childhood does not have adverse effects on behavior, scholastic performance, and neurocognitive attention. On the contrary, the FC group demonstrated significantly better control of distractibility and attention at school age.
When the end of a volume is reached, the following message appears: $ pax -wf /dev/fd0 . ATTENTION! pax archive volume change ...
"Attention." at 145kt 45s "V2." at 154kt 50s (Mechanical sound) 55s "What's up?" "Spoiler!" at 350ft 60s "What's this?!" "Sorry ...
"Science paying attention to not paying attention". NBC News. Associated Press. 19 March 2007. Smallwood, Jonathan. "The Mind ... Executive functions have roles in attention problems, attention control, thought control, and working memory capacity. ... Questions about context are also asked to measure the level of attention necessary for the task. One process used was to give ... One common paradigm within which to study mind-wandering is the SART (sustained attention to response) task. In a SART task ...
ATTENTION. ALL U-BOATS. SHUT OFF METOX AT ONCE. ENEMY IS CAPABLE OF INTERCEPTING. KEEP RADIO SILENCE UNTIL FURTHER NOTICE. ...
Considerable attention has been paid to the strategies learners use to learn a second language. Strategies have been found to ... Micro-processes include attention; working memory; integration and restructuring. Restructuring is the process by which ... The field of second-language acquisition is a sub-discipline of applied linguistics but also receives research attention from a ... Schmidt, R. (2001). "Attention". In Robinson, Peter (ed.). Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge ...
... attention! Ceremonial pass in review! Eyes to the right, by the left, forward, quick march! The parade proper then begins at ...
"Attention! S2 station changed". Yanqing Gov. 2020-04- ...
Merci de votre compréhension." ("Attention! This flim is not a flim about cycling. Thank you for your understanding.") The ... The film begins with the following lines appearing on screen, complete with deliberate spelling mistakes: "Attention! Ce flim ...
... some others on the first stage can keep attention in the throat. It can be difficult for a novice to keep attention in the ... Comment 6. Attention. (in Russian)Metropolitan Ierothos (Vlachos) "One night in the desert of the Holy Mountain." (in Russian) ... If at least one of the following exists: the person prays without keeping the attention in the words of the prayer and imagines ... The Holy Fathers say that we should never pay attention to them because they may originate from the demons. St. John Climacus ...
Attention! Black Metal (2012) A black metal mockumentary Legalize Murder was released in 2006. The cartoon show Metalocalypse ... which eventually drew attention to it and led to a number of artists being imprisoned. On 8 April 1991, Mayhem vocalist Per ... drew much attention with their debut album Six Years of Dormant Hatred, released through North American label Moribund Records ... were not Satanists and rather used Satanic themes to provoke controversy or gain attention. One of the few exceptions was ...
"Attention! The CRA Is Extending the $2,000/Month CRB to 38 Weeks". ca.finance.yahoo.com. "Coronavirus: Trudeau says over ...
Strangle the fool that dares to scoff! Attention! it's his way. Appealing from his native sod, In forma pauperis to God, Say " ...
Attention. The appearance is so similar to a genuine passport that in 1974 a criminal case was lodged against Garry Davis in ...
Avadhānaṃ can be considered as the Divided attention (clinical model of attention) as it is the highest level of attention and ... "Attention". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 12 December 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)[dead link] " ... "Divided Attention". Cognifit. Retrieved 12 December 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Hindu - November 2010". ...
Attention. Attention. His Majesty the King and Emperor has accepted the resignation from office of the Head of Government, ...
Attention. We don't pay attention to boring things. Short-term memory. Repeat to remember. Long-term memory. Remember to repeat ... The book has tried to explain how the brain works in twelve perspectives: exercise, survival, wiring, attention, short-term ...
Attention! spawned two singles, including "All (I Ever Want)", a duet with singer Sabrina Weckerlin, and leading single "Not ... Attention! (2006). It reached the top twenty of the album charts in Austria and Germany, becoming the singer's lowest-charting ...
... attention! Ceremonial march past! Form battalions! Distance by a single lineman! Slope... arms! Eyes to the right, by the left ...
... attention! Attention! This is serious. Many unjust acts have happened during the revolution. Notice have [sic] been received ...
"Attention! Military history made at passing out parade". Darlington and Stockton Times. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 12 September ...
"Attention!". cedric.slv.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 28 February 2016. Costa Sports (8 April 2015), That Was the Season that Was 1994 ...
Attention! Bandits! (1951) Art. 519 codice penale (1952) At the Edge of the City (1953) For You I Have Sinned (1953) Love Song ...
"Attention!". digital.slv.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 26 April 2016. "Company History - Tyco Fire and Integrated Solutions". www. ...
After the flyover, the parade commander orders the start of the parade in the following manner: Parade... attention! Slope.... ...
". "Attention! Security risk with OTRS 6!". OTRS. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2021. Heinemann, Markus. "OTRS ...
". "Внимание! Изменение в Календаре соревнований в сезоне 2019-2020 гг.!" [Attention! The changes in the calendar of ...
"ATTENTION! DANGEROUS ART". haifaru.co.il. Retrieved 2019-01-08. Hoffman, Darl (21 October 2011). "Art that's past- and future- ...
"Attention! Davey wins inaugural AFL Army Award". Melbourne: Essendon Football Club. 18 September 2007. Archived from the ...
Before 10 a.m., the parade is formed up as a trumpeter sounds the attention call. To the tune of the massed bands of the Korean ... attention! Ceremonial march past! Form battalions! Distance by a single lineman! First battalion will remain in the right, ...
Adie, Euan (24 October 2014). "Attention! A study of open access vs non-open access articles". Figshare. doi:10.6084/m9. ... article usage and social media attention". Scientometrics. 103 (2): 555-564. arXiv:1503.05702. Bibcode:2015arXiv150305702W. doi ...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Stimulant Therapy Stimulants are an effective way of managing ADHD symptoms ... Improvements in behavior and attention span usually continue as long as the medication is taken, although benefits in social ... Stimulants are an effective way of managing ADHD symptoms such as short attention span, impulsive behavior, and hyperactivity. ... Stimulant therapy is the most commonly used treatment for Attention-Deficit Disorder/ Hyperactivity Disorder, also known as ...
A new Cambridge study questions previous suggestions that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the result of ... Dopamine is a crucial chemical for concentration or sustained attention, working memory and motivational processes in the brain ... Imaging study shows dopamine dysfunction is not the main cause of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ... A new Cambridge study questions previous suggestions that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the result of ...
Continuous Partial Attention (CPA) is the process of paying simultaneous attention to a number of sources of incoming ... Youre paying attention, but only partially. That lets you cast a wider net, but it also runs the risk of keeping you from ... Compared to multi-tasking, full attention is not required by CPA (hence the "partial") and the process is ongoing rather than ... The state of Continuous Partial Attention can be functional behavior. However, it leads to a higher level of stress in the ...
The original, world-famous awareness test from Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris. Check out our book and website for more information (www.theinvisiblego...
A University of Maryland psychologist and researcher studies attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to find out why children ... A version of this article appeared in the May 09, 2001 edition of Education Week as Research: Paying Attention ... Research: Paying Attention. By Lisa Fine - May 09, 2001 19 min read ... ADHD is not just a disorder of attention, but also one characterized by the inability to control impulsive responses. ...
The contemporary approach to attention has been strongly influenced by neurophysiological research on the attention, or arousal ... ATTENTION. The word "attention" comes from the Latin attention, itself derived from attendere, which means "to turn ones mind ... ATTENTION. ATTENTION . The subject of attention has until recently been largely confined to the domain of experimental ... A more generic term for the kind of meditative attention achieved in dhikr is murāqabah. Murāqabah is described as a " ...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Attention. ... Immediately download the Attention summary, chapter-by-chapter ... Divided attention refers to the ability to divide ones attention between two or more tasks. The focused attention models ... Attention ATTENTION. The subject of attention has until recently been largely confined to the domain of experimental psychology ... Attention Concentration on a task. Attention is concentration, or perceptive awareness, focused on a stimulus, such as a book ...
The term "attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data ... Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities Among U.S ... Physician Office Visits for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents Aged 4-17 Years; United States ... Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 13.6 million ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. *Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at ... Connors C (2000). "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Historical Development and Overview". Journal of Attention ... Bjornstad G, Montgomery P (April 2005). Bjornstad GJ (ed.). "Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit ... Merino-Andreu M (March 2011). "[Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and restless legs syndrome in children]" [Attention ...
Attention! is the third studio album by German singer Alexander Klaws. It was released by Sony BMG on Hansa Records on 10 March ... "Offiziellecharts.de - Alexander - Attention!" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 11 April 2017. "Swisscharts.com ... Attention! spawned two singles, "All (I Ever Want)", the theme song to the musical The Three Musketeers, featuring vocals by ... ". "Austriancharts.at - Alexander - Attention!" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 11 April 2017. " ...
James differentiated between censorial attention and intellectual attention. Censorial attention is when attention is directed ... Alertness Attention restoration theory Attention seeking Attention span Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Attentional ... The role of attention Philosophy Self Split attention effect Vigilance Visual search Working memory Visual spatial attention ... Executive attention is used when there is a conflict between multiple attention cues. It is essentially the same as the central ...
... behavior or a lack of respect for classmates and peer rejection are two signs that a young child might have attention deficit ... "Preschoolers and Attention Deficit Disorder," is available online from the New York City-based publisher. ... Published in Print: August 1, 2007, as Attention Deficit Back to Top ... behavior or a lack of respect for classmates and peer rejection are two signs that a young child might have attention deficit ...
... attention (en); atento (eo); pozornost (cs); pažnja (bs); attenzione (it); внимание (ru); attention (fr); внимание (mk); pažnja ... Spatial-Attention-Is-Attracted-in-a-Sustained-Fashion-toward-Singular-Points-in-the-Optic-Flow-pone.0041040.s001.ogv 6,3 s, 1 ... Spatial-Attention-Is-Attracted-in-a-Sustained-Fashion-toward-Singular-Points-in-the-Optic-Flow-pone.0041040.s002.ogv 6,3 s, 1 ... Spatial-Attention-Is-Attracted-in-a-Sustained-Fashion-toward-Singular-Points-in-the-Optic-Flow-pone.0041040.s003.ogv 6,3 s, 1 ...
Just how tough is it to sustain news and thereby public attention to the problem of global warming? Exhibit A: The week after ... In a recent analysis, Pew finds that news attention to Iraq has sharply declined since last year, overshadowed in coverage by ... Last week, global warming cracked the top 5 news stories at Pews media attention index, but only accounted for roughly 5% of ... In this case, Jesus Camp serves a function that I have talked about with other documentaries: It elevates attention to a ...
"I have a good feeling (about the medical operation) today because the people get free medical attention." ...
We show that attention alters appearance; it boosts the apparent stimulus contrast. These behavioral results are consistent ... Here we developed a psychophysical method to directly assess the phenomenological correlates of attention in humans. ... From psychophysical evidence that covert attention affects early vision-it enhances contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution ... Does attention alter appearance? This critical issue, debated for over a century, remains unsettled. ...
Further, we provide a choice theoretical foundation for maximizing a single preference relation under limited attention. (JEL ... Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision makers preference and the alternatives ... to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behavior. We illustrate how seemingly compelling welfare ... "Revealed Attention," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(5), pages 2183-2205, August. ...
The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the ... their signal exposure and attention, and the diversity of senders surviving the contest for attention. Application of the ... A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes ... Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. ...
Attention. Definition. Attention is a cognitive process in which a person or animal concentrates on one thing in particular. To ... Attention scales with object size A study shows that knowledge about an objects size - how large it is in the real world - ... Effects of l-theanine-caffeine combination on sustained attention and inhibitory control among children with ADHD: a proof-of- ... The discovery indicates that the oculomotor system is engaged in the focusing of attention within the internal space of memory. ...
... at 10 of the most attention-grabbing live spectacles in pop music over the years. ...
Upon learning of the U.S. Supreme Courts Saturday order, David Boies, Mr. Gores chief litigator in Florida, demanded to know what irreparable harm Mr. Bush would suffer from the recounts that could justify a stay. Mr. Scalia offered an immediate answer, sounding a theme likely to come up again during todays 90-minute U.S. Supreme Court hearing. The counting of votes that are of questionable legality, Justice Scalia argued, does in my view threaten irreparable harm to [Mr. Bush], and to the country, by casting a cloud upon what he claims to be the legitimacy of his election. Justice Scalia also questioned the propriety, indeed the constitutionality, of letting the standard for determination of voters intent dimpled chads, hanging chads, etc. vary from county to county, as the Florida Supreme Court opinion, as interpreted by the circuit court, permits ...
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We model this role of social learning in guiding selective attention and market dynamics. We confirm that attention focuses on ... Social Learning and Selective Attention. Andrew Caplin, John Leahy, Filip Matějka. NBER Working Paper No. 21001. Issued in ... The attention garnered by popular options propels further interest in them. Yet rather than blindly follow the crowd, most pay ... When attention costs are based on Shannon entropy, optimal policies are computable. With rich data, optimal choices can be ...
Your Go-To Guide for the most up-to-date strategies for understanding ADD/ADHD and attention skills. This page is designed to ... A simple attention deficit (Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD) is one that involves the childs ability to pay attention even ... when a child that they cannot pay attention, but rather that they are just cannot pay not paying attention. attention, Consider ... What is Attention Deficit Disorder? * 1. A New Way of Thinking About Paying Attention A PARENTS GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING ...
The audience pays sustained attention to Martin Short, and he doesnt really return the favor-unlike, ironically, several of ... human attention spans have gotten shorter. But we also know that the stage isnt TV, and that when youre in the same room with ... somebody you expect them to pay you some sustained attention, and not always be hopping away in distraction to show off some ...
Attention deficit disorder; Hyperkinetic disorder Attention deficit/hyperactivity... ... ADD; ADHD; ADHD, combined; ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type; ADHD, predominantly inattentive type; Attention ... Greenberg, L. (2015). Test of variables of attention - version 8. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar ... Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or ...
1.3 Locke: Attention as a Mode of Thought. Descartes and Berkeley treat attention very briefly, but each assigns attention to a ... 2014, Attention, London: Routledge. *Yantis, S., 1998, "Control of Visual Attention", in H. Pashler (ed.), Attention, New York ... There is no primary act of attention, there is no specific act of attention, there is no one kind of act of attention at all. ( ... 3.1 Attention and Consciousness. 3.1.1 Is Attention Necessary for Consciousness?. The question of whether attention is ...
attention members. not only did our community die, livejournal died as well. i am comtemplating putting this community to rest. ...
The Attention Operating System. Requirements:. Attention principles ( at.org). Attention kernel (atx). Attention framework ( ... Attention the meta layer above information routing Net threading of bit processing. Gestures signalling layer of info net. Same ... Attention applications. Root.net. -- behavioral recording. -- social expression (gb certified) -- influence metering. ... Open pool creates attention currency. Gesture streams create invitations for contract. Pool validates GestureRank. AOS ...
... Surrounding yourself with yes men and women is good for the ego, but for business, not so ...
  • Stimulants are an effective way of managing ADHD symptoms such as short attention span, impulsive behavior, and hyperactivity. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Stimulant therapy is the most commonly used treatment for Attention-Deficit Disorder/ Hyperactivity Disorder, also known as ADHD . (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A new Cambridge study questions previous suggestions that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the result of fundamental abnormalities in dopamine transmission, and suggests that the main cause of the disorder may lie instead in structural differences in the grey matter in the brain. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Julie B. Schweitzer, a psychologist and researcher who studies attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, wants to know how children with ADHD learn differently from those without the disorder. (edweek.org)
  • The term "attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. (cdc.gov)
  • Expulsion from preschool because of aggressive behavior or a lack of respect for classmates and peer rejection are two signs that a young child might have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, according to an article appearing in the August/ September 2007 issue of ADDitude magazine. (edweek.org)
  • Hyperactivity and impulsivity (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD) refers to the child who always fidgets or moves or suddenly bursts into unexplained action. (slideshare.net)
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, which most often arise in early to middle childhood, result in functional impairment across multiple domains of daily life activities, and remain relatively persistent over time. (springer.com)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (4th ed. (springer.com)
  • The age dependent decline of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of follow-up studies. (springer.com)
  • Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (springer.com)
  • Neuropsychology of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. (springer.com)
  • Learn more about Alan Brown in our interview with him on Attention Talk Radio, titled " Crushing Your ADD: Stories behind the Scenes " and Attention Talk Video, titled " Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What an Aha Moment Looks Like . (constantcontact.com)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that makes it difficult to pay attention and control impulsive behaviors. (nih.gov)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like many parents of easily distracted children, Janet worries that her daughter might have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (scholastic.com)
  • Treatments include drugs such as Ritalin, or methylpenidate, a stimulant intended to curb impulsiveness and hyperactivity, and boost attention. (reuters.com)
  • The finding published in the journal Nature could provide a new target for potential drugs to treat some neurodegenerative conditions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or ADHD, the researchers said. (reuters.com)
  • In the largest ever study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Florence Levy of the University of New South Wales and her colleagues have shown that if one identical twin has behaviours associated with ADHD, the other twin has between a 75 per cent and 91 per cent chance of sharing the same problems. (newscientist.com)
  • Living with ADHD Jump to media player Scientists from Cardiff University say they've found the first direct evidence of a genetic link to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Parents to be offered ADHD training Jump to media player Parents of children in Scotland who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could soon be offered special parenting classes. (bbc.co.uk)
  • After more than 50 years leading the fight to legitimize attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Keith Conners could be celebrating. (nytimes.com)
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, is one of the most common mental disorders that develop in children. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to refine a new assessment tool for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and then to test its validity (i.e. ability to discriminate between individuals with ADHD and healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • This study seeks to characterize sleep physiology in adolescents with and without Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its relationship to differential neurocognitive and clinical outcomes within these groups. (nih.gov)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In addition, the research could prove helpful in treatment of disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and aspects of depression that are related to attention. (princeton.edu)
  • Researchers have sought to measure and explain such things as the selective capacity of attention, its range and span, the number of objects that it can appreciate simultaneously, and the muscle contractions associated with attentional efforts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Does the Concept of Negative Priming Contribute to Our Understanding of Selective Attention? (bookrags.com)
  • Psychologist Michael Posner (then already renowned for his influential work on visual selective attention) and neurologist Marcus Raichle pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the older technique of electroencephalography (EEG) had long been used to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by cognitive psychophysiologists, the ability of the newer techniques to actually measure precisely localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We model this role of social learning in guiding selective attention and market dynamics. (nber.org)
  • Attention is involved in the selective directedness of our mental lives. (stanford.edu)
  • Visual evoked potentials and selective attention to points in space. (psu.edu)
  • Consistent with its therapeutic use in ADHD, Ritalin improved sustained attention performance in the patients. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, Ritalin also improved sustained attention performance in some healthy individuals as well, and this overall ability of the drug to improve performance (with or without ADHD) was related to the increases in dopamine levels in the striatum caused by Ritalin. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Your Go-To Guide for the most up-to-date strategies for understanding ADD/ADHD and attention skills. (slideshare.net)
  • And while the ADAA estimates that about 4 percent of the adult population is dealing with ADHD, one survey from video conference provider Highfive confirmed that about 47 percent of employees say their main problem with meetings is that people don't pay attention . (payscale.com)
  • In this episode of Attention Talk Radio, co-hosts Jeff Copper and Kirsten Milliken interview Dr. Mark Bertin on the impact of media on ADHD. (constantcontact.com)
  • Learn more from Andrew Cutler M.D. in our interview with him on Attention Talk Video titled "The Not-So-Obvious Place to Get an ADHD Diagnosis. (constantcontact.com)
  • "Preschoolers and Attention Deficit Disorder," is available online from the New York City-based publisher. (edweek.org)
  • What is Attention Deficit Disorder? (slideshare.net)
  • If you are thinking that it sounds like Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), you might be right. (slideshare.net)
  • A simple attention deficit (Attention Deficit Disorder, or ADD) is one that involves the child's ability to pay attention even when she or he is sitting still. (slideshare.net)
  • Shire - the longtime market leader, with several A.D.H.D. medications including Adderall - recently subsidized 50,000 copies of a comic book that tries to demystify the disorder and uses superheroes to tell children, "Medicines may make it easier to pay attention and control your behavior! (nytimes.com)
  • Improvements in behavior and attention span usually continue as long as the medication is taken, although benefits in social adjustment and school performance have not yet been shown to endure over the long term. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The state of Continuous Partial Attention can be functional behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behavior. (repec.org)
  • This student essay consists of approximately 5 pages of analysis of Describe and Discuss One or More Explanations of Divided Attention. (bookrags.com)
  • EPilot, launched Dec. 7, combines the greed factor of multilevel marketing, the pay-for-attention model of Cybergold, the bid for search results placement of goto.com and a Yahoo! (adweek.com)
  • Visual search, visual attention, and the attention operating characteristic. (psu.edu)
  • Reach him on Messenger to share your thoughts on market moves: [email protected] EUROPEAN BANKS ARE GARNERING ATTENTION (1153 GMT) In keeping with this wave of love for cyclical stocks, this time we've got analysts at Bankhaus Lampe saying that they prefer European banks over financial services. (reuters.com)
  • Dopamine is a crucial chemical for concentration or sustained attention, working memory and motivational processes in the brain and acting as a chemical transmitter between brain cells by combining with specialised receptors on nerve cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Practices that strengthen the capacity for concentration or attention play a role in most great religious traditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Attention Concentration on a task. (bookrags.com)
  • Attention is concentration, or perceptive awareness, focused on a stimulus, such as a book or worksheet. (bookrags.com)
  • This force is manifested in the concentration of the attention, in accurate, penetrating observation, in reducing complex subjects to their elements, in diving beneath the effect to the cause, in detecting the more subtle differences and resemblances of things, in reading the future in the present, and especially in rising from particular facts to general laws or universal truths. (wikiquote.org)
  • Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items. (medlineplus.gov)
  • From psychophysical evidence that covert attention affects early vision-it enhances contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution-and from neurophysiological evidence that attention increases the neuronal contrast sensitivity (contrast gain), one could infer that attention changes stimulus appearance. (psu.edu)
  • Researchers then analysed the results of tasks done by the volunteers which tested their ability to concentrate and pay attention over a period of time. (cam.ac.uk)
  • To further suggest that this is so and to discuss the nature and significance of contemplative attention are the central tasks of this article. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Divided attention refers to the ability to divide ones attention between two or more tasks. (bookrags.com)
  • By the 1990s, psychologists began using positron emission tomography (PET) and later functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to image the brain while monitoring tasks involving attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many aspects to attention: how it is controlled, how it selects some aspects of the scene over others, how it interacts with motor control and how its consequences affect tasks undertaken by the subject. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Brain areas that are important for memory, such as the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe structures, are recruited in attention tasks, and memory directly affects frontal-parietal networks involved in spatial orienting. (nih.gov)
  • we know that, with television, human attention spans have gotten shorter. (villagevoice.com)
  • Our attention spans are considered a precious-and scarce-commodity. (pbs.org)
  • those of us nauseated not just by the ravages of chemo or other toxic treatments, but by politicians' short attention spans and by pharmaceutical greed and managed-care lobbies that want us to be unwell on our lunch-hours, not theirs. (wnd.com)
  • You're paying attention, but only partially. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] It also dilutes efforts to focus and concentrate on the present (effectively paying attention to what you are doing in the moment instead of shifting from one activity to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • For the past 20 years, Oxford Learning has worked with children who have problems paying attention. (slideshare.net)
  • More to the point, most teachers and students do not know that paying attention is a learned skill. (slideshare.net)
  • We're not that great at paying attention . (payscale.com)
  • campaign should probably be replaced with, "Are you paying attention to me now? (forbes.com)
  • Sometimes, in the middle of a conversation, she'll simply stop talking to make sure I'm paying attention. (forbes.com)
  • She's Not Paying Attention! (scholastic.com)
  • However, blanket terms like this, while useful in many circumstances, don't get at the myriad reasons some children have problems paying attention. (scholastic.com)
  • The end result is that it looks like she's not concentrating or paying attention. (scholastic.com)
  • Stop the song and Wait if the children are not paying attention, do not continue until you have their attention. (bellaonline.com)
  • This helped pinpoint these key receptors when it comes to paying attention, Thiele said. (reuters.com)
  • Are tests of frontal lobe functions useful in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorders? (springer.com)
  • LONDON, July 16 (Reuters) - Scientists have identified the brain circuits that play a key role in helping us pay attention, a finding that may help explain why things go wrong in diseases such as Alzheimer's and attention deficit disorders. (reuters.com)
  • It offers definitive reviews by both established and rising research stars on foundational topics such as visual attention and cognitive control, underrepresented domains such as auditory and temporal attention, and emerging areas of investigation such as mind wandering and embodied attention. (mit.edu)
  • A study shows that knowledge about an object's size - how large it is in the real world - changes how people allocate attention towards the space occupied by a drawing of the object. (nature.com)
  • We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. (nber.org)
  • We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. (nber.org)
  • The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the potential set of competing companies (senders) with their radiation technologies. (repec.org)
  • Here we developed a psychophysical method to directly assess the phenomenological correlates of attention in humans. (psu.edu)
  • Dynamic Brain Network Correlates of Spontaneous Fluctuations in Attention. (bu.edu)
  • Attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether considered subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Attention is a cognitive process in which a person or animal concentrates on one thing in particular. (nature.com)
  • The controversies concerning attention's relation to these other phenomena often include debates about the philosophical significance of theories that have been developed through the empirical study of attention at the neuropsychological level, and at the cognitive level. (stanford.edu)
  • As we argue in the Nisbet & Mooney Framing Science thesis, one reason that traditional science communication efforts fail to reach the wider American public is that the media tend to feed on the soft news preferences of the mass audience, making it very easy for citizens who lack a strong interest in public affairs or science coverage to completely avoid such content and instead pay only close attention to infotainment sagas. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Depending on what your audience interests are, there are certain tools you can use to stay updated with top of the line subject content which will always raise attention levels within your following. (forbes.com)
  • Thus, exploring the interactions between attention and memory can provide new insights into these fundamental topics of cognitive neuroscience. (nih.gov)
  • In an article published online Monday by the journal Nature Neuroscience, researchers at Princeton University describe a study that shows training people using real-time feedback from their own brain activity can reduce the frequency of attention lapses and improve their ability to sustain attention. (princeton.edu)
  • These findings suggest that individually tailored neurofeedback can be an effective approach for helping individuals to avoid lapses of attention and take full advantage of their existing ability to engage in goal-driven selection of relevant information," wrote Edward Awh and Edward Vogel, professors in the Department of Psychology and Institute of Neuroscience at the University of Oregon, in a commentary about the research in Nature Neuroscience. (princeton.edu)
  • Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the sensory cues and signals that generate attention, the effects of these sensory cues and signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other behavioral and cognitive processes, which may include working memory and psychological vigilance. (wikipedia.org)
  • These behavioral results are consistent with neurophysiological findings suggesting that attention changes the strength of a stimulus by increasing its 'effective contrast ' or salience. (psu.edu)
  • ARTICLE{Carrasco04attentionalters, author = {Marisa Carrasco and Sam Ling and Sarah Read}, title = {Attention alters appearance}, journal = {Nat. (psu.edu)
  • Interpersonal early‐life trauma alters amygdala connectivity and sustained attention performance. (bu.edu)
  • A relatively new body of research, which expands upon earlier research within psychopathology, is investigating the diagnostic symptoms associated with traumatic brain injury and its effects on attention. (wikipedia.org)
  • They then monitored both the brain cells and how well the monkeys performed a task that required attention. (reuters.com)
  • Acetylcholine appeared to make the neurons in the brain work better and help the monkeys pay attention more closely. (reuters.com)
  • Attention is believed to originate from sustained activity within certain areas of the brain, as of yet unknown. (conservapedia.com)
  • Turk-Browne said the research offers basic science insights into how attention works in the brain and how attention-related mental processes can change. (princeton.edu)
  • The Princeton researchers described their work in an article titled "Closed-Loop Training of Attention with Real-Time Brain Imaging. (princeton.edu)
  • Markets pay little attention to Brexit but there are worrying signs like the bankruptcy of Carillion or the decrease in traffic at Eurotunnel", de Berranger told Reuters' Paris markets team. (reuters.com)
  • These latter theories relate the selectivity of attention to the selectivity required to maintain a single coherent course of action, to the weighting of sensory information in accordance with its expected precision, or to competition between mutually inhibitory streams of processing. (stanford.edu)
  • We confirm that attention focuses on options that quickly achieve popularity. (nber.org)
  • This book bridges the gap between "laboratory and life" by bringing together cutting-edge research using traditional methodologies with research that focuses on attention in everyday contexts. (mit.edu)
  • Continuous Partial Attention ( CPA ) is the process of paying simultaneous attention to a number of sources of incoming information, but at a superficial level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The more fundamental problem is that the society around them pays its attention to such superficial and often childish stuff. (humanevents.com)
  • The relationships between attention and consciousness are complex enough that they have warranted perennial philosophical exploration. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are empirical and theoretical considerations suggesting that attention is closely related to consciousness , and there are controversies over whether this relationship of consciousness to attention is one of necessity, or sufficiency (or both or neither). (stanford.edu)
  • There are also controversies - thought to be important to the viability of representationism about consciousness - over the ways in which the phenomenal character of a conscious experience can be modulated by attention. (stanford.edu)
  • Sharks are drawing a great deal of attention in Florida, after several well-publicized attacks on humans and an unusual mass-gathering of the creatures in shallow waters along the state's Gulf Coast. (voanews.com)
  • Attention Economies ," CESifo Working Paper Series 1079, CESifo Group Munich. (repec.org)
  • Modulating Reward Induce Differential Neurocognitive Approaches to Sustained Attention. (bu.edu)
  • There has been growing concern that toddler touchscreen use may negatively impact their developing attention but this fear is not based on empirical evidence. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Increasing study of the various spiritual disciplines in human religious traditions has indicated that attention plays a central role therein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Oct. 19, 2010 -- Teens who binge drink may be more likely to experience problems with attention as well as making decisions and carrying them out ( executive function ), a study shows. (webmd.com)
  • All of the study participants completed a battery of tests assessing their memory, attention, executive function, reasoning with words, how quickly they process new information (processing speed), and their ability to visually perceive the space between objects. (webmd.com)
  • The more alcohol the teens drank, the greater the deficits in their attention and executive function, the study shows. (webmd.com)
  • To complete the task, the study participants needed to focus their attention on either the face or the scene part of the image. (princeton.edu)
  • In some instances the selectivity of attention is voluntary. (stanford.edu)
  • The difficulty of giving a unified theory of attention that applies to attention's voluntary and involuntary instances, and to its perceptual and enactive instances, makes attention a topic of philosophical interest in its own right. (stanford.edu)
  • Tracking the Will to Attend: Cortical Activity Indexes Self-Generated, Voluntary Shifts of Attention. (bu.edu)
  • Voluntary attention in peripheral vision and its effects on acuity and differential thresholds. (psu.edu)
  • Markets for Attention: Will Postage for Email Help? (repec.org)
  • This conclusion has important implications for competition and welfare in other markets for attention. (nber.org)
  • Intuitively attention and awareness feel closely related - what we see most clearly seems to be what we attend to. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Dr Ana Maria Portugal, main researcher on the project points out "We are currently unable to conclude that the touchscreen use caused the differences in attention as it may also be that children who are generally more attracted to bright, colourful features seek out touchscreen devices more than those who are not. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Attention has also been described as the allocation of limited cognitive processing resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kanheman (1973) put forward the capacity/resource allocation model of attention. (bookrags.com)
  • Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. (nber.org)
  • Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. (nber.org)
  • We illustrate how this finding is difficult to reconcile with standard models of optimal attention allocation and suggest alternatives that may be more suitable. (nber.org)
  • The nature of this selectivity is one of the principal points of disagreement between the extant theories of attention. (stanford.edu)
  • Some of the most influential theories treat the selectivity of attention as resulting from limitations in the brain's capacity to process the complex properties of multiple perceptual stimuli. (stanford.edu)
  • Other theories take the selectivity of attention to be the result of limitations in the thinking subject's capacity to consciously entertain multiple trains of thought. (stanford.edu)
  • There are multiple theories within the cognitive perspective that deal with attention. (conservapedia.com)
  • There have been many theories formed to discuss how attention may arise. (conservapedia.com)
  • We have, however, shown that attention can be directed towards stimuli that are unseen (either because of neurological conditions or by using masking techniques in normal participants) and that attention has a behaviour consequence yet the stimuli remain unseen. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Some children are so sensitive to certain kinds of low-pitched sounds that, if their classroom happens to be near the boiler room, the rumbling noise most people don't even notice will grab their attention. (scholastic.com)
  • There are other people out there who seek attention as well, though we look at them differently. (everything2.com)
  • These people may not even be actively seeking the attention and adoration of others, yet they often get both in abundance. (everything2.com)
  • People can get attention either from their accomplishments or from their deliberate attempts to get attention. (humanevents.com)
  • Today, almost everywhere you look, people seem to be putting their efforts into getting attention. (humanevents.com)
  • The problem is not just with people who want to get attention by the way they dress, act, talk, or show off in innumerable other ways. (humanevents.com)
  • Any bimbo who exposes her body can get more attention than someone who finds ways to reduce the cost of housing for millions of people. (humanevents.com)
  • In short, the problem is not that particular people do particular things to get attention. (humanevents.com)
  • I think, what is really happening this year is that we've had some sensational things happening, which have drawn a lot of media attention, and has made people look at sharks a lot harder, and think about them more than we normally do. (voanews.com)
  • In a recent analysis, Pew finds that news attention to Iraq has sharply declined since last year, overshadowed in coverage by the dominance of the Democratic primary race and the faltering economy. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Twitter users need to make their point in 140 characters or less, USA Today, Fox News and others have shortened stories to be quickly digested and even media outlets like CNN rely on the pretty faces of their news anchors to keep our attention. (forbes.com)
  • When attention costs are based on Shannon entropy, optimal policies are computable. (nber.org)
  • British researcher Donald Broadbent was the first researcher to present a hypothesis as to how attention would occur, and how one can focus on specific events. (conservapedia.com)
  • Attention is also a topic of philosophical interest because of its apparent relations to a number of other philosophically puzzling phenomena. (stanford.edu)
  • Some phenomena seem to support the classical notion that attention and awareness are two sides of the same process. (dur.ac.uk)
  • An authoritative overview of current research on human attention, emphasizing the relation between cognitive phenomena observed in the laboratory and in the real world. (mit.edu)
  • The subject of attention has until recently been largely confined to the domain of experimental psychology. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Prior to the founding of psychology as a scientific discipline, attention was studied in the field of philosophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe how visual attention operates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). (repec.org)
  • In this episode of Attention Talk Radio, co-hosts Jeff Copper and Kirsten Milliken interview Dr. Stephen Hinshaw, Professor of Psychology at UC Berkeley, who has studied this topic extensively for decades on a personal and academic level. (constantcontact.com)
  • Let's take this a step further and say that it's your attitude toward what you have your attention on that creates your life in any moment. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-stage process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus is an area that extracts information from the visual scene with a high-resolution, the geometric center of which being where visual attention is directed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high energy cost of neuronal activity involved in cortical computation severely limits our capacity to process this information1.Visual attention serves as a mediating mechanism, enabling us to selectively grant priority of processing to certain aspects of the visual scene. (psu.edu)
  • What is the relationship between visual attention and visual awareness? (dur.ac.uk)
  • A quite different explanatory role is assigned to attention in Bishop Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge , although here again we find that it is in order to remove an epistemological glitch that the notion of attention is brought in. (stanford.edu)
  • In the neurological condition neglect patients are impaired at moving their attention into half of visual space and often behave as if they are unaware of stimuli on that side of space. (dur.ac.uk)
  • If the kids are used to giving you their full attention, because you consistently have something that merits their attention, the attention comes naturally. (bellaonline.com)
  • When the researchers blocked these receptors located in the visual cortex using a different naturally occuring chemical, attention worsened. (reuters.com)