Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Large mass of nuclei forming the most caudal portion of the THALAMUS and overhanging the GENICULATE BODIES and the dorsolateral surface of the MIDBRAIN. It is divided into four parts: the lateral, medial, inferior, and oral pulvinar nuclei.
The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (1/8339)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

An analysis of multiple misplaced parental social contingencies. (2/8339)

This study analyzed the training of a mother to modify five subclasses of her attention to her young child's noncompliance with instructions, and also displayed the changes in her child's behavior correlated with these events. Training in four subclasses consisted of teaching the mother to withhold various forms of social attention to her daughter's undesired behavior; training in the fifth subclass involved introduction of a brief room-timeout procedure for noncompliance. The effectiveness of the parent-training procedure, consisting of initial instructions and daily feedback, was demonstrated through a multiple-baseline design across the five subclasses of parent behavior. Sequential decreased in the first three subclasses of the mother's social attention to undesired child behavior resulted in incomplete improvements in some child responses; however, a decrease in the fourth subclass resulted in a significant increase in undesired child behavior. Complete remediation of all child behaviors was achieved following the training of a timeout procedure for noncompliance. Postchecks conducted up to 16 weeks later showed that these effects were durable.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (3/8339)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study. (4/8339)

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

Unilateral neglect and disambiguation of the Necker cube. (5/8339)

Three groups of patients (right brain-damaged patients with or without left neglect, and left brain-damaged patients) and a group of healthy subjects, matched for age and educational level to the three groups of patients, were asked to report which of the two frontal surfaces of Necker cubes oriented in four different ways looked, at first sight, nearer to the viewer. The extent to which, and the way in which, disambiguation of the apparent perspective of Necker cubes occurred was found to vary across the four orientations and to be different in left-neglect patients compared with subjects of the other three groups. With normal subjects, the disambiguating factor is suggested to be a disposition to perceive the upper surface, which is nearly orthogonal to the frontal plane, as external to the cube. This would result from a navigation of the observer's spatial attention towards its target along a particular path that is altered in patients suffering from left neglect. It is suggested that comparison of the paths followed by the attentional vectors of normal subjects and left-neglect patients is potentially fruitful for a better understanding of the brain's normal mechanisms of spatial attention and of unresolved issues concerning the perception of the Necker cube.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (6/8339)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

Spatial attention affects brain activity in human primary visual cortex. (7/8339)

Functional MRI was used to test whether instructing subjects to attend to one or another location in a visual scene would affect neural activity in human primary visual cortex. Stimuli were moving gratings restricted to a pair of peripheral, circular apertures, positioned to the right and to the left of a central fixation point. Subjects were trained to perform a motion discrimination task, attending (without moving their eyes) at any moment to one of the two stimulus apertures. Functional MRI responses were recorded while subjects were cued to alternate their attention between the two apertures. Primary visual cortex responses in each hemisphere modulated with the alternation of the cue; responses were greater when the subject attended to the stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. The attentional modulation of the brain activity was about 25% of that evoked by alternating the stimulus with a uniform field.  (+info)

Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia. (8/8339)

Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.  (+info)

Subject: Re: neural coorelates of auditory selective attention (development)? From: Rick ,[email protected], Date: Sun, 26 Oct 2008 14:03:59 -0500 List-Archive: I think only a couple or one of these addresses the question directly, but their bibliographies might lead somewhere r =============== Woldorff, M. G., Gallen, C. C., Hampson, S. A., Hillyard, S. A., Pantev, C., Sobel, D. & Bloom, F. E. (1993) Modulation of Early Sensory Processing in Human Auditory Cortex During Auditory Selective Attention. PNAS, 90, 8722-8726. Y. S. Sininger &Cone-Wesson, B. (2004) Asymmetric Cochlear Processing Mimics Hemispheric Specialization. Science, 305, 1581. Van-orden, G. C. (2002) Intentional contents and self-control. Ecological Psychology.; 14, 87-109. Rauschecker, J. P. (1995) Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 36-43. On 10/26/08, Gaab, Nadine ,[email protected], wrote: , Hello List! ...
Authors: Petit, Laurent , Simon, Grégory , Joliot, Marc , Andersson, Frédéric , Bertin, Thomas , Zago, Laure , Mellet, Emmanuel , Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Purpose : Previous neuroimaging studies of oddball tasks and other paradigms measuring attention processes support right hemisphere dominance for attentional processes. Using an auditory selective attention task, we studied the functional asymmetry of the human brain in response to attended or unattended deviant tones. Secondly, we examined whether a congruency or a discrepancy between audio-spatial and visuo-spatial cued attentional resources may influence the activity elicited by an auditory selective attention task. Methods : We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study healthy adults as they performed an auditory oddball task in which a spatial-cued instruction indicated the …ear to attend a monaural deviant tone. We addressed the question of ...
Previous studies have shown that the perceptual organization of the visual scene constrains the deployment of attention. Here we investigated how the organization of multiple elements into larger configurations alters their attentional weight, depending on the pertinence or behavioral importance of the elements features. We assessed object-based effects on distinct aspects of the attentional priority map: top-down control, reflecting the tendency to encode targets rather than distracters, and the spatial distribution of attention weights across the visual scene, reflecting the tendency to report elements belonging to the same rather than different objects. In 2 experiments participants had to report the letters in briefly presented displays containing 8 letters and digits, in which pairs of characters could be connected with a line. Quantitative estimates of top-down control were obtained using Bundesens Theory of Visual Attention (1990). The spatial distribution of attention weights was assessed
The primary commodity in the world is attention. This is the resource whose scarcity matters most-every day, and as it adds up, in your life, in the lives of everyone you know, in the history of the world, in the world itself. The question then becomes: what should you focus your attention on? What issues or problems or features of the world are most worth your attention? You should train yourself to only pay attention to things that matter and things where your attention will pay off and things where your attention will luxuriate and amplify and be drawn to other things that you now realize matter.. We should teach this to children. To pay attention to how you pay attention and what it feels like. Teach them and ourselves how to decide what things are worth paying attention to.. Maybe some people are lucky enough to already be paying attention to only those things and other people need training in how to find those things interesting-because the eventual goal is to narrow the focus of your ...
Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were included only if they showed evidence of attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet; (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output, visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory and the conditional (no-go) component of responding. Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Although the task required attention to be equally shifted to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a greater area of activation in the
Negative priming refers to the situation in which an ignored item on an initial prime trial suffers slowed responding when it becomes the target item on a subsequent probe trial. In this experiment (and a replication), we demonstrate two ways in which stimulus consistency (matching) governs negative priming. First, negative priming for identical words occurred only when the prime distractor changed color when it became the probe target (i.e., constant cue to read the red word); negative priming disappeared when the prime distractor retained its color as the probe target (i.e., cue switches from read the red prime word to read the white probe word). Second, negative priming occurred for identical words, but not for semantically related words, whether related categorically or associatively. This pattern of results is consistent with a memory retrieval account, but not with an inhibition account of negative priming, and casts doubt on whether there is semantic negative priming for words.
To investigate the impact of exogenous covert attention on chromatic (blue and red) and achromatic visual perception in adults with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Exogenous covert attention, which is a transient, automatic, stimulus-driven form of attention, is a key mechanism for selecting relevant information in visual arrays. 30 adults diagnosed with ADHD and 30 healthy adults, matched on age and gender, performed a psychophysical task designed to measure the effects of exogenous covert attention on perceived color saturation (blue, red) and contrast sensitivity. The effects of exogenous covert attention on perceived blue and red saturation levels and contrast sensitivity were similar in both groups, with no differences between males and females. Specifically, exogenous covert attention enhanced the perception of blue saturation and contrast sensitivity, but it had no effect on the perception of red saturation. The findings suggest that exogenous covert attention is
Background. Previous studies investigating attentional biases in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have yielded mixed results. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies using the dot-probe paradigm in non-anxious participants have shown that the P1 component is sensitive to visuospatial attention towards emotional faces. We used a dot-probe task in conjunction with high-density ERPs and source localization to investigate attentional biases in SAD. Method. Twelve SAD and 15 control participants performed a modified dot-probe task using angry-neutral and happy-neutral face pairs. The P1 component elicited by face pairs was analyzed to test the hypothesis that SAD participants would display early hypervigilance to threat-related cues. The PI component to probes replacing angry, happy or neutral faces was used to evaluate whether SAD participants show either sustained hypervigilance or decreased visual processing of threat-related cues at later processing Stages. Results. Compared to controls, SAD ...
Although, after reviewing Posners research, it may seem logical to conclude that covert and overt attention shifts utilize different neural mechanisms, other more recent studies have shown more overlap than not. Multiple studies have shown activity evident in the frontal cortex, concentrating in the precentral sulcus, the parietal cortex, specifically in the intraparietal sulcus, and in the lateral occipital cortex for both overt and covert attention shifts.[18] This is in support of the premotor theory of attention. While these studies may agree on the areas, they are not always in agreement on whether an overt or covert attentional shift causes more activation. Utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, Corbetta et al., found that overt and covert attention shift tasks showed activation within the same areas, namely, the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Additionally, this study reported that covert shifts of attention showed greater activity levels than in the ...
Debate continues over the hypothesis that children with language or literacy difficulties have a genuine auditory processing deficit. Several recent studies have reported deficits in frequency discrimination (FD), but it is unclear whether these are genuine perceptual impairments or reflective of the comorbid attentional problems that exist in many children with language and literacy difficulties. The present study investigated FD in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when their attentional state was altered with stimulant medication. Auditory thresholds were obtained using FD and frequency modulation detection (FM) tasks. In the FD task, participants judged which of 2 pairs contained a high-low frequency sound, and in the FM task, children judged which of two tones wobbled (i.e., modulated). Children with ADHD had significantly poorer and more variable FD performance when off compared to on stimulant medication, and did significantly worse than controls on all FD runs when
In several markets, firms compete not for consumer expenditure but instead for consumer attention. We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. Specifically, we identify (i) persistence in the elasticity of attention according to income and (ii) complete stability in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gating by inhibition during top-down control of willed attention. AU - Bengson, Jesse J.. AU - Liu, Yuelu. AU - Khodayari, Natalia. AU - Mangun, George R. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - In natural settings, the control of attention may be influenced both by external information as well as internal decision-making processes driven by intent (e.g. free will). In past studies of spatial attention, we and others have developed experimental paradigms that permit individuals to choose where to direct their attention on a trial-by-trial basis in the absence of instructive external cues - we term this willed attention. Here we investigate the electrophysiological correlates of willed attention by recording EEG activity when subjects decided to focus covert attention on one of two lateralized target locations versus when they decided to maintain attention at fixation. Independent of the direction of attention, decisions to attend, relative to decisions not to attend, resulted in ...
Michael Harper for - Your Universe Online A new study published this week in the journal PLoS ONE explains that active and healthy people are more likely to have better attention spans than those with sedentary lifestyles.. Researchers from the University of Granada carried out the study and found that physical activity, such as running or playing sports, can improve the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In addition to a longer attention span, active people were also found to have better cognitive abilities than their less active peers. To reach this conclusion, the University of Granada researchers compared cognitive performance by testing the sustained attention, time oriented attention and time perception of their subjects.. A group of 28 young males comprised the study´s subjects, many of them University of Granada students. These students, aged 17 to 23, showed a low level of physical aptitude and represented the less active ...
BACKGROUND: Attention is frequently impaired after stroke, and its impairment is associated with poor quality of life. Physical activity benefits attention in healthy populations and has also been associated with recovery after brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between objectively measured daily physical activity, attention network connectivity, and attention task performance after stroke. We hypothesized that increased daily physical activity would be associated with improved attention network function. METHODS: Stroke patients (n = 62; mean age = 67 years, SD = 12.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 27; mean age = 68 years, SD = 6 years) underwent cognitive testing and 7 minutes of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting-state. Patients were tested 3 months after ischemic stroke. Physical activity was monitored with an electronic armband worn for 7 days. Dorsal and ventral attention network function was examined using seed-based connectivity analyses. RESULTS:
In crowded visual scenes, attention is needed to select relevant stimuli. To study the underlying mechanisms, we recorded neurons in cortical area V4 while macaque monkeys attended to behaviorally relevant stimuli and ignored distracters. Neurons activated by the attended stimulus showed increased gamma-frequency (35 to 90 hertz) synchronization but reduced low-frequency (,17 hertz) synchronization compared with neurons at nearby V4 sites activated by distracters. Because postsynaptic integration times are short, these localized changes in synchronization may serve to amplify behaviorally relevant signals in the cortex. ...
Behavioral data. RT data for each of the attentional tasks performed before scanning and during PET scanning were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVAs. The value of informative cues was assessed in an ANOVA that compared the four task conditions (ST, S, T, N), of which N provided noninformative cues, whereas all other conditions provided valid cue information for 80% of the trials. The relative advantage and disadvantage for valid and invalid cues was assessed with an ANOVA on data from the two attention conditions in which cueing information was provided along one dimension only (i.e., S and T). The ANOVA tested for the effect of task condition (S, T), cue validity (valid, invalid), target side (left, right), and interval duration (short, long). A final ANOVA looked at data from the attention condition that used both spatially and temporally informative cues simultaneously (ST) and tested the effects of cue validity, target side, and interval duration.. PET and fMRI data. All functional images ...
The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when the fillers were threat/test-related words. To evaluate the effect of the test adaptation, the original ANT, which utilized no emotional distracter, was employed as a control task in Experiment 2. We then consolidated the data on efficiency of attentional networks, which were derived from both tasks. Contrasting the two tasks showed that TA reduced executive attention in the revised task only, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity provided by the adaptation from the original task. Taken together, these findings indicate
Traditionally, in selective visual attention tasks, participants search for a relevant visual target that occurs unpredictably at one of several locations (Posner, 1980). The classic finding is that participants attention can be cued to a certain location, resulting in shorter reaction times (RTs) and fewer errors if a cue is a valid indicator of the upcoming targets location (Posner, 1980) and its visual properties (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). Based on these methods, we recently developed an experimental setup in which a relevant target movie is presented next to an irrelevant distractor movie, and, with every cut, the positions of the two movies can switch or stay the same (Valuch & Ansorge, 2015; Valuch, Ansorge, Buchinger, Patrone, & Scherzer, 2014). The participants attentively viewed the target movie and avoided looking at the distractor movie. Whenever the movies switched locations, participants needed to make a saccadic eye movement to the new location of the target movie. ...
In this chapter we review psychological and physiological experiments on selective attention to touch stimuli. We explore the role of selective attention in tactile target detection and search, determining those tasks that benefit from attention and those which can be effectively performed pre-attentively. We also try to determine the stage at which attentional selection occurs. We review electrophysiological and human brain imaging (PET, fMRI, MEG, SEP) studies to assess how early in the somatosensory processing pathway attentional modulation occurs. There is some evidence that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can show attentional effects. However, a number of studies have suggested that there is a hierarchy to attentional modulation in the somatosensory system, with the greatest effects being observed in secondary and association areas.
Together, (1)-(4) entail:. ATTENTIONAL MODULATION: Non-spatial forms of cognitively directed attention affect perceptual experience by affecting perceptual processing itself.. Two brief preliminary remarks are in order. First, (1)-(4) only entail ATTENTIONAL MODULATION if the form of attention is kept constant across all four claims. For instance, if (1) is established by evidence in favor of the existence of feature- or object-based attention and (2)-(4) are established by evidence relating to spatial attention, then ATTENTIONAL MODULATION is not established. Second, ATTENTIONAL MODULATION provides evidence against the rudimentary view of attention discussed earlier according to which attention is a simple mechanism analogous to a spatial spotlight that operates pre-perceptually. Accepting ATTENTIONAL MODULATION challenges anything akin to a spatial spotlight model of attention and provides evidence that attentions modulatory role in perception is not indirect. An acceptance of this ...
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
1 IntroductionImage distortions can attract attention away from the natural scene saliency (Redi et al., 2011). Performance of viewers in visual search tasks and their fixation patterns are also affected by different types and amounts of distortions (Vu et al., 2008). In this paper, we have discussed the opinion that distortions could largely affect the performance of predictive models of visual attention, and simulated the effects of distorted low-level visual features on the saliency-based bottom-up visual attention. Saliency is a fast and pre-attentive mechanism for orienting visual attention to intrinsically important objects which pop-out more easily in a cluttered scene. Distortion of the low-level features that contribute to saliency may impair the readiness of the visual system in detection of salient objects, which may have major implications for critical situations like driving or locomotion. These distortions in natural life can be introduced by eye diseases such as cataract, or spectacles
Learn how to improve your attention span. A short attention span affects every action and area of life. Increasing it, would improve your life in many ways.
Orienting attention to locations in mnemonic representations engages processes that functionally and anatomically overlap the neural circuitry guiding prospective shifts of spatial attention. The attention-based rehearsal account predicts that the requirement to withdraw attention from a memorized location impairs memory accuracy. In a dual-task study, we simultaneously presented retro-cues and pre-cues to guide spatial attention in short-term memory (STM) and perception, respectively. The spatial direction of each cue was independent of the other. The locations indicated by the combined cues could be compatible (same hand) or incompatible (opposite hands). Incompatible directional cues decreased lateralized activity in brain potentials evoked by visual cues, indicating interference in the generation of prospective attention shifts. The detection of external stimuli at the prospectively cued location was impaired when the memorized location was part of the perceptually ignored hand. The ...
Studies have shown that there is a high probability that those who suffer from low attentional control also experience other mental conditions. Low attentional control is more common among those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),a disorder with persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities.[24] Also low attentional control is common in individuals with Schizophrenia and [25] Alzheimers disease,[26] those with social anxiety, trait anxiety, and depression,[27] and attention difficulties following a stroke.[25] Individuals also respond quicker, and have better overall executive control when they have low levels of anxiety and depression.[28] Low levels of attentional control are also thought to increase chances of developing a psychopathology because the ability to shift ones focus away from threat information is important in processing emotions.[29] More researchers are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occipital-parietal interactions during shifts of exogenous visuospatial attention. T2 - Trial-dependent changes of effective connectivity. AU - Indovina, Iole. AU - Macaluso, Emiliano. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. N2 - We studied neural interactions between brain areas involved in exogenous (stimulus-driven) control of visuospatial attention. With event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated changes of connectivity during shifts of spatial attention from an attended location to a previously unattended target location. Using a 3-T scanner, fMRI data were acquired from three healthy volunteers. According to a central visual cue, participants directed endogenous spatial attention to the left or the right visual hemifield for blocks of 56 s. Peripheral visual targets were presented unpredictably in either the attended hemifield (valid trials, 80%) or in the unattended hemifield (invalid trials, 20%) and participants performed a two-alternative ...
We investigated the nature of intrinsic fluctuations in sustained attention by examining distractor processing as a function of attentional state during a continuous performance task. We found evidence that periods of successful attentional performance were associated with greater depth of distractor processing, which was akin to states of low perceptual load. Specifically, we observed enhanced neural sensitivity to irrelevant distractors, as measured by repetition attenuation and error precursors, during periods of superior performance (in the zone epochs).. We also observed unique neural signatures of attentional states across large-scale networks, finding that more erratic, error prone performance (i.e., being out of the zone) is associated with greater engagement of classic TPN regions, whereas relatively stable, in the zone performance is associated with greater activity in TNN/DMN regions. The finding that DMN activity is associated with increased stability replicates our prior work ...
Many current models of working memory (WM) emphasize a close relationship between WM and attention. Recently it was demonstrated that attention can be dynamically and voluntarily oriented to items held in WM, and it was suggested that directed attention can modulate the maintenance of specific WM representations. Here we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the effects of orienting attention to a category of stimuli when participants maintained a variable number of faces and scenes in WM. Retro-cues that indicated the relevant stimulus type for the subsequent WM test modulated maintenance-related activity in extrastriate areas preferentially responsive to face or scene stimuli - fusiform and parahippocampal gyri respectively - in a categorical way. After the retro-cue, the activity level in these areas was larger for the cued category in a load-independent way, suggesting the modulation may also reflect anticipation of the probe stimulus. Activity in associative parietal and
Evidence from visual probe detection tasks suggests that anxious individuals exhibit biased (enhanced) selective attention to threat stimuli, such as angry and fearful faces. Attentional bias to threatening stimuli has been characterized by (1) facilitated attention to stimuli (vigilance), (2) difficulty disengaging attention away from stimuli, or (3) attentional avoidance of stimuli. The current study used event-related potentials (ERP) and behavioural performance measures to examine the effects of attentional bias towards ecologically threatening stimuli (emotional faces) in 18 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and 18 healthy controls during a dot probe task. Behavioural measures of target detection and the amplitude and latency of early (P100, N100) and late (P200, P300) ERPs were assessed during presentation of face pair displays and target probes. Processing of threat-face pairs did not reveal evidence of attentional bias in PTSD patients. Perceptual (P100) and cognitive ...
It is controversial whether the effects of aging on various cognitive functions have the same common cause or several different causes. To investigate this issue, we scanned younger and older adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different tasks: working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. There were three main results. First, in all three tasks, older adults showed weaker occipital activity and stronger prefrontal and parietal activity than younger adults. The occipital reduction is consistent with the view that sensory processing decline is a common cause in cognitive aging, and the prefrontal increase may reflect functional compensation. Secondly, older adults showed more bilateral patterns of prefrontal activity than younger adults during working memory and visual attention tasks. These findings are consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Finally, compared to younger adults, older adults showed ...
Some studies suggest that attention can be captured by irrelevant, salient objects when they appear rarely. We addressed this issue using the N2pc effect, a lateralized, negative voltage spike in the brain potentials in parietal cortex, thought to reflect attentional allocation. A cue display was followed by a target display where participants identified the letter in a specific color. Experiment 1 examined rare, irrelevant color singleton cues (10% of the trials for one color, 10% for the other color, and 80% with no singleton). Despite being rare and salient, these singleton cues produced very little N2pc effect and cue validity effect, indicating little or no attentional capture. Experiment 2 pitted a rare, irrelevant, abrupt onset (appearing on only 20% of the trials) against a target-relevant color cue (appearing on 100% of the trials). Overall, this relevant color cue produced N2pc effect and cue validity effects. Most importantly, these effects persisted even when the relevant color cue ...
Selective visual attention serializes the processing of stimulus data to make efficient use of limited processing resources in the human visual system. This paper describes a connectionist network that exhibits a variety of attentional phenomena reported by Treisman, Wolford, Duncan, and others. As demonstrated in several simulations, a hierarchical, multiscale network that uses feature arrays with strong lateral inhibitory connections provides responses in agreement with a number of prominent behaviors associated with visual attention. The overall network design is consistent with a range of data reported in the psychological literature, and with neurophysiol-ogical characteristics of primate vision.. ...
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Analyzing a scene requires shifting attention from object to object. Although several studies have attempted to determine the speed of these attentional shifts, there are large discrepancies in their estimates. Here, we adapt a method pioneered by Carlson et al (2006) that directly measures pure attentional shift times. We also test if attentional shifts can be handled in parallel by the independent resources available in the two cortical hemispheres. We present 10 clocks, with single revolving hands, in a ring around fixation. Observers are asked to report the hand position on one of the clocks at the onset of a transient cue. The delay between the reported time and the veridical time at cue onset can be used to infer processing and attentional shift times. With this setup, we use a novel subtraction method that utilizes different combinations of exogenous and endogenous cues to determine shift times for both types of attention. In one experiment, subjects shift attention to an exogenously ...
I have an extremely active son. Hes two-and-a-half. Hes been active since I began feeling him move around inside me when I was five months pregnant. Like, non-stop. Did this fetus ever sleep? He certainly didnt sleep when I tried to sleep, and he was especially roused by my everyday activities, such as drinking water, walking and playing music. Olin wanted to run before he could walk. And he got bruises on his head trying. He is, by his very nature, an active kid.. Short Attention Spans in Toddlers are Normal. Being active is really different from having a short attention span. Having a long attention span is a function of age and training. Even toddlers who dont run around all the time like Olin does tend to have really short attention spans. Thats because the neurons in the brain that allow us to pay attention for long periods of time are still developing, according to Lise Eliot in Whats Going On In There: How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life. In other words, ...
Background: Catheterization is the most common cause of pain and distress in children, which causes physical and psychological dysfunctions and disrupts the treatment. Therefore, the control of this type of pain should be considered as a priority for nursing care. The audio-visual distraction can be used to reduce the intensity of pain. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of audio-visual distraction on catheterization pain among school-age children. Methods: This randomized clinical trial included 64 school-age children assigned into intervention and control group in Qods Hospital during 2016. Oucher face pain intensity scale was utilized to evaluate the intensity level of pain. Catheterization duration was also recorded in this study. Data were analysed in SPSS software (Version.18) through descriptive statistics, t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Spearman correlation analyses. Results: The mean ages of the intervention and control groups were 7.8±1.4 and 7.7±1.6, respectively.
Traditionally, scientists have believed that separate areas of the brain controlled these two processes, with bottom-up attention occurring in the posterior parietal cortex and top-down attention occurring in the prefrontal cortex.. This has implications for conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects millions of people worldwide. People with ADHD have difficulty filtering information and focusing attention.. In the Wake Forest Baptist study, two monkeys were trained to detect images on a computer screen while activity in both areas of the brain was recorded. The visual display was designed to let one image pop out due to its color difference from the background, such as a red circle surrounded by green. To trigger bottom-up attention, neither the identity nor the location of the pop-out image could be predicted before it appeared. The monkeys indicated that they detected the pop-out image by pushing a lever.. The neural activity associated with ...
A new study from Microsoft Corp. a human attention span is 8 seconds, showing the affect of increasingly digitalized lifestyle on the brain
Orienting spatial attention to locations in the extrapersonal world has been intensively investigated during the past decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is also possible to shift attention to locations within mental representations held in working memory. This is an important issue, since the allocation of our attention is not only guided by external stimuli, but also by their internal representations and the expectations we build upon them. The present experiment used behavioural measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether spatial orienting to mental representations can modulate the search and retrieval of information from working memory, and to identify the neural systems involved, respectively. Participants viewed an array of coloured crosses. Seconds after its disappearance, they were cued to locations in the array with valid or neutral cues. Subsequently, they decided whether a probe stimulus was presented in the array. The behavioural results
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attentional control of the processing of neutral and emotional stimuli. AU - Pessoa, Luiz. AU - Kastner, Sabine. AU - Ungerleider, Leslie G.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - A typical scene contains many different objects that compete for neural representation due to the limited processing capacity of the visual system. At the neural level, competition among multiple stimuli is evidenced by the mutual suppression of their visually evoked responses and occurs most strongly at the level of the receptive field. The competition among multiple objects can be biased by both bottom-up sensory-driven mechanisms and top-down influences, such as selective attention. Functional brain imaging studies reveal that biasing signals due to selective attention can modulate neural activity in visual cortex not only in the presence but also in the absence of visual stimulation. Although the competition among stimuli for representation is ultimately resolved within visual cortex, the source of ...
The objective of this research was to measure the effects of energising drinks containing caffeine and glucose, upon mental activity during sustained selective attention. Non-invasive electrophysiological brain recordings were made during a behavioural study of selective attention in which participants received either energising or placebo drinks. We tested specifically whether energising drinks have significant effects upon behavioural measures of performance during a task requiring sustained visual selective attention, as well as on accompanying components of the event-related potential (ERPs) related to information processing in the brain. Forty healthy volunteers were blindly assigned to receive either the energising drink or a similar-tasting placebo drink. The behavioural task involved identifying predefined target stimulus among rapidly presented streams of peripheral visual stimuli, and making speeded motor responses to this stimulus. During task performance, accuracy, reaction times and ongoing
We propose a novel object-of-interest (OOI) segmentation algorithm for various images that is based on human attention and semantic region clustering. As object-based image segmentation is beyond current computer vision techniques, the proposed method segments an image into regions, which are then merged as a semantic object. At the same time, an attention window (AW) is created based on the saliency map and saliency points from an image. Within the AW, a support vector machine is used to select the salient regions, which are then clustered into the OOI using the proposed region merging. Unlike other algorithms, the proposed method allows multiple OOIs to be segmented according to the saliency map.. © 2006 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Visual attention is a voluntary mechanism allows human to allocate our sensory and computational resources to the most valuable information embedded in the vast amount of incoming visual data. Neuromorphic prosthetics with high-level cognitive function can be used to complete increasingly sophisticated tasks. Inspired by recent developments in the field of attention modulation, we propose a biological neural attention model for online visual attention and implement this model on Xilinx ZYNQ 7000 System-on-chip system. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective visual attention in patients with frontal lobe lesions or Parkinsons disease. AU - Lee, Sonia S.. AU - Wild, Krista. AU - Hollnagel, Caroline. AU - Grafman, Jordan. PY - 1999/2/1. Y1 - 1999/2/1. N2 - Visual selective attention and response competition were tested in patients with frontal lobe lesions or with Parkinsons disease, and matched normal controls. The target stimuli were presented with flanking distractors that were either compatible, incompatible, or neutral to the target stimulus. The distance between the target and distractors was systematically varied. A control condition without distractors was also included. Subjects response times to target stimuli and accuracy were measured. Both patient groups responded significantly slower and less accurately than their respective matched normal controls across all interference conditions and spatial distances. However, they did not show significantly greater interference or facilitation effects. Thus, the data ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Covert attention alters visual appearance. AU - Read, Sarah. AU - Ling, Sam. AU - Carrasco, Marisa. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Although it has long been established that covert spatial attention improves performance in a number of visual tasks, there is a long-standing debate as to whether attention actually alters appearance. When attention is allocated to a given location via a brief peripheral cue, contrast thresholds along the psychometric function are decreased for the target (Cameron, Tai & Carrasco, 2002). From such findings, it has been inferred that attention actually changes the appearance of an attended stimulus. In this study, we directly tested whether covert attention alters phenomenological appearance. Observers were presented with either a peripheral cue (a small circle flashed adjacent to the stimulus location to elicit transient covert attention) or a neutral cue (a small circle flashed at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine and the mechanisms of cognition. T2 - Part I. A neural network model predicting dopamine effects on selective attention. AU - Servan-Schreiber, David. AU - Bruno, Randy M.. AU - Carter, Cameron S.. AU - Cohen, Jonathan D.. PY - 1998/5/15. Y1 - 1998/5/15. N2 - Background: Dopamine affects neural information processing, cognition, and behavior; however, the mechanisms through which these three levels of function are affected have remained unspecified. We present a parallel distributed processing model of dopamine effects on neural ensembles that accounts for effects on human performance in a selective attention task. Methods: Task performance is stimulated using principles and mechanisms that capture salient aspects of information processing in neural ensembles. Dopamine effects are simulated as a change in gain of neural assemblies in the area of release. Results: The model leads to different predictions as a function of the hypothesized location of dopamine effects. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Slowed reaction time performance on a divided attention task in elderly with environmental chemical odor intolerance. AU - Bell, Iris R.. AU - Wyatt, James K.. AU - Bootzin, Richard R.. AU - Schwartz, Gary E.. N1 - Funding Information: Correspondence to: Dr. Iris Bell, Department of Psychiatry, Tucson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3601 S. Sixth Avenue, MS 116A. Tucson, AZ 85723, USA. This research was supported by a grant from the National Dairy Board administered in cooperation with the National Dairy Council. *Current Address: Section on Sleep DisordersICircadianM edicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham & Womens Hospital, Boston, MA USA.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Previous research has suggested an association between the subjective report of illness from environmental chemical odors and poorer cognitive task performance in persons with industrial levels of xenobiotic exposures. The present study investigated baseline morning performance on a computerized divided ...
The concept of directed social learning predicts that social learning opportunities for an individual will depend on social dynamics, context and demonstrator identity. However, few empirical studies have examined social attention biases in animal groups. Sex-based and kinship-based biases in social learning and social attention towards females have been shown in a despotic and female philopatric primate: the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). The present study examined social attention during the juvenile period. Social attention was recorded through 5-min focal observations during periods of natural foraging. Kin emerged as the most important focus of social attention in juveniles, intensified by biased spatial proximity towards matrilineal related members. The highest-ranking conspecifics were more frequently observed by juveniles than low-ranking ones. Additionally, younger and orphaned juveniles showed higher levels of social attention overall, compared to other age categori
TY - JOUR. T1 - Application of attention network test and demographic information to detect mild cognitive impairment via combining feature selection with support vector machine. AU - Lv, Shipin. AU - Wang, Xiukun. AU - Cui, Yifen. AU - Jin, Jue. AU - Sun, Yan. AU - Tang, Yiyuan. AU - Bai, Ying. AU - Wang, Yan. AU - Zhou, Li. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is now thought as the prodromal phase of Alzheimers disease (AD), and the usual method for diagnosing the disease would be a battery of neuropsychological assessment. The present study proposes to integrate a feature selection scheme with support vector machine (SVM) to identify patients with MCI by using attention network test (ANT) and demographic data. Forty-two patients with MCI and forty-five normal individuals underwent ANT recording, and the reaction time and accuracy of ANT and demographics (age, gender, and educational level) were selected as original features. To select features, we first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of menstrual-related pain on attentional interference. AU - Keogh, E.. AU - Cavill, R.. AU - Moore, D.J.. AU - Eccleston, C.. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Pain-related attentional interference has been found in both chronic pain and laboratory-inducted pain settings. However, few studies have examined such interference effects during common everyday painful episodes. Menstrual cycle-related pain is a common pain that affects a large number of women on a regular basis. The purpose of the current study was, therefore, to examine the effects of menstrual pain on attentional interference. Fifty-two healthy adult women were tested during 2 different phases of their menstrual cycles: once during a nonpain phase (mid follicular), and once while experiencing menstrual pain (late luteal/early follicular). On each testing session, participants received a battery of 4 attentional interference tasks that included selective attention (flanker task), attention span (n-back task), ...
Bodenhausen, Galen. 1999. Resisting stereotype change: the role of motivation and attentional capacity in defending social beliefs. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 2(1): 5-16.
Press Release Title: NCCCOs Lift Safety Zone Attracts Worldwide Attention at CONEXPO. Details: Crane users from all over the world were drawn to NCCCOs activities at CONEXPO-CON/AGG in Las Vegas. In particular, the crane and rigging demonstrations featured in the Lift Safety Zone were a resounding success. NCCCO provides complete coverage of crane and rigging events at CONEXPO in its current special issue of its e-newsletter CCOnline. (Not signed up? Click here to subscribe for free!) ...
Variable Technologies garners global attention at Consumer Electronics Show (CES) with help of Atlanta public relations firm Write2Market.
Should Attention Training be Thought in Schools? Should attention training be thought in schools? Before I get into my personal answer, let me offer some background information. They say the currency on the internet is attention. Rightfully so as every webpage these days have been developed with the purpose of keeping you within its constraints,…
The present study demonstrates that controlled hypoglycemia causes attentional dysfunction in nondiabetic humans. A decline in the rate of information processing was demonstrable in visual and auditory selective attention and in attentional switching. By contrast, nonverbal intelligence was not affected by hypoglycemia.. Although previous investigators have attempted to demonstrate attentional problems during acute hypoglycemia using psychological tests, to our knowledge, the present study is the first to confirm dysfunction of subdivisions of attention during hypoglycemia using a test battery designed specifically to measure attention. The TEA was devised from the evidence on separable attention systems in the brain (10). Using the concept that attention is fractionated into different supramodal systems, it has been proposed that attention consists of at least three separate systems (10), as follows: a selection system is responsible for selecting relevant stimuli/processes and inhibiting ...
Analyses revealed significant impairments in patients neurocognitive test performance on all measures. After statistically controlling for age at RT and time from RT, significant associations were found between NAWM volumes and both attentional abilities and IQ, and between attentional abilities and IQ. Subsequent analyses supported the hypothesis that attentional abilities, but not memory, could explain a significant amount of the relationship between NAWM and IQ. The final developmental model predicting academic achievement based on NAWM, attentional abilities, and IQ explained approximately 60% of the variance in reading and spelling and almost 80% of the variance in math. ...
the future of MINI printer in 2021 (and why you should pay attention) E-mail: [email protected] Whatsapp/wechat:0086 13080716768 Website: In this video, Ill show you the future of MINI printer in 2021 (and why you should pay attention). Enjoy and subscribe this video! Shenyang Faith Technology Co., Ltd. is a high-tech enterprise, which integrates independent research and development, production, sales and service. It specializes in providing industrial coding technology and traceable system solutions. The company was founded in 2010 with a 30-person team and a 500㎡ production workshop. After more than 10 years of unremitting efforts, by early 2020, it has developed into an excellent team of 300 people and a 2500㎡ production workshop. The companys products mainly include laser marking machines, CIJ printers, TIJ printers, and conveyor belts. The products are exported to Spain, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Egypt, Ecuador and other 126
During skill execution, performers have been shown to attend to different aspects of movement, the external effects of ones action, or to other environmental information. A variety of psychological mechanisms have been proposed to account for the differential outcomes when adopting each attentional strategy. However, there is limited information about the extent to which different attentional foci change the workload demands of task performance. To examine this, the current study administered the NASA-Task Load Index following a simulated shooting dual-task. Participants performed the primary shooting task alone (control), and also with a secondary task that directed attention toward an aspect of skill execution (skill-focused) and an unrelated environmental stimulus (extraneous focus). Primary and secondary task performances were significantly greater in the extraneous focus compared to the skill-focused dual-task. Also, workload was significantly lower during the extraneous focus compared to ...
As is known to all, vitiligo is a kind of very stubborn skin disease, that vitiligo patients should pay attention to take a shower? How to take a shower is beneficial to the health of patients with vitiligo? This is a lot of patients issues of concern, to this, huahai vitiligo hospital experts point out that, in the bath, patients should pay attention to the following: ...
This report unifies past literature on mirror neurons, thought to participate in the imitation and interpretation of observed action (15, 16), with literature on gaze following, thought to mediate the sharing of attention between individuals (1, 2, 6, 9). Mirror neurons are motor neurons that discharge not only during enactment, but also during observation of a particular behavior (15, 16). LIP, although not classically a motor area, is active in gaze-related sensorimotor transformations (47-50), and its activity contributes to both overt (51) and covert shifts of attention (32, 41), and to maintenance of attention at fixation (52, 53). We here report that neurons in LIP respond not only when monkeys orient attention toward their RFs, but also when other monkeys are observed orienting in the same direction. These effects are detectable despite the irrelevance of social gaze cues to the behavioral task, and despite the fact that faces were presented outside the classical RFs of neurons. We find ...
Humans survive in environments that contain a vast quantity and variety of visual information. All items of perceived visual information must be represented within a limited number of brain networks. The human brain requires mechanisms for selecting only a relevant fraction of perceived information for more in-depth processing, where neural representations of that information may be actively maintained and utilized for goal-directed behavior. Object-based attention is crucial for goal-directed behavior and yet remains poorly understood. Thus, in the study we investigate how neural representations of visual object information are guided by selective attention. The magnitude of activation in human extrastriate cortex has been shown to be modulated by attention; however, object-based attention is not likely to be fully explained by a localized gain mechanism. Thus, we measured information coded in spatially distributed patterns of brain activity with fMRI while human participants performed a task ...
Shifts of covert visual attention induce changes in alpha power over posterior electrode sites. Initial analyses revealed that an early desynchronization was of little discriminative value regarding the direction of attention shifts. We believe that this early desynchronization may be related to the preparation of covert attention shifts. A subsequent synchronization, however, yielded distinctive topographic patterns for the different directions and served as a basis for classification.. Using regularized logistic regression, significant binary classification performance was obtained for each participant, with a mean accuracy of 73.65% for the best pair of directions. A classification accuracy of 70% was proposed as performance threshold above which BCI performance can be considered as robust [32, 33]. In the present study, six participants had a peak performance above 70%, and two participants had a performance that was slightly lower (66% and 69%). Interestingly, this figure is close to the ...
TY - THES. T1 - When attention takes over. T2 - attentional bias and its modification in substance use and addiction. AU - Heitmann, Janika. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - It has been proposed that selective attention for substance-relevant information might contribute to the persistence of addiction. To improve insight about which component of attentional bias is relevant to target during treatment, the first aim of this dissertation was to investigate whether substance use is most strongly related to attentional capture of substance cues or to a difficulty to redirect attention away from these cues. In a non-clinical sample it was found that alcohol use was related to a difficulty to disengage attention from alcohol cues. However, patients diagnosed with alcohol or cannabis addiction showed heightened attentional capture of substance cues, indicating that especially heightened attentional capture might be relevant in problematic substance use.The second aim of this dissertation was to test the ...
Clothing often focuses attention on the genitals and sexual arousal, rather than away from them. [52] At various times in Western history different parts of female anatomy have been eroticized: bellies and thighs in the Renaissance; buttocks, breasts, and thighs by the late 1800s (and relatively diminutive waists and bellies). Underwear design has historically emphasized these erogenous body parts: corsets in the 1800s de-emphasized the midriff and emphasized the breasts-using materials including whalebone and steel; the crinoline in the mid 1800s emphasized the waist; and the bustle, appearing in 1868, emphasized the buttocks.[53] Bathing suit design today focuses attention on the breasts and pubic region. E.B. Hurlock writes: When primitive peoples are unaccustomed to wearing clothing, putting it on for the first time does not decrease their immorality, as the ladies of missionary societies think it will. It has just the opposite effect. It draws attention to the body, especially for those ...
article{897de195-2872-4fbd-a994-ffa44f635d84, abstract = {,p,Gestalt psychology has traditionally ignored the role of attention in perception, leading to the view that autonomous processes create perceptual configurations that are then attended. More recent research, however, has shown that spatial attention influences a form of Gestalt perception: the coherence of random-dot kinematograms (RDKs). Using ERPs, we investigated whether temporal expectations exert analogous attentional effects on the perception of coherence level in RDKs. Participants were presented fixed-length sequences of RDKs and reported the coherence level of a target RDK. The target was indicated immediately after its appearance by a postcue. Target expectancy increased as the sequence progressed until target presentation; afterward, remaining RDKs were perceived without target expectancy. Expectancy influenced the amplitudes of ERP components P1 and N2. Crucially, expectancy interacted with coherence level at N2, but not at ...
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a change detection task in which we manipulated both target and distracter set sizes. We directly compared the IPS response as a function of the number of targets and distracters in the display and in VSTM. When distracters were not present, the posterior and middle segments of IPS showed the predicted asymptotic activity increase with an increasing target set size. When distracters were added to a single target, activity also increased as predicted. However, the addition of distracters to multiple targets suppressed both middle and posterior IPS activities, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and
This graphic is from a YouTube video created this month by one of two college students from South Korea who were working with me in Chicago. And this graphi…
Image of 21-year-old woman, who presented with a chronic nasal bone fracture and soft tissue swelling of the left lateral face. Review of electronic medical records revealed presentation to an outside hospital 9 months ago with oblique fracture of the right ring finger proximal phalanx, blowout fracture of the medial wall of the left orbit and similar soft tissue swelling of the left face. Traumatic findings separated in time suggest recurrent violence. Image courtesy of Elizabeth George, M.D.. ...
Visual working memory (VWM) adopts a specific manner of object-based encoding (OBE) to extract perceptual information: Whenever one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted. Currently most studies revealing OBE probed an irrelevant-change distracting effect, where changes of irrelevant-features dramatically affected the performance of the target feature. However, the existence of irrelevant-feature change may affect participants processing manner, leading to a false-positive result. The current study conducted a strict examination of OBE in VWM, by probing whether irrelevant-features guided the deployment of attention in visual search. The participants memorized an objects colour yet ignored shape and concurrently performed a visual-search task. They searched for a target line among distractor lines, each embedded within a different object. One object in the search display could match the shape, colour, or both dimensions of the memory item, but this object
In the present experiment, 25 adult subjects discriminated speech tokens ([ba]/[da]) or made pitch judgments on tone stimuli (rising/falling) under both binaural and dichotic listening conditions. We observed that when listeners performed tasks under the dichotic conditions, during which greater dem …
J. Allman, F. Miezin, & E. McGuinness (1985). Stimulus specific responses from beyond the classical receptive field: neurophysiological mechanisms for local-global comparisons in visual neurons. Annual Review of Neuroscience 8:407-430. N. Bruce & J. K. Tsotsos (2006). Saliency Based on Information Maximization. In: Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 18:155-162. M. W. Cannon & S. C. Fullenkamp (1991). Spatial interactions in apparent contrast: inhibitory effects among grating patterns of different spatial frequencies, spatial positions and orientations. Vision Research 31:1985-1998. R. Carmi & L. Itti (2006). Visual Causes versus Correlates of Attentional Selection in Dynamic Scenes. Vision Research 46(26):4333-4345. F. Crick (1984). Function of the thalamic reticular complex: the searchlight hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences USA 81(14):4586-90. R. Desimone & J. Duncan (1995). Neural mechanisms of selective visual attention. Annual Review of ...
A new framework for simulating the visual attention system in primates is introduced. The proposed architecture is an abstraction of existing approaches influenced by the work of Koch and Ullman, and Tompa. Each stage of the attentional hierarchy is chosen with consideration for both psychophysics and mathematical optimality. A set of attentional operators are derived that act on basic image channels of intensity, hue and orientation to produce maps representing perceptual importance of each image pixel. The development of such operators is realized within the context of a genetic optimization. The model includes the notion of an information domain where feature maps are transformed to a domain that more closely corresponds to the human visual system. A careful analysis of various issues including feature extraction, density estimation and data fusion is presented within the context of the visual attention problem ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Child, caregiver, and temperament contributions to infant joint attention. AU - Vaughan, Amy. AU - Mundy, Peter. AU - Block, Jessica. AU - Burnette, Courtney. AU - Delgado, Christine. AU - Gomez, Yania. AU - Meyer, Jessica. AU - Neal, A. Rebecca. AU - Pomares, Yuly. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Little is known about variables that may contribute to individual differences in infant joint attention, or the coordination of visual attention with a social partner. Therefore, this study examined the contributions of caregiver behavior and temperament to infant joint attention development between 9 and 12 months. Data were collected from 57 infants using a caregiver-infant paradigm, an infant-tester paradigm, and a parent report of infant temperament. Nine-month measures of caregiver scaffolding and infant initiating joint attention (IJA) with testers were significantly related to 12-month infant IJA with testers. A temperament measure of positive emotional reactivity was ...
Contrary to our 2016 study, this study has some important expansions: We set up a fully balanced design that would allow us to more conclusively look into the temporal neural dynamics of attentional shifts within and/or between feature dimensions. Given our unbalanced design in the 2016 study, we were not able to look into the time course of neural competitive interactions of the newly to-be-attended feature and inhibition/suppression of the to-be-ignored feature after the shifting cue. There is ample empirical evidence that to-be-ignored stimuli will be suppressed: See, for example, in biased competition (Desimone & Duncan, 1995), in spatial attention with regard to the to-be-attended and the to-be-ignored location as signified by the P1 and N1 component of the visual evoked potential (Hillyard, Vogel, & Luck, 1998), and in feature-based attention as well (Forschack, Andersen, & Müller, 2017; Andersen & Müller, 2010; Maunsell & Treue, 2006). However, what is unknown at present is the temporal ...
Popularity is self reinforcing. The attention garnered by popular options propels further interest in them. Yet rather than blindly follow the crowd, most pay attention to how well these items match their tastes. We model this role of social learning in guiding selective attention and market dynamics. We confirm that attention focuses on options that quickly achieve popularity. Information externalities render the chosen set smaller than socially optimal. This rationalizes antitrust policies that encourage early experimentation. When attention costs are based on Shannon entropy, optimal policies are computable. With rich data, optimal choices can be identified for all consumer types. You may purchase this paper on-line in .pdf format from ($5) for electronic delivery.. ...
write an opinion on this Look at something red in the room, and youll be more likely to notice something red out of the corner of your eye, elsewhere in the room. Researchers have known that this implicit attentional selection is outside conscious control and that we are unaware of its functioning.. Researchers, led by David Melcher of Oxford Brookes University and Zoltán Vidnyánszky of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, have developed an experimental technique for measuring the processing of visual input outside the focus of attention as a function of what subjects are concentrating on inside their attentional focus. Their technique will enhance study of this little-understood phenomenon, they said. The research is published in the June 2 issue of Neuron.. For example, they used their technique to show that, in the process of implicit attentional selection, different features of an object are automatically clustered. For example, subjects asked to pay attention ...
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The winter of 2013-14 disrupted the intermodal shipping industry in North America, causing service problems and impeding growth. However, intermodal now offers a number of attractive advantages for shippers, particularly as rail operations pour resources into their intermodal efforts to strengthen service and compete with trucking. Sites that specialize in intermodal utilize innovations to streamline the process and apply new resources to make for an increasingly efficient and effective distribution process.. ...
Figure 2: Deviations of ocular saccades when attention is allocated to a peripheral point. The figure reports an example of the experimental paradigm used by Sheliga, Riggio, and Rizzolatti (1995) to support the premotor theory of attention. The basic assumption was that if visuospatial attention involves an activation of oculomotor circuits, then this activation should influence an overt oculomotor response. In contrast, if attention is not related to oculomotion, there is no reason why such an influence should occur. The basic experimental situation was similar to that used in experiments on meridian effect (see Figure 1). Participants were instructed to fixate a central cross and to pay attention to one of the possible stimulus locations according to the cue. The major difference was that the measured variable was not a manual response but a vertical saccade directed to a box located below or above the fixation point. Specifically, the visual display comprised three filled and two empty ...
The ability of animals to communicate using gaze is a rich area of research. How domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) use and respond to the gaze of humans is...
Pay attention to the difference in child cerebral palsy and calcium cerebral palsy not heal,We have received a children in the family, more than 3 months have found some exceptions: lying in bed almost neck lift, hands and legs no e
When the end of a volume is reached, the following message appears: $ pax -wf /dev/fd0 . ATTENTION! pax archive volume change ...
"Attention!". (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Commons category link from Wikidata, 1871 ...
Considerable attention has been paid to the strategies learners use to learn a second language. Strategies are of critical ... Micro-processes include attention; working memory; integration and restructuring. Restructuring is the process by which ... Schmidt, R. (2001). "Attention". In Robinson, Peter (ed.). Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge ... A related factor, personality, has also received attention. There has been discussion about the effects of extravert and ...
Muse Communication (2021-10-08). "ATTENTION". Retrieved 2022-01-01⚠️【ATTENTION】⚠️ From 12 October 2021, 12:00 (GMT+8) onwards ...
... attention! Ceremonial pass in review! Eyes to the right, by the left, forward, quick march! The parade proper then begins at ...
"Attention!". Georgian Airways. 2022-01-18. Retrieved 2022-02-10. "Only Georgian low-cost airline being abolished". 6 ...
"Attention! S2 station changed". Yanqing Gov. 2020-04-16. "提示!市郊铁路怀柔-密云线8月1日至20日全线停运" [Reminder for Huaimi Line
Attention! Drill Sergeant, GI Jane is coming at you from Cheverly, MD. Although she now commands any room with ease, things ... With a family raised on playing sports, Abilene and her siblings would vie for their father attention. It was Abilene, the ... As much as Penelope loved journalism, she realized that she would rather be the center of attention, not the person reporting. ... Together, Amber and Krissy took on the tandem title of 'Team Blondage', and they captured the hearts and attention of countless ...
"Attention". Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2010. Dazio, Stefanie; Porter, David (April 27, ...
Merci de votre compréhension." ("Attention! This flim is not a flim about cyclign. Thank you for your understanding.") The ... The film begins with the following lines appearing on screen, complete with deliberate spelling mistakes: "Attention! Ce flim ...
Attention! Black Metal (2012) A black metal mockumentary Legalize Murder was released in 2006. The cartoon show Metalocalypse ... which eventually drew attention to it and led to a number of artists being imprisoned. On 8 April 1991, Mayhem vocalist Per " ... drew much attention with their debut album Six Years of Dormant Hatred, released through North American label Moribund Records ... were not Satanists and rather used Satanic themes to provoke controversy or gain attention. One of the few exceptions was ...
"Attention! The CRA Is Extending the $2,000/Month CRB to 38 Weeks". "Coronavirus: Trudeau says over ...
Strangle the fool that dares to scoff! Attention! it's his way. Appealing from his native sod, In forma pauperis to God, Say " ...
Attention. The appearance is so similar to a genuine passport that in 1974 a criminal case was lodged against Garry Davis in ...
Avadhānaṃ can be considered as the Divided attention (clinical model of attention) as it is the highest level of attention and ... "Attention". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 12 December 2011.[dead link] "Divided Attention". Cognifit. Retrieved 12 ...
Attention. Attention. His Majesty the King and Emperor has accepted the resignation from office of the Head of Government, ...
Attention. We don't pay attention to boring things. Short-term memory. Repeat to remember. Long-term memory. Remember to repeat ... The book has tried to explain how the brain works in twelve perspectives: exercise, survival, wiring, attention, short-term ...
Attention! spawned two singles, including "All (I Ever Want)", a duet with singer Sabrina Weckerlin, and leading single "Not ... Attention! (2006). It reached the top twenty of the album charts in Austria and Germany, becoming the singer's lowest-charting ...
... attention! Ceremonial march past! Form battalions! Distance by a single lineman! Slope... arms! Eyes to the right, by the left ...
"Attention". Retrieved 2022-03-28. "Livingston man gets three life terms for 3 murders; 4th sentence late ...
... attention! Attention! This is serious. Many unjust acts have happened during the revolution. Notice have [sic] been received ...
"Attention! Military history made at passing out parade". Darlington and Stockton Times. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 12 September ...
"Attention!". Retrieved 28 February 2016. Costa Sports (8 April 2015), That Was the Season that Was 1994 ...
"ATTENTION! Does Windows 10 Delete Files Without Confirmation?". "How to stop windows defender from deleting a program ?". Popa ...
Attention! Bandits! (1951) Article 519, Penal Code (1952) At the Edge of the City (1953) For You I Have Sinned (1953) Love Song ...
After the flyover, the parade commander orders the start of the parade in the following manner: Parade... attention! Slope.... ...
Attention ! Jan Vanriet a demandé expressément de gommer la plaque de rue avec Photoshop !, Le Soir, Saturday 8 October 2011 ...
". "Attention! Security risk with OTRS 6!". OTRS. 23 December 2020. Retrieved 8 February 2021. Heinemann, Markus. "OTRS ...
". "Внимание! Изменение в Календаре соревнований в сезоне 2019-2020 гг.!" [Attention! The changes in the calendar of ...
The term "attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data ... Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities Among U.S ... QuickStats: Percentage of Children Aged 3-17 Years Who Ever Received a Diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, ... Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 8.7 million ...
Researchers are learning more about antibodies that attack the brain, causing various seizure syndromes.
Attention, Bloggers For small businesses that cant afford a lot of marketing, the blogosphere offers a cheaper alternative. ...
draw attention (third-person singular simple present draws attention, present participle drawing attention, simple past drew ... attention, past participle drawn attention) *(intransitive) to rouse someone to notice something, to cause someone to focus on ... The Inspecting Officer draws attention to the remarkable way in which the train held together after the final derailment; this ... Id like to draw your attention to this part of the chart. ... We dont want to draw attention to ourselves.. ...
... is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an ... Genetic Testing Registry: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder *Genetic Testing Registry: Attention deficit-hyperactivity ... Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is ... Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and Management, Wolraich M ...
2019)‎. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (‎ADHD)‎. World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Eastern ...
Attention Insight is based on deep learning technology and trained with 30 800 eye tracking studies data. Attention heatmaps ... Generate attention heatmap directly where you are and discover the ways to optimise your website! AI-powered design analytics ... Understand, which object attracts the most attention without data collection. * Implement A/B testing in minutes * Measure ...
... attention/awareness (IAA) is a body-related aspect of cognition that pursues homeostasis by detecting afferent signals, and ... there are practices aimed at focusing ones attention and awareness towards such feelings inside ones own body. There is a ... Supramarginal activity in interoceptive attention tasks Neurosci Lett. 2015 Mar 4;589:42-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.01.031. ... Interoceptive (feelings from inside organs) attention/awareness (IAA) is a body-related aspect of cognition that pursues ...
Just when we thought the season of giving was behind us, Bernard Tschumi has brought out one last gift for MoMA. The architect announced yesterday that he
Attention leakers! Scanner Pro 6 for iOS is the document scanning app youve always wanted July 2, 2015 - 5:34 pm. ...
... Dr Thanos Verousis from the School of Management reflects on his ... The purpose of this project was twofold; to enable both people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the ...
In Heuristic Thinking and Limited Attention in the Car Market (NBER Working Paper No. 17030), authors Nicola Lacetera, Devin ...
For well over a year, Indiana field trialers and hunt test enthusiasts have been frustrated by the Department of Natural Resources Division of Fish and Wildlifes efforts to limit access to state lands for dog training, exercise, and other canine events. Concerned dog owners will soon have an opportunity to impact this policy. IDNR has recently asked the Natural Resource Commission for adoption of a change in the dog training rules. In response, the Commissions Advisory Committee will hold a public hearing on the issue on Thursday, April 22nd. The meeting will begin at 10 am at the Ft. Harrison State Park Inn in Indianapolis. Indiana dog owners are strongly encouraged to attend and voice your support for continued access to state lands.. For more information, or for assistance in preparing talking points, please contact Jack Hyden, Indiana Beaglers Alliance ([email protected]).. For well over a year, Indiana field trialers and hunt test enthusiasts have been frustrated by ...
The jockeying among advocates and interest groups for attention, jobs and influence in a rare GOP administration. ... And theyll all be trying "to make sure that their issues are understood and get attention." ... Groups competing for Hogans attention. By Doug Donovan, Erin Cox and John Fritze ... the jockeying among advocates and interest groups for attention, jobs and influence in a rare GOP administration. ...
But can it get more attention from IT than the collective yawn garnered by its competitors? Dont count on it, some said. ... Demo 2000: Startups jostle for attention Demo 2000 preview: More than 80 firms will tout everything from software to soda pop ...
The latest issues of Attention Magazine are only available to members. Become a member and keep up to date with the latest on ... This article defines the five components of executive function�memory/recall, attention to task, emotional control, ... Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). CHADD does not endorse products, services, ...
The way we trade attention in the form of digital media in a murky market has led to a deep misunderstanding of this complex ... A good deal of attention is being paid to attention of late, and the councils mission is to "promote the use of attention ... Complex messages require more time and attention and the creative in high attention contexts need do less work on grabbing ... In planning terms, considering attention from the outset is crucial because attention thresholds are very different on ...
The excitement of investing in a company that can reverse its fortunes is a big draw for some speculators, so even...
Home , Featured Blogs , Predictions 2022: Continued Uncertainty Forces Attention On Securing Relationships ...
Not all attention is equal. Newspapers occupy a smaller slice of our attention but generate more revenue per hour spent. And ... Attention is cheap in part because we have to give it away each day. We cant save it up. We have to surrender it second by ... Since attention is typically priced at under a dollar an hour, you have to move a lot of it to make real money. Luckily, ... If attention is the foundation of wealth in this digital economy, then the economic data of the last few decades should show ...
Garcia, J.O., Battelli, L., Plow, E. et al. Understanding diaschisis models of attention dysfunction with rTMS. Sci Rep 10, ... Thiebaut de Schotten, M. et al. A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention. Nat. Neurosci. 14, 1245-1246 (2011). ... The ventral attention network, on the other hand, is more closely associated with association fibers that support long-range ... Plow, E. B. et al. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and ...
... but Dharmesh Shah from HubSpot and Avinash Kaushik of Google will likely be two of the speakers drawing the most attention. ...
Witness an editorial from the Wall Street Journal that was published on March 12, 2021, titled "Confiscation in Paradise: Move to Hawaii, pay the nations highest state income-tax rate.". The state Senate voted Tuesday to raise the top income-tax rate to 16% from 11%. This would leap above the 13.3% California takes from its highest earners, or the 12.7% that New York City dwellers pay. Oh, and Hawaiis top rate would kick in at a mere $200,000 of income. It would also slam many small business owners who pay taxes at the individual rate. As if they havent suffered enough during the Covid lockdowns.. The bill would also raise Hawaiis capital-gains tax to 11% from 7.25%, a blow that will fall heavily on the states retirees. The top rate on corporations and real-estate investment trusts would rise to 9.6% from 6.4%. Legislators are shaking every conch shell in a mad grab for new revenue. …. Hawaiis new tax increases would supposedly last through 2027, taking far more out of the economy than ...
The Latest on Vice President Mike Pences trip to Latin America (all times local): 10:20 a.m.
For some, these studies suggest, all of the positive effects of caffeine - from better mood to improved memory and attention ...
Learners pay more attention to you if the volume of what you are saying increases and decreases. They will prick up their ears ...
MIAMI - Sen. Marco Rubio called on both political parties in Washington to do more to fight the Zika virus, but he was almost mum Wednesday when asked about why his partys presidential nominee has essentially said nothing about the disease now that its spreading in Miami and throughout Florida.
Start your free trial to watch Your Attention Please and other popular TV shows and movies including new releases, classics, ...
But for your own sanity and productivity, do what you can to firewall your attention, blocking out all the extraneous ...
But the Gator Boys have also seized the attention of state wildlife officers, who say the team appears to have staged at least ... Gator Boys reality show captures states attention. By David Fleshler and Sun Sentinel ...
  • The term "attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. (
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). (
  • to enable both people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the charities that provide ADHD support to voice their experiences regarding how ADHD may potentially be linked with certain financial risk-taking activities, and to provide a platform at the University to facilitate the development of a multidisciplinary project on ADHD and risk aversion. (
  • An association between a high-fat and high-sugar prenatal diet and advanced attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms has been found in a study carried out by British researchers. (
  • Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could be at risk of disordered eating patterns that can lead to obesity and other health problems, say researchers. (
  • There is no known link between food colouring and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however wider safety issues remain, says one expert. (
  • A restrictive diet, which bans processed foods, may reduce the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young children, according to a new study. (
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by excessive amounts of inattention , hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing in multiple contexts, and otherwise age-inappropriate . (
  • These thirty-two polymorphisms also helped to confirm the belief that there are three different subtypes of Attention Deficit Disorder: inattention, hyperactivity, and combined type. (
  • A 2014 study completed in Israel looked for physiological markers to help in the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (
  • Comorbidity of adult attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in bipolar and unipolar patients. (
  • Introduction: The co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in affective disorder patients is considerably high. (
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental condition of inattention and distractibility, with or without accompanying hyperactivity. (
  • Are Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Significantly Linked to Childhood Allergies? (
  • Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that (sample child) had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or attention deficit disorder (ADD)? (
  • Pastor PN, Reuben CA. Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disability: United States, 2004--2006. (
  • A prescription, digital therapeutic shows measurable brain changes that correlate with improved attention control in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (
  • Cherkasova MV, Hechtman L. Neuroimaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: beyond the frontostriatal circuitry. (
  • Short-TE proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. (
  • Basal Ganglia surface morphology and the effects of stimulant medications in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (
  • Cortical development in typically developing children with symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity: support for a dimensional view of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (
  • Depressed dopamine activity in caudate and preliminary evidence of limbic involvement in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (
  • Anomalous Brain Development Is Evident in Preschoolers With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (
  • Secondary Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents 5 to 10 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury. (
  • Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003-2011. (
  • Akinbami LJ, Liu X, Pastor PN, Reuben CA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among children aged 5-17 years in the United States, 1998-2009. (
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, affecting more than 6.4 million US children aged 4-17 years. (
  • That chorus lyric, even on its own, draws attention to itself almost without the need of the verse to set the scene. (
  • When there is a surface mounted transition strip it draws attention to the transition and detracts from the beauty of both flooring materials. (
  • Celebrity Factor: Raising Awareness for Thyroid Cancer South Korean actress Park So-dam announced publicly her thyroid cancer diagnosis, Dr Stephanie Smooke Praw discusses whether this draws attention to the need for screening. (
  • Over the years myths have been perpetuated about Attention Deficit Disorder based on the fact that diagnosing it is an art and a science. (
  • Research to find a different way to diagnose Attention Deficit Disorder has been proceeding in facilities from England to India, Israel to Spain. (
  • Imaging technology can help in the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder. (
  • They found that those people with ADD who had never used stimulant medication had lower brain iron levels than the control group of people who did not have Attention Deficit Disorder and those subjects with ADD who had taken stimulant medication. (
  • Researchers at the University of California - Davis Health System used imaging to study alpha and beta waves in children with Attention Deficit Disorder. (
  • The alpha and beta waves showed a surprising side of Attention Deficit Disorder when the waves from children with the inattentive type and the combined type were compared. (
  • In addition to imaging, researchers in England and Spain are looking at the genetic code (DNA copy number variants and polymorphisms) while searching for genetic differences in people with Attention Deficit Disorder compared to people without ADD. (
  • In Spain, Alaitz Molano who has a PhD. in Pharmacology and a degree in Biochemistry from the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country researched gene variants called polymorphisms in hopes of developing a diagnostic chip for Attention Deficit Disorder. (
  • Thirty-two polymorphisms were identified in the study as commonly found in children with Attention Deficit Disorder. (
  • Their members did not have Attention Deficit Disorder. (
  • Will there ever be just one test for Attention Deficit Disorder? (
  • Perhaps one day, there will be more science and less art in how Attention Deficit Disorder is diagnosed. (
  • People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting. (
  • While the previous multicenter trials show attention improvement for children using EndeavorRx, this is the first study to look at the brain activity in children with a primary concern of ADHD," principal investigator Elysa Marco, MD, clinical executive for neurodevelopmental medicine at Cortica Healthcare, San Rafael, California, said in news release. (
  • As previously reported by Medscape Medical News , the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved EndeavorRx in June 2020 as a prescription video game-based therapeutic device for children aged 8-12 years with primarily inattentive or combined-type ADHD, who have a demonstrated attention issue. (
  • In the current unblinded, single-arm study, the researchers assessed 25 children (aged 8-12 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD on neural, behavioral, and clinical metrics of attention before, and after, a 4-week at-home intervention. (
  • Depp and Heard have sparked important discussions about domestic violence in relationships, but more than anything, they have once again shown that not even war in Europe or historical moves by the government can take people's attention away from the glow of Hollywood stardom. (
  • Children with ASD have a hard time with these types of joint attention behaviors and often are delayed in doing things such as pointing, which is important for orienting other people's attention. (
  • Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items. (
  • In the marketplace that is taking shape, what you'll pay for is not the content itself but the answer to this question: What do I pay attention to next? (
  • Despite the active study of neural mechanisms supporting visuospatial attention, the means by which maladaptive chronic deficits in visual extinction persist are still poorly understood. (
  • This could be a potent diagnostic tool for assessing Attention Deficits. (
  • When composing a good chorus hook, it's easy to overlook the importance of a lyric that similarly grabs attention. (
  • Complex messages require more time and attention and the creative in high attention contexts need do less work on grabbing attention. (
  • Episodes of joint attention provide children with information about their environment, allowing individuals to establish reference from spoken language and learn words. (
  • In contrast, the Maya children were more likely to pay attention. (
  • In the U.S., there's growing concern about the ability of children to pay attention. (
  • Explore the physical causes of behavior and attention problems in children and teens. (
  • Investigators found children who used the video game-based therapy (EndeavorRx) experienced increased brain activity related to attention function, as measured by EEG, which correlated with improvements in objective behavioral measures of attention. (
  • There was also a correlation between MFT activity and attention functioning, "suggesting that children who experienced the largest gains in MFT activity as measured by EEG also showed the greatest improvements in computerized performance tests designed to measure attention," Jina said. (
  • There might be too many amazing participants to name, but Dharmesh Shah from HubSpot and Avinash Kaushik of Google will likely be two of the speakers drawing the most attention. (
  • The circuitry that controls attention was more active throughout the entire experiment when participants were motivated to finish the test, DeGutis says. (
  • We've seen success and failure in many mobile apps, and most of that comes down to our attention spans as humans. (
  • Karen Nelson-Field launched her book The Attention Economy at the event, in which she explains her research that demonstrates high attention doubles the incremental rate of low attention exposures. (
  • Subsequent research demonstrates that two important skills in joint attention are following eye gaze and identifying intention . (
  • The ability to establish joint attention may be negatively affected by deafness , blindness , and developmental disorders such as autism . (
  • Commenting on the study for Medscape Medical News , Stephen Faraone, PhD, distinguished professor of psychiatry and vice chair of research, Department of Psychiatry, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, said this study "supports the idea that EndeavorRx improves a neural measure of attention. (
  • Thus, there exists multiple possible mechanisms by which diaschisis , or the downstream destabilization of functionally connected circuits, may promote and sustain the maladaptive functional organization of attention systems observed in chronic extinction. (
  • The extra motivation increased the person's ability to sustain attention by more than 50 percent, " Esterman says. (
  • Hooks and Riffs: How They Grab Attention, Make Songs Memorable, and Build Your Fan Base" shows you, using examples from pop music history, how to write great ones. (
  • Early this year I attended the inaugural meeting of The Attention Council in London where I saw presentations on the current thinking on attention in advertising, a topic in which I have a passing interest. (
  • Eye tracking (fixation lengths) indicated that overall, conventional visuospatially-based cueing was largely ineffective for directing attention across the presentations of the animation. (
  • This article defines the five components of executive function�memory/recall, attention to task, emotional control, internalizing language, and problem solving�in the context of school performance. (
  • The goal of this study is to characterize how the targeted insult within the attention networks may restructure mesoscale network architecture in the brain. (
  • Instead it appears [that] hundreds of different parts [of the brain] have to communicate and interact with each other when we pay attention," says neuroscientist Monica Rosenberg at Yale University. (
  • VATICAN CITY, Aug 14 (Reuters) - Pope Francis said on Sunday that the war in Ukraine had distracted attention from the problem of world hunger and called for urgent food aid to stave off looming famine in Somalia. (
  • Unfortunately the war (in Ukraine) has distracted attention and resources but these are the aims that call for the utmost commitment - the fight against hunger, health care, education,' he said. (
  • The cost of an impression therefore doesn't properly price the increasingly scarce resource of chunks of aggregated human attention in the marketplace. (
  • The secrets to the new business models can be found in the data showing how money follows the only scarce resource we have: our time to pay attention. (
  • Health understood as a process: health - disease- -- medical attention - care, is totally interdependent of social, cultural, economic, political, religious and environmental processes. (
  • To counter the worldwide condemnation of its illegal occupation and settlement, the Israeli government sends out teams of emergency response teams to anywhere in the world wherever there is an earthquake or civil catastrophe, in a highly publicised propaganda effort to divert attention from its brutal occupation of Palestinian land and its illegal blockade of essential goods into Gaza in its failed attempt at regime change. (
  • The average American spends 1,010 hours a year watching cable and satellite TV, meaning that Americans as a whole gave 305 billion hours of attention to those media in 2007. (
  • In aggregate, Americans devote more than half a trillion hours of attention to television per year. (
  • Why isn't Washington paying attention to what most Americans need in the here-and-now economy? (
  • Socio-emotional development and the ability to take part in normal relationships are also influenced by joint attention abilities. (
  • Joint attention or shared attention is the shared focus of two individuals on an object. (
  • This program now comes with the DVD Kids & Teens With Focus/Attention Problems ! (
  • Their attention to detail and focus through difficult weather conditions was very much appreciated. (
  • They were defined as modulations of attention expressed through the speeches and gestures that pointed to an apparent rupture of the attentive focus revealing a detour of the recognition focus. (
  • Especially considering the acceleration of urbanization process, the financial sustainability of the basic endowment insurance for employees is of great significance for safeguarding the pension rights of retired employees and realizing the normal operation of the whole system, and the operation efficiency of urban employees' basic endowment insurance(UEBEI) fund inevitably becomes the focus of increasing attention. (
  • But during the lag time while that transition is under way, publishers, music labels, and movie studios can reinvent themselves-by moving into the rising Internet realm and figuring out how to generate and manage attention. (
  • The Maya kids showed sustained attention about two-thirds of the time, Rogoff and colleagues concluded . (
  • This early research showed it was possible for an adult to bring certain objects in the environment to an infant's attention using eye gaze. (
  • Would she pay attention to the research assistant. (
  • This paper derives from a research project on attention in classroom. (
  • If attention is the foundation of wealth in this digital economy, then the economic data of the last few decades should show that real money flows to where attention flows. (
  • The problem: Although mental illness constitutes a large proportion of the burden of disease in Zambia, it receives inadequate attention. (
  • In the months leading up to the conference, PPS put out a call for public market advocates to bring recognition to those markets needing immediate attention and support, and below are several examples of submissions we received. (
  • This is the topic of an upcoming book by Tim Hwang, which suggests we are rapidly heading towards a "Subprime Attention Crisis. (
  • It also suggests that as attention drains away from more traditional media, the money will eventually flow away from them. (
  • Cueing complex animations: Does direction of attention foster learning processes? (
  • The more mistakes you make like this, the worse your ability is to pay attention, the researchers thought. (
  • The researchers reported statistically significant improvements in attentional functioning in EndeavorRx group as rated by test of variables of attention. (
  • Over the past 60 years, due to the advancement of hemo- the Work Group and tasked it with planning, developing, dialysis (HD) technology and the introduction of medical reviewing, and disseminating appropriate HD treatment insurance, dialysis treatment has become widespread, en- guidelines in accordance with international standards. (
  • Joint attention is important for many aspects of language development including comprehension , production and word learning . (
  • Other animals such as great apes , dogs , and horses also show some elements of joint attention. (
  • What are some early signs or things to look for that would be an example of joint attention at 10 months old? (
  • Following, will be good to know how much joint attention is expected in a day. (
  • I find I get joint attention from him when we are reading. (
  • John Feminella shows how to improve common patterns in how data and information is presented to users optimized for attention. (
  • Attention: The internal data of table "7" is corrupted! (
  • Further, viewability only gets us back to the original conditions of media in the sense that we can have some confidence that our advertising actually could be seen by people, but it doesn't tell us anything more about whether it is or the quality of attention that medium delivers. (
  • So we bring people in a lab, like college students, and give them these tests to do on the computer, which count how many times their attention lapses," Esterman says. (
  • For every post containing a pretty picture , Tim has a post that attracts attention to Sun . I wonder how many people email him to look at this or check out that. (
  • Attention should be paid to the lifelong monitoring of diabetic retinopathy in people with diabetes]. (
  • As we recently reported, Maya kids are encouraged very early on to pay attention to what their family is doing so they can learn how to do chores and work collaboratively with their family. (
  • Altmetric tracks a range of sources to capture and collate this activity, helping you to monitor and report on the attention surrounding the work you care about. (
  • But can it get more attention from IT than the collective yawn garnered by its competitors? (
  • This implies the opportunity to receive medical attention in all areas of individual and collective life. (
  • The dentistry practice must be part of a protocol in the beginning and periodically of the health attention before and during sports practice. (
  • Now a day, this attention must be higher to promote health, get the athletic rates to the limit and not only prevent trauma. (
  • A proposal has been given here, based in a literature review, as a protocol of oral health attention into a cycle of four moments. (
  • Sports health attention is a multidisciplinary area and dentistry is a part of it. (
  • Ministry of Health, Attention to Health Secretariat, Department of Basic Attention to Healh. (
  • Serious accidents can happen if attention isn't paid to warning signs. (
  • In addition, close attention must be paid to whether Joe Biden, once sworn in as the 46th president of the US, will lead the US to rejoin the CPTPP, which was initiated by former US President Barack Obama, or not. (
  • Be patient with us, but pay attention to what we say, because it may change from day to day at this early stage in the outbreak. (
  • That, on average, the attention span of kids is declining. (
  • There's a pedagogical lesson about the evolution (or more accurately, devolution) of the human attention span here, and I want to talk about it. (
  • We get bored so easily and now have a smaller attention span than a goldfish (although I do have to question how dramatic a shift from 12 seconds to 8 seconds really is in the grand scheme of things). (
  • Want more attention for your Facebook page? (