Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Field Dependence-Independence: The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.United StatesPlay and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Alpha Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Personality Tests: Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.ReadingPsychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Reinforcement, Social: The strengthening of a response with a social reward such as a nod of approval, a parent's love or attention.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.PropylaminesAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Size Perception: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Receptors, Dopamine D4: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that has high affinity for the antipsychotic CLOZAPINE.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Pulvinar: Large mass of nuclei forming the most caudal portion of the THALAMUS and overhanging the GENICULATE BODIES and the dorsolateral surface of the MIDBRAIN. It is divided into four parts: the lateral, medial, inferior, and oral pulvinar nuclei.Goals: The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Meditation: A state of consciousness in which the individual eliminates environmental stimuli from awareness so that the mind can focus on a single thing, producing a state of relaxation and relief from stress. A wide variety of techniques are used to clear the mind of stressful outside interferences. It includes meditation therapy. (Mosby's Medical, Nursing, and Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Reinforcement, Verbal: Use of word stimulus to strengthen a response during learning.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4. (1/8339)

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

An analysis of multiple misplaced parental social contingencies. (2/8339)

This study analyzed the training of a mother to modify five subclasses of her attention to her young child's noncompliance with instructions, and also displayed the changes in her child's behavior correlated with these events. Training in four subclasses consisted of teaching the mother to withhold various forms of social attention to her daughter's undesired behavior; training in the fifth subclass involved introduction of a brief room-timeout procedure for noncompliance. The effectiveness of the parent-training procedure, consisting of initial instructions and daily feedback, was demonstrated through a multiple-baseline design across the five subclasses of parent behavior. Sequential decreased in the first three subclasses of the mother's social attention to undesired child behavior resulted in incomplete improvements in some child responses; however, a decrease in the fourth subclass resulted in a significant increase in undesired child behavior. Complete remediation of all child behaviors was achieved following the training of a timeout procedure for noncompliance. Postchecks conducted up to 16 weeks later showed that these effects were durable.  (+info)

Blocking a selective association in pigeons. (3/8339)

Experiment 1 demonstrated for the first time a stimulus-reinforcer interaction in pigeons trained with free-operant multiple schedules of reinforcement. Pigeons that treadle pressed in the presence of a tone-light (TL) compound for food exhibited primarily visual stimulus control on a stimulus-element test, whereas pigeons that avoided shock in TL exhibited auditory control. In Experiment 2, this selective association was blocked in pigeons pretrained with the biologically contingency-disadvantage element of the compound (i.e., tone-food or light-shock) before TL training. When this pretraining preceded compound-stimulus training, control was now auditory in pigeons that treadle pressed for food and was visual in pigeons that avoided shock. Previous attempts at blocking this selective association were unsuccessful in pigeons (LoLordo, Jacobs, & Foree, 1982) but were successful in rats (Schindler & Weiss, 1985). Experiment 2 established that selective associations can be blocked in pigeons when the procedures that were effective with rats were systematically replicated. These results further demonstrate the cross-species generality of an associative attentional mechanism involving a biological constraint on learning in species with different dominant sensory systems.  (+info)

The cerebral haemodynamics of music perception. A transcranial Doppler sonography study. (4/8339)

The perception of music has been investigated by several neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Results from these studies suggest a right hemisphere dominance for non-musicians and a possible left hemisphere dominance for musicians. However, inconsistent results have been obtained, and not all variables have been controlled by the different methods. We performed a study with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) of the middle cerebral artery to evaluate changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) during different periods of music perception. Twenty-four healthy right-handed subjects were enrolled and examined during rest and during listening to periods of music with predominant language, rhythm and harmony content. The gender, musical experience and mode of listening of the subjects were chosen as independent factors; the type of music was included as the variable in repeated measurements. We observed a significant increase of CBFV in the right hemisphere in non-musicians during harmony perception but not during rhythm perception; this effect was more pronounced in females. Language perception was lateralized to the left hemisphere in all subject groups. Musicians showed increased CBFV values in the left hemisphere which were independent of the type of stimulus, and background listeners showed increased CBFV values during harmony perception in the right hemisphere which were independent of their musical experience. The time taken to reach the peak of CBFV was significantly longer in non-musicians when compared with musicians during rhythm and harmony perception. Pulse rates were significantly decreased in non-musicians during harmony perception, probably due to a specific relaxation effect in this subgroup. The resistance index did not show any significant differences, suggesting only regional changes of small resistance vessels but not of large arteries. Our fTCD study confirms previous findings of right hemisphere lateralization for harmony perception in non-musicians. In addition, we showed that this effect is more pronounced in female subjects and in background listeners and that the lateralization is delayed in non-musicians compared with musicians for the perception of rhythm and harmony stimuli. Our data suggest that musicians and non-musicians have different strategies to lateralize musical stimuli, with a delayed but marked right hemisphere lateralization during harmony perception in non-musicians and an attentive mode of listening contributing to a left hemisphere lateralization in musicians.  (+info)

Unilateral neglect and disambiguation of the Necker cube. (5/8339)

Three groups of patients (right brain-damaged patients with or without left neglect, and left brain-damaged patients) and a group of healthy subjects, matched for age and educational level to the three groups of patients, were asked to report which of the two frontal surfaces of Necker cubes oriented in four different ways looked, at first sight, nearer to the viewer. The extent to which, and the way in which, disambiguation of the apparent perspective of Necker cubes occurred was found to vary across the four orientations and to be different in left-neglect patients compared with subjects of the other three groups. With normal subjects, the disambiguating factor is suggested to be a disposition to perceive the upper surface, which is nearly orthogonal to the frontal plane, as external to the cube. This would result from a navigation of the observer's spatial attention towards its target along a particular path that is altered in patients suffering from left neglect. It is suggested that comparison of the paths followed by the attentional vectors of normal subjects and left-neglect patients is potentially fruitful for a better understanding of the brain's normal mechanisms of spatial attention and of unresolved issues concerning the perception of the Necker cube.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (6/8339)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

Spatial attention affects brain activity in human primary visual cortex. (7/8339)

Functional MRI was used to test whether instructing subjects to attend to one or another location in a visual scene would affect neural activity in human primary visual cortex. Stimuli were moving gratings restricted to a pair of peripheral, circular apertures, positioned to the right and to the left of a central fixation point. Subjects were trained to perform a motion discrimination task, attending (without moving their eyes) at any moment to one of the two stimulus apertures. Functional MRI responses were recorded while subjects were cued to alternate their attention between the two apertures. Primary visual cortex responses in each hemisphere modulated with the alternation of the cue; responses were greater when the subject attended to the stimuli in the contralateral hemifield. The attentional modulation of the brain activity was about 25% of that evoked by alternating the stimulus with a uniform field.  (+info)

Attentional ability among survivors of leukaemia. (8/8339)

Attentional ability in 19 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 19 sibling controls was assessed using a neuropsychological model of attention. Analysis revealed that children who had received treatment for leukaemia exhibited significantly poorer performance on measures of the "focus encode" and "focus execute" elements of attention and on measures of the ability to respond to external cues and feedback. No significant differences in performance were found for measures of sustained attention and the ability to shift attention. These results indicate that children who have received treatment for leukaemia may experience highly specific attentional deficits that could have an impact on academic performance, particularly mathematical and reading skills. It is suggested that this underlying attentional deficit might be the source of the neuropsychological sequelae associated with the disease. Future attempts at remediation should incorporate activities specifically designed to ameliorate focusing difficulties.  (+info)

Subject: Re: neural coorelates of auditory selective attention (development)? From: Rick ,[email protected], Date: Sun, 26 Oct 2008 14:03:59 -0500 List-Archive: I think only a couple or one of these addresses the question directly, but their bibliographies might lead somewhere r =============== Woldorff, M. G., Gallen, C. C., Hampson, S. A., Hillyard, S. A., Pantev, C., Sobel, D. & Bloom, F. E. (1993) Modulation of Early Sensory Processing in Human Auditory Cortex During Auditory Selective Attention. PNAS, 90, 8722-8726. Y. S. Sininger &Cone-Wesson, B. (2004) Asymmetric Cochlear Processing Mimics Hemispheric Specialization. Science, 305, 1581. Van-orden, G. C. (2002) Intentional contents and self-control. Ecological Psychology.; 14, 87-109. Rauschecker, J. P. (1995) Compensatory plasticity and sensory substitution in the cerebral cortex. Trends in Neurosciences, 18, 36-43. On 10/26/08, Gaab, Nadine ,[email protected], wrote: , Hello List! ...
Authors: Petit, Laurent , Simon, Grégory , Joliot, Marc , Andersson, Frédéric , Bertin, Thomas , Zago, Laure , Mellet, Emmanuel , Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Purpose : Previous neuroimaging studies of oddball tasks and other paradigms measuring attention processes support right hemisphere dominance for attentional processes. Using an auditory selective attention task, we studied the functional asymmetry of the human brain in response to attended or unattended deviant tones. Secondly, we examined whether a congruency or a discrepancy between audio-spatial and visuo-spatial cued attentional resources may influence the activity elicited by an auditory selective attention task. Methods : We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study healthy adults as they performed an auditory oddball task in which a spatial-cued instruction indicated the …ear to attend a monaural deviant tone. We addressed the question of ...
Previous studies have shown that the perceptual organization of the visual scene constrains the deployment of attention. Here we investigated how the organization of multiple elements into larger configurations alters their attentional weight, depending on the pertinence or behavioral importance of the elements features. We assessed object-based effects on distinct aspects of the attentional priority map: top-down control, reflecting the tendency to encode targets rather than distracters, and the spatial distribution of attention weights across the visual scene, reflecting the tendency to report elements belonging to the same rather than different objects. In 2 experiments participants had to report the letters in briefly presented displays containing 8 letters and digits, in which pairs of characters could be connected with a line. Quantitative estimates of top-down control were obtained using Bundesens Theory of Visual Attention (1990). The spatial distribution of attention weights was assessed
The primary commodity in the world is attention. This is the resource whose scarcity matters most-every day, and as it adds up, in your life, in the lives of everyone you know, in the history of the world, in the world itself. The question then becomes: what should you focus your attention on? What issues or problems or features of the world are most worth your attention? You should train yourself to only pay attention to things that matter and things where your attention will pay off and things where your attention will luxuriate and amplify and be drawn to other things that you now realize matter.. We should teach this to children. To pay attention to how you pay attention and what it feels like. Teach them and ourselves how to decide what things are worth paying attention to.. Maybe some people are lucky enough to already be paying attention to only those things and other people need training in how to find those things interesting-because the eventual goal is to narrow the focus of your ...
Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were included only if they showed evidence of attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet; (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output, visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory and the conditional (no-go) component of responding. Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Although the task required attention to be equally shifted to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a greater area of activation in the
Although, after reviewing Posners research, it may seem logical to conclude that covert and overt attention shifts utilize different neural mechanisms, other more recent studies have shown more overlap than not. Multiple studies have shown activity evident in the frontal cortex, concentrating in the precentral sulcus, the parietal cortex, specifically in the intraparietal sulcus, and in the lateral occipital cortex for both overt and covert attention shifts.[18] This is in support of the premotor theory of attention. While these studies may agree on the areas, they are not always in agreement on whether an overt or covert attentional shift causes more activation. Utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, Corbetta et al., found that overt and covert attention shift tasks showed activation within the same areas, namely, the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Additionally, this study reported that covert shifts of attention showed greater activity levels than in the ...
In several markets, firms compete not for consumer expenditure but instead for consumer attention. We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. Our characterization of household attention allocation operates along three dimensions: how much attention is allocated, where that attention is allocated, and how that attention is allocated. Using click-stream data for thousands of U.S. households, we assess if and how attention allocation on each dimension changed between 2008 and 2013, a time of large increases in online offerings. We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. Specifically, we identify (i) persistence in the elasticity of attention according to income and (ii) complete stability in the ...
Michael Harper for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online A new study published this week in the journal PLoS ONE explains that active and healthy people are more likely to have better attention spans than those with sedentary lifestyles.. Researchers from the University of Granada carried out the study and found that physical activity, such as running or playing sports, can improve the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In addition to a longer attention span, active people were also found to have better cognitive abilities than their less active peers. To reach this conclusion, the University of Granada researchers compared cognitive performance by testing the sustained attention, time oriented attention and time perception of their subjects.. A group of 28 young males comprised the study´s subjects, many of them University of Granada students. These students, aged 17 to 23, showed a "low level of physical aptitude" and represented the less active ...
Different accounts of the ventral and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFv+o) have emphasized either its role in learning conditional rules for action selection or the attentional selection of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Although the accounts are not mutually exclusive, it is possible that the involvement of PFv+o in conditional action selection is a consequence of its role in selecting relevant stimuli or that its involvement in attentional selection is a consequence of the conditional rules present in many attentional paradigms. Five macaques learned a conditional action-selection task in which the difficulty of identifying the stimulus relevant for guiding action selection was varied in a simple manner by either altering its distance from the action or presenting additional distracting stimuli. Simply increasing the spatial separation between the instructing stimulus led to slower responses. Experiment 1 showed that bilateral PFv+o lesions impaired conditional action selection even when attentional
Behavioral data. RT data for each of the attentional tasks performed before scanning and during PET scanning were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVAs. The value of informative cues was assessed in an ANOVA that compared the four task conditions (ST, S, T, N), of which N provided noninformative cues, whereas all other conditions provided valid cue information for 80% of the trials. The relative advantage and disadvantage for valid and invalid cues was assessed with an ANOVA on data from the two attention conditions in which cueing information was provided along one dimension only (i.e., S and T). The ANOVA tested for the effect of task condition (S, T), cue validity (valid, invalid), target side (left, right), and interval duration (short, long). A final ANOVA looked at data from the attention condition that used both spatially and temporally informative cues simultaneously (ST) and tested the effects of cue validity, target side, and interval duration.. PET and fMRI data. All functional images ...
The study examined whether test anxiety (TA) is related to impaired attentional networks under emotional distraction. High and low test-anxious students completed a modified version of the attention network test (ANT) in which emotional distracters, specifically threat-related or neutral words, were embedded in centrally presented hollow arrows in Experiment 1. Results showed a significant reduction in efficiency of the executive attention in test-anxious students compared to controls when the fillers were threat/test-related words. To evaluate the effect of the test adaptation, the original ANT, which utilized no emotional distracter, was employed as a control task in Experiment 2. We then consolidated the data on efficiency of attentional networks, which were derived from both tasks. Contrasting the two tasks showed that TA reduced executive attention in the revised task only, suggesting an enhanced sensitivity provided by the adaptation from the original task. Taken together, these findings indicate
Traditionally, in selective visual attention tasks, participants search for a relevant visual target that occurs unpredictably at one of several locations (Posner, 1980). The classic finding is that participants attention can be cued to a certain location, resulting in shorter reaction times (RTs) and fewer errors if a cue is a valid indicator of the upcoming targets location (Posner, 1980) and its visual properties (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). Based on these methods, we recently developed an experimental setup in which a relevant target movie is presented next to an irrelevant distractor movie, and, with every cut, the positions of the two movies can switch or stay the same (Valuch & Ansorge, 2015; Valuch, Ansorge, Buchinger, Patrone, & Scherzer, 2014). The participants attentively viewed the target movie and avoided looking at the distractor movie. Whenever the movies switched locations, participants needed to make a saccadic eye movement to the new location of the target movie. ...
In this chapter we review psychological and physiological experiments on selective attention to touch stimuli. We explore the role of selective attention in tactile target detection and search, determining those tasks that benefit from attention and those which can be effectively performed pre-attentively. We also try to determine the stage at which attentional selection occurs. We review electrophysiological and human brain imaging (PET, fMRI, MEG, SEP) studies to assess how early in the somatosensory processing pathway attentional modulation occurs. There is some evidence that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can show attentional effects. However, a number of studies have suggested that there is a hierarchy to attentional modulation in the somatosensory system, with the greatest effects being observed in secondary and association areas.
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
Currently, the No. 1 way to get attention at a music festival is to wear no pants. Which is fine, but if its now the norm, doesnt that mean wearing pants is now cooler? ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Occipital-parietal interactions during shifts of exogenous visuospatial attention. T2 - Trial-dependent changes of effective connectivity. AU - Indovina, Iole. AU - Macaluso, Emiliano. PY - 2004/12. Y1 - 2004/12. N2 - We studied neural interactions between brain areas involved in exogenous (stimulus-driven) control of visuospatial attention. With event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated changes of connectivity during shifts of spatial attention from an attended location to a previously unattended target location. Using a 3-T scanner, fMRI data were acquired from three healthy volunteers. According to a central visual cue, participants directed endogenous spatial attention to the left or the right visual hemifield for blocks of 56 s. Peripheral visual targets were presented unpredictably in either the attended hemifield (valid trials, 80%) or in the unattended hemifield (invalid trials, 20%) and participants performed a two-alternative ...
We investigated the nature of intrinsic fluctuations in sustained attention by examining distractor processing as a function of attentional state during a continuous performance task. We found evidence that periods of successful attentional performance were associated with greater depth of distractor processing, which was akin to states of low perceptual load. Specifically, we observed enhanced neural sensitivity to irrelevant distractors, as measured by repetition attenuation and error precursors, during periods of superior performance (in the zone epochs).. We also observed unique neural signatures of attentional states across large-scale networks, finding that more erratic, error prone performance (i.e., being out of the zone) is associated with greater engagement of classic TPN regions, whereas relatively stable, in the zone performance is associated with greater activity in TNN/DMN regions. The finding that DMN activity is associated with increased stability replicates our prior work ...
Many current models of working memory (WM) emphasize a close relationship between WM and attention. Recently it was demonstrated that attention can be dynamically and voluntarily oriented to items held in WM, and it was suggested that directed attention can modulate the maintenance of specific WM representations. Here we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the effects of orienting attention to a category of stimuli when participants maintained a variable number of faces and scenes in WM. Retro-cues that indicated the relevant stimulus type for the subsequent WM test modulated maintenance-related activity in extrastriate areas preferentially responsive to face or scene stimuli - fusiform and parahippocampal gyri respectively - in a categorical way. After the retro-cue, the activity level in these areas was larger for the cued category in a load-independent way, suggesting the modulation may also reflect anticipation of the probe stimulus. Activity in associative parietal and
Evidence from visual probe detection tasks suggests that anxious individuals exhibit biased (enhanced) selective attention to threat stimuli, such as angry and fearful faces. Attentional bias to threatening stimuli has been characterized by (1) facilitated attention to stimuli (vigilance), (2) difficulty disengaging attention away from stimuli, or (3) attentional avoidance of stimuli. The current study used event-related potentials (ERP) and behavioural performance measures to examine the effects of attentional bias towards ecologically threatening stimuli (emotional faces) in 18 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients and 18 healthy controls during a dot probe task. Behavioural measures of target detection and the amplitude and latency of early (P100, N100) and late (P200, P300) ERPs were assessed during presentation of face pair displays and target probes. Processing of threat-face pairs did not reveal evidence of attentional bias in PTSD patients. Perceptual (P100) and cognitive ...
It is controversial whether the effects of aging on various cognitive functions have the same common cause or several different causes. To investigate this issue, we scanned younger and older adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different tasks: working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. There were three main results. First, in all three tasks, older adults showed weaker occipital activity and stronger prefrontal and parietal activity than younger adults. The occipital reduction is consistent with the view that sensory processing decline is a common cause in cognitive aging, and the prefrontal increase may reflect functional compensation. Secondly, older adults showed more bilateral patterns of prefrontal activity than younger adults during working memory and visual attention tasks. These findings are consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Finally, compared to younger adults, older adults showed ...
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Analyzing a scene requires shifting attention from object to object. Although several studies have attempted to determine the speed of these attentional shifts, there are large discrepancies in their estimates. Here, we adapt a method pioneered by Carlson et al (2006) that directly measures pure attentional shift times. We also test if attentional shifts can be handled in parallel by the independent resources available in the two cortical hemispheres. We present 10 clocks, with single revolving hands, in a ring around fixation. Observers are asked to report the hand position on one of the clocks at the onset of a transient cue. The delay between the reported time and the veridical time at cue onset can be used to infer processing and attentional shift times. With this setup, we use a novel subtraction method that utilizes different combinations of exogenous and endogenous cues to determine shift times for both types of attention. In one experiment, subjects shift attention to an exogenously ...
I have an extremely active son. Hes two-and-a-half. Hes been active since I began feeling him move around inside me when I was five months pregnant. Like, non-stop. Did this fetus ever sleep? He certainly didnt sleep when I tried to sleep, and he was especially roused by my everyday activities, such as drinking water, walking and playing music. Olin wanted to run before he could walk. And he got bruises on his head trying. He is, by his very nature, an active kid.. Short Attention Spans in Toddlers are Normal. Being active is really different from having a short attention span. Having a long attention span is a function of age and training. Even toddlers who dont run around all the time like Olin does tend to have really short attention spans. Thats because the neurons in the brain that allow us to pay attention for long periods of time are still developing, according to Lise Eliot in Whats Going On In There: How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life. In other words, ...
A new study from Microsoft Corp. a human attention span is 8 seconds, showing the affect of increasingly digitalized lifestyle on the brain
Orienting spatial attention to locations in the extrapersonal world has been intensively investigated during the past decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is also possible to shift attention to locations within mental representations held in working memory. This is an important issue, since the allocation of our attention is not only guided by external stimuli, but also by their internal representations and the expectations we build upon them. The present experiment used behavioural measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether spatial orienting to mental representations can modulate the search and retrieval of information from working memory, and to identify the neural systems involved, respectively. Participants viewed an array of coloured crosses. Seconds after its disappearance, they were cued to locations in the array with valid or neutral cues. Subsequently, they decided whether a probe stimulus was presented in the array. The behavioural results
The objective of this research was to measure the effects of energising drinks containing caffeine and glucose, upon mental activity during sustained selective attention. Non-invasive electrophysiological brain recordings were made during a behavioural study of selective attention in which participants received either energising or placebo drinks. We tested specifically whether energising drinks have significant effects upon behavioural measures of performance during a task requiring sustained visual selective attention, as well as on accompanying components of the event-related potential (ERPs) related to information processing in the brain. Forty healthy volunteers were blindly assigned to receive either the energising drink or a similar-tasting placebo drink. The behavioural task involved identifying predefined target stimulus among rapidly presented streams of peripheral visual stimuli, and making speeded motor responses to this stimulus. During task performance, accuracy, reaction times and ongoing
Mary Anna Dunn, Ed.D.. Originally posted on blogger.com., October 2012.. Among the concerns I have heard raised by enrichment providers, problems with distractibility and impulsiveness are certainly among the most common. Though it may be tempting to assume children with these issues all have ADHD, not every child who has issues with distractibility and impulse control has ADHD. Some are simply on the high end of active for any number of possible reasons.. Given that the relationship between the enrichment provider and the child is often very short term, it may not be necessary to know whether or not the child has ADHD or is struggling because of other, possibly temporary issues (such as adjusting to the unfamiliar environment of your program). What is important is this: if a childs distractibility or impulse control challenges are interfering with her own or her peers opportunities to thrive in your program, she needs your help.. Keep in mind that you are not going to "fix" this child. You ...
Recent high-profile security lapses embarrass authorities, highlight policing for upcoming summer games with fear of different threat
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The widening outbreak of infections linked to a potentially tainted steroid produced by a Framingham compounding pharmacy has abruptly thrust a niche area of drug preparation into public view. But even as scrutiny has focused on the oversight and operations of such businesses, much about how compounding pharmacies normally function has remained obscure. Compounders say the business is predominantly made up of shops that serve a limited geographic region, who fill individual prescriptions for patients.
Well, I was just about to ask you if tech is destroying your attention span, but then I got distracted…. Thanks to our Super Gnomies for making this all possible! Curious about what becoming a Super Gnomie means for you? Check out the details here! ...
The purpose of this research is to study joint attention. Joint attention plays a critical role in social and language development in children with and without autism. Joint attention is the shared attention between a child and another person. This study seeks to set a standard benchmark of frequency scores for joint attention. Finding a rate of engaging in joint attention behavior would offer a benchmark for all researchers and practitioners working with learners with and without autism ...
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When objects disappear from view, we can still bring them to mind, at least for brief periods of time, because we can represent those objects in visual short-term memory (VSTM) (Sperling, 1960; Cowan, 2001). A defining characteristic of this representation is that it is topographic, that is, it preserves a spatial organization based on the original visual percept (Vogel and Machizawa, 2004; Astle et al., 2009; Kuo et al., 2009). Recent research has also shown that features or locations of visual items that match those being maintained in conscious VSTM automatically capture our attention (Awh and Jonides, 2001; Olivers et al., 2006; Soto et al., 2008). But do objects leave some trace that can guide spatial attention, even without participants intentionally remembering them? Furthermore, could subliminally presented objects leave a topographically arranged representation that can capture attention? We presented objects either supraliminally or subliminally and then 1 s later re-presented one of those
Were not that great at paying attention. And while the ADAA estimates that about 4 percent of the adult population is dealing with ADHD, one survey from video conference provider Highfive confirmed that about 47 percent of employees say their main problem with meetings is that people dont pay attention. Are we too connected to our devices? Are meetings just that boring and inefficient? Whatever the truth may be, there are a couple of ways you can keep your boss from banning cellphones at your next meeting ...
Your wife or your friends will be far more patient with you than strangers, who will just cut you off with a remark or a glare. Your post suggests you dont want to bother them? Well, just pay attention to if they look bored or impatient. Give them chances for a call-and-response in your explanation with filler bits like "yknow?" "you see whats going to happen?" or "like that time you..." Shared experience and recollection is the mortar of social interaction, and your relationships are stronger when you show that youve been paying attention. (To the level appropriate to your relationship, of course...). Pay attention to what they pay attention to. If they have to cut you short because of something else, pay attention to whether they bring it up again on their own, forget about it, or avoid letting it come up again. If the bad responses start to happen too often and the relationship should be closer than that, bring it up in a curious and helpful but not wounded way.. As a general rule, you go ...
Picking out a face in the crowd is a complicated task: Your brain has to retrieve the memory of the face youre seeking, then hold it in place while scanning the crowd, paying special attention to finding a match.. A new study by MIT neuroscientists reveals how the brain achieves this type of focused attention on faces or other objects: A part of the prefrontal cortex known as the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) controls visual processing areas that are tuned to recognize a specific category of objects, the researchers report in the April 10 online edition of Science.. Scientists know much less about this type of attention, known as object-based attention, than spatial attention, which involves focusing on whats happening in a particular location. However, the new findings suggest that these two types of attention have similar mechanisms involving related brain regions, says Robert Desimone, the Doris and Don Berkey Professor of Neuroscience, director of MITs McGovern Institute for Brain ...
Hemi-spatial neglect, a severe and common form of inattention that can be caused by brain damage following a stroke, is one of the most debilitating symptoms, frequently preventing patients from living independently. When the right side of the brain has suffered damage, the patient may have little awareness of their left-hand side and have poor memory of objects that they have seen, leaving them inattentive and forgetful. Currently there are few treatment options.. The randomised control trial took 16 patients who had suffered a stroke on the right-hand side of their brain and assessed to see whether giving the drug rotigotine improved their ability to concentrate on their left-hand side. The results showed that even with treatment for just over a week, patients who received the drug performed significantly better on attention tests than when they received the placebo treatment.. Rotigotine acts by stimulating receptors on nerve cells for dopamine, a chemical normally produced within the ...
Many students find it difficult to be around elderly people and especially the disabled elderly we find in nursing homes. A valuable thing to do when you visit is to be involved in helping people eat or helping them to move around the facility. Pay attention to the reality that interaction often is not cognitively lucid but that there still is a strong emotional connection you may have with residents. Pay attention to the sources of your own discomfort being with the elderly. Think about what it is like to live in a place like this. We focus on negative aspects like people shouting out or people sitting in chairs, disconnected mentally from their surroundings. Pay attention to the variety of people who live and work in a home. Pay attention also to the character and quality of relationships residents have with each other and with staff. Be mindful that those relationships often are not placid, without conflict, or minus political aspects. This is a rich and intimate setting that one can ...
Dear teachers, I have two quesitons to ask: No.1 Thats enough time to give the young reader a chance to settle down, ________ and enjoy. a. focus b. pay attention The key is a. No problem. Could you please explain why b isnt correct? No.2
I was having a discussion with my brother yesterday, and he was telling me that he really doesnt pay attention much to the raid game anymore. Back in Everquest...
Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for Pay Attention - The Mighty Mighty Bosstones on AllMusic - 2000 - The Mighty Mighty Bosstones newfound willingness…
Holiday Inn Express Liverpool-Albert Dock: PAY ATTENTION TO THE CAR PARKING arrangements, To... - See 1,579 traveller reviews, 399 candid photos, and great deals for Holiday Inn Express Liverpool-Albert Dock at TripAdvisor.
Matrix (i.e grid pattern) arrays from visual search studies (e.g. Flykt, in press) were presented before the probe in two dot-probe experiments. This was done to investigate to what extent probe reaction times (RTs) would reflect the RTs to targets in visual search tasks. The participants were instructed to try to ignore the arrays and to focus on fast and accurate responses to the dot-probe. The results suggest two different processing stages, at 45 and 90 ms array exposure respectively. These processing stages were interpreted as one that orients attention towards a deviant item in the array and another, latter stage, that is dependent on what overarching categories of the deviant items and the remaining items in the array belongs to. It is further suggested that caution should be taken when making inference about the mechanism behind RTs in relation to emotional stimuli.. ...
Attention is required for most, if not all, perceptual processes. There is a converging body of evidence from single-cell recording studies in monkeys and neuroimaging, behavioral, and clinical studies in humans showing that the processing of attended information is enhanced relative to the processing of unattended information.. What is the source of this attentional modulation? Because neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that multiple cortical regions are recruited during tasks involving selective attention, it has proven difficult thus far to determine the differential contributions of each region. A central goal of the proposed research is to characterize the contributions of prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex and test the hypothesis that these regions exert top-down modulatory influences over visual processing areas. Specifically, we wish to investigate the interaction between areas involved in attentional control and visual areas modulated by attention.. We propose to study patients ...
SIZE: 13" to 15" at the withers is ideal. Average weight is eight to twelve pounds. Somewhat larger specimens are quite common and make excellent companion dogs.. INDOOR/OUTDOOR REQUIREMENTS: Definitely an "inside dog". Enjoys some outdoor play and activities like walks on warm days, but this is not a breed that can be left alone to fend for itself in the back yard.. PROTECTION LEVEL: Most IGs will bark an alert warning when someone or something strange approaches. It is not common for them to do more than bark and behave in an agitated manner in the face of danger or threat of danger to their owner or themselves.. ENERGY LEVEL: Quite high for healthy puppies and young dogs. Mature IGs are highly adaptive and responsive to the energy level of their owners.. ATTENTION SPAN: This is a true sighthound in miniature, and the attention span can be short if the dog feels bored. If the owner/trainer can hold the IGs interest, the attention span can be very good.. LIFE EXPECTANCY: 13 to 15 years is ...
On TV And Video" is a column exploring opportunities and challenges in advanced TV and video.. Todays column is written by Joan FitzGerald, an independent consultant.. In our entertainment-overloaded, attention-starved digital age, every teacher knows they need to balance the long and thoughtful with the short and punchy, or else theyll lose the attention of the class.. This has never been truer than in video advertising. Building ad formats and ad environments where attention can thrive is the new mandate as consumers have more control over their viewing environment. We need to rethink our metrics to focus on attention - and fast.. Impressions, or exposure to an advertisement, is the foundational advertising metric that the media industry has relied upon for decades. It is coming under more scrutiny now than ever. The impression metric is grounded in the assumption that consumers pay attention. Unfortunately, attention, especially among younger consumers, may have been inalterably diverted ...
In visual search, observers can successfully ignore temporally separated distractors that are presented as a preview before onset of the search display. Previous behavioral studies have demonstrated the involvement of top-down selection mechanisms in preview search, biasing attention against the old set in favor of the more relevant new set. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we replicate and extend findings showing the involvement of superior and inferior parietal areas in the preview task when compared to both a relatively easy single-set search task and a more effortful full-set search task. In contrast, the effortful full-set search showed activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex when compared to the single-set search, suggesting that this area is involved in rejecting additional distractors that could not be separated in time.
The color "greenery" brings many images to mind: lush forests, fruits and vegetables, fields of grass, and wild jungles. Being in spaces of green, or viewing them from inside, brings about psychological and physiological changes in our bodies. It slows our breathing, reduces stress, and encourages us to take in what is around us. Why does "greenery" impact us the way it does? There are countless reasons why we feel calm, restored, and connected while in nature. Largely, it is because we are connected to it as human beings. The Biophilia theory, formulated by evolutionary biologist E.O. Wilson, teaches us that because our survival has been linked with nature (water, shelter, food), our love of it is built into our DNA. Being in green space allows us to rest our minds. More specifically, it allows our directed attention a chance to restore. Directed attention is what we use to concentrate on the day-to-day tasks-sending emails, conducting meetings, taking exams, etc. Our directed attention can ...
stimulant_medications_such_as_ritalin_have_been_prescribed_for_decades_to_treat_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_adhd_and_their_popularity_as_cognition_enhancers_has_recently_surged_among_the_healthy_as_well_
No parent wants to unknowingly harm their child, but something is changing our kids. "DOCK 2" host and educator Tracy Levinson has been intrigued by the declining attention spans of her students. According to a study by Microsoft Corporation, the average human attention span has dropped from 12 seco...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): This paper discusses the concept of joint attention and the di#erent skills underlying its development. We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simultaneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the di#erent prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation with a developmental timeline drawn from results in child studies.
Studies of visual attention in monkeys typically measure neuronal activity when the stimulus event to be detected occurs at a cued location versus when it occurs at an uncued location. But this approach does not address how neuronal activity changes relative to conditions where attention is unconstrained by cueing. Human psychophysical studies have used neutral cueing conditions and found that neutrally cued behavioral performance is generally intermediate to that of cued and uncued conditions (Posner et al., 1978; Mangun and Hillyard, 1990; Montagna et al., 2009). To determine whether the neuronal correlates of visual attention during neutral cueing are similarly intermediate, we trained macaque monkeys to detect changes in stimulus orientation that were more likely to occur at one location (cued) than another (uncued), or were equally likely to occur at either stimulus location (neutral). Consistent with human studies, performance was best when the location was cued, intermediate when both ...
3) Text Around Ad. Another important element to pay attention to is the text that is around your ad. For example, if you have your ad at the top of the page next to your first paragraph of text and in the intro paragraph you talk about your summer vacation before getting into the meat of your post then there is a high likelihood that your AdSense unit will show ads related to your summer vacation and not the rest of the text.. Make sure that the text surrounding your ad is highly relevant to the rest of the article and is what you want Googles AdSense filter to pay attention to.. 4) Section Targeting. A final tip is to use the section targeting option that Google gives you. Section targeting allows you to tell Google what you feel is important in your article that you want them to pay attention to. For example, if you have a site structure that includes a header, sidebar, and footer you might want to exclude those from the AdSense filter so that Google is only seeing your article text when ...
In our past work using stationary eye tracking, we have shown that older adults with good attentional abilities can successfully use attentional deployment to r...
Most Alzheimers research has focused on memory problems. Greenwood hypothesizes that studying specific components of attention rather than the complete task may be a more effective way to detect changes linked to genes. "We are interested in the underpinnings of cognitive change and thought it would be useful to look at something that underlies memory," says Greenwood.. Forming a memory of something visual involves the processing component of visual attention. And aspects of visual attention can be evaluated with relative precision: The cognitive changes in this study occurred only in the presence of the e4 variant and were specific to two tests of visual attention. No decline was detected in a third test of visual attention, memory or general cognition. The result surprised the researchers. "When we started the study two or three years ago, we did not expect to see effects in the first study," says Raja Parasuraman. Adds Greenwood, "It was a gamble to look for changes in people who are in ...
A study involving 218 participants aged 18-88 has looked at the effects of age on the brain activity of participants viewing an edited version of a 1961 Hitchcock TV episode (given that participants viewed the movie while in a MRI machine, the 25 minute episode was condensed to 8 minutes).. While many studies have looked at how age changes brain function, the stimuli used have typically been quite simple. This thriller-type story provides more complex and naturalistic stimuli.. Younger adults brains responded to the TV program in a very uniform way, while older adults showed much more idiosyncratic responses. The TV program ("Bang! Youre dead") has previously been shown to induce widespread synchronization of brain responses (such movies are, after all, designed to focus attention on specific people and objects; following along with the director is, in a manner of speaking, how we follow the plot). The synchronization seen here among younger adults may reflect the optimal response, attention ...
Clinical lecturer UWA, Lundbeck teaching fellow ... as: alogia, avolition, anhedonia, attentional impairment, affective bluntening) ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: f0fd1-ZDYxY
The original, world-famous awareness test from Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris. Check out our book and website for more information (www.theinvisiblego...
By focusing on our experiences in the now, from moment to moment, we come to realize that we are free to choose which thoughts and feelings to pay attention to, and which thoughts and feelings not to focus on. This doesnt mean that were trying to stop thinking or feeling. It means that were just making a conscious choice on how much attention to focus on those thoughts or feelings.. The past only exists in our memories. The future is only a projection of the past. Anxiety about future events is the result of playing the odds based on past experiences and expecting similar occurrences to happen in the future. Mindfulness is a way of using the present moment to choose what to believe about the past and the future. We can choose which memories to pay attention to, and which projections about the future to focus our attention on. Mindfulness isnt about trying to make anxious or depressing thoughts and feelings go away. It is about choosing whether or not to dwell on such thoughts and ...
By focusing on our experiences in the now, from moment to moment, we come to realize that we are free to choose which thoughts and feelings to pay attention to, and which thoughts and feelings not to focus on. This doesnt mean that were trying to stop thinking or feeling. It means that were just making a conscious choice on how much attention to focus on those thoughts or feelings.. The past only exists in our memories. The future is only a projection of the past. Anxiety about future events is the result of playing the odds based on past experiences and expecting similar occurrences to happen in the future. Mindfulness is a way of using the present moment to choose what to believe about the past and the future. We can choose which memories to pay attention to, and which projections about the future to focus our attention on. Mindfulness isnt about trying to make anxious or depressing thoughts and feelings go away. It is about choosing whether or not to dwell on such thoughts and ...
The book is an extended essay on implicit learning, a topic that emerged in recent years as an important but previously overlooked process. Implicit learning is learning that takes place independent ... More. The book is an extended essay on implicit learning, a topic that emerged in recent years as an important but previously overlooked process. Implicit learning is learning that takes place independent of both the process and products of learning. It occurs without the intention to learn and largely without awareness of the nature of what has been learned. The process is "bottom-up"; information is acquired automatically when individuals focus attention on complex displays; and the knowledge base is "tacit" and largely opaque to introspection. Examples abound in everyday life, notably natural language learning and the acquisition of the mores of social behavior. A core assumption is that this implicit acquisitional mechanism is a fundamental "root" process that is based on evolutionarily old ...
Barker-Collo and colleagues (2009) evaluated the effectiveness of Attention Process Training (APT) in improving attention and broader outcomes in stroke survivors 6 months after stroke. In this single-blinded clinical trial, 78 stroke survivors were randomized to receive either APT or standard rehabilitative care. The participants were evaluated in four aspects of attention: sustained, selective, divided, and alternating, as well as the auditory and visual aspects of attention. The study participants were randomly assigned to receive standard care plus up to 30 hours of APT or standard care alone. At 6 months the participants who had APT had an average improvement of 2.49 standard deviations higher than the standard care participants on "full-scale attention scores." The researchers acknowledged that APT appears to be a viable and effective means of improving attention deficits in stoke victims, but cautioned that further studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to ...
A synthetic theoretical model built on both deprivation and resources mobilization arguments is constructed to explain ethnopolitical rebellion for the 1980s and to provide risk assessments for the 1990s. The principal investigators hypothesize that ethnopolitial groups that produce residuals below the regression line will likely exhibit rebellious behavior in the early 1990s. They use a three-stage least squares estimator, analyze the coefficients and standard errors, and also examine the residuals. The PIs find broad support for the theoretical synthesis, but focus attention on the risk assessments. In addition to identifying ethnopolitical groups that did resort to greater violence in the early 1990s, the theoretical model helps to explain why a number of groups that the analysis suggested would rebel in the early 1990s have not, in fact, done so.. ...
Vulnerability among cardiac patients is multifactorial and may arise from myocardial interstitial disease (e.g., fibrosis or amyloidosis) or other derangements such as valve dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, or dysrhythmia. The multitude of pathways suggests a need to employ cardiovascular imaging to identify and characterize any lesions. This information then enables the clinician to target the "correct" therapy to the patient. This paradigm has been termed "precision medicine.". Early observations regarding the significance of interstitial fibrosis, including those by Weber and Brilla (1) in animal models, along with clinical advances in human cardiac imaging, have combined to focus attention on the entire range of myocardial fibrosis from focal to diffuse. Fibrosis associates with capillary rarefaction, re-entrant arrhythmia, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and decreased perfusion reserve (2,3). The latter 2 entities reverse with regression of myocardial fibrosis ...
This new study also focuses attention on the mother-bound spindle pole body (M-SPB) as a potential location for interactions that control Tem1 activity, whatever they may be. Several previous observations implicate the daughter-bound SPB (D-SPB) as potentially important. Passage of the D-SPB through the neck appears to be a critical event that sets the cellular clock ticking on the course for mitotic exit (Molk et al., 2004). During the course of a normal cell cycle, Tem1 accumulates on the D-SPB, along with active MEN components (Molk et al., 2004). Bub2/Bfa1 first accumulates and then is lost from the D-SPB, as one might expect an inhibitor to behave.. In this new work, Fraschini et al. (2006) found that a Myc-tagged version of Bub2 was anomalously localized to both SPBs throughout the cell cycle, in contrast to the normal behavior of untagged Bub2 or HA-tagged Bub2, which disappear from the M-SPB over time. Expression of this Myc-tagged Bub2 produced inhibition of mitotic exit, in an ...
It is gene expression that defines a cells identity. Science, Sciences Science of Aging Knowledge Environment (SAGE KE), and Sciences STKE focus attention on the highly dynamic nature of gene expression. Mechanisms governing selective gene expression in multigene families, as well as those by which cis- and trans-acting factors contribute to regulation of gene expression, are topics under discussion. In addition, new methodologies allow researchers to gain insight into gene expression at the level of single cells and provide a glimpse at the real-time interactions among proteins and DNA.. ...
The president is hoping to focus attention on anything but the economy. If voters were to look at his record, it would be a tough slog to a second term.
Sam had barely entered the reception hall when her mother latched onto her arm. "Where were you?" she hissed. Sam swallowed nervously. "Helping put the triplets to bed.". "You do not leave your own wedding, Samantha. That was an insult to your guest." Sam rolled her eyes. She hated etiquette and she wanted to tell her mother to take a hike.. "Ill remember that next time I get married," she muttered under her breath.. Her mother shot daggers at her. "What?". Sam put on her brightest smile. "Im going to go find Danny." She wrenched her arm away from her mom. She rolled her eyes. Couldnt her mom just pretend to like her, just for one day?. She looked around not seeing Danny, Tucker, or Todd anywhere. Sarah , Tuckers steady girlfriend, brushed past her. Sam caught the girls elbow. "Whered the guys go?". Sarah giggled. "You mean you missed it? Danny was getting really out of it and saying some weird things about being a ghost," she laughed. "Talk about strange. I guess hes just like his dad ...
Hey, at least its short, in both senses. And its funny. If there arent too many major guffaws, theres a steady supply of rib-ticklers. Youve...
Steve Kelman argues that Chinese spying through the popular video-sharing app is less of a threat than TikToks impact on young users brains.
Good health is a gift. Two of the most important aspects to maintaining wellness are knowing your body and paying attention to the signals it sends. Wh...
Attention bias and avoidance by neutral, happy and fearful faces in the invisible condition.Female participants exhibited attentional bias to fearful faces, whi
A Refined Neuronal Population Measure of Visual Attention. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A vehicle (30), such as an automobile, has an indicia controller (31) that can determine, via one or more direction-of-visual-attention sensors (32) a likely direction of visual attention for a given occupant of the vehicle such as, for example, the driver or another passenger. When a predetermined condition is sensed by one or more condition sensors (34, 35) (such as, for example, a predetermined hazard or other unsafe operating condition), the indicia controller can determine whether the monitored person is likely looking in a direction that likely includes the condition of concern. A particular condition indicia (36) as corresponds to the detected condition can then be provided as a function, at least in part, of whether the driver or other monitored person is already likely looking at, and is hence aware of, the detecting condition.
One of the most fundamental questions in crossmodal attention research concerns the extent to which people can selectively direct their attention toward a particular sensory modality such as, for example, audition, at the expense of the processing of stimuli presented in the other modalities. Spence and his colleagues have conducted a number of studies showing that voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) attending to one sensory modality can result in the facilitation of peoples (speeded) spatial discrimination responses to stimuli presented in that modality when compared to situations in which their attention has been directed to another modality instead (Spence et al., 2000a, 2001a, 2002; see also Ashkenazi & Marks, 2004). The presentation of a non-predictive cue stimulus in a particular modality has also been shown to result in the short-lasting exogenous orienting of attention toward the modality in which the cue was presented (see Spence et al., 2001 a; Turatto et al., 2002, 2004). Interestingly, ...
Since the government has used the Federal Priority Act in the health care setting to recover sums owed to the government after a health care organization or physician group becomes insolvent, health care organizations should be familiar with the exposure they may face under the FPA.
NBC and Toyota have struck an advertising deal that calls for the networks shows to meet not only ratings guarantees but also measures of audience attentiveness.
Derm Exclusive TV Offer There really is no skin care product that is perfect for everyone because our skin is all so different. So, if you have seen one of the few Derm Exclusive complaints that are online, it is important to keep in mind that they are few and far between. In fact, the…
At the close of a November meeting several years ago, a lady asked for permission to address the group. Her message was direct and pointed. She said, I have no desire to attend any funerals over the next several months. I want you all to swear off of shoveling snow, pushing cars that have slipped off of the road, jogging in below-freezing weather, and other activities that put your heart in stress. Last winter I attended three funerals of longtime friends, all of whom died shoveling,
14. Reservations - As soon as youre booked, pay attention to the dates of when your particular cabin will have access to the reservation system. Then plan and book activities aboard the ship. Concerge guests, and veteran cruisers, generally get to have an earlier window. If you want to enjoy the Sunday brunch at Palo, that needs to be on your list to reserve. Its lovely. Also, a dinner there is nice too. Meals at Palo are an extra charge (use that on board credit). If your kids want Bibbidi Bobbidi reservations for the pirate night or just for fun, pay attention to the dates and times, they fill up fast. If you want to snorkel or do anything special at Castaway Cay, reserve it ahead of time. We did the sting-ray snorkel.. 15. Castaway Cay 5k- I wanted to run my first 5k at Castaway Cay, but unfortunately the blood clot made it impossible for me to do so. You should do it for me! The 5k happens the morning the ship docks at Castaway Cay - check your navigator to know what time and where to ...
by Alex Maunder & Lucie Therrien Originally published in "Focusing Connection", publ. Ann Weiser Cornell (Vol XXIX No 5, Sept 2012). Have you always wished you could see into the brain of a person who is Focusing? Have you wished that someone would apply modern brain scanning technology to have a look at a persons brain before, during, and after Focusing? Alex Maunder and Lucie Therrien have done just that, with a person doing WholeBody Focusing. What a great thing to do! Were publishing a shorter, less technical version of their article, and you can see the full study with the full-color brain scan images on their website: www.wholebodyfocusing.org. What I find especially interesting is their discussion of the ideas from Kevin McEvenue and Karen Whalen about holding two different objects of attention at the same time.. WholeBody Focusing is an empowering method for allowing the whole body to bring presence and healing to hurts and stoppages in body and emotional process. In WholeBody ...
Emily Yoffe, aka Dear Prudence, is online weekly to chat live with readers. An edited transcript of the chat is below. (Sign up here to get Dear Pruden ...
14. Reservations - As soon as youre booked, pay attention to the dates of when your particular cabin will have access to the reservation system. Then plan and book activities aboard the ship. Concerge guests, and veteran cruisers, generally get to have an earlier window. If you want to enjoy the Sunday brunch at Palo, that needs to be on your list to reserve. Its lovely. Also, a dinner there is nice too. Meals at Palo are an extra charge (use that on board credit). If your kids want Bibbidi Bobbidi reservations for the pirate night or just for fun, pay attention to the dates and times, they fill up fast. If you want to snorkel or do anything special at Castaway Cay, reserve it ahead of time. We did the sting-ray snorkel.. 15. Castaway Cay 5k- I wanted to run my first 5k at Castaway Cay, but unfortunately the blood clot made it impossible for me to do so. You should do it for me! The 5k happens the morning the ship docks at Castaway Cay - check your navigator to know what time and where to ...
At the close of a November meeting several years ago, a lady asked for permission to address the group. Her message was direct and pointed. She said,
The load theory of visual attention proposes that efficient selective perceptual processing of task-relevant information during search is determined automatically by the perceptual demands of the display. If the perceptual demands required to process task-relevant information are not enough to consume all available capacity, then the remaining capacity automatically and exhaustively
Technology can play a significant role in mental health, but has been largely overlooked by both initiatives and funding. However, things are about to change
Nutrimento & nutriMENTE - Testata giornalistica e Web TV - Notizie e Approfondimenti su agroalimentare, enogastronomia, ristorazione, ospitalità, turismo, salute&benessere, wellness - Tecnologia Alimentare, Attualità, Video: interviste, Reportage, Fiere ed Eventi in Italia ed estero
Pilot season is officially in full swing, if you have no idea which shows to DVR here are 35 new TV shows that are a must watch for fall!
The notion that visual attention can operate over visual objects in addition to spatial locations has recently received much empirical support, but there has been relatively little empirical consideration of what can count as an `object in the ®rst place. We have investi- gated this question in the context of the multiple object tracking paradigm, in which subjects must track a number of independently and unpredictably moving identical items in a ®eld of identical distractors. What types of feature clusters can (...) be tracked in this manner? In other words, what counts as an `object in this task? We investigated this question with a technique we call target merging: we alter tracking displays so that distinct target and distractor loca- tions appear perceptually to be parts of the same object by merging pairs of items (one target with one distractor) in various ways ± for example, by connecting item locations with a simple line segment, by drawing the convex hull of the two items, and so ...
SafetyLit is produced by the SafetyLit Foundation in cooperation with San Diego State University and the World Health Organization.
Pneumonia is one of the most common respiratory ailments that both children and adults may suffer from. It may sound like a simple health condition, but if neglected or left untreated, it can actually lead to complications that may even cause death. This is why it is important that you seek medical attention at the onset of any diseases that are related to the respiratory system.. ...
Pneumonia is one of the most common respiratory ailments that both children and adults may suffer from. It may sound like a simple health condition, but if neglected or left untreated, it can actually lead to complications that may even cause death. This is why it is important that you seek medical attention at the onset of any diseases that are related to the respiratory system.. ...
Introduction. Health needs and the change over time In this report, I will be explaining the different health needs of babies, children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. I will also explain the changes that occur in these health needs, as we get older. Babies Newborn babies up to 3-year-old children need supervision and attention at all times. Babies also rely on parents, brothers and sisters to be there with them. Babies need food, water, protection, shelter, clothing, and warmth. Without these needs the baby/child will start to get ill and will feel unwanted. Babies/children dont have any worries or responsibilities, but their parents/carer will need to look after them and make sure that they are healthy and do not have any illness. They need vaccination to protect them from diseases; they also need to live in a good environment to keep healthy and to keep them from getting ill. ...read more. Middle. They would also ask for their peers help instead of going to their parents and family. ...
I kept trying to make eye contact with the CRM, who was seated in the first row of chairs, looking for some direction about how I should handle this situation. She mostly kept her eyes on me, though not intently, wearing a vague benign smile on her face that never changed, which told me she was off in never-never land somewhere. Im sure she never heard a word I said, and she really didnt pay any attention at all to the Aryan disaster. ...
Watch this video, police in Tampa tweeted Wednesday in their latest appeal for help finding a suspected serial killer . Pay attention to the walk. Pay attention to the way he flips... Crime News Summaries. | Newser
The whole subject of religion and the mainstream news media is getting more attention at several locations on the web, in addition to this blog. Doug and I will be doing what we can to point readers toward these other resources as they come along, each with its own emphasis and point of view.
This is just one of those subtle things that are said sometimes by doctors that can show how removed they can be from their patients sensitivities. Its no big deal but I brought it to his attention at the time in a joking way. On Monday during the doctors typical brief visit to my room to discuss the blood test, look for rashes, listen to my lungs and generally poke around, he spoke to the nurse about future plans. He said that I was due to have my "marrow checked" at 30 days and that it should be scheduled on Thursday. As soon as he said that I piped up and said something like, "oh, is that where a doctor uses a needle the size of Norway and a cork screw to bore into the bone to collect marrow?" Without a pause he replied, "sort of, but we are still checking the marrow." The implication was that checking the marrow was an accurate description of the procedure. Very true, I agreed. I was just acting up. Ive had 4 of these procedures now so I asked him to forgive my sensitivity to a casual ...
Sore Nipples : Sore nipples are a serious complication. They frequently become so cracked and fissured when neglected that nursing becomes impossible. For this reason they should receive careful medical attention at the first indication of soreness. Early treatment is essential to prevent trouble. It is never wise to use local applications, unless prescribed by a physician, on account of the danger of drug poisoning to the nursing infant. A nipple shield should be used at the first signs of soreness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective visual attention in patients with frontal lobe lesions or Parkinsons disease. AU - Lee, Sonia S.. AU - Wild, Krista. AU - Hollnagel, Caroline. AU - Grafman, Jordan. PY - 1999/2/1. Y1 - 1999/2/1. N2 - Visual selective attention and response competition were tested in patients with frontal lobe lesions or with Parkinsons disease, and matched normal controls. The target stimuli were presented with flanking distractors that were either compatible, incompatible, or neutral to the target stimulus. The distance between the target and distractors was systematically varied. A control condition without distractors was also included. Subjects response times to target stimuli and accuracy were measured. Both patient groups responded significantly slower and less accurately than their respective matched normal controls across all interference conditions and spatial distances. However, they did not show significantly greater interference or facilitation effects. Thus, the data ...
Failures of awareness are common when attention is otherwise engaged. Such failures are prevalent in attention-demanding team sports, but surprisingly no studies have explored the inattentional blindness paradigm in complex sport game-related situations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between breadth of attention, inattentional blindness, and tactical decision-making in team ball sports. A series of studies revealed that inattentional blindness exists in the area of team ball sports (Experiment 1). More tactical instructions can lead to a narrower breadth of attention, which increases inattentional blindness, whereas fewer tactical instructions widen the breadth of attention in the area of team ball sports (Experiment 2). Further meaningful exogenous stimuli reduce inattentional blindness (Experiment 3). The results of all experiments are discussed in connection with consciousness and attention theories as well as creativity and training in team sports. ...
Behavioral studies have reported reduced spatial attention in amblyopia, a developmental disorder of spatial vision. However, the neural populations in the visual cortex linked with these behavioral spatial attention deficits have not been identified. Here, we use functional MRI-informed electroencephalography source imaging to measure the effect of attention on neural population activity in the visual cortex of human adult strabismic amblyopes who were stereoblind. We show that compared with controls, the modulatory effects of selective visual attention on the input from the amblyopic eye are substantially reduced in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as in extrastriate visual areas hV4 and hMT+. Degraded attentional modulation is also found in the normal-acuity fellow eye in areas hV4 and hMT+ but not in V1. These results provide electrophysiological evidence that abnormal binocular input during a developmental critical period may impact cortical connections between the visual cortex and ...
Tasks of attention and impulse control in humans have excellent rodent counterparts. In particular, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), which is the most widely used task measuring impulsive action and attention performance, has been instrumental in defining the underlying neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and genes pertaining to these cognitive functions.. In the 5CSRTT, mice are required to respond to a brief light stimulus in one of five response apertures. The number of premature responses before the stimulus light switches on is a measure of impulsivity. Omissions of responding, accuracy of responding and the intra-individual variability in response latencies are measures of attention.. ...
Previous studies have shown that customer satisfaction plays a key role in the health and future success of any company. When customers are satisfied, they keep coming back to the same store and invite their friends to do the same. Now, a new study from the University of Missouri has found that CEOs who pay attention to employees job satisfaction are able to boost both customer satisfaction and "repurchase intentions," or the number of customers that intend to purchase products from the store.. "You might think that as an owner, you only need to pay attention to the customers, providing them with what they want. Yet, we found that keeping your employees satisfied with their work experience, providing them with challenges and allowing them to have a sense of ownership in the business can have a tremendous effect on customer satisfaction and loyalty," said Christopher Groening, assistant professor of marketing in the Robert J. Trulaske, Sr. College of Business. "The link between customer ...
How is ADHD different from ADD ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychological problems such as hyperactivity, learning disability and poor impulse control are attributed to a deficient attention span. ADD or Attention Deficit Disorder implies a wider range of brain chemistry imbalance. It includes three sub-groups, - ADD Combined When inattentive ADD is…
MARQUETTE, Mich.- A presentation about the effect of vasopressin deficiency on rat behavior and cognition will be held at 3:15 p.m. Tuesday, March 26, in Gries Hall at Northern Michigan University. Michael Berquist, an NMU masters candidate, will be presenting.. Berquists presentation titled "Assessment of attention in vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats using a five-choice serial reaction time task" will discuss how to further evaluate the cognitive profile of rats with vasopressin deficiency by studying attention in male and female Brattleboro rats. Vasopressin is a neuropeptide that may influence behavioral and cognitive processes. Berquists research suggests that vasopressin deficiency diminishes cognitive functioning.. This event is a part of the NMU psychology departments colloquium series and is free and open to the public. For more information, contact NMUs psychology department at 227-2935. ...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - MedHelps Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Find Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder information, treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms.
As warm spring weather arrives early in the area, warmer summer weather is just around the corner. Its time to restock the sunscreen supply shelf. While year-round sunscreen application is important, there are factors to pay attention to when the days are longer and the suns rays get stronger.. When choosing a sunscreen, pay attention to two items: The products SPF and whether or not it is a broad-spectrum sunscreen.. Broad-Spectrum. Two types of UV (ultraviolet) rays harm the skin: UVA rays prematurely age the skin, causing wrinkles. UVB rays burn the skin. Too much exposure to both can cause skin cancer. Therefore, its important to choose a broad-spectrum or full-spectrum sunscreen to protect your skin from all UV rays.. SPF. Another acronym to pay attention to is SPF, or sun protection factor, which measures how well a product protects against UVB rays (UVA protection is not rated). When applied correctly, a sunscreen with an SPF of 30 provides slightly more protection from UVB rays than ...
Media attention[edit]. Hagee and Biltz's claims gained mainstream media attention in publications such as USA Today and The ...
On attention and working memory[edit]. Among the possible physical consequences of sleep deprivation, deficits in attention and ... a structure involved in alertness and attention, and in the prefrontal cortex, a region sub-serving alertness, attention, and ... Fatigue of drivers of goods trucks and passenger vehicles have come to the attention of authorities in many countries, where ... Performing tasks that require attention appears to be correlated with number of hours of sleep received each night, declining ...
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit]. Dopamine receptors have been recognized as important components in the ... For example, the D4.7 alleles have an established association with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.[11][12][13] ... Manor I, Tyano S, Eisenberg J, Bachner-Melman R, Kotler M, Ebstein RP (2002). "The short DRD4 repeats confer risk to attention ... Faraone SV, Khan SA (2006). "Candidate gene studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". J Clin Psychiatry. 67 Suppl 8 ...
Role of attention in learning[edit]. Latent inhibition might happen because a subject stops focusing on a CS that is seen ... In one of these, proposed by Nicholas Mackintosh,[16] the speed of conditioning depends on the amount of attention devoted to ... In fact, changes in attention to the CS are at the heart of two prominent theories that try to cope with experimental results ... Dayan P, Kakade S, Montague PR (November 2000). "Learning and selective attention". Nature Neuroscience. 3 Suppl: 1218-23. doi: ...
Public attention[edit]. After the discovery of Hemraj's body, the case attracted public attention as a bizarre whodunit. The ... Kocchar stated that the bloodstains on the terrace door were brought to the attention of a police constable named Akhilesh ...
... attention (such as working memory or meditation).[4][8] Conversely, the DMN is active when attention is internally directed ( ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit]. It has been suggested that ADHD is a disorder of the DMN, where neural systems ... In addition to the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex is also involved in the dorsal attention network (a top ... In this model, the PCC is hypothesized to take a chief regulatory role in focusing internal and external attention. Mounting ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. References[edit]. *^ a b Johnson, Addie; Proctor, Robert W. (2004). Attention: Theory ... one for covert attention and one for overt attention. Results showed overlap in activated areas for overt and covert attention ... covert attention[edit]. Changes in spatial attention can occur with the eyes moving, overtly, or with the eyes remaining ... Patient studies and attention shifts[edit]. Some of the first research into the neurology behind attention shifts came from ...
... the scandal remained at the fringes of public attention but did not become a point of national attention until the mid-1990s ... 10 Continued attention to issue *10.1 New York Child Victims Legislation. *10.2 Establishment of Third Party Report System ... Continued attention to issue[edit]. While the Church in the United States claims to have addressed the issue, others maintain ... It was again brought to national attention when a number of books on the topic were published in the 1990s,[2] and again in ...
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. *Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at ... Connors C (2000). "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Historical Development and Overview". Journal of Attention ... Bjornstad G, Montgomery P (April 2005). Bjornstad GJ (ed.). "Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit ... Merino-Andreu M (March 2011). "[Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and restless legs syndrome in children]" [Attention ...
Articles needing attention[edit]. *Biology pages needing attention (cleanup, expansion, wikification, expert needed, etc.) ...
There's a link at Category:Fishes articles needing attention that goes to Category:Fish articles needing expert attention which ... There is, however, a non-empty Category:Fishes articles needing expert attention. Seems wrong, Richigi (talk) 21:20, 14 March ... Category: articles needing expert attention...fish or fishes?. ... 76 Category: articles needing expert attention...fish or fishes ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit]. Numerous clinical trials have provided support for the efficacy of reboxetine ... Riahi F, Tehrani-Doost M, Shahrivar Z, Alaghband-Rad J (November 2010). "Efficacy of reboxetine in adults with attention- ... Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders. 2 (3): 107-13. doi:10.1007/s12402-010-0027-x. PMID 21432596.. ... although it has also been used off-label for panic disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[3] It is ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder[edit]. DSPD is genetically linked to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by ... Van der Heijden KB, Smits MG, Van Someren EJ, Gunning WB (2005). "Idiopathic chronic sleep onset insomnia in attention-deficit/ ... Baird AL, Coogan AN, Siddiqui A, Donev RM, Thome J (October 2012). "Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is ... untranslated region of the CLOCK gene is associated with adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder". American Journal of ...
"Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 73 (2): 551-571. doi:10.3758/s13414-010-0027-0. PMC 3037488. PMID 21264737.. ... before they purposefully turn their attention to it. This implies that products can capture someone's attention based on color ... Color is not only used in products to attract attention, but also in window displays and stores.[35] When people are exposed to ... Color is used as a means to attract consumer attention to a product that then influences buying behavior.[32] Consumers use ...
Spatial attention[edit]. Spatial attention is the process where objects in one location are chosen for processing over objects ... Bartolomeo, Paolo (2014). Attention disorders after right brain damage: Living in halved worlds London : Springer, 2014. (the ... The patient has an affinity to direct attention to the unaffected side.[11] Neglect is caused by a decrease in stimuli in the ... These mechanisms alone would not cause neglect.[11] The complexity of attention alone-just one of several mechanisms that may ...
Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what's happening around them. This process is influenced by ... "Open attention as a cultural tool for observational learning" (PDF). Kellogg Institute for International Studies University of ... "Cultural Variation in Children's Attention and Learning." N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. PsycINFO. Web. ... Some have even added a step between attention and retention involving encoding a behavior. ...
F90.0) Disturbance of activity and attention *Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. *Attention deficit syndrome with ...
An ecological model of sensory modulation: Performance of children with fragile X syndrome, autistic disorder, attention- ... It is speculated that SPD may be a misdiagnosis for persons with attention problems.[58] For example, a student who fails to ... However, more research needs to be done with larger groups and more attention to other neural circuitry changes. [96] ... One hypothesis is that multisensory stimulation may activate a higher-level system in frontal cortex that involves attention ...
Attention. 차렷. Charyeot Ready. 준비. 準備. Junbi Begin. 시작. 始作. Sijak ...
Micro-processes include attention;[52] working memory;[53] integration and restructuring. Restructuring is the process by which ... Considerable attention has been paid to the strategies learners use to learn a second language. Strategies have been found to ... Schmidt, R. (2001). "Attention". In Robinson, Peter. Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University ... Of these three, planning effects on fluency has had the most research attention.[58] Communication strategies are conscious ...
"Student Pranks! Attention!". Essaymama. 2014-09-03.. *^ Ayala, Jamie, "Sticky student prank injures teacher" Archived 2007-09- ...
ATTENTION: This is an automated, bot-generated message. This bot DID NOT nominate any file(s) for deletion; please refer to the ...
"Attention".. Bujinkan web page; primary source *^ a b Budotaijutsu Archived October 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine; primary ...
attention - set ,attention=yes. if the article needs immediate attention from experienced editors. Use only if another ... attention = , unref = , mapneeded = , mapdetails = , imageneeded = , imagedetails = , needs-infobox = , Frankfurt = , GDR = , ... parameter does not cover the need for attention; this should be used sparingly. *This parameter populates Category:Germany ...
David Copperfield explores how we use attention throughout our everyday life.. 3. "Remember This!". October 9, 2011 (2011-10-09 ...
attention bias. *instrument bias. *In analyzing the data *post-hoc significance bias ...
Find Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder information, treatments for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and ... MedHelps Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ... Posts on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Adult Attention Deficit Meds - ADD / ADHD Community ...
AADD ADD ADHD Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit and... ... Learn more about Attention Deficit Disorder at Portsmouth Regional Hospital Related Terms : ... Nigg JT, Lewis K, Edinger T, Falk M. Meta-analysis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention-deficit/ ... Originally, the term attention deficit disorder (ADD) referred to children who were incapable of concentrating at school. ...
Psychophysiology and Attention scheduled on October 22-23, 2020 in October 2020 in Bali is for the researchers, scientists, ... Psychophysiology and Attention. ICPA 2020: 14. International Conference on Psychophysiology and Attention October 22-23, 2020 ... ICPA 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Psychophysiology and Attention. A number of selected high-impact full ... Mechanisms of attention. Developmental psychophysiology. Neural basis of affective and social behavior. Emotion and motivation ...
Psychophysiology and Attention scheduled on October 25-26, 2021 in October 2021 in Bali is for the researchers, scientists, ... Psychophysiology and Attention. ICPA 2021: 15. International Conference on Psychophysiology and Attention October 25-26, 2021 ... ICPA 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Psychophysiology and Attention. A number of selected high-impact full ... Mechanisms of attention. Developmental psychophysiology. Neural basis of affective and social behavior. Emotion and motivation ...
... March 8, 2007 By parentingteens Leave a Comment ... With a disability as common as attention deficit disorder (ADD), it doesnt stand to reason that there would still be a stigma ... The first is that ADD/attention deficit disorder is a disability, not a defect in temperament. The second is that over 50 years ... You are here: Home / Conditions/Diagnoses / ADD/ADHD / Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) - Knowing is the Half the Battle ...
In spite of the growing literature about adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relatively little is known ... Prevalence and correlates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis. Authors: SIMON Viktoria, CZOBOR Pal ... Six studies are reviewed, and deliver a pooled prevalence rate for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) of 2.5 ... In spite of the growing literature about adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relatively little is known ...
Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (ADD/ADHD). A youngster who doesn t pay attention in class ... may be struggling with a behavioral condition known as Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or more recently Attention Deficit ... One explanation for this disparity is that girls are most affected by not paying attention, whereas the boys are most likely to ... Some of the more recognizable symptoms are poor attention, poor concentration, poor impulse control, being easily distracted, ...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Herbal Herbs Alternative Medicine Treatment on Chinese Masters way of ADHD Attention ... ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment of Alternative ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ... Fails to pay attention to detail or makes easy careless ,mistake during work or play.. Cannot finish tasks or sustain attention ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis Observation to assess a child with possible Attention deficit ...
A new Cambridge study questions previous suggestions that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the result of ... Dopamine is a crucial chemical for concentration or sustained attention, working memory and motivational processes in the brain ... Imaging study shows dopamine dysfunction is not the main cause of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ... A new Cambridge study questions previous suggestions that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the result of ...
This may be a symptom of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (often called ADHD or ADD). Read more. ... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (National Institute of Mental Health) * Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit ... Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Attention Deficit/ ... Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Medicines for ADHD (Medical ...
Well I have updated Otisia so if you want in it will be much easier now. Yeah get AIM so we can talk about certain...things. Hopefully you can download it now and see this post so we can chat tonight. Ill be up for a while so feel free to start getting it ...
Continuous Partial Attention (CPA) is the process of paying simultaneous attention to a number of sources of incoming ... Youre paying attention, but only partially. That lets you cast a wider net, but it also runs the risk of keeping you from ... Compared to multi-tasking, full attention is not required by CPA (hence the "partial") and the process is ongoing rather than ... The state of Continuous Partial Attention can be functional behavior. However, it leads to a higher level of stress in the ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Talk:Attention_(band)&oldid=823477303" ...
The original, world-famous awareness test from Daniel Simons and Christopher Chabris. Check out our book and website for more information (www.theinvisiblego...
... everything you need for studying or teaching Attention. ... Immediately download the Attention summary, chapter-by-chapter ... Divided attention refers to the ability to divide ones attention between two or more tasks. The focused attention models ... Attention ATTENTION. The subject of attention has until recently been largely confined to the domain of experimental psychology ... Attention Concentration on a task. Attention is concentration, or perceptive awareness, focused on a stimulus, such as a book ...
The term "attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data ... Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities Among U.S ... Diagnostic Experiences of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder pdf icon[PDF - 230 KB] ... Physician Office Visits for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents Aged 4-17 Years; United States ...
... behavior or a lack of respect for classmates and peer rejection are two signs that a young child might have attention deficit ... "Preschoolers and Attention Deficit Disorder," is available online from the New York City-based publisher. ... Published in Print: August 1, 2007, as Attention Deficit Back to Top ... behavior or a lack of respect for classmates and peer rejection are two signs that a young child might have attention deficit ...
In Framing Attention, Lutz Koepnick explores different concepts of the window-in both a literal and a figurative sense-as ... Framing Attention offers a theoretically incisive understanding of how windows shape and reframe the way we see the world ...
Just how tough is it to sustain news and thereby public attention to the problem of global warming? Exhibit A: The week after ... In a recent analysis, Pew finds that news attention to Iraq has sharply declined since last year, overshadowed in coverage by ... Last week, global warming cracked the top 5 news stories at Pews media attention index, but only accounted for roughly 5% of ... In this case, Jesus Camp serves a function that I have talked about with other documentaries: It elevates attention to a ...
In addition, despite high-profile attention, efforts to federally regulate software security arent gaining much ground. ...
Further, we provide a choice theoretical foundation for maximizing a single preference relation under limited attention. (JEL ... Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision makers preference and the alternatives ... to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behavior. We illustrate how seemingly compelling welfare ... "Revealed Attention," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(5), pages 2183-2205, August. ...
The exogenous fundamentals of an attention economy are the space of receiving subjects with their attention capacity, and the ... their signal exposure and attention, and the diversity of senders surviving the contest for attention. Application of the ... A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes ... Attracting attention is a basic feature of economic life but no standard economic problem. ...
MANKATO, Minn. (AP) - A southern Minnesota college students spoof video of an apparently tumorous rabbit that he dubbed Frankenstein has attracted hundreds of thousands of Internet viewers.
... at 10 of the most attention-grabbing live spectacles in pop music over the years. ...
Even in the dim hours before daybreak, Russell Builtas vehicle is unmistakable -- the super-wide frame, the stout, muscular body, the sparkling chrome on the trademark grill. It could be confused with no other vehicle on the road, save for, perhaps, a Brinks truck.. Sonia Janowskys car is also a head-turner. It looks like a regular sedan, but one that has been pressed into that ultra-aerodynamic style that is a cars way of saying it comes from the future.. They are the Hummer and the hybrid, the two most extreme cars on the road, as different as Bach and Kid Rock.. Their differences have brought them together in the public eye in recent months, as gas prices have soared to unprecedented levels and a war some see as wrapped in the politics of oil has turned the Hummer, for some, into a symbol of all that is wrong with America. Hybrids have emerged as the "in thing" after an era of bigger-is-better SUVs -- even the new Hummer is leaner and more fuel-efficient -- and virtually all automakers ...
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Psychophysiology and Attention. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Psychophysiology and Attention are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICPA 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Psychophysiology and Attention . (waset.org)
  • Reach him on Messenger to share your thoughts on market moves: [email protected]reuters.net EUROPEAN BANKS ARE GARNERING ATTENTION (1153 GMT) In keeping with this wave of love for cyclical stocks, this time we've got analysts at Bankhaus Lampe saying that they prefer European banks over financial services. (reuters.com)
  • S. E. Petersen and M. I. Posner, "The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after," Annual Review of Neuroscience , vol. 35, pp. 73-89, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • P. Voelker, B. E. Sheese, M. K. Rothbart, and M. I. Posner, "Variations in catechol- O -methyltransferase gene interact with parenting to influence attention in early development," Neuroscience , vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 121-130, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • EPilot, launched Dec. 7, combines the greed factor of multilevel marketing, the pay-for-attention model of Cybergold, the bid for search results placement of goto.com and a Yahoo! (adweek.com)
  • We model and characterize how households allocate their scarce attention in arguably the largest market for attention: the Internet. (nber.org)
  • Markets pay little attention to Brexit but there are worrying signs like the bankruptcy of Carillion or the decrease in traffic at Eurotunnel", de Berranger told Reuters' Paris markets team. (reuters.com)
  • Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research. (bu.edu)
  • This neural circuit works best when the brain is paying attention to what we are seeing, a new study found. (businessinsider.com)
  • It highlights situations where attention can be seen to alter both neural activity and psychophysical performance/phenomenal experience. (mit.edu)
  • This "bicultural" approach contributes not only to attention research but to the larger goal of linking neural activity to conscious experience. (mit.edu)
  • We confirm that attention focuses on options that quickly achieve popularity. (nber.org)
  • The book focuses mainly on the effects of visual attention on the ventral and dorsal streams of visual cortex in humans and monkeys and the associated changes in visual performance. (mit.edu)
  • Our inability to detect changes in scenes when the change itself does not attract attention, change-blindness , has been claimed to imply that we are only aware of attended items in the visual scene. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Dopamine is a crucial chemical for concentration or sustained attention, working memory and motivational processes in the brain and acting as a chemical transmitter between brain cells by combining with specialised receptors on nerve cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Three experiments with an arithmetic working memory task examine the object switch effect first reported by Garavan (1998), which was interpreted as evidence for a focus of attention within working memory. (psu.edu)
  • Key words: working memory, attention, switching, mental model, anaphor resolution, spatial distance effect One function of working memory is to hold a number of units of information available for processing. (psu.edu)
  • A structure deep in the brain called the nucleus basalis releases a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine when we are paying close attention to something. (businessinsider.com)
  • If you are paying attention to something, which causes this release of acetylcholine, that leads to a long-lasting memory of that stimulus. (businessinsider.com)
  • Acetylcholine appeared to make the neurons in the brain work better and help the monkeys pay attention more closely. (reuters.com)
  • Continuous Partial Attention ( CPA ) is the process of paying simultaneous attention to a number of sources of incoming information, but at a superficial level. (wikipedia.org)
  • We argue that joint attention is much more than gaze following or simultaneous looking because it implies a shared intentional relation to the world. (psu.edu)
  • we know that, with television, human attention spans have gotten shorter. (villagevoice.com)
  • They seem to have been designed and built by people with short attention spans and little attention to detail. (informationweek.com)
  • You're paying attention, but only partially. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also dilutes efforts to focus and concentrate on the present (effectively paying attention to what you are doing in the moment instead of shifting from one activity to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • We're not that great at paying attention . (payscale.com)
  • campaign should probably be replaced with, "Are you paying attention to me now? (forbes.com)
  • Sometimes, in the middle of a conversation, she'll simply stop talking to make sure I'm paying attention. (forbes.com)
  • She's Not Paying Attention! (scholastic.com)
  • However, blanket terms like this, while useful in many circumstances, don't get at the myriad reasons some children have problems paying attention. (scholastic.com)
  • The end result is that it looks like she's not concentrating or paying attention. (scholastic.com)
  • Stop the song and Wait if the children are not paying attention, do not continue until you have their attention. (bellaonline.com)
  • This helped pinpoint these key receptors when it comes to paying attention, Thiele said. (reuters.com)
  • You create a little model of the story or person to whom you're paying attention, and you align with them. (zdnet.com)
  • You're not really individually paying attention to each member of the audience, but you give enough of the impression of doing so that the audience remains engaged. (zdnet.com)
  • Doing so acknowledges his action and clues him into the fact that you're paying attention. (wikihow.com)
  • In a recent analysis, Pew finds that news attention to Iraq has sharply declined since last year, overshadowed in coverage by the dominance of the Democratic primary race and the faltering economy. (scienceblogs.com)
  • As we argue in the Nisbet & Mooney Framing Science thesis, one reason that traditional science communication efforts fail to reach the wider American public is that the media tend to feed on the soft news preferences of the mass audience, making it very easy for citizens who lack a strong interest in public affairs or science coverage to completely avoid such content and instead pay only close attention to infotainment sagas. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Twitter users need to make their point in 140 characters or less, USA Today, Fox News and others have shortened stories to be quickly digested and even media outlets like CNN rely on the pretty faces of their news anchors to keep our attention. (forbes.com)
  • We identify vast and expected changes in where households allocate their attention (away from chat and news towards video and social media), and yet we simultaneously identify remarkable stability in how much attention is allocated and how it is allocated. (nber.org)
  • An, J., Kwak, H.: Data-driven approach to measuring the level of press freedom using media attention diversity from Unfiltered News. (springer.com)
  • Sharks are drawing a great deal of attention in Florida, after several well-publicized attacks on humans and an unusual mass-gathering of the creatures in shallow waters along the state's Gulf Coast. (voanews.com)
  • Attention Economies ," CESifo Working Paper Series 1079, CESifo Group Munich. (repec.org)
  • Models that incorporate attention mechanisms into the models allows the decoder to focus on parts of the encoded input while generating the translation. (mathworks.com)
  • Modulating Reward Induce Differential Neurocognitive Approaches to Sustained Attention. (bu.edu)
  • We have, however, shown that attention can be directed towards stimuli that are unseen (either because of neurological conditions or by using masking techniques in normal participants) and that attention has a behaviour consequence yet the stimuli remain unseen. (dur.ac.uk)
  • What is the relationship between visual attention and visual awareness? (dur.ac.uk)
  • Intuitively attention and awareness feel closely related - what we see most clearly seems to be what we attend to. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Some phenomena seem to support the classical notion that attention and awareness are two sides of the same process. (dur.ac.uk)
  • We continue to conduct studies exploring how these various facts influence the relationship between attention and awareness and to understand how dissociations between attention and awareness impact practical issues such as neurological rehabilitation strategies. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Of course, without the illumination of self awareness, the conditions or circumstances of whatever we have our attention on can toss us about on a sea of emotion and distraction. (selfgrowth.com)
  • April was National Autism Awareness Month, an annual designation to help focus attention on autism for at least one month a year. (jci.org)
  • He suggests to cultivate attention, awareness and empathy when working in teams. (infoq.com)
  • We can cultivate attention and awareness, which in turn leads to more ethical choices. (infoq.com)
  • InfoQ interviewed Jeffery Hackert after his talk about how new technology impacts the way we communicate and the benefits of using technology for collaboration, what you can do to cultivate attention, awareness and empathy when working in teams, and asked him tips for giving and receiving uninterrupted attention. (infoq.com)
  • Let's take this a step further and say that it's your attitude toward what you have your attention on that creates your life in any moment. (selfgrowth.com)
  • If they can do this in a way that creates empathy, that creates a real feeling that you're getting attention, then it's effective. (zdnet.com)
  • If the children are 'settling down/have had time to settle down', then the teacher has already got their attention away from their own activities and directed them (back) to her next learning activity, so she now needs them to focus their attention on reading some story in a book. (usingenglish.com)
  • Attention is the ability to maintain and dedicate focus to a particular task. (conservapedia.com)
  • British researcher Donald Broadbent was the first researcher to present a hypothesis as to how attention would occur, and how one can focus on specific events. (conservapedia.com)
  • When you attend to things, when you focus the spotlight of attention onto things, it causes you to remember them and think about them. (coursera.org)
  • I would love to see the researchers focus on the evil stepsister of attention span - impatience. (informationweek.com)
  • The term "spotlight" was inspired by the work of William James, who described attention as having a focus, a margin, and a fringe. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus is an area that extracts information from the visual scene with a high-resolution, the geometric center of which being where visual attention is directed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surrounding the focus is the fringe of attention, which extracts information in a much more crude fashion (i.e., low-resolution). (wikipedia.org)
  • Prague, 23 December 1999 (RFE/RL) -- Despite the widespread attention it has attracted in the past few years, no one is really certain of the impact the millennium bug will have on Jan. 1, 2000. (rferl.org)
  • In the neurological condition neglect patients are impaired at moving their attention into half of visual space and often behave as if they are unaware of stimuli on that side of space. (dur.ac.uk)
  • The subject of attention has until recently been largely confined to the domain of experimental psychology. (bookrags.com)
  • The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). (repec.org)
  • In this episode of Attention Talk Radio, co-hosts Jeff Copper and Kirsten Milliken interview Dr. Stephen Hinshaw, Professor of Psychology at UC Berkeley, who has studied this topic extensively for decades on a personal and academic level. (constantcontact.com)
  • The neurobiology and psychology of attention have much to learn from each other. (mit.edu)
  • Prior to the founding of psychology as a scientific discipline, attention was studied in the field of philosophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Markets for Attention: Will Postage for Email Help? (repec.org)
  • This conclusion has important implications for competition and welfare in other markets for attention. (nber.org)
  • While results of this study are not conclusive, our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides may affect young children's attention,' Amy Marks and colleagues wrote in the study. (foxnews.com)
  • When the researchers blocked these receptors located in the visual cortex using a different naturally occuring chemical, attention worsened. (reuters.com)
  • I am simply letting one member know that being rude and hurtful to someone in need is not the best way to get peoples attention. (dailystrength.org)
  • With attention, there is no limit to the number of peoples' attention you can get, if they exist. (zdnet.com)
  • Danish media has commented on the attention the selfie has drawn in the British media, where its appropriateness has been questioned. (cnn.com)
  • I think, what is really happening this year is that we've had some sensational things happening, which have drawn a lot of media attention, and has made people look at sharks a lot harder, and think about them more than we normally do. (voanews.com)
  • The current state-of-the-art in robotic and computational models of the di#erent prerequisites of joint attention is discussed in relation with a developmental timeline drawn from results in child studies. (psu.edu)
  • Interpersonal early‐life trauma alters amygdala connectivity and sustained attention performance. (bu.edu)
  • The endogenous variables explained by the theory are equilibrium audiences (the clients belonging to a company), their signal exposure and attention, and the diversity of senders surviving the contest for attention. (repec.org)
  • A new theoretical model is developed which describes the general structure of competition for attention and characterizes equilibria. (repec.org)
  • This example shows how to convert decimal strings to Roman numerals using a recurrent sequence-to-sequence encoder-decoder model with attention. (mathworks.com)
  • WASHINGTON - Children whose mothers were exposed to certain types of pesticides while pregnant were more likely to have attention problems as they grew up, U.S. researchers reported on Thursday. (foxnews.com)
  • If the kids are used to giving you their full attention, because you consistently have something that merits their attention, the attention comes naturally. (bellaonline.com)