Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The morphologic and physiological changes of the MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body, i.e., MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, during the prenatal and postnatal stages of development.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Regions of the CHROMATIN or DNA that bind to the NUCLEAR MATRIX. They are found in INTERGENIC DNA, especially flanking the 5' ends of genes or clusters of genes. Many of the regions that have been isolated contain a bipartite sequence motif called the MAR/SAR recognition signature sequence that binds to MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGION BINDING PROTEINS.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The act of testing the software for compliance with a standard.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins that bind to the MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS of DNA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)

Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. (1/353)

Lysogenic bacteriophages are major vehicles for the transfer of genetic information between bacteria, including pathogenicity and/or virulence determinants. In the enteric pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, which causes hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are phage encoded. The sequence and analysis of the Stx2 phage 933W is presented here. We find evidence that the toxin genes are part of a late-phage transcript, suggesting that toxin production may be coupled with, if not dependent upon, phage release during lytic growth. Another phage gene, stk, encodes a product resembling eukaryotic serine/threonine protein kinases. Based on its position in the sequence, Stk may be produced by the prophage in the lysogenic state, and, like the YpkA protein of Yersinia species, it may interfere with the signal transduction pathway of the mammalian host. Three novel tRNA genes present in the phage genome may serve to increase the availability of rare tRNA species associated with efficient expression of pathogenicity determinants: both the Shiga toxin and serine/threonine kinase genes contain rare isoleucine and arginine codons. 933W also has homology to lom, encoding a member of a family of outer membrane proteins associated with virulence by conferring the ability to survive in macrophages, and bor, implicated in serum resistance.  (+info)

Criss-crossed interactions between the enhancer and the att sites of phage Mu during DNA transposition. (2/353)

A bipartite enhancer sequence (composed of the O1 and O2 operator sites) is essential for assembly of the functional tetramer of phage Mu transposase (MuA) on supercoiled DNA substrates. A three-site interaction (LER) between the left (L) and right (R) ends of Mu (att sites) and the enhancer (E) precedes tetramer assembly. We have dissected the role of the enhancer in tetramer assembly by using two transposase proteins that have a common att site specificity, but are distinct in their enhancer specificity. The activity of these proteins on substrates containing hybrid enhancers reveals a 'criss-crossed' pattern of interaction between att and enhancer sites. The left operator, O1, of the enhancer interacts specifically with the transposase subunit at the R1 site (within the right att sequence) that is responsible for cleaving the left end of Mu. The right operator, O2, shows a preferential interaction with the transposase subunit at the L1 site (within the left att sequence) that is responsible for cleaving the right end of Mu.  (+info)

Site-specific recombination of bacteriophage P22 does not require integration host factor. (3/353)

Site-specific recombination by phages lambda and P22 is carried out by multiprotein-DNA complexes. Integration host factor (IHF) facilitates lambda site-specific recombination by inducing DNA bends necessary to form an active recombinogenic complex. Mutants lacking IHF are over 1,000-fold less proficient in supporting lambda site-specific recombination than wild-type cells. Although the attP region of P22 contains strong IHF binding sites, in vivo measurements of integration and excision frequencies showed that infecting P22 phages can perform site-specific recombination to its maximum efficiency in the absence of IHF. In addition, a plasmid integration assay showed that integrative recombination occurs equally well in wild-type and ihfA mutant cells. P22 integrative recombination is also efficient in Escherichia coli in the absence of functional IHF. These results suggest that nucleoprotein structures proficient for recombination can form in the absence of IHF or that another factor(s) can substitute for IHF in the formation of complexes.  (+info)

The genetic relationship between virulent and temperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages: whole genome comparison of cos-site phages Sfi19 and Sfi21. (4/353)

The virulent cos-site Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage Sfi19 has a 37,392-bp-long genome consisting of 44 open reading frames all encoded on the same DNA strand. The genome of the temperate cos-site S. thermophilus phage Sfi21 is 3.3 kb longer (40,740 bp, 53 orfs). Both genomes are very similarly organized and differed mainly by gene deletion and DNA rearrangement events in the lysogeny module; gene replacement, duplication, and deletion events in the DNA replication module, and numerous point mutations. The level of point mutations varied from <1% (lysis and DNA replication modules) to >15% (DNA packaging and head morphogenesis modules). A dotplot analysis showed nearly a straight line over the left 25 kb of their genomes. Over the right genome half, a more variable dotplot pattern was observed. The entire lysogeny module from Sfi21 comprising 12 genes was replaced by 7 orfs in Sfi19, six showed similarity with genes from temperate pac-site S. thermophilus phages. None of the genes implicated in the establishment of the lysogenic state (integrase, superinfection immunity, repressor) or remnants of it were conserved in Sfi19, while a Cro-like repressor was detected. Downstream of the highly conserved DNA replication module 11 and 13 orfs were found in Sfi19 and phiSfi21, respectively: Two orfs from Sfi21 were replaced by a different gene and a duplication of the phage origin of replication in Sfi19; a further orf was only found in Sfi21. All other orfs from this region, which included a second putative phage repressor, were closely related between both phages. Two noncoding regions of Sfi19 showed sequence similarity to pST1, a small cryptic plasmid of S. thermophilus.  (+info)

Comparative sequence analysis of the DNA packaging, head, and tail morphogenesis modules in the temperate cos-site Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage Sfi21. (5/353)

The temperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage Sfi21 possesses 15-nucleotide-long cohesive ends with a 3' overhang that reconstitutes a cos-site with twofold hyphenated rotational symmetry. Over the DNA packaging, head and tail morphogenesis modules, the Sfi21 sequence predicts a gene map that is strikingly similar to that of lambdoid coliphages in the absence of any sequence similarity. A nearly one to one gene correlation was found with the phage lambda genes Nu1 to H, except for gene B-to-E complex, where the Sfi21 map resembled that of coliphage HK97. The similarity between Sfi21 and HK97 was striking: both major head proteins showed an N-terminal coiled-coil structure, the mature major head proteins started at amino acid positions 105 and 104, respectively, and both major head genes were preceded by genes encoding a possible protease and portal protein. The purported Sfi21 protease is the first viral member of the ClpP protease family. The prediction of Sfi21 gene functions by reference to the gene map of intensively investigated coliphages was experimentally confirmed for the major head and tail gene. Phage Sfi21 shows nucleotide sequence similarity with Lactococcus phage BK5-T and a lactococcal prophage and amino acid sequence similarity with the Lactobacillus phage A2 and the Staphylococcus phage PVL. PVL is a missing link that connects the portal proteins from Sfi21 and HK97 with respect to sequence similarity. These observations and database searches, which demonstrate sequence similarity between proteins of phage from gram-positive bacteria, proteobacteria, and Archaea, constrain models of phage evolution.  (+info)

Alternative mechanism of cholera toxin acquisition by Vibrio cholerae: generalized transduction of CTXPhi by bacteriophage CP-T1. (6/353)

Horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors has played a central role in the evolution of many pathogenic bacteria. The unexpected discovery that the genes encoding cholera toxin (ctxAB), the main cause of the profuse secretory diarrhea characteristic of cholera, are encoded on a novel filamentous phage named CTXPhi, has resulted in a renewed interest in the potential mechanisms of transfer of virulence genes among Vibrio cholerae. We describe here an alternative mechanism of cholera toxin gene transfer into nontoxigenic V. cholerae isolates, including strains that lack both the CTXPhi receptor, the toxin coregulated pilus (TCP), and attRS, the chromosomal attachment site for CTXPhi integration. A temperature-sensitive mutant of the V. cholerae generalized transducing bacteriophage CP-T1 (CP-T1ts) was used to transfer a genetically marked derivative of the CTX prophage into four nontoxigenic V. cholerae strains, including two V. cholerae vaccine strains. We demonstrate that CTXPhi transduced by CP-T1ts can replicate and integrate into these nontoxigenic V. cholerae strains with high efficiency. In fact, CP-T1ts transduces the CTX prophage preferentially when compared with other chromosomal markers. These results reveal a potential mechanism by which CTXPhi(+) V. cholerae strains that lack the TCP receptor may have arisen. Finally, these findings indicate an additional pathway for reversion of live-attenuated V. cholerae vaccine strains.  (+info)

The IntI1 integron integrase preferentially binds single-stranded DNA of the attC site. (7/353)

IntI1 integrase is a member of the prokaryotic DNA integrase superfamily. It is responsible for mobility of antibiotic resistance cassettes found in integrons. IntI1 protein, as well as IntI1-COOH, a truncated form containing its carboxy-terminal domain, has been purified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays were carried out to study the ability of IntI1 to bind the integrase primary target sites attI and aadA1 attC. When using double-stranded DNA as a substrate, we observed IntI1 binding to attI but not to attC. IntI1-COOH did not bind either attI or attC, indicating that the N-terminal domain of IntI1 was required for binding to double-stranded attI. On the other hand, when we used single-stranded (ss) DNA substrates, IntI1 bound strongly and specifically to ss attC DNA. Binding was strand specific, since only the bottom DNA strand was bound. Protein IntI1-COOH bound ss attC as well as did the complete integrase, indicating that the ability of the protein to bind ss aadA1 attC was contained in the region between amino acids 109 and 337 of IntI1. Binding to ss attI DNA by the integrase, but not by IntI1-COOH, was also observed and was specific for the attI bottom strand, indicating similar capabilities of IntI1 for binding attI DNA in either double-stranded or ss conformation. Footprinting analysis showed that IntI1 protected at least 40 bases of aadA1 attC against DNase I attack. The protected sequence contained two of the four previously proposed IntI1 DNA binding sites, including the crossover site. Preferential ssDNA binding can be a significant activity of IntI1 integrase, which suggests the utilization of extruded cruciforms in the reaction mechanisms leading to cassette excision and integration.  (+info)

TPW22, a lactococcal temperate phage with a site-specific integrase closely related to Streptococcus thermophilus phage integrases. (8/353)

The temperate phage TPW22, induced from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris W22, and the evolutionarily interesting integrase of this phage were characterized. Phage TPW22 was propagated lytically on L. lactis subsp. cremoris 3107, which could also be lysogenized by site-specific integration. The attachment site (attP), 5'-TAAGGCGACGGTCG-3', of phage TPW22 was present on a 7.5-kb EcoRI fragment, a 3.4-kb EcoRI-HindIII fragment of which was sequenced. Sequence information revealed the presence of an integrase gene (int). The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42 and 28% identity with integrases of streptococcal and lactococcal phages, respectively. The identities with these integrase-encoding genes were 52 and 45%, respectively, at the nucleotide level. This could indicate horizontal gene transfer. A stable integration vector containing attP and int was constructed, and integration in L. lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 was obtained. The existence of an exchangeable lactococcal phage integration module was suggested. The proposed module covers the phage attachment site, the integrase gene, and surrounding factor-independent terminator structures. The phages phiLC3, TP901-1, and TPW22 all have different versions of this module. Phylogenetically, the TPW22 Int links the phiLC3 lactococcal integrase with known Streptococcus thermophilus integrases.  (+info)

The main characteristics of reactive attachment disorder include:

* Difficulty forming and maintaining relationships
* Inappropriate or unpredictable behavior when seeking attention or comfort
* Disorganized or chaotic behavior in social situations
* Lack of empathy and difficulty understanding other people's feelings
* Self-soothing behaviors, such as rocking or head banging, that are not developmentally appropriate

Reactive attachment disorder is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as prenatal stress, early childhood neglect or abuse, and inconsistent or inadequate caregiving. Treatment for reactive attachment disorder typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, behavior modification, and medication to address any co-occurring conditions, such as anxiety or depression.

It's important to note that reactive attachment disorder is not the same as attachment disorder, which is a broader term that encompasses a range of attachment issues, including reactive attachment disorder and other conditions.

It is common for people with poor oral hygiene habits, smokers or those with systemic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease to experience periodontal attachment loss. It can also be a consequence of aging, as the supporting bone and gum tissue around the teeth can degenerate over time.

There are several risk factors for periodontal attachment loss, including:

* Poor oral hygiene habits
* Smoking
* Systemic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease
* Genetic predisposition
* Poor diet
* Inadequate salivary flow
* Malocclusion (bad bite)

There are several treatment options available for periodontal attachment loss, including:

* Scaling and root planing (a deep cleaning of the teeth and beneath the gum line)
* Guided tissue regeneration (a surgical procedure to promote new bone growth)
* Bone grafting (a surgical procedure to repair or replace damaged bone)
* Dental implants (artificial tooth roots that are placed in the jawbone to support a dental crown or bridge)

It is important to note that periodontal attachment loss can be prevented with proper oral hygiene habits, regular dental check-ups and prompt treatment of any oral health issues.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, and difficulty breathing if it ruptures. It can also be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for an abdominal aortic aneurysm include watchful waiting (monitoring the aneurysm for signs of growth or rupture), endovascular repair (using a catheter to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel), or surgical repair (open surgery to repair the aneurysm).

Word Origin and History

The word 'aneurysm' comes from the Greek words 'aneurysma', meaning 'dilation' and 'sma', meaning 'a vessel'. The term 'abdominal aortic aneurysm' was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe this specific type of aneurysm.

Prevalence and Incidence

Abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively common, especially among older adults. According to the Society for Vascular Surgery, approximately 2% of people over the age of 65 have an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms increases with age, and men are more likely to be affected than women.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm, including:

* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
* Smoking
* Family history of aneurysms
* Previous heart attack or stroke
* Marfan syndrome or other connective tissue disorders.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Abdominal aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience symptoms such as:

* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Weakness or fatigue
* Palpitations
* Shortness of breath

If an abdominal aortic aneurysm is suspected, several diagnostic tests may be ordered, including:

* Ultrasound
* Computed tomography (CT) scan
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
* Angiography

Treatment and Management

The treatment of choice for an abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:

* Watchful waiting (for small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms)
* Endovascular repair (using a stent or other device to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel)
* Open surgical repair (where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm)

In some cases, emergency surgery may be necessary if the aneurysm ruptures or shows signs of impending rupture.

Complications and Risks

Abdominal aortic aneurysms can lead to several complications and risks, including:

* Rupture (which can be life-threatening)
* Infection
* Blood clots or blockages in the blood vessels
* Kidney damage
* Heart problems


There is no guaranteed way to prevent an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but several factors may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:

* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (including a balanced diet and regular exercise)
* Not smoking
* Managing high blood pressure and other medical conditions
* Getting regular check-ups with your healthcare provider

Prognosis and Life Expectancy

The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysms depends on several factors, including the size of the aneurysm, its location, and whether it has ruptured. In general, the larger the aneurysm, the poorer the prognosis. If treated before rupture, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy. However, if the aneurysm ruptures, the survival rate is much lower.

In conclusion, abdominal aortic aneurysms are a serious medical condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of an aneurysm, and to seek medical attention immediately if any are present. With proper treatment, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy.

Gingival recession is a condition where the gums (gingiva) pull back or recede from the teeth, exposing the roots and increasing the risk of decay and sensitivity. It can be caused by various factors such as poor oral hygiene, smoking, grinding or clenching teeth, gum disease, or a misaligned bite.

Gingival recession can lead to tooth sensitivity and pain, and if left untreated, it can progress to more severe conditions such as periodontitis (gum infection) and tooth loss. Treatment options for gingival recession include deep cleaning, gum grafting, and changes to oral hygiene practices.

Gingival Recession Causes and Risk Factors:

Poor oral hygiene
Grinding or clenching teeth
Gum disease
Misaligned bite
Hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause)
Crooked teeth or teeth with large fillings
Teeth whitening products

Gingival Recession Symptoms:

Tooth sensitivity
Pain when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and beverages
Redness, swelling, or bleeding of the gums
Exposure of the roots of the teeth
Darkening of the teeth due to root exposure
Bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth
Gum recession can also lead to:

Periodontitis (gum infection)
Tooth loss
Bone loss around the teeth
Increased risk of heart disease and stroke

Prevention and Treatment of Gingival Recession:

Good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing once a day, and regular dental cleanings can help prevent gingival recession. Quitting smoking, reducing stress, and maintaining a healthy diet can also help prevent or slow the progression of the condition.

If you have gingival recession, your dentist may recommend:

Deep cleaning (scaling and root planing) to remove plaque and tartar from the teeth and beneath the gum line
Gum grafting to cover exposed roots and protect the teeth
Medications such as antibiotics or pain relievers to treat any infections or discomfort
Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, reducing stress, and improving your diet to help manage the condition.

If you suspect you have gingival recession, it is important to see a dentist for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With proper care and management, it is possible to prevent or slow the progression of the condition and maintain good oral health.

The main causes of periodontitis are poor oral hygiene, smoking, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. The symptoms of periodontitis include:

* Redness and swelling of the gums
* Bad breath
* Bleeding while brushing or flossing
* Pocket formation between the teeth and gums
* Loose teeth or changes in the bite
* Changes in the color or shape of the gums

If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to serious complications such as:

* Tooth loss
* Bone loss around the teeth
* Infection of the dental implant or prosthetic tooth
* Spread of bacteria to other parts of the body, leading to systemic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.

Periodontitis can be treated by a dentist or periodontist with a combination of non-surgical and surgical procedures, including:

* Scaling and root planing (deep cleaning of the teeth and roots)
* Antibiotics to treat infection
* Bone grafting to restore lost bone tissue
* Gum grafting to cover exposed roots
* Dental implants or prosthetic teeth to replace missing teeth.

It is important to practice good oral hygiene, including brushing and flossing regularly, to prevent periodontitis. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the progression of the disease and save teeth from being lost.

There are several types of periodontal diseases, including:

1. Gingivitis: This is the mildest form of periodontal disease, characterized by redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. It is reversible with proper treatment and good oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: This is a more severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by the destruction of the periodontal ligament and the jawbone. It can cause teeth to become loose or fall out.
3. Advanced periodontitis: This is the most severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by extensive bone loss and severe gum damage.
4. Periodontal abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the gum tissue as a result of the infection.
5. Peri-implantitis: This is a condition that affects the tissues surrounding dental implants, similar to periodontal disease.

The causes and risk factors for periodontal diseases include:

1. Poor oral hygiene
2. Smoking
3. Diabetes
4. Genetic predisposition
5. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause
6. Poor diet
7. Stress
8. Certain medications

The symptoms of periodontal diseases can include:

1. Redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums
2. Bad breath
3. Loose teeth or teeth that feel like they are shifting in their sockets
4. Pus between the teeth and gums
5. Changes in the way teeth fit together when biting down

Treatment for periodontal diseases typically involves a combination of professional cleaning, antibiotics, and changes to oral hygiene habits at home. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue and restore the health of the teeth and gums.

Preventing periodontal diseases includes:

1. Brushing teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste
2. Flossing once a day to remove plaque from between the teeth
3. Using an antibacterial mouthwash
4. Eating a balanced diet and avoiding sugary or acidic foods
5. Quitting smoking
6. Maintaining regular dental check-ups and cleanings.

Causes and risk factors:

* Poor oral hygiene
* Smoking
* Genetics
* Hormonal changes
* Malnutrition
* Diabetes
* Obesity


* Gum redness, swelling, and bleeding
* Pockets between the teeth and gums
* Bad breath
* Loose teeth or teeth that have moved out of their sockets
* Changes in the shape of the gum line


* Physical examination of the teeth and gums
* X-rays or other imaging tests to assess bone loss and other changes
* Blood tests to check for underlying conditions such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease


* Professional scaling and root planing (a deep cleaning of the teeth)
* Antibiotics to control infection
* Surgery to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone
* Changes to oral hygiene habits, such as brushing and flossing more frequently


* Good oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing regularly
* Regular dental check-ups and cleanings
* Avoiding smoking and other harmful habits
* Maintaining a healthy diet and getting enough exercise


* With proper treatment and good oral hygiene, the condition can be managed and teeth can be saved.
* Without treatment, the condition can progress and lead to tooth loss.


* Tooth loss
* Bone loss
* Infection of other parts of the body (sepsis)
* Heart disease
* Stroke

Note: This definition is a general overview of chronic periodontitis and is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice. If you suspect you have chronic periodontitis, it is important to consult with a dentist or other qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The alveolar bone is a specialized type of bone that forms the socket in which the tooth roots are embedded. It provides support and stability to the teeth and helps maintain the proper position of the teeth in their sockets. When the alveolar bone is lost, the teeth may become loose or even fall out completely.

Alveolar bone loss can be detected through various diagnostic methods such as dental X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options for alveolar bone loss depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, bone grafting, or tooth extraction.

In the context of dentistry, alveolar bone loss is a common complication of periodontal disease, which is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gums and bone. The bacteria that cause periodontal disease can lead to the destruction of the alveolar bone, resulting in tooth loss.

In addition to periodontal disease, other factors that can contribute to alveolar bone loss include:

* Trauma or injury to the teeth or jaw
* Poorly fitting dentures or other prosthetic devices
* Infections or abscesses in the mouth
* Certain systemic diseases such as osteoporosis or cancer

Overall, alveolar bone loss is a significant issue in dentistry and can have a major impact on the health and function of the teeth and jaw. It is essential to seek professional dental care if symptoms of alveolar bone loss are present to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

... attachment sites, microbiological MeSH G14.340.024.159 - cpg islands MeSH G14.340.024.189 - dna sequence, unstable MeSH G14.340 ... chromosome fragile sites MeSH G14.340.024.220 - dna, intergenic MeSH G14.340.024.220.150 - dna, satellite MeSH G14.340.024.220. ... rna splice sites MeSH G14.080.689.687.500 - rna 5' terminal oligopyrimidine sequence MeSH G14.080.689.755 - silencer elements, ... transcription initiation site MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.775 - rna 3' polyadenylation signals MeSH G14.340.024.340.137.780 - rna ...
Microbiological testing was shown to improve the prognostic features compared to recording bleeding on probing alone as this ... Increased levels of bleeding on probing was present at 67% of sites where there is peri-implant mucositis as it is indicative ... Increased probing depths over time is linked to loss of attachment and a reduction in the supporting alveolar bone levels. When ... This is especially true with respect to their surrounding tissues and biological attachment. The diagnosis of peri-implant ...
An adhesive basal element at one end of the filament can aid attachment to solid surfaces. The sheath offers some protection ... Individual mature cells swarm out of the protective tube to colonize new sites. Each motile mature cell has an intertwined ... Van Veen, WL; Mulder, EG; Deinema, MH (1978). "The Sphaerotilus-Leptothrix group of bacteria". Microbiological Reviews. 42 (2 ...
Matrix vesicles bud from the plasma membrane at sites of interaction with the extracellular matrix. Thus, matrix vesicles ... Membrane proteins serving as receptors are sometimes tagged for downregulation by the attachment of ubiquitin. After arriving ... Walsby AE (March 1994). "Gas vesicles". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (1): 94-144. doi:10.1128/mmbr.58.1.94-144.1994. PMC 372955 ... Bleb (cell biology) Host-pathogen interface Membrane contact sites Membrane nanotube Membrane vesicle trafficking Micelle ...
The site of the ulcer is studied and marked in case sheet. The edge of the ulcer is studied. Whether satellite lesion is ... Microbiological culture tests may be necessary to isolate the causative organisms for some cases. Other tests that may be ... They are believed to be caused by a defect in the basement membrane and a lack of hemidesmosomal attachments. They are ... https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/corneal-ulcer https://www.merckmanuals.com/home/eye-disorders/corneal-disorders/corneal ...
Cysts never form, so transmission from one host to another is always based on direct contact between the sites they occupy. ... "Movement symbiosis". www.microbiological-garden.net. Retrieved 27 May 2019. Rosenberg, Eugene; Gophna, Uri (30 August 2011). ... attachment and cyst formation". Eur. J. Protistol. 43 (4): 281-94. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2007.06.004. PMID 17764914. Brugerolle G ... "Movement symbiosis2". www.microbiological-garden.net. Retrieved 27 May 2019. König, Helmut (2006). Intestinal Microorganisms of ...
The bacterial attachment site (attB) has a 96 base pair sequence homologous to the phage attachment site and is located at the ... Microbiological Research. 156 (1): 35-40. doi:10.1078/0944-5013-00087. PMID 11372651. S. Atsumi; J. W. Little (2006). "Role of ... The phage integrase gene (int) and the phage attachment site (attp) are located just upstream of the speA gene in the phage ... And finally, in 1997, McShan and Ferretti published that they had found the second attachment site (attR) for T12, while also ...
The direct attachment of the messenger to the antibody reduces the number of steps in the procedure, saving time and reducing ... Antigenic material must be fixed firmly on the site of its natural localization inside the cell. Intact antibodies can also be ... is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples. This ...
It may cause injury to the respiratory epithelial cell after its attachment. The injury of host epithelial cells caused by M. ... Microbiological Reviews. 58 (4): 686-699. doi:10.1128/mr.58.4.686-699.1994. PMC 372987. PMID 7854252. Webley, WC (2017). " ... a process that could potentially alter receptor recognition sites and affect cytokine induction and expression. As stated by ...
This attachment is mediated by the phage's receptor binding protein (RBP), which recognizes and binds to a receptor on the ... See the NCBI webpage on Lactobacillales Data extracted from "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology ... 2004). Lactic Acid Bacteria: Microbiological and Functional Aspects (3rd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. ISBN 978-0-8247- ... Giassi V, Kiritani C, Cristina Kupper K (2016). "Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks". Microbiological ...
Its membrane is the site of production of all the transmembrane proteins and lipids for most of the cell's organelles, ... Other proteins on the plasma membrane allow attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix; a function that maintains ... Voelker DR (December 1991). "Organelle biogenesis and intracellular lipid transport in eukaryotes". Microbiological Reviews. 55 ... Levine T, Loewen C (August 2006). "Inter-organelle membrane contact sites: through a glass, darkly". Current Opinion in Cell ...
The chromosome of C. diphtheriae has two different but functionally equivalent bacterial attachment sites (attB) for ... Diagnosis can often be made based on the appearance of the throat with confirmation by microbiological culture. Previous ... Since EF-2 is needed for the moving of tRNA from the A-site to the P-site of the ribosome during protein translation, ADP- ... The Home Office, the government department responsible for asylum seekers, refused to confirm the number of cases. Atkinson, ...
"The Earth Life Web, Growth and Development in Lichens". earthlife.net. 14 February 2020. Silliman BR, Newell SY (December 2003 ... Spores of many species have special appendages which facilitate attachment to the substratum. Marine fungi can also be found in ... Cavalier-Smith T (December 1993). "Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla". Microbiological Reviews. 57 (4): 953-94. doi:10.1128/ ... They form the base of the primary production that drives the ocean food web, and account for half of the current global primary ...
Arestin, a popular site specific brand of the antibiotic minocycline, is claimed to enable regaining of at least 1 mm of ... Gingival attachment begins to loosen further as the bacterial plaque continues to invade the space created by the swelling it ... partial-mouth disinfection in the treatment of periodontal infections: short-term clinical and microbiological observations". ... Site specific antibiotics may also be placed in the periodontal pocket following scaling and root planing in order to provide ...
... pockets are sites where the attachment has been gradually destroyed by collagen-destroying enzymes, known as collagenases) ... or specific microbiological profile, can benefit more from this adjunctive therapy." There is currently low-quality evidence ... With type 2 diabetes patients being shown to have 3.8 times more bone loss and 2.8 times more clinical attachment loss than non ... The cumulative effects of alveolar bone loss, attachment loss and pocket formation is more apparent with an increase in age. ...
Lectins help in the attachment of the parasite to the mucosal layer of the host during invasion. The amoebapores destroy the ... To help prevent the spread of amoebiasis around the home :[citation needed] Wash hands thoroughly with soap and hot running ... Microbiological Research. 261: 127061. doi:10.1016/j.micres.2022.127061. ISSN 0944-5013. PMID 35605309. S2CID 248741177. ... Cutaneous amoebiasis can also occur in skin around sites of colostomy wound, perianal region, region overlying visceral lesion ...
The site currently contains all of the T. vaginalis sequence project data, several EST libraries, and tools for data mining and ... The axostyle may be used for attachment to surfaces and may also cause the tissue damage seen in trichomoniasis infections. The ... Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, Garber G (April 1998). "Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis". Clin. ... TrichDB: the Trichomonas vaginalis genome resource NIH site on trichomoniasis. Taxonomy eMedicine article on trichomoniasis. ...
... which utilizes complex mechanisms to recognize various receptors on human cell types for attachment. After attachment, ... The swabs will be sent for microbiological analysis of the culture to confirm the growth of group A β-hemolytic streptococci. " ... In the case of perianal cellulitis, maintaining the dryness of the site and addressing the infection with topical antifungal ... Šterbenc A, Seme K, Lah LL, Točkova O, Kamhi Trop T, Švent-Kučina N, Pirš M (December 2016). "Microbiological characteristics ...
There are kits and serums commercially available for this assay (e.g. The Binding Site Inc.). TEM is a specialized type of ... This assay is based on a microbiological method conducted in petri dishes or multi-well plates. Specifically, a confluent ... In this variation, serum antibodies to the influenza virus will interfere with the virus attachment to red blood cells. ... Retrieved 2010-02-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Kärber, G. (1931). "Beitrag zur kollektiven ...
"Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) 5th Edition". Retrieved 2011-10-16. US National Institutes of ... The filovirus life cycle begins with virion attachment to specific cell-surface receptors, followed by fusion of the virion ... 4 nucleotide substitutions/site/year. The most recent common ancestor of sequenced filovirus variants was estimated to be 1971 ... A taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses?". Intervirology. 18 (1-2): 24-32. doi:10.1159/000149300. PMID 7118520. US ...
E.C. Jowett & M.L. McMaster (1995). "On-site wastewater treatment using unsaturated absorbent biofilters". Journal of ... The overall filtration process consists of microorganism attachment, substrate utilization which causes biomass growth, to ... Microbiological Reviews. 54 (1): 75-87. doi:10.1128/mr.54.1.75-87.1990. PMC 372760. PMID 2181260. Bioswales and strips for ... firm attachment, and colonization [Van Loosdrecht et al., 1990]. The transportation of microorganisms to the surface of the ...
GAP brings about attachment loss involving more than 30% of sites on teeth; effectively being at least three permanent teeth ... Genco RJ, Zambon JJ, Christersson LA (November 1986). "Use and interpretation of microbiological assays in periodontal diseases ... The rate of loss of attachment and bone loss is rapid. Loss of attachment refers to the destruction of periodontium whereas the ... LAP is localised to first molar or incisor interproximal attachment loss, whereas GAP is the interproximal attachment loss ...
Each active site creates a 'tunnel' which is the site of three distinct substrate binding sites: nucleotide, ammonium ion, and ... Adenylylation is a post-translational modification involving the covalent attachment of AMP to a protein side chain. Each ... Merrick MJ, Edwards RA (December 1995). "Nitrogen control in bacteria". Microbiological Reviews. 59 (4): 604-22. doi:10.1128/MR ... GDP, AMP, ADP bind to the ATP site. L-serine, L-alanine, and glycine bind to the site for L-glutamate in unadenylated GS. The ...
The cells of the microvascular system become spherical and the attachments to neighbouring cells are reduced to thin strings. ... from infections associated with the injection of drugs: experiences of a microbiological investigation team". Journal of ... "Autopsy findings in an outbreak of severe systemic illness in heroin users following injection site inflammation: an effect of ...
"Microbial attachment to food and food contact surfaces". In: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, Vol. 43. ed. Taylor, S. L ... "CDC - Listeria - Home". cdc.gov/listeria. Retrieved 15 June 2019. Temple, M. E.; Nahata, M. C. (May 2000). "Treatment of ... Salo S.; Laine A.; Alanko T.; Sjoberg A. M.; Wirtanen G. (2000). "Validation of the microbiological methods Hygicult dipsilde, ... Kalmokoff M. L.; Austin J. W.; Wan X. D.; Sanders G.; Banerjee S.; Farber J. M. (2001). "Adsorption, attachment and biofilm ...
The 2012 collection of military history essays about the changing role of women in warfare, "Women in War - from home front to ... Reviews of phage therapy indicate that more clinical and microbiological research is needed to meet current standards. Funding ... it allows for the attachment of engineered phages to integrin receptors and for endocytosis. These mimic adenoviral infection, ... Clinical trial number NCT04684641 for "CYstic Fibrosis bacterioPHage Study at Yale (CYPHY): A Single-site, Randomized, Double- ...
The association constant for neomycin with A-site RNA is in the 109 M−1 range. However, more than 50 years after its discovery ... Next is the attachment of the D-ribose via ribosylation of neamine, using 5-phosphoribosyl-1-diphosphate (PRPP) as the ribosyl ... "Comparative study of responses to neomycins B and C by microbiological and gas-liquid chromatographic assay methods". Applied ... the binding of neomycin-class aminoglycosides to the A site of 16S rRNA". Biochemistry. 41 (24): 7695-706. doi:10.1021/ ...
The fixed position is ensured by the attachment of the chloroplast to one of the ciliary roots. The pigmented stigma is not to ... Häder, D. P. (1987). "Photosensory behavior in procaryotes". Microbiological Reviews. 51 (1): 1-21. doi:10.1128/mr.51.1.1- ... only switching to positive phototaxis when searching for pupation sites. Tenebrio molitor by comparison is one species which ...
This refers to the two whip-like attachments (flagella) used for forward movement. Most dinoflagellates are protected with red- ... "Amoebae: Protists Which Move and Feed Using Pseudopodia". Tree of Life web project. "The Amoebae". The University of Edinburgh ... Journal of Microbiological Methods. 91 (1): 106-113. doi:10.1016/j.mimet.2012.07.017. PMID 22849829. Sogin, M. L.; Morrison, H ... "Welcome to the Phaeocystis antarctica genome sequencing project homepage". DiTullio, G. R.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Arrigo, K. R.; ...
The fixed position is ensured by the attachment of the chloroplast to one of the ciliary roots. The pigmented stigma is not to ... Accumulation at these sites occurs because cells frequently reverse their swimming direction when they encounter a temperature ... Foster, K. W.; Smyth, R. D. (1980). "Light Antennas in phototactic algae". Microbiological Reviews. 44 (4): 572-630. doi: ... Alternative attachment strategies for C. reinhardtii have been proposed for the assembly through modifying the interacting ...
The flow of protons makes the stalk subunit rotate, causing the active site of the synthase domain to change shape and ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ... Häse CC, Finkelstein RA (December 1993). "Bacterial extracellular zinc-containing metalloproteases". Microbiological Reviews. ... Metal cofactors are bound tightly to specific sites in proteins; although enzyme cofactors can be modified during catalysis, ...
Clarke, D.E. (2001). "Clinical and Microbiological Effects of Oral Zinc Ascorbate Gel in Cats". Journal of Veterinary Dentistry ... are able to bind directly to the enamel as well as the mineralized sections of the teeth where it takes up the binding sites ... and loss of attachment in beagle dogs". Journal of Periodontal Research. 18 (4): 452-458. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0765.1983.tb00382. ...
... pockets are sites where the attachment has been gradually destroyed by collagen-destroying enzymes, known as collagenases) ... The correlation of selected microbiological parameters with disease severity in Sri Lankan tea workers". Journal of Clinical ... of attachment loss Moderate: 3-4 mm (0.12-0.16 in) of attachment loss Severe: ≥ 5 mm (0.20 in) of attachment loss The "extent" ... Sites are defined as the positions at which probing measurements are taken around each tooth and, generally, six probing sites ...
... at Curlie DNA binding site prediction on protein DNA the Double Helix Game From the official Nobel Prize web site DNA under ... It may act as a recognition factor to regulate the attachment and dispersal of specific cell types in the biofilm; it may ... Microbiological Reviews. 57 (2): 434-50. doi:10.1128/MMBR.57.2.434-450.1993. PMC 372918. PMID 8336674. Doherty AJ, Suh SW ( ... In the active site of these enzymes, the incoming nucleoside triphosphate base-pairs to the template: this allows polymerases ...
Following attachment of the virus to the host's cell wall, capsid-bound glycolytic enzymes break down the cell wall. The viral ... "Home-Emiliania huxleyi". genome.jgi.doe.gov. Retrieved 3 March 2017. Wilson, William H.; Tarran, Glen A.; Schroeder, Declan; ... "Growth Characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo Virus and Its Possible Use as a Microbiological Agent for Red Tide Control". ... World of Chlorella Viruses Home Page Viruses portal Viralzone: Phycodnaviridae ICTV (Articles with short description, Short ...
In this way, fragments of the seven variable regions (V1-V7) present in tprK and the 53 donor sites of tprD can be combined to ... The outer membrane's treponemal ligands main function is attachment to host cells, with functional and antigenic relatedness ... Treponema Pallidum Polypeptide Research Group". Microbiological Reviews. 57 (3): 750-79. doi:10.1128/MMBR.57.3.750-779.1993. ...
After attachment, a protease of the host cell cleaves and activates the receptor-attached spike protein. Depending on the host ... But human coronavirus NL63 is peculiar in that its M protein has the binding site for the host cell, and not its S protein. The ... International Union of Microbiological Societies. Virology Division (eds.). Ninth Report of the International Committee on ... They help in the attachment to and detachment from the host cell. Inside the envelope, there is the nucleocapsid, which is ...
Microbiological hazards have led to a development of the LOCAD-PTS which identifies common bacteria and molds faster than ... "At Home with Commander Scott Kelly (Video)". International Space Station: NASA. 6 December 2010. Archived from the original on ... Then typically there is a capture process, coarse alignment and fine alignment and then structural attachment. just for Nauka ... ISS crew members have access to the Internet, and thus the web. This was first enabled in 2010, allowing NASA astronaut T.J. ...
Donlan RM (October 2001). "Biofilm formation: a clinically relevant microbiological process". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 33 ... into the extracellular space to recruit and activate immune cells at the site of infection. Inflammasome activation due to C. ... "Candida albicans biofilm development is governed by cooperative attachment and adhesion maintenance proteins". NPJ Biofilms and ...
Attachment Sites (Microbiology). Attachment Sites, Microbiological. H - Physical Sciences. Changed terms. Replaced-by. ...
Attachment Sites, Microbiological* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Hiding the host cell receptor attachment site on a viral surface from immune surveillance M G Rossmann. J Biol Chem. 1989. . ... all of which alter receptor attachment. The strategy used in human rhinovirus 14 to protect the viral receptor attachment site ... Hiding the host cell receptor attachment site on a viral surface from immune surveillance M G Rossmann 1 ...
Attachment Sites, Microbiological / genetics Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Enhancers (circles), loxP sites (solid triangles), regions used as flanks (thick lines), transcription start site for H19 ( ... BglII site present only on the DMRflox and DMRΔ alleles; (**) HindIII site present only on DMRΔ allele; (arrow) transcription ... Cre recombinase mediated excision of the DMR keeps the BglII site and also brings in juxtaposition a HindIII site (bottom). ( ...
Attachment sites of four tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing humans in Georgia and South Carolina. J Med Entomol 1999; ... Biosafety in microbiological and biomedical laboratories (BMBL). 5th ed. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human ... Sites where ticks commonly attach to humans include, but are not limited to, the scalp, abdomen, axillae, and groin, as well as ... CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date ...
Attachment Sites, Microbiological Preferred Term Term UI T003833. Date04/13/1990. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1991). ... Att Attachment Sites AttB Attachment Sites AttP Attachment Sites Attachment Site (Microbiology) Attachment Site, Bacterial ... Attachment Sites (Microbiology) Attachment Sites, Bacterial Bacterial Attachment Site Bacterial Attachment Sites Microbiologic ... Attachment Site Microbiologic Attachment Sites Phage Attachment Sites Previous Indexing. Coliphages (1966-1979). DNA, Viral ( ...
Attachment Sites, Microbiological Preferred Term Term UI T003833. Date04/13/1990. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1991). ... Att Attachment Sites AttB Attachment Sites AttP Attachment Sites Attachment Site (Microbiology) Attachment Site, Bacterial ... Attachment Sites (Microbiology) Attachment Sites, Bacterial Bacterial Attachment Site Bacterial Attachment Sites Microbiologic ... Attachment Site Microbiologic Attachment Sites Phage Attachment Sites Previous Indexing. Coliphages (1966-1979). DNA, Viral ( ...
Microbiological Attachment Sites Medicine & Life Sciences 9% * Bacterial Chromosomes Medicine & Life Sciences 8% ... Secondary attachment site lysogens of Δattλ Δppc-argECBH strains of Escherichia coli with λcI857 integrated into the bfe gene ( ... N2 - Secondary attachment site lysogens of Δattλ Δppc-argECBH strains of Escherichia coli with λcI857 integrated into the bfe ... AB - Secondary attachment site lysogens of Δattλ Δppc-argECBH strains of Escherichia coli with λcI857 integrated into the bfe ...
FDA FERN Microbiological Cooperative Agreement Program (U18) PAR-09-215. FDA ... General Information. For general information on SF424 (R&R) Application and Electronic Submission, see these Web sites: *SF424 ... All attachments must be provided to FDA in PDF format, filenames must be included with no spaces or special characters, and a ... and follow the directions provided on that Web site.. A one-time registration is required for institutions/organizations at ...
Attachment Sites (Microbiology). Attachment Sites, Microbiological. H - Physical Sciences. Changed terms. Replaced-by. ...
The risk for COPD appeared to be significantly elevated when attachment loss was found to be severe. A trend was noted in that ... AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of scaling and root planing (SRP) alone or ... Among the several salivary proteins, MG2, alpha-amylase, and the acidic proline-rich proteins provided the binding sites for S ... Clinical and microbiological benefits of systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin in the treatment of smokers with chronic ...
The Analyst will assist the Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division team with providing technical ... laboratory support for a research project focusing on the microbial risks associated with on-site graywater and combined ... Parts/Attachments:. text/plain (31 lines) Subject: EPA Microbial Risk Analyst Description: The EPA Environmental Research and ... microbiological research, and molecular biology research · Will perform tasks such as preparing a Quality Assurance Project ...
... reactions that were not mediated through conservative site-specific recombination or damaged the recombination sites but the ... genome engineering in vertebrate cells and that DNA damage repair is a major limitation upon the utility of this class of site- ... integrase yielded approximately two-fold more recombinants and displayed about two fold less damage to the recombination sites ... thereby demonstrating that the ability to mediate extra-chromosomal recombination is no guide to ability to mediate site- ...
AN - do not confuse with PHAGE ATTACHMENT SITES see ATTACHMENT SITES, MICROBIOLOGICAL HN - 2021; use RECEPTORS,VIRUS 1979-2020 ... HN - 2021 BX - Internet Usage BX - Web Usage BX - Web Use MH - Interprofessional Education UI - D000081784 MN - I2.358.805 MS ... The attachment of the virus is the first step of a process that leads to CORONAVIRUS INFECTIONS. HN - 2021 BX - Cell Surface ... Sites in the host cell where the virus induces the formation of cellular assemblies for the replication of the VIRAL GENOME. HN ...
... viruses resulting from substitution of aspartic acid 151 in the catalytic site: a role in virus attachment? J of Virol. 84, ... Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. , (2009).. *Reed, H. M. A simple method of estimating fifty percent ... We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.. By continuing to use our website or clicking "Continue", you are ... as defined in the Biosafety on Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL)12. ...
The organism becomes difficult to remove from the cantaloupe surfaces due to attachment to inaccessible sites and biofilm ... presenting a major obstacle for ensuring the microbiological safety of fresh-cut cantaloupe. ... This layer allows for the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface of the layer and the secretion of EPS. The ... Brown et.al showed the attachment and biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni to extruded chicken meat. They demonstrated ...
... long-standing expertise in microbiological quality control, enhance performance and improve the safety of your processes. ... The content of our website is always available in English and partly in other languages. Choose your preferred language and we ... Benefit from Sartorius long-standing expertise in microbiological quality control, enhance performance and improve the safety ...
Other Attachments: In the Other Attachments section, include the following, each as a separate attachment. NOTE: Each ... 6.b. Outdoor water (i.e., natural site drainage and low impact storm water retention). 7. Enhancement of indoor environmental ... Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, CDC/NIH, 5th Edition, http://www.cdc.gov/OD/ohs/biosfty/bmbl5/ ... The Project Narrative attachment of the SF424 (R&R) Other Project Information form is limited to 12 pages, excluding Line ...
5 mm clinical attachment loss and severe periodontitis as teeth sites with attachment loss ≥ 5 mm [15]. Each subject had at ... Microbiological examination of OPA, BAL and plaque specimens were done from Gram-stained smears for detection of pus cells and ... Probing depth and clinical attachment levels were measured to the nearest mm at 6 sites on each tooth using Williams graduated ... Microbiological assessment. From the control group, OPA cultures yielded only growth of normal upper respiratory tract flora, ...
The new site is expected to be able to handle at least 2,000 users at a time, or up to 16,000 comments per hour. Users will be ... The system provides a comment box where 4,000 characters can be entered, and it accepts electronic attachments. Once entered, ... Microwave Processing: Current Background and Effects on the Physicochemical and Microbiological Aspects of Dairy Products ...
Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly to A-Z link Skip directly ... Data is collected weekly and does not include downloads and attachments. View data is from . ... Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the ... indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. *The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the ...
2.1 Study site. 2.1.1 General description of the Mekong basin. 2.1.2 Main challenges on the Mekong basin. 2.2 Methods. 2.2.1 In ... 4.4.1 Particle attachment effect on E. coli apparent decay rates. 4.4.2 Deposition effect on E. coli apparent decay rates. 4.4. ... 4.3.2 Physico-chemical and microbiological variables. 4.3.3 Apparent decay rates and T50 and T90 values. 4.3.4 E. coli stock ... 3.2.1 Study site. 3.2.2 Sampling design and watersheds characteristics. 3.2.3 Geographical analyses. 3.2.4 Land use. 3.2.5 Data ...
The main settlement and development sites: description of the types of plants that can be colonized by legionella, their ... The main risks associated with swimming facilities: physical, chemical and microbiological. The main strategies for the ... Attachments Title. Info File. TPALL_sessione laurea Aprile 2023_pubblicazione 142 KB, 14/04/23 ... or check the login details recovery web page. ...
A total of 62 samples of GCF were collected from diseased sites and from contralateral healthy sites and the samples were ... This results in loss of attachment of 4 mm or more in at least 2 permanent first molars and incisors. Gingival tissue around ... Microbiological and immunological aspects. The development of LAP involves the participation of immune an inflammatory response ... Clinical, genetic and microbiological findings in a Brazilian family with aggressive periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2002 ...
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.. Read more about our cookies here. ... This would either necessitate a suite of pathogenicity factors to enable attachment, disease development, and dispersal for ... Four additional cases of Burkholderia gladioli infection with microbiological correlates and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1997, ... This suggests that agfB alone plays a role in plant attachment [63]. ...
An official website of the United States government Heres how you know The .gov means its official.. Federal government ... During this outbreak, we were tapped to become a Tier One testing laboratory, and during this event, our microbiological food ... and that includes attachments and a variety of other things. And so, what weve been doing is playing that by product role ... ORAPP is basically a website where people can go and log in and access certain data sharing capabilities. On the other hand, ...
  • 4. Patterns of attachment loss in advanced periodontitis patients monitored following initial periodontal treatment. (nih.gov)
  • 7. Clinical indicators of probing attachment loss following initial periodontal treatment in advanced periodontitis patients. (nih.gov)
  • 9. The rate of periodontal attachment loss in subjects with established periodontitis. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Maintenance of periodontal attachment levels in prosthetically treated patients with gingivitis or moderate chronic periodontitis 5-17 years post therapy. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Clinical and microbiological features of subjects with adult periodontitis who responded poorly to scaling and root planing. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Clinical course of chronic periodontitis: effect of lifelong light smoking (20 years) on loss of attachment and teeth. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of microbiological contamination in a museum. (cdc.gov)
  • 1990. Contamination of soil and groundwater by automatic transmission fluid: Site description and problem assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • 19. Clinical characteristics of periodontal sites with probing attachment loss following initial periodontal treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a brief literature review on LAP, and present the clinical, radiographic, microbiological and immunological aspects of this rare form of periodontal disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY . (nih.gov)
  • The four apparently identical phage were isolated from three separate lysates, which suggests the existence of preferred sites for illegitimate recombination on the bacterial and phage chromosomes. (umn.edu)
  • This layer allows for the initial attachment of the bacterial cells to the surface of the layer and the secretion of EPS. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • Clinical and microbiological baseline data. (nih.gov)
  • Accelerate soft and hard tissue regeneration to reduce Pocket Depth, increase Clinical Attachment, limit Gingival Recession, and stop bleeding on probing. (regedent.com)
  • Five of the remaining eight enzymes were active on extra-chromosomal substrates thereby demonstrating that the ability to mediate extra-chromosomal recombination is no guide to ability to mediate site-specific recombination on integrated DNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • All the integrases that were active on integrated DNA also promoted DNA integration reactions that were not mediated through conservative site-specific recombination or damaged the recombination sites but the extent of these aberrant reactions varied over at least an order of magnitude. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The production of ESP enhances the biofilm attachment to the food contact surfaces and protects the cells within the biofilm from the external stresses such as sanitizing agents. (ask-bioexpert.com)
  • These include site-specific mutations of residues in the canyon and conformational changes induced in the canyon by the binding of small organic molecules, all of which alter receptor attachment. (nih.gov)
  • Using a participatory- based approach to teaching and learning, attendees will have the opportunity to use software tools and contribute to in-depth discussions, share experiences, and exchange resources in a variety of thematic topics such as Microbial and Ecological Risk Assessment, Risk Based Site Evaluation, Cryptosporidium Epidemiology. (bio.net)
  • T his Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Emergency Response Laboratory Network (FERN) Microbiological Cooperative Agreement Program Grant mechanism (U18) is to solicit applications from institutions/ organizations for inclusion into its Microbiology Cooperative Agreement Program. (nih.gov)
  • Safe food represents not only the food of certain texture, but food which does not consist microbiological, physical, chemical, radiological or any other contaminants. (who.int)
  • The strategy used in human rhinovirus 14 to protect the viral receptor attachment site from immune surveillance may be utilized not only in other picornaviruses but also in many other types of viruses including human immunodeficiency virus. (nih.gov)
  • The Analyst will assist the Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Division team with providing technical laboratory support for a research project focusing on the microbial risks associated with on-site graywater and combined wastewater reuse systems. (umd.edu)
  • Patterns, variations and risks of attachment loss. (nih.gov)
  • There are many kinds of water filters available, from faucet attachments to reverse osmosis systems. (googleapis.com)
  • It has handed military-spec testing (NSF Protocol P248 Navy Operations - Microbiological Water Purifiers) and can take away something larger than 0.0.15 microns from the water stream. (sweetnessandsour.com)
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