Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Benzeneacetamides: Compounds based on benzeneacetamide, that are similar in structure to ACETANILIDES.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Atropa belladonna: A plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.Opium: The air-dried exudate from the unripe seed capsule of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, or its variant, P. album. It contains a number of alkaloids, but only a few - MORPHINE; CODEINE; and PAPAVERINE - have clinical significance. Opium has been used as an analgesic, antitussive, antidiarrheal, and antispasmodic.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Belladonna Alkaloids: Alkaloids obtained from various plants, especially the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), variety acuminata; atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine are classical, specific antimuscarinic agents with many pharmacologic actions; used mainly as antispasmodics.Atropa: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE which contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS including ATROPINE which is named after this genus.Dictionaries, MedicalKeratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Neisseria sicca: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA found in the human NASOPHARYNX; SALIVA; and SPUTUM.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Advanced Cardiac Life Support: The use of sophisticated methods and equipment to treat cardiopulmonary arrest. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) includes the use of specialized equipment to maintain the airway, early defibrillation and pharmacological therapy.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Cola: A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. This is the source of the kola nut which contains CAFFEINE and is used in popular beverages.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Esomeprazole: The S-isomer of omeprazole.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Gum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Pharmaceutic Aids: Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.Pseudoephedrine: A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.JapanAsian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.

Investigation of stretching behaviour induced by the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist, Ro 04-6790, in rats. (1/121)

1. The present study examined the effects of the selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist 4-amino-N-(2, 6 bis-methylamino-pyrimidin-4-yl)-benzene sulphonamide (Ro 04-6790) on locomotor activity and unconditioned behaviour in male Sprague Dawley rats (230-300 g). 2. In non-quantified behavioural observations, animals treated with Ro 04-6790 (3, 10 or 30 mg kg(-1), i.p) showed no overt behavioural signs except a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity and a behavioural syndrome of stretching, yawning and chewing. The latter behaviour was most pronounced between 30 and 90 min following the administration of Ro 04-6790. 3. Detailed analysis of the stretching and yawning behaviour showed that Ro 04-6790 (3, 10 or 30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) dose-dependently induced stretching. The number of stretches observed following treatment with either Ro 04-6790 (10 mg kg(-1) i.p.) or Ro-04-6790 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was significantly greater than that observed in saline-treated rats. The yawning behaviour, however, was not dose-dependent nor was the number of yawns in any of the drug treated groups significantly greater than in those treated with saline. 4. Pretreatment (30 min) with the non-selective muscarinic antagonists scopolamine (0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) and atropine (0.3, 1 or 3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) but not methylatropine (1, 3 or 10 mg kg(-1), s.c) significantly inhibited stretching induced by Ro 04-6790 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.). 5. The dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, haloperidol (0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 mg kg(-1), s.c.) given at the same time as Ro 04-6790 (30 mg kg(-1), i.p.) had no effect on the stretching induced by the 5-HT6 antagonist. 6. These data suggest that systemic injection of the 5-HT6 antagonist, Ro 04-6790, produces a stretching behaviour that appears to be mediated by an increase in cholinergic neurotransmission in the CNS and which could be a useful functional correlate for 5-HT6 receptor blockade. There is no evidence for dopamine D2-like receptor involvement in this behaviour.  (+info)

Gastrointestinal motor and myoelectric correlates of motion sickness. (2/121)

The objectives of this study were to characterize the digestive tract motor and myoelectric responses associated with motion sickness. Twenty-two cats (1.5-3.0 kg) were chronically implanted with force transducers and electrodes on the stomach and small intestine. Motion sickness was activated by vertical oscillation (VO) at +/-0.5 g and identified as salivation, licking, or vomiting. Vomiting was initiated chemically by UK-14304 (2.5-15 microg/kg iv) or CuSO4 (10-50 mg ig). We found that VO caused vomiting (45% of trials), a decrease in gastrointestinal (GI) motility (69% of trials), salivation or licking (59% of trials), bradygastria (39% of trials), retrograde giant contraction (RGC, 43% of trials), giant migrating contraction (GMC, 5% of trials), and defecation (18% of trials). The decrease in GI motility occurred with (62% of trials) or without (69% of trials) vomiting. Motion sickness was accompanied by bradygastria (52% of trials) and decreased GI motility (70% of trials). Similar events occurred after CuSO4 and UK-14304, but the incidences of responses after CuSO4 were less frequent, except for vomiting, RGC, and GMC. UK-14304 never caused GMCs or defecation. The magnitude and velocity of the RGC were the same during all emetic stimuli, and RGCs never occurred without subsequent vomiting. Supradiaphragmatic vagotomy (n = 1) or atropine (n = 2, 10 or 50 microg/kg iv) blocked the RGC, but not vomiting, due to VO. We concluded that 1) oculovestibular stimulation causes digestive tract responses similar to other types of emetic stimuli, 2) decreased GI motility and bradygastria may be physiological correlates of the motion sickness, and 3) motion sickness may not be dependent on any specific GI motor or myoelectric response.  (+info)

Evidence for a role for central 5-HT2B as well as 5-HT2A receptors in cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetized rats. (3/121)

1. The effects of injections i.c.v. of quipazine, (2 micromol kg-1) and 1-(2,5-di-methoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI; 2 micromol kg-1) on renal sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate were investigated in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized rats pretreated with a peripherally acting 5-HT2 receptor antagonist. 2. Quipazine or DOI caused a rise in MAP which was associated with a tachycardia and renal sympathoinhibition in rats pretreated (i.c.v.) with the antagonist vehicle 10% PEG. These effects of quipazine were completely blocked by pretreatment with cinanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) and attenuated by spiperone (a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the sympathoinhibition, while pretreatment with SB204741 (a 5-HT2B receptor antagonist) reversed the sympathoinhibition to excitation as it also did for DOI. Quipazine also caused renal sympathoexcitation in the presence (i.v.) of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked by quipazine alone and in the presence of SB204741 caused an immediate fall in MAP. For quipazine alone the renal sympathoinhibition was slowly reversed to an excitation, while the renal sympathoexcitation observed in the presence of SB204741 was potentiated. In both, the quipazine-evoked tachycardia was unaffected. 4. The data indicate that cardiovascular responses caused by i.c.v. quipazine and DOI are primarily due to activation of central 5-HT2A receptors, which causes the release of vasopressin and a tachycardia. This released vasopressin appears to suppress a 5-HT2A receptor-evoked central increase in sympathetic outflow, which involves the activation of central 5-HT2B receptors indirectly by the released vasopressin.  (+info)

Meal-induced insulin secretion in dogs is mediated by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. (4/121)

We investigated the relationship between autonomic activity to the pancreas and insulin secretion in chronically catheterized dogs when food was shown, during eating, and during the early absorptive period. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) output, pancreatic norepinephrine spillover (PNESO), and arterial epinephrine (Epi) were measured as indexes for parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous activity to the pancreas and for adrenal medullary activity, respectively. The relation between autonomic activity and insulin secretion was confirmed by autonomic blockade. Showing food to dogs initiated a transient increase in insulin secretion without changing PP output or PNESO. Epi did increase, suggesting beta(2)-adrenergic mediation, which was confirmed by beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Eating initiated a second transient insulin response, which was only totally abolished by combined muscarinic and beta-adrenoceptor blockade. During absorption, insulin increased to a plateau. PP output showed the same pattern, suggesting parasympathetic mediation. PNESO decreased by 50%, suggesting withdrawal of inhibitory sympathetic neural tone. We conclude that 1) the insulin response to showing food is mediated by the beta(2)-adrenergic effect of Epi, 2) the insulin response to eating is mediated both by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation and by the beta(2)-adrenergic effect of Epi, and 3) the insulin response during early absorption is mediated by parasympathetic activation, with possible contribution of withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone.  (+info)

Comparison of aerosol ipratropium bromide and salbutamol in chronic bronchitis and asthma. (5/121)

The effects of inhaling 200 mu g of salbutamol were compared with those of inhaling 40 mu g of ipratropium bromide singly and in combination with salbutamol in eight patients with bronchitis and eight asthmatic patients in a double-blind controlled trial. Changes in airways resistance were assessed by measuring the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and specific airways conductance. Both drugs were significantly better in relieving airways obstruction than placebo. Salbutamol was significantly more effective than ipratropium bromide in patients with asthma, but in the patients with bronchitis there was no significant difference between salbutamol and ipratropium bromide. The combination of the two drugs produced a slightly greater and longer response than either drug alone but this was not significant.  (+info)

Cardiac sympathetic overactivity and decreased baroreflex sensitivity in L-NAME hypertensive rats. (6/121)

The present study evaluated the possible changes in the autonomic control of heart rate in the hypertensive model induced by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. Rats were treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME group) in the drinking water during 7 days, whereas control groups were treated with tap water (control group) or with the N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (D-NAME group), an inactive isomer of the L-NAME molecule. The L-NAME group developed hypertension and tachycardia. The sequential blockade of the autonomic influences with propranolol and methylatropine indicated that the intrinsic heart rate did not differ among groups and revealed a sympathetic overactivity in the control of heart rate in the L-NAME group. The spectral density power of heart rate, calculated using fast-Fourier transformation, indicated a reduced variability in the low-frequency band (0.20-0.60 Hz) for the L-NAME group. The baroreflex sensitivity was also attenuated in these animals when compared with the normotensive control or D-NAME group. Overall, these data indicate cardiac sympathetic overactivity associated with a decreased baroreflex sensitivity in L-NAME hypertensive rats.  (+info)

Activation of Galpha s mediates induction of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene transcription by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. (7/121)

The epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are products of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases that have vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we report that EETs have additional fibrinolytic properties. In vascular endothelial cells, physiological concentrations of EETs, particularly 11,12-EET, or overexpression of the endothelial epoxygenase, CYP2J2, increased tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) expression by 2.5-fold without affecting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression. This increase in t-PA expression correlated with a 4-fold induction in t-PA gene transcription and a 3-fold increase in t-PA fibrinolytic activity and was blocked by the CYP inhibitor, SKF525A, but not by the calcium-activated potassium channel blocker, charybdotoxin, indicating a mechanism that does not involve endothelial cell hyperpolarization. The t-PA promoter is cAMP-responsive, and induction of t-PA gene transcription by EETs correlated with increases in intracellular cAMP levels and, functionally, with cAMP-driven promoter activity. To determine whether increases in intracellular cAMP levels were due to modulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, we assessed the effects of EETs on Galpha(s) and Galpha(i2). Treatment with EETs increased Galpha(s), but not Galpha(i2), GTP-binding activity by 3.5-fold. These findings indicate that EETs possess fibrinolytic properties through the induction of t-PA and suggest that endothelial CYP2J2 may play an important role in regulating vascular hemostasis.  (+info)

Expression of apoptosis on rat liver by hepatic vagus hyperactivity after ventromedial hypothalamic lesioning. (8/121)

We examined whether the Fas (APO-1/CD95)/Fas ligand system mediates apoptosis in rats with ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) lesions. Northern and Western blotting indicated that VMH lesions lead to a significant increase in Fas mRNA and protein expression from day 1 to day 7 and in Fas ligand mRNA and protein expression from day 2 to day 7. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the region of strongest Fas expression shifted from acinar zone 1 to zones 2 and 3 by day 7 after VMH lesioning and that at days 2-7 Fas-ligand-positive hepatocyte cell membranes and cytoplasm were randomly distributed in acinar zones 1-3. We also analyzed activation of caspase 3-like proteases in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Spectrofluorometric assay demonstrated that caspase 3-like activity significantly increased only in hepatocytes after VMH lesioning. Moreover, electron microscopy and TUNEL assay showed that VMH lesions induced apoptosis. All of these effects were completely inhibited by hepatic vagotomy and administration of atropine. Vagal firing after VMH lesioning may stimulate Fas/Fas ligand system-mediated apoptosis through the cholinergic system in the rat liver.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... atropine MeSH D03.132.889.180.297.297 --- atropine derivatives MeSH D03.132.889.180.297.297.400 --- ipratropium MeSH D03.132. ... atropine MeSH D03.605.869.189.297 --- atropine derivatives MeSH D03.605.869.189.297.400 --- ipratropium MeSH D03.605.869.270 ... morphine derivatives MeSH D03.132.610.422.547.547.149 --- codeine MeSH D03.132.610.422.547.547.149.287 --- hydrocodone MeSH ... atropine MeSH D03.132.760.180.848 --- scopolamine MeSH D03.132.760.200 --- capsaicin MeSH D03.132.760.570 --- nicotine MeSH ...

*Ipratropium bromide

Ipratropium is a derivative of atropine but is a quaternary amine and therefore does not cross the blood-brain barrier, which ... Chemically, ipratropium bromide is a quaternary ammonium compound obtained by treating atropine with isopropyl bromide, thus ... The main contraindication for inhaled ipratropium is hypersensitivity to atropine and related substances. For oral ... the name: isopropyl + atropine.[citation needed] Ipratropium exhibits broncholytic action by reducing cholinergic influence on ...

*Drug injection

... hyoscyamine or laevo-atropine (1831), opium salts mixtures (c. 1840s), chloral derivatives (1831 et seq.), ephedrine (1836?), ... The atropine may very well not present a problem, and there is the possibility of atropine content reduction of soluble tablets ... Unlike naloxone, atropine does indeed help morphine and other narcotics combat neuralgia. ... Some manufacturers add the narcotic antagonist naloxone or the anticholinergics atropine and homatropine (in lower than ...

*Naphthylvinylpyridine

... (NVP) is a naphthalene derivative that possesses anticholinergic activity similar to that of atropine. ... Several NVP derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit choline acetyltransferase and protect ... "Synthesis of a naphthylvinylpyridine derivative and its use for affinity chromatography of choline acetyltransferase". ...

*Withania somnifera

Benzatropine and etybenzatropine are derivatives of tropine. It is also a building block of atropine, an anticholinergic drug ... Tropine is a derivative of tropane containing a hydroxyl group at third carbon. It is also called 3-tropanol. ... more potent alkaloids like atropine or cocaine. Cuscohygrine (along with the related metabolite hygrine) was first isolated by ...

*O-acylpseudotropine

... is a derivative of pseudotropine substituted at the formers oxygen by an acyl group. Tropine Pseudotropine ... acyltransferase Pseudotropine benzoate (a.k.a. "tropacocaine") Atropine Tropinone. ...

*Tropine

... is a derivative of tropane containing a hydroxyl group at the third carbon. It is also called 3-tropanol. Pseudotropine ... Atropine Tropinone Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 3-564, ...

*Depressant

For opioid agonists and opium derivatives, these are classified differently. Analgesic or narcotic correctly identifies these ... Atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, etc.) Anticonvulsants (Pregabalin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.) Antihistamines ( ...

*Opine

For example, atropine, stylopine, europine, and lycopine belong to different classes of molecules. Opines and opine-like ... Similar derivatives have been isolated from muscle tissue of certain marine invertebrates: alanopine, strombine, and tauropine ... Leucinopine Leucinopine (N2-(D-1,3-dicarboxypropyl) derivative of leucine) is a member of the nopaline family isolated from ... Chemically, opines fall into two major structural classes: 1. The vast majority are secondary amine derivatives formed by ...

*Pseudotropine

... (3β-tropanol, ψ-tropine, 3-pseudotropanol or PTO) is a derivative of tropane and an isomer of tropine See also: U ... Atropine Tropinone. ...

*Alkaloid

For example, atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna, strychnine is obtained from the seed of Strychnine tree ( ... It is another derivative dimer of vindoline and catharanthine and is synthesised from anhydrovinblastine, starting either from ... Alkaloids can be toxic too (e.g. atropine, tubocurarine). Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in humans ... Hesse, p. 5 The suffix "ine" is a Greek feminine patronymic suffix and means "daughter of"; hence, for example, "atropine" ...

*WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children

Atropine Epinephrine (adrenaline)α No listings in this section. Intraperitoneal dialysis solution (of appropriate composition)α ... Levothyroxine Lugol's solutionα Potassium iodideα Propylthiouracilα Tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD) Antivenom ... Halothane Isoflurane Nitrous oxide Oxygen Ketamine Propofol Bupivacaine Lidocaine Lidocaine/epinephrine Atropine Midazolam ... activated Acetylcysteine Atropine Calcium gluconate Methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue) Naloxone Deferoxamineα ...

*Orphenadrine

... as potent as atropine) H1 receptor antagonist (antihistamine) NMDA receptor antagonist (Ki-value of 6.0 +/- 0.7 μM, one third ... and Nav1.9 sodium channel blocker HERG potassium channel blocker Orphenadrine is a derivative of diphenhydramine with a methyl ...

*Galantamine

Research supported in part by the US Army has led to a US patent application for the use of galantamine and/or its derivatives ... Increasing the dose of galantamine from 5 to 8 mg/kg decreased the dose of atropine needed to protect experimental animals from ... According to the investigators, an unexpected synergistic interaction occurred between galantamine and atropine in an amount of ... studied in the research cited in the patent application for use along with the well-recognized nerve agent antidote atropine. ...

*WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

... purified protein derivative (PPD) Antivenom immunoglobulin Diphtheria antitoxin BCG vaccine Cholera vaccine Diphtheria vaccine ... Atropine Midazolam Morphine Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) Ibuprofen Paracetamol (acetaminophen) Codeine Fentanyl Morphine ... activated Acetylcysteine Atropine Calcium gluconate Methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue) Naloxone Penicillamine Prussian ... Gentamicin Natamycin Ofloxacin Tetracycline Prednisolone Tetracaine Acetazolamide Latanoprost Pilocarpine Timolol Atropine ...

*Substance-induced psychosis

Varghese, S.; Vettath, N.; Iyer, K.; Puliyel, J. M.; Puliyel, M. M. (1990). "Ocular atropine induced psychosis--is there a ... see adverse effects of fluoroquinolones The related quinoline derivative mefloquine (Lariam) has also been associated with ... Bergman, K. R.; Pearson, C.; Waltz, G. W.; Evans R. III (1980). "Atropine-induced psychosis. An unusual complication of therapy ... Prednisone and other corticosteroids Isotretinoin Anticholinergic drugs atropine scopolamine antidepressants L-dopa ...

*Diphenoxylate

The 25 µg of atropine present in each 2½ mg Lomotil tablet is 1/40 of the standard therapeutic dose of atropine via the oral ... diarrhoea and cramping which does not respond to belladonna derivatives and non-centrally-acting soothing and/or stool- ... Lomotil (diphenoxylate and atropine) contains diphenoxylate hydrochloride 2.5 mg, and atropine sulfate 0.025 mg to discourage ... difenoxin 1 mg with 25 µg atropine sulfate). Difenoxin is a DEA schedule C-I without atropine, but a schedule C-IV or C-V with ...

*Pharmacognosy

Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in ... the spasmolysis agent atropine; the vasodilator vincamine; the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine; the anti-asthma therapeutic ... Plants synthesize a bewildering variety of phytochemicals but most are derivatives of a few biochemical motifs: Alkaloids are a ... Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene. When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation ...

*Theodor Morell

... atropine (extract of seminal vesicles) Brom-Nervacit (bromide, since August 1941 a spoonful almost every night, to counteract ... a derivative of Phenazone) proteins and lipids derived from animal tissues and fats sodium barbitone strychnine sulfonamide ...

*Rivastigmine

It is a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine. It has been available in capsule and liquid formulations since 1997. In ... In cases of overdose, atropine is used to reverse bradycardia. Dialysis is ineffective due to the drug's half-life. ...

*Secondary metabolite

... and derivatives) Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are phytoalexins of the Pyrinae Polyketides: Erythromycin Lovastatin and other ... present in Datura stramonium Atropine, present in Atropa belladonna, Deadly nightshade Cocaine, present in Erythroxylum coca ...

*August Wilhelm von Hofmann

He wanted to convince chemists that organic bases could be described in terms of derivatives of ammonia. Hofmann successfully ... atropine, and tubocurarine, among others. Coniine eventually became the first of the alkaloids to be artificially synthesised. ... In 1863, Hofmann showed that aniline blue is a triphenyl derivative of rosaniline and discovered that different alkyl groups ... Hofmann was multilingual and published extensively, particularly about his work on coal tar and its derivatives. In 1865 ...

*Primidone

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The combination preparation ipratropium bromide/salbutamol is a formulation containing ipratropium bromide (an anticholinergic) and salbutamol sulfate (albuterol sulfate, a β2-adrenergic receptor agonist) used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It is marketed by Boehringer Ingelheim as a metered dose inhaler (MDI) and nebuliser under the trade name Combivent. It is also marketed by Dey, L.P. (Napa, California) under the brand name DuoNeb as a nebulizer. In Italy it is known as Breva. The chemical is sold in India by Cipla as duolin. Since Combivent contains a chlorofluorocarbon based propellant, it is being phased out in European Union countries. Chloroflourocarbons (CFC) are attributed to depletion of the ozone layer. Consumer Medication Information from PubMed http://bidocs.boehringer-ingelheim.com/BIWebAccess/ViewServlet.ser?docBase=renetnt&folderPath=/Prescribing+Information/PIs/Combivent+IA/combivent.pdf "Expert Panel 3. Expert panel report 3: ...
Ipratropium bromide. Molecular model of the anticholinergic drug ipratropium bromide (C20.H30.Br.N.O3). This is used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute asthma. It acts by blocking acetylcholine receptors. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue), oxygen (red) and bromine (brown, bromine ion at left). Illustration. - Stock Image F016/9809
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Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as asthma.. Ipratropium blocks muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, without specificity for subtypes, and therefore inhibits degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), resulting in an intracellular increase of cGMP concentration. Most likely due to actions of cGMP on intracellular calcium, this results in decreased contractility of smooth muscle in the lung, inhibiting bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. It is a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, and does not diffuse into the blood, which prevents systemic side effects. Ipratropium is a derivative of atropine[3] but is a quaternary amine and therefore does not cross the blood-brain barrier, which should prevent central side effects (anticholinergic syndrome). Ipratropium is considered a short-acting bronchodilator.[4][5]. ...
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Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
Provides information in ordering online Atrovent (ipratropium inhalation) drug. Atrovent Inhalation is used to prevent bronchospasm, lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and sometimes asthma.
Methylecgonidine (anhydromethylecgonine; anhydroecgonine methyl ester; AEME) is a chemical intermediate derived from ecgonine or cocaine. Methylecgonidine is a pyrolysis product formed when crack cocaine is smoked, making this substance a useful biomarker to specifically test for use of crack cocaine, as opposed to powder cocaine which does not form methylecgonidine as a metabolite. Methylecgonidine has a relatively short half-life of 18-21 minutes, after which it is metabolised to ecgonidine, meaning that the relative concentrations of the two compounds can be used to estimate how recently crack cocaine has been smoked. Methylecgonidine has been shown to be specifically more harmful to the body than other byproducts of cocaine; for example to the heart, lungs & liver. The toxicity is due to a partial agonist effect at M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, leading to DNA fragmentation and neuronal death by apoptosis. AEME is also used in scientific research for the manufacture of phenyltropane ...
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Email. LEXINGTON, Ky. - Trainer Kiaran McLaughlin began serving three concurrent 30-day suspensions on Tuesday after three horses in his care tested positive for a rarely used bronchial dilator following races at Keeneland in October, in a case that illustrates the dangers trainers face when using little-known medications. The bronchial dilator, ipratropium bromide, has been widely available for decades to treat lung problems such as asthma in humans. The drug, however, is not approved for use in horses by the Food and Drug Administration, and trainers, veterinarians, and testing officials have very little information to guide the proper use of the medication, especially when horses ship from states using less sensitive testing methods to those using more sensitive technologies. McLaughlin, who is based in New York and runs one of the most high-profile barns in the country, said that he had been using ipratropium bromide on the advice of his veterinarian to treat reactions to hay dust, using a ...
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Ipratropium is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Ipratropium will be used in treating patient with asthma and patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
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Guidelines for Use:. Read and follow the patient instructions provided.. Dosage is individualized. Do not exceed recommended dosage. Take exactly as prescribed.. Do not stop taking or change the dose unless instructed by your doctor.. Contact your doctor immediately if your medicine becomes less effective, your breathing symptoms become worse, or if you need to use the medicine more frequently than usual.. If a dose is missed, take it as soon as possible. If several hours have passed or it is nearing time for the next dose, do not double the dose to catch up, unless instructed by your doctor. If more than one dose is missed or it is necessary to establish a new dosage schedule, con-tact your doctor or pharmacist.. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, become pregnant, plan on becoming pregnant, or are breastfeeding.. Do not take other inhaled drugs during therapy unless instructed by your doctor.. ...
Guidelines for Use:. Read and follow the patient instructions provided.. Dosage is individualized. Do not exceed recommended dosage. Take exactly as prescribed.. Do not stop taking or change the dose unless instructed by your doctor.. Contact your doctor immediately if your medicine becomes less effective, your breathing symptoms become worse, or if you need to use the medicine more frequently than usual.. If a dose is missed, take it as soon as possible. If several hours have passed or it is nearing time for the next dose, do not double the dose to catch up, unless instructed by your doctor. If more than one dose is missed or it is necessary to establish a new dosage schedule, con-tact your doctor or pharmacist.. Inform your doctor if you are pregnant, become pregnant, plan on becoming pregnant, or are breastfeeding.. Do not take other inhaled drugs during therapy unless instructed by your doctor.. ...
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1. Terbutalin. Terbutalin termasuk dalam golongan obat-obat β2-agonis yang bersifat simpatomimetik. Golongan obat ini bekerja secara selektif pada reseptor β2 dan memiliki lama aksi yang panjang. Reseptor β2 terdapat pada berbagai organ tubuh seperti pada arteriol, otot polos bronkus, lambung dan usus, pankreas, uterus dan hepar. Pada paru-paru, bila dirangsang, reseptor β2 akan menyebabkan relaksasi dari otot polos bronkus.. Pada asma bronkiale, akibat proses inflamasi, terjadi hipereaktivitas bronkus dengan akibat terjadi spasme otot polos bronkus, yang bersama dengan faktor-faktor lainnya menyebabkan obstruksi saluran napas.. 2. Ipratropium Bromida. Ipratropium Bromida adalah obat yang masuk dalam golongan antikolinergik/antimuskarinik. Antikolinergik ini bekerja di alat yang dipersarafi serabut pasca ganglion kolinergik ( serabut parasimpatis). Di organ paru, perangsangan kolinergik akan menyebabkan kontraksi otot bronkus dan trakea serta peningkatan sekresi oleh kelenjar ...
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Once it has been discovered that you are taking Ipratropium or Atrovent, the next step will be to determine how well it is managing your pre-existing lung condition. From there…
0077] The time interval between intrinsic ventricular heart contractions changes in response to the bodys metabolic need for a change in heart rate and the amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system. For example, during a period of exercise or other activity, a person=s intrinsic heart rate will generally increase over a time period of several or many heartbeats. However, even on a beat-to-beat basis, that is, from one heart beat to the next, and without exercise, the time interval between intrinsic heart contractions varies in a normal person. These beat-to-beat variations in intrinsic heart rate are the result of proper regulation by the autonomic nervous system of blood pressure and cardiac output; the absence of such variations indicates a possible deficiency in the regulation being provided by the autonomic nervous system. One method for analyzing HRV involves detecting intrinsic ventricular contractions, and recording the time intervals between these contractions, referred to ...
Combivent is prescribed to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The medication works by dilating and enlarging the airways via relaxation of the muscles of respiratory tract.
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0047] The time interval between intrinsic ventricular heart contractions changes in response to the bodys metabolic need for a change in heart rate and the amount of blood pumped through the circulatory system. For example, during a period of exercise or other activity, a persons intrinsic heart rate will generally increase over a time period of several or many heartbeats. However, even on a beat-to-beat basis, that is, from one heart beat to the next, and without exercise, the time interval between intrinsic heart contractions varies in a normal person. These beat-to-beat variations in intrinsic heart rate are the result of proper regulation by the autonomic nervous system of blood pressure and cardiac output; the absence of such variations indicates a possible deficiency in the regulation being provided by the autonomic nervous system. One method for analyzing HRV involves detecting intrinsic ventricular contractions, and recording the time intervals between these contractions, referred to ...
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Albuterol; Ipratropium inhalation aerosol and solution What are albuterol; ipratropium inhalation aerosol and solution? ALBUTEROL; IPRATROPIUM (Combivent®, DuoNeb™) is a combination of bronchodilators, which are medicines that open up your air passages and make breathing easier. The combination is used for patients with lung problems such as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This medicine controls acute episodes or prevents recurring bouts of bronchospasm due to these conditions. Generic albuterol; ipratropium inhalation aerosols and nebulizer solutions are not yet available. What should my health care professional know before I use albuterol; ipratropium inhalation? They need to know if you have any of the following conditions: •bladder problems or difficulty passing urine •diabetes •glaucoma •heart disease, angina, or irregular heartbeat •high blood pressure •liver or kidney disease •prostate trouble •overactive thyroid gland •pheochromocytoma •seizures (convulsions) ...
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Atrovent nasal spray may be prescribed to treat a runny nose due to various causes. This eMedTV Web page takes an in-depth look at Atrovent nasal spray uses and explains how various strengths of the drug work for different causes of a runny nose.
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WASHINGTON - In a Federal Register notice posted September 10, CMS revised the procedure for manufacturers submitting average sales price data.. CMS made the revision after considering comments on the interim final rule issued April 6. That rule required manufacturers of the Part B drugs albuterol and ipratropium bromide to submit their ASP calculations quarterly, including data on all volume discounts, prompt pay discounts, cash discounts, rebates and free goods.. Several respondents to the initial interim rule, however, said that method could result in excessive quarter-to-quarter variability in the reported ASP, and CMS agreed.. The alternative methodology that CMS adopted now requires calculations using a yearly (rather than quarterly) average of price concessions.. Effective immediately, manufacturers must determine their rebates and discounts for a 12-month period to calculate their Total Price Concessions. This figure is then used to determine the drugs ASP, resulting in a more stable ...
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This editorial by R Andrew McIvor contained an error relating to the dose of ipratropium (BMJ 2010;340:c833, doi:10.1136/bmj.c833). The first sentence of the third paragraph should have read: "Over the past two decades, the short acting anticholinergic, ipratropium, has been widely prescribed for maintenance treatment, at two inhalations of 20 μg (micrograms) [not 20 mg as stated] four times a day via a metered dose inhaler." ...
Combivent contains a combination of albuterol and ipratropium. Albuterol and ipratropium are bronchodilators that relax muscles in the airways and increase air flow to the lungs.. Size: 14.7 grams (200 metered actuations). *This item is a special order and can take an additional 2-3 business days to process. Please contact the pharmacy with any questions (859) 281-9511.. ...
It is now well established that any given ligand for a G-protein-couple receptor (GPCR) does not simply possess a single defined efficacy. Rather, a ligand possesses multiple efficacies, depending on the specific down-stream signal transduction pathway analyzed. This diversity may be based on ligand-specific GPCR conformations and is often referred to as "functional selectivity." It has been known for a century that stereoisomers of catecholamines differ in their potency and, in some systems, also in their efficacy. However, the molecular basis for efficacy differences of GPCR ligand stereoisomers has remained poorly defined. In an elegant study published in this issue of Molecular Pharmacology, Woo et al. (p. 158) show that stereoisomers of the β2-adrenoceptor selective agonist fenoterol differentially activates Gs- and Gi-proteins in native rat cardiomyocytes. This study is so important because it is the first report to show that even the subtle structural differences within a ligand ...
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Asthma, the most common chronic condition among children, is operationally defined as "recurrent wheezing and/or persistent coughing in a setting where asthma is likely and other rare conditions have been excluded." Other definitions describe airway inflammation with eosinophilic and mast cell predominance, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and reversible airflow limitation resulting in recurrent cough and wheeze. Wide mismatches still exist among children between disease severity and adequacy of treatment. Morris and Mellis used an evidence-based technique to answer three major questions about the management of childhood asthma.. First, they looked at the usefulness of adding a nebulized anticholinergic agent (ipratropium bromide) to nebulized beta-agonist therapy in the treatment of acute asthma in children. The main results showed that a single dose of a nebulized anticholinergic agent did not reduce the incidence of hospital admissions. In children with moderate to severe asthma, multiple ...
Symptomatic infants with wheeze or ruttles were recruited from paediatric respiratory clinics, from inpatients admitted with acute viral induced respiratory illness, or from infants with ongoing noisy breathing in the community. Infants with bronchiolitis were not included. Approval for the study was obtained from the local ethics committee and informed consent was obtained from the infants parents.. Infants for entry into the study were carefully selected by one of the investigators (MLE) and confirmed using breath sounds analysis by a second investigator (HEE). Only infants with clear characteristics of either wheeze or ruttles were selected as we wished only to include typical examples for the purpose of defining the response to ipratropium bromide. Infants with any other lung sounds or a combination of sounds were excluded from the study.. In total, 13 babies were selected: seven with wheeze (four boys, three girls; age range 7-10 months) and six with ruttles (two boys, four girls; age ...
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Check with your doctor at once if difficulty with breathing continues after using a dose of this medicine or if your condition gets worse. This medicine may cause serious types of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention. Call your doctor right away if you have a rash, itching, hives, hoarseness, trouble breathing, trouble swallowing, or any swelling of your hands, face, or mouth while you are using this medicine. Tell your doctor right away if you feel chest pain, notice any changes in your blood pressure (such as feeling lightheaded or changes in vision), or notice your heart beating faster or slower. Take all of your COPD medicines as your doctor ordered. If you use any type of corticosteroid medicine to control your breathing, keep using it as ordered by your doctor. This includes corticosteroid medicines that are taken by mouth or inhaled (such as prednisone, Azmacort®, or Flovent®). If any of your COPD ...
This eMedTV page explains that in order to ensure proper treatment, you need to follow certain precautions when using a Proventil inhaler. This page lists important dosing tips and includes the recommended dose for people with exercise-induced asthma.
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The safety of Atrovent® (ipratropium bromide) Nasal Spray 0.06% at a dose of two sprays (84 mcg) per nostril three times a day (total dose 504 mcg/day) for two to four days has been demonstrated in two clinical trials involving 362 pediatric patients 5-11 years of age with naturally acquired common colds. In this pediatric population ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.06% had an adverse event profile similar to that observed in adolescent and adult patients. When ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.06% was concomitantly administered with an oral decongestant (pseudoephedrine HCl) in 122 children ages 5-12 years, and concomitantly administered with an oral decongestant/antihistamine combination (pseudoephedrine HCl/chlorpheniramine maleate) in 123 children ages 5-12 years, adverse event profiles were similar to ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.06% alone. The safety of ATROVENT Nasal Spray 0.06% at a dose of two sprays (84 mcg) per nostril four times a day (total dose 672 mcg/day) for three weeks in pediatric seasonal allergic ...
Introduction. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy, also known as broken heart syndrome or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), is characterized by transient systolic dysfunction of the apical and/or mid segments of the left ventricle that mimics myocardial infarction, in the absence of significant obstructive coronary artery disease.1 There is often a history of recent emotional or physical stress or severe acute illness. Stress cardiomyopathy has been described in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).2-7. Case report. A 56-year-old Caucasian patient with COPD (irregularly treated with tiotropium bromide, acetylcysteine and mometasone) was admitted to the emergency room (ER) of our hospital with dyspnea and cough with sputum for two weeks. On admission to the ER, the patient was hemodynamically stable (systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 126/65 mmHg; heart rate: 98 bpm), eupneic at rest and with fever (39.1°C). Pulmonary auscultation revealed rumbles in the left hemithorax. The chest ...
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Two methods of managing chronic bronchitis are in vogue at present--inhalation of ipratropium bromide and treatment through sympathomimetic agents. Theophyllinne is also an important therapy, but its uses are limited to a certain cases of the disorder. Patients who exhibit a remarkable improvement in airflow are not given any steroids. Antibiotics have a crucial part to play in the battle against acute infections. Supplemental oxygen is given to those patients who experience difficulties in breathing. Patients are also strongly advised to quit smoking for good, take plenty of nutritional supplements and fluids, and perform exercises to strengthen their respiratory muscles ...
WASHINGTON - Dey Inc., Dey Pharma L.P. (formerly known as Dey, L.P.) and Dey L.P. Inc. have agreed to pay $280 million to settle False Claims Act allegations, the Department of Justice announced today. This settlement resolves claims by the United States that the defendants engaged in a scheme to report false and inflated prices for numerous pharmaceutical products, knowing that federal health care programs relied on those reported prices to set payment rates. The actual sales prices for the Dey products were far less than what Dey reported. The United States alleged that Dey reported false prices for the following drugs: Albuterol Sulfate, Albuterol MDI, Cromolyn Sodium and Ipratropium Bromide. The difference between the resulting inflated government payments and the actual price paid by health care providers for a drug is referred to as the "spread." The larger the spread on a drug, the larger the profit for the health care provider or pharmacist who is reimbursed by the government. The ...
Adaptive rate pacing for improving heart rate kinetics in heart failure patients involves determining onset and sustaining of patient activity. The patients heart rate response to the sustained activity is evaluated during a time window defined between onset of the activity and a steady-state exercise level. If the patients heart rate response to the sustained activity is determined to be slow, a pacing therapy is delivered at a rate greater than the patients intrinsic heart rate based on a profile of the patients heart rate response to varying workloads. If determined not to be slow, the pacing therapy is withheld. Monitoring-only configurations provide for acquisition and organization of physiological data for heart failure patients. These data can be acquired on a per-patient basis and used to assess the HF status of the patient.
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Ipratropium belongs to the class of medications called bronchodilators. It is used to treat spasms in the lungs associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. It works by opening the airways to make breathing easier.
It is important to know how substantial a decline there may be in a patient s lung function due to exercise. If we find the patient does have exercise-induced asthma, we can then provide personalized therapeutic treatment for these patients, he added ...
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People with exercise-induced asthma often experience coughing and wheezing during physical activity. This eMedTV page lists how to prevent exercise-induced asthma symptoms. Exersize-induced asthma is a common misspelling of exercise-induced asthma.
English-language studies were selected if they were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of inhaled DSCG in the maintenance treatment of asthma in children up to 18 years of age. Studies of exercise-induced asthma were excluded ...
Some people have asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or trouble breathing) only when theyre doing sports or being active.
Some people have asthma symptoms (such as coughing, wheezing, or trouble breathing) only when theyre playing sports or being active.
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We note with interest the further correspondence concerning the systematic review of inhaled sodium cromoglycate as maintenance therapy in children with asthma1 from Professor M Silverman2 and Dr G Laszlo.3. Professor Silverman asked the authors to carry out separate calculations of the size of the treatment effect between inhaled sodium cromoglycate and placebo for school children and pre-school children. The results of these calculations show that the mean difference between inhaled sodium cromoglycate and placebo is greater for school children (cough 0.26, wheeze 0.29) than for pre-school children (cough 0.12, wheeze 0.08). In both age groups these differences are significant and in favour of sodium cromoglycate. In fig 1 we illustrate these differences and the comparison with all children taken from the original review.. These results support our own conclusion4 that the drug is either less effective in pre-school children or the apparent lesser effect is related to the difficulties in ...
P01 Kawashima K, Meyerholz DK, Gallup JM, Grubor B, Lazic T, Lehmkuhl HD, Ackermann MR* (USA, Japan) Differential expression of ovine innate immune genes by preterm and neonatal lung epithelia infected with respiratory syncytial virus N*, Wiggers L, Sachse K, Berndt A, Reinhold P (Belgium, Germany) MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Chlamydia suis infected pigs Effects of bromhexine on the immune response in calves with experimentally induced bronchopneumonia P04 Kucheryavenko R, Stegniy B, Stetsenko V, Kucheryavenko V (Ukraine) About the situation of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis in Ukraine P05 Spendlove PJ*, Basgallop N, Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR (Australia) Detection of aerosolised ipratropium bromide (ATROVENT®) in equine urine post administration using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LCMS) P06 Spendlove PJ*, Hodgson JL, Hodgson DR (Australia) Comparative efficacy of aerosol therapies for the reduction of airway neutrophilia in horses P07 Klein CC*, Smith ...
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Belladonna (Atropa belladonna L. or its variety acuminata Royle ex Lindl) - Basic FoodsBelladonna (Atropa belladonna L. or its variety acuminata Royle ex Lindl) - Basic Foods

Belladonna may also interact with alkaloids, atropine, ergot derivatives, hormonal agents, drugs that increase sun sensitivity ... Atropine is an ingredient in belladonna. Theoretically, drugs that interact with atropine may also interact with belladonna. ... Death in children may occur at 0.2 milligram of atropine for each kilogram of a childs weight. Since 2 milligrams of atropine ... Belladonna is known to contain active agents with anticholinergic properties, such as the tropane alkaloids atropine, hyoscine ...
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Atropine, TMS derivativeAtropine, TMS derivative

Monotrimethylsilyl derivative of Atropine; Atropine, o-trimethylsilyl-; Atropine, trimethylsilyl ether; 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[ ...
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Atropine TMS derivative | C20H31NO3Si - PubChemAtropine TMS derivative | C20H31NO3Si - PubChem

Atropine TMS derivative , C20H31NO3Si , CID 580037 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
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Belladonna and Opium Suppository - FDA prescribing information, side effects and usesBelladonna and Opium Suppository - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses

As with atropine derivatives, hot, dry, flushed skin; dry mouth and hyperpyrexia may occur. ... The atropine effect of the belladonna extract serves to eliminate morphine induced smooth muscle spasm without affecting the ... The dl isomer atropine is formed during the process of isolation of the belladonna extract.1 ... Administer with caution to persons with a known idiosyncrasy to atropine or to atropinelike compounds; to persons known to be ...
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Hemodynamic and cardiac autonomic control in the studie | Open-iHemodynamic and cardiac autonomic control in the studie | Open-i

Atropine Derivatives/pharmacology. *Body Weight. *Bradycardia/physiopathology/prevention & control. *Female. *Menopause/ ...
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Faculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term AtropineFaculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term Atropine

Mesh term Atropine. Browse to parent terms:. Atropine Derivatives. Description. An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna ... Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.. Browse to child terms:. Hyoscyamine. Search for this term in our Faculty ...
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FDA Approves Boehringer Ingelheims STIOLTO RESPIMAT Inhalation Spray as Once-Daily Maintenance Treatment for COPD |...FDA Approves Boehringer Ingelheim's STIOLTO RESPIMAT Inhalation Spray as Once-Daily Maintenance Treatment for COPD |...

Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine or its derivatives should be closely monitored for similar ... SPIRIVA is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to tiotropium, ipratropium (atropine derivatives), or ... STIOLTO is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to tiotropium, ipratropium (atropine derivatives), olodaterol, or ... Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine should be closely monitored for similar hypersensitivity ...
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Teach the patient to avoid medications that decrease saliva production, such as atropine derivatives, antihistamines, ...
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Pyridostigmine bromide | definition of pyridostigmine bromide by Medical dictionaryPyridostigmine bromide | definition of pyridostigmine bromide by Medical dictionary

Atropine, belladonna derivatives: suppression of parasympathomimetic GI symptoms (leaving only fasciculations and voluntary ... Adults: 10 to 20 mg slow I.V. injection (range is 0.1 to 0.25 mg/kg) with or immediately after 0.6 to 1.2 mg atropine sulfate I ... Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers (atropine, pancuronium, tubocurarine): antagonism of neuromuscular blockade and reversal ...
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FDA Okays CFC-Free Spray to Treat COPD | Medpage TodayFDA Okays CFC-Free Spray to Treat COPD | Medpage Today

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SPIRIVA RESPIMAT (tiotropium bromide) Dosing for COPDSPIRIVA RESPIMAT (tiotropium bromide) Dosing for COPD

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SPIRIVA RESPIMAT (tiotropium bromide) Efficacy COPDSPIRIVA RESPIMAT (tiotropium bromide) Efficacy COPD

Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine or its derivatives should be closely monitored for similar ... Patients with a history of hypersensitivity reactions to atropine or its derivatives should be closely monitored for similar ... STIOLTO is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to tiotropium, ipratropium (atropine derivatives), olodaterol, or ... STIOLTO is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to tiotropium, ipratropium (atropine derivatives), olodaterol, or ...
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Alpha- and beta- hexachlorocyclohexanes (HSG 53, 1991)Alpha- and beta- hexachlorocyclohexanes (HSG 53, 1991)

Morphine and its derivatives, atropine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline, should never be given. An unobstructed airway must be ...
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Effects of continuous infusion of cholinergic drugs on memory impairment in rats with basal forebrain lesions. [Muscimol.xyz]Effects of continuous infusion of cholinergic drugs on memory impairment in rats with basal forebrain lesions. [Muscimol.xyz]

Mesh terms: Acetylcholinesterase/analysis; Animals; Atropine Derivatives/pharmacology; Avoidance Learning/drug effects; Basal ... Substances mentioned in the article: Atropine Derivatives; Parasympathomimetics; methylatropine; Physostigmine; ...
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List of MeSH codes (D03) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D03) - Wikipedia

... atropine MeSH D03.132.889.180.297.297 --- atropine derivatives MeSH D03.132.889.180.297.297.400 --- ipratropium MeSH D03.132. ... atropine MeSH D03.605.869.189.297 --- atropine derivatives MeSH D03.605.869.189.297.400 --- ipratropium MeSH D03.605.869.270 ... morphine derivatives MeSH D03.132.610.422.547.547.149 --- codeine MeSH D03.132.610.422.547.547.149.287 --- hydrocodone MeSH ... atropine MeSH D03.132.760.180.848 --- scopolamine MeSH D03.132.760.200 --- capsaicin MeSH D03.132.760.570 --- nicotine MeSH ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D03)

REDOX REPORT: Ingenta Connect Table Of ContentsREDOX REPORT: Ingenta Connect Table Of Contents

Scavenging of photogenerated oxidative species by antimuscarinic drugs: atropine and derivatives pp. 385-394(10) Authors: ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mane/13510002/2002/00000007/00000006

Free Paramedic/EMT Flashcards about CPG PharmacologyFree Paramedic/EMT Flashcards about CPG Pharmacology

Known hypersensitivity to Atropine and its derivatives Ipratropium Bromide - Precautions. 1. Glaucoma 2. Avoid eye contact. ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-1060972

ATROVENT HFA - Renal and Urology NewsATROVENT HFA - Renal and Urology News

Allergy to atropine or its derivatives.. Warnings/Precautions: Not for primary treatment of acute attack. Avoid eyes. Narrow- ...
more infohttps://www.renalandurologynews.com/drug/atrovent-hfa/

Sjogrens SyndromeSjogren's Syndrome

Advise the patient to avoid drugs that decrease saliva production, such as atropine derivatives, antihistamines, ...
more infohttps://www.womens-health-club.com/diseases/sjogrens-syndrome.htm

SPIRIVA RESPIMAT (Tiotropium) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONASPIRIVA RESPIMAT (Tiotropium) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONA

Allergy to atropine or its derivatives; monitor. HandiHaler: avoid getting powder into eyes; or allergy to milk proteins. ...
more infohttps://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/spiriva-respimat/drug/34370/

ATROVENT NASAL SPRAY 0.06% (Ipratropium) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONAATROVENT NASAL SPRAY 0.06% (Ipratropium) dosage, indication, interactions, side effects | EMPR - ONA

Allergy to atropine or its derivatives.. Warnings/Precautions:. Avoid eyes. Narrow-angle glaucoma. GI or GU obstruction. ...
more infohttp://www.oncologynurseadvisor.com/atrovent-nasal-spray--006/drug/3089/

PPT - RESPIRATORY DRUGS PowerPoint Presentation - ID:387502PPT - RESPIRATORY DRUGS PowerPoint Presentation - ID:387502

Ipratropium bromide - a quarternary ammonium derivative of atropine *Delivered by inhalation *Slightly less effective than beta ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/kort/respiratory-drugs
  • but only at ~ 1/3 the rate of ACh and it is resistant to BChE Pharmacological Properties of the Choline Esters 1 AChE2 CVS Acetylcholine Methacholine Carbachol Bethanechol 1 2 Muscarinic Effects GIT ++ ++ +++ +++ GUS ++ ++ +++ +++ Eye + + ++ ++ 3 Atropine +++ +++ + +++ 4 Nicotinic ++ + +++ - +++ + th ++ +++ + ± Goodman & Gilman 7 Ed. some substitutions result in resistance to hydrolysis carbachol. (scribd.com)
  • Because "they're worth it", doctors consume branded high cost but less effective "evidence-based" derivatives of older compounds making these drugs worth more than their weight in gold. (davidhealy.org)