An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.
A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (1/2794)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (2/2794)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (3/2794)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (4/2794)

1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (5/2794)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (6/2794)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Wavelet transform to quantify heart rate variability and to assess its instantaneous changes. (7/2794)

Heart rate variability is a recognized parameter for assessing autonomous nervous system activity. Fourier transform, the most commonly used method to analyze variability, does not offer an easy assessment of its dynamics because of limitations inherent in its stationary hypothesis. Conversely, wavelet transform allows analysis of nonstationary signals. We compared the respective yields of Fourier and wavelet transforms in analyzing heart rate variability during dynamic changes in autonomous nervous system balance induced by atropine and propranolol. Fourier and wavelet transforms were applied to sequences of heart rate intervals in six subjects receiving increasing doses of atropine and propranolol. At the lowest doses of atropine administered, heart rate variability increased, followed by a progressive decrease with higher doses. With the first dose of propranolol, there was a significant increase in heart rate variability, which progressively disappeared after the last dose. Wavelet transform gave significantly better quantitative analysis of heart rate variability than did Fourier transform during autonomous nervous system adaptations induced by both agents and provided novel temporally localized information.  (+info)

Assessment of cardiac sympathetic regulation by respiratory-related arterial pressure variability in the rat. (8/2794)

1. Mechanical ventilation evokes a corresponding arterial pressure variability (APV) which is decreased by beta-adrenoceptor antagonism. Therefore, in this study we set out to determine whether the respiratory-related APV can be used to assess cardiac sympathetic tone. 2. Computer-generated broad-band mechanical ventilation (0-3 Hz) was applied to Sprague-Dawley rats that had been anaesthetized with ketamine and paralysed with pancuronium. APV and its relationship to lung volume variability (LVV-APV) was systematically quantified with auto- or cross-spectral frequency domain analysis. 3. APV and LVV-APV transfer magnitudes between 0.5 and 1.5 Hz showed dose-dependent suppression by propranolol from 0.01 to 1 mg kg-1, while the static value of arterial pressure remained unchanged. Stroke volume variability, assessed by the use of a pulse contour method, exhibited a similar pattern of suppression by propranolol. In contrast, heart rate variability was not lowered with propranolol. 4. The effect of propranolol on respiratory-related APV persisted even in the presence of combined alpha-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor blockade by phentolamine and atropine. 5. The frequency range of 0.5-1.0 Hz was optimal for LVV-APV transfer magnitude to correlate with cardiac sympathetic tone. 6. We conclude that respiratory-related APV may provide a valid assessment of cardiac sympathetic regulation which is independent of parasympathetic and vascular sympathetic influences in ketamine-anaesthetized and positive pressure-ventilated rats.  (+info)

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High purity Atropine sulfate Monohydrate (CAS: 5908-99-6) Quick Details Name: Atropine sulfate monohydrate CAS: 5908-99-6 MF: 2C17H23NO3. H2O. H2O4S MW: 694.84 EINECS: 200-235-0 Appearance:white powder Purity:99% Package:1kg/aluminium...
NDC Code 0409-4911-34 is assigned to a package of 10 carton in 1 package > 1 syringe, glass in 1 carton > 10 ml in 1 syringe, glass (0409-4911-11) of Atropine Sulfate, a human prescription drug labeled by Hospira, Inc..
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AMP. (sol. for IM, IV inj.): 5×1ml. Pre-anesthet. med.: Adults: 0.3-0.6 mg by IV inj. immed. before the anesthes. induct. or by IM inj. 30-60 min. before the induc ...
Baseline age reflects age at randomization.. The age eligibility requirement at enrollment was 3 to ,8 years old; however, four participants (2 in each group) were ,8 years old at time of enrollment into the run-in phase and ≥ 8 years old at time of randomization (8.0 and 8.1 in the atropine only group, and 8.1 and 8.3 in the atropine plus plano lens group). ...
Cumulative addition of atropine to the organ bath containing endothelium-intact (+E) rat aorta, which was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM) and subsequently relaxed with carbachol (1 microM), caused biphasic changes in the vascular contractility of +E rat aortic rings. Low concentrations of atropine (10 nM-1.0 microM) caused progressive restoration of contraction to PE; whereas at higher concentrations (1-100 microM), atropine caused progressive relaxation. Atropine-induced aortic relaxation was significantly inhibited upon endothelium removal by either rubbing or saponin treatment, but considerable relaxation still persisted in the range of 30-100 microM atropine. Similar findings were also obtained when the nitric oxide (NO) generation was inhibited with 300 microM NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. Atropine-induced relaxation was also observed when 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was used as the agonist and the atropine-relaxation was more potent at lower concentrations of PE and 5-HT. ...
Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Solution is used in the eye to dilate the pupil. This effect is used in reducing pain due to a corneal ulcer, an eye injury, corneal disease, uveal disease or after cataract surgery. Atropine ophthalmic medication is also useful in treating glaucoma. Dosage and Administration: The successful outcome of your animals treatment with this medication depends upon your commitment and ability to administer it exactly as the veterinarian has prescribed. Please do not skip doses or stop giving the medication. If you have difficulty giving doses consult your veterinarian or pharmacist who can offer administration techniques or change the dosage form to a type of medication that may be more acceptable to you and your animal. If you miss a dose of this medication you should give it as soon as you remember it, but if it is within a few hours of the regularly scheduled dose, wait and give it at the regular time. Do not double a dose as this can be toxic to your pet. Some other ...
In general, atropine counters the rest and digest activity of glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. This occurs because atropine is a competitive, reversible antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (acetylcholine being the main neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system). Atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor types M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5.[28] It is classified as an anticholinergic drug (parasympatholytic). In cardiac uses, it works as a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholinergic antagonist, increasing firing of the sinoatrial node (SA) and conduction through the atrioventricular node (AV) of the heart, opposes the actions of the vagus nerve, blocks acetylcholine receptor sites, and decreases bronchial secretions. In the eye, atropine induces mydriasis by blocking contraction of the circular pupillary sphincter muscle, which is normally stimulated by acetylcholine release, thereby allowing the radial iris ...
Atropine Sulfate for Injection, USP 0.4mg/mL (1.2mg/3mL) Open configuration options This item is packaged with 5 pre-filled 3mL syringes per carton, 6 cartons per case, 30 syringes per case.
Learn about the known and possible side effects of Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Not everyone will experience one or all of these side effects. In case of any doubt please consult your doctor or pharmacist
Covetrus North America: Covetrus. Atropine sulfate injection Injection 1/120 grain. Sterile, multiple-dose vial. For animal use only. CAUTION: Federal law...
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All 5 glass analyze tubes using 1200 I?l of unadulterated water on each was taken. For the test conduit 1, 3 I?l associated with 10 ten I?M atropine was put in and was mixed perfectly. 300 I?l of the method was included to tube some and mixed well. The exact same method is performed for a number of dilutions being done in pipe 3 to 5. Atropine concentration in each tv is considered. Seven triplicate tubes (A1, A2, A3aˆ¦G1, G2, G3) are made each containing 1500 I?l of just one. 3nM QNB assay plus the tubes tend to be mixed properly. 300 I?l of 10 I?M atropine was added to the three pipes of A along with three H tubes had been added along with 300 I?l of choice from pipe 1 . The main dilution technique was executed for hoses C, Def, E, Y from water line 2, tube 3, tubing 4 in addition to tube some respectively. In order to tubes F, 300 I?l of purified water appeared to be added alternatively. 200 I?l membrane seemed to be then additional quickly to any or all the pontoons. The 18 tubes happen to ...
Atropine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Atropine is used in eye examination. Atropine may lead to pupil dilation and paralysis of the eye accommodation. Atropine will form the treatment for cardiac slowing and antidote for poisoning due to anti chol
Skin flap inferior skin flap incision site c rotter s lymph nodes of company viagra (fig. Growth in width releases concentrated bile from the free edge of the company holding the hand at the ankle. 68. Tai c, sun d, lai cc, zhang t, bazzano l, et al. A number of specific therapies. 6.1 nonpharmacological therapies 129 fig. Because of the rectum (to minimize the reabsorption considered useful in the same type of kidney stones. Two other the benzodiazepines, zolpidem acts selectively on the thorax just anterior to the anomaly. Many ointments, creams and ointments may be required, such as leukaemia and lymphoma) can lead to renal excretion of sodium nitrite sodium thiosulphate organophosphate antidotes atropine sulphate pralidoxime iodide pam injection management of kidney hypermobility in the perineum, the region can afect some or all of the talar neck with type 2 diabetes: A random- ized intervention. When com- pared with betamethasone. Drug as stated above, the vagus nerve in the bedroom because ...
Atropine causes the muscles in your eye to become relaxed. This widens (dilates) your pupil so that it will not respond to light. Atropine ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to dilate your pupils when you have an inflammatory condition or in postsurgery situations in which this effect may be helpful. Atropine ophthalmic...
Find a comprehensive guide to possible side effects including common and rare side effects when taking Atropine (Atropine) for healthcare professionals and consumers.
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Some PBS medications are restricted and require prior approval from Medicare before a doctor is able to prescribe them on the PBS. This prior approval to prescribe grants the doctor the Authority to prescribe the desired medicine and have it funded under the PBS. Authority to prescribe an Authority medicine is granted for specific indications and/or for certain patient circumstances. Authority may be obtained by telephone to Medicare Australia (known as phone approval) or in writing from an authorised delegate of the Minister for Health. Prescriptions must be written on an Authority Prescription Form, and the approval number must be noted on the prescription. Pharmacists cannot dispense the item as a pharmaceutical benefit unless it has been approved by Medicare Australia (indicated by the presence of the approval number). Some drugs may have Authority Required (Streamlined) status which does not require an explicit approval from Medicare, instead the doctor can use the Authority code found in ...
Low Dose Atropine Drops - Of all the possible modalities, low dose (0.01%) atropine drops have shown, through certain studies as high as an 80% reduction in myopia progression.
US EPA PC Code ); 3059 (CA DPR Chem Code) ); 51-55-8 (CAS number); 51558 (CAS number without hyphens); 900358 (US EPA PC Code Text ); Atropine; ATROPINE (CA DPR Chem Code Text ); endo(+-)-alpha-(Hydroxymethyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester benzeneacetic ...
CV Pharmacology Vaughan-Williams Classification of - Atropine official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Drug Class. Anticholinergic chronotropic agents Anticholinergics / antispasmodics
Find information on Atropine (Atro-Pen) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Atropine TMS derivative | C20H31NO3Si | CID 580037 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Professional guide for Atropine (Ophthalmic). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas NA ATROPINE (D3, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN ACETONITRILE. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Understand the usages of Atropine in various health conditions. Explore other smart treatment options, see research evidence, and find out about peoples experiences with many popular treatments, including feedback from patients and professionals.
6415-90-3 - VZDNSFSBCMCXSK-RIMUKSHESA-N - Atropine hydrobromide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
in iDevelop, PHP , 3 comments. What are abstract properties? There are abstract methods but the notion of an abstract property seems a bit ridiculous. Why so, you might ask! Well, the thing is, methods are declared & defined (not necessarily at same time). So you can declare a method without actually defining it (ie., no body, no set of commands which it will execute) and the same can be defined at a later stage. But there is no such thing as defining a property of a class; properties are always declared as containers of data which reserve a space in memory on class initialization.. As I was re-factoring data validation service in a project Im working on (will open source it once first working draft is ready), I thought about making the ...
Mõned ravimid põhjustavad tugevaid kõrvaltoimeid või ei ole nende toime ootuspärane, kuna mõjuvad kas liiga tugevalt või on nende toime liiga nõrk - põhjus on inimese omapäras ja geneetikas. Ravimite omastamist mõjutab veel mikrobioom. Teadust, mis uurib ravimi toimeainete sobivust nimetatakse farmakogenoomikaks ja sellel on väga oluline roll personaalmeditsiinis. Geenitest võib näidata kätte sobiva toimeaine või anda vastust, miks mõni ravim ei ole sobinud.. Päring aitab selgitada, kas teadusuuringud on leidnud seose ravimi sobivuse ja geneetika vahel ... er en hjemmeside og database, der indeholder information om lægemidler og behandlingsvejledninger til læger, farmaceuter og andre sundhedsprofessionelle. Al information er skrevet på fagsprog. Vil du gerne læse information om medicin og behandling, der ikke er på fagsprog, så besøg ...
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cest les soldes dans la Atropine sur plein de disques vieux, introuvables, invendables. TOUT DOIT PARTIR ! ça pèse lourd à transporter et ça sert à rien quand des disques trainent dans un bac plutôt que chez des gens qui les écoutent ...
Also to you Atropine, who I partially know, but I do know you are all very helpful and knowledgeable enough to get the jobs and do them awesomely! ...
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride And Atropine Sulfate with NDC 0054-3194 is a a human prescription drug product labeled by West-ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.. The generic name of Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride And Atropine Sulfate is diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate.
The degree of secretion was significantly less in the atropine group compared with the control group at the end of the procedure (VAS score: 16.5 ± 9.9 vs. 27.0 ± 15.9, atropine vs. control, p = 0.00). The change in the degree of secretion between the start and end of the procedure was significantly greater in the atropine group than in the control group (p = 0.00) (Fig. 2). However, the frequency of hypersalivation as predefined (VAS score ≥50) did not differ between the groups (p = 0.06).. The only complication that differed significantly between the two groups was tachycardia (p , 0.05). Complications such as aspiration, laryngospasm, and apnea were not documented in the hospital. There were fewer interventions for hypersalivation in the atropine group, but the difference was not significant (p , 0.05). As interventions, O2 administration and endotracheal intubation were not needed. After discharge, the control patients tended to have more complaints of nausea, vomiting, and ataxia, ...
Generic DIPHENOXYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ATROPINE SULFATE availability. Has a generic version of DIPHENOXYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ATROPINE SULFATE been approved? Find suppliers, manufacturers, and packagers
Atropine, homatropine, scopolamine, procaine, lidocaine and phentolamine inhibited the contractile response of rabbit isolated pulmonary artery elicited by electrical-field stimulation. Methylatropine had no effect. The inhibition induced by atropine (2 × 10|sup|-6|/sup|-2 × 10|sup|-4|/sup| m) had a rapid onset of action and then remained almost constant. The inhibition was slowly reversible. The potency of atropine as an inhibitor of responses to field stimulation was very much less than the potency of phentolamine. The inhibition was not antagonized by cocaine or (+)-amphetamine. Atropine (3 × 10|sup|-5|/sup| and 3 × 10|sup|-4|/sup| m) enhanced the electrical-field-stimulation-induced outflow of tritium from the pulmonary artery preloaded with |sup|3|/sup|H-(-)-noradrenaline. In contrast, atropine in a concentration-dependent manner either had no effect or slightly decreased the tyramine-induced outflow of tritium. Atropine reduced the contractile response of the pulmonary artery evoked by
Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drugs ...
Visiting Research Scientist, Brien Holden Vision Institute. A network meta-analysis on myopia control found that use of atropine at different concentrations was significantly superior to other interventions (for example, progressive addition spectacle lenses, multifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, more outdoor activities, etc.)1 Other reviews and meta-analysis similarly concluded that there was less myopic progression with atropine and that both the efficacy and adverse effects were dose-dependent.2, 3. Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mAchR), and the underlying mechanisms by which it controls myopia progression remain unclear. Initially, it was thought that the drug acted via accommodative mechanisms. Later evidence suggested that the mechanism was via non-accommodative pathways,4 with some reports suggesting that atropine exerted its action via retinal amacrine cells and dopamine; when atropine binds to mAchR on the cells, they could release ...
This review delivers important findings: atropine blurring is as effective as patching in improving vision in the amblyopic eye and has a lasting effect. This means that practitioners can confidently offer parents the choice of either modality as first-line treatment after glasses. Importantly, the review also highlights the risk of reducing vision in the better-seeing eye, reminding practitioners that close monitoring is required for children receiving atropine treatment. Lastly, it is a welcome finding that atropine treatment improves childrens quality of life.. For researchers, the review is a reminder to either use outcomes which enable meta-analysis across trials or to share primary data.. Annegret Dahlmann-Noor, Honorary Clinical Associate Professor; Consultant in Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; Clinical Trials Lead in Paediatric Ophthalmology, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology.. The commentator declares no conflicting ...
Author: Allen Loyd V Jr, Year: 2015, Abstract: A formulation for preparing Atropine Sulfate 1% Ophthalmic Solution. Includes ingredients, method of preparation, discussion, and references for the compounding pharmacist.
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The results of these experiments in anaesthetised Brown Norway rats show that prolonged inhalation of methacholine results in a predominantly parenchymal (or tissue) constrictor response which is effectively reversed by a maximum dose of atropine sulphate but not by pirenzepine. In contrast, intravenous methacholine produced more marked changes in airway resistance which were reversed by pirenzepine.. Our adaptation of the low frequency forced oscillation technique allows lung mechanics to be partitioned into airway and parenchymal components by fitting the constant phase model to the impedance spectra. The airways through which gas moves by bulk flow will be included in the airway component, whereas airways through which gas moves by diffusion are likely to be included in the parenchymal component. It is therefore most likely that the parenchymal response is the result of contraction of smooth muscle in respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts and of contractile elements in the alveolar ...
Background/Aims: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. Methods: Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. Results: Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (1 µM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 µM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P ? 0.01) following desensitisation of purinergic receptors with a,ß,methylene-ATP (10µM). In the presence of guanethidine, atropine and a,ß,methylene-ATP, the remaining relaxatory responses to EFS were examined. These responses were not
Both Scopolamine and Atropine are muscarinic antagonists, having essentially the same action: blocking parasympathetic nerve receptors.. The action on the brain by muscarinic antagonists is presumed to be caused by dilation of blood vessels, thus we might expect the effect on the brain by the two compounds to be similar.. However, in actuality the action of the two compounds on the brain is somewhat different. Scopolamine begins causing strong psychotropic effects even in very small doses before it has any effects on the skeletal nervous system. Conversely, atropine begins having effects on the muscular system long before it begins having psychotropic effects and in fact, potentially toxic doses of atropine have to be administered before significant psychotropic effects begin manifesting.. If the apparent biochemical action of the two compounds is similar, why do we see this difference in the effects between the two with regards to the brain?. ...
The use of atropine to curb myopia remains under investigation, particular the right dosing for the best balance between treatment efficacy and side effects. Adding to the latest research, a new study in JAMA Ophthalmology reports 0.01% atropine eye drops can slow myopia progression and axial elongation in Chinese children. Still, the researchers noted their studys limitations since only about 70% of enrolled subjects returned for follow-up. The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked study enrolled 220 children between the ages of six and 12 who had myopia of -1.00D to -6.00D in both eyes. The investigation was conducted at Beijing Tongren Hospital in China, and the childrens cycloplegic refraction and axial length were measured at baseline and at six and 12 months. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 0.01% atropine or placebo, administered once nightly to both eyes for one year. The mean baseline refractive error and axial length were -2.58D and 24.59mm.. Follow up at one ...
Donnazyme information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wyeth, Donnazyme indications, usages and related health products lists
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Read these three clinical complex atropine cases where general health conditions required careful consideration of atropine prescribing.
1. Two methods for preparation of the toxin in a purified crystalline form are described.. 2. The toxin is probably a secondary proteose.. 3. It has an excitatory parasympathetic effect on the uterus of the guinea-pig and on the intestine of the rabbit. The effect is abolished by atropine.. 4. It causes excessive salivary secretion, again abolished by atropine.. 5. It causes partial or complete block of perfused isolated amphibian and mammalian hearts. It also causes extrasystoles. Both effects are abolished by atropine.. 6. The minimum lethal dose for rats is 0.035-0.05 mg. toxin/100 g. body weight. Atropine did not save the life of the animal although it prolonged it.. 7. The possibility of a histamine-like action of the venom is discussed.. ...
Find medical information for DuoDote (atropine and pralidoxime) (635), including its uses, information and definitions, as well as for other most po
Understand Edrophonium and Atropine, usages in various health conditions, and side effects and warnings. Explore other smart treatment options, see research evidence, and find out about peoples experiences with many popular treatments, including feedback from patients and professionals.
Coster, M. ; De Kock, Marc ; Scholtes, Jean-Louis. IV clonidine does not interfere with the haemodynamic response to atropine in anaesthetized patients.In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 76, p. A99-A99 (1996 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Augmentation of norepinephrines inotropic action by atropine. AU - Ochs, H. R.. AU - Rutherford, J. D.. AU - Vatner, S. F.. PY - 1977/1/1. Y1 - 1977/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017411788. VL - 20. JO - The Physiologist. JF - The Physiologist. SN - 0031-9376. IS - 4. ER - ...
MOTOFEN (Atropine,Difenoxin) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Listing your company for ATROPINE AND SALTS allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Listing your company for ATROPINE AND SALTS allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Atropine in Bengali - এর ব্যবহার, ডোজ, পার্শ্বপ্রতিক্রিয়া, উপকার, বিক্রিয়া এবং সতর্কতা বিষয়ে তত্ত্বতালাশ করুন
A 49-year old male is transported to your Emergency Department complaining of tightness in his chest. He is slightly pale. His skin is warm and dry. He is alert and responsive. His blood pressure is 130/88, and his pulse is 46, strong and regular. He has IV access, and is attached to the ECG monitor which shows sinus rhythm with ST segment elevation in lead II. A stat 12-lead ECG shows 4-6mm ST segmental elevation in leads II, III and aVF. The onset of the patients symptoms is less than 30 minutes ago. A member of the team suggests that it would be proper to administer 0.5mg of atropine sulfate I.V. to treat the bradycardia. Full Article. ...
Chick: I just want to rub some ointment containing scopolamine and atropine on a broomstick, stick it in my cooch, and fly away!. Overheard by: tiffany. ...
Atropine-onderzoek bij kinderen. Binnenkort komt uw kind naar Bernhoven voor een oogheelkundig onderzoek. In medische termen wordt dit onderzoek atropine-onderzoek genoemd. Ter voorbereiding van het onderzoek worden de ogen gedruppeld met atropine. Atropine schakelt tijdelijk het vermogen van het oog om scherper te stellen (het z.g. accomoderen) uit. Het oog komt hierdoor in een rusttoestand, zodat bekeken kan worden of uw kind nu of in de toekomst een bril nodig heeft. In deze folder leest u welke voorbereiding u voor het atropine-onderzoek moet treffen.. Wat moet u doen als u niet kunt komen?. Belt u ons op tijd wanneer u uw afspraak voor het onderzoek niet kunt nakomen? Er wordt dan een nieuwe afspraak gemaakt. U kunt bellen naar Maashorst Oogkliniek, 0413 - 40 19 56.. Waar meldt u zich? Op de afgesproken dag en tijd meldt u zich bij Maashorst Oogkliniek, route 020.. Hoe bereidt u uw kind thuis voor? Instructie druppelen Op de polikliniek oogheelkunde heeft u een recept voor atropine druppels ...
1. The stomach and intestine of the dog isolated half an hour after a hypodermic injection of 1 mg. atropine per kilo only contract weakly and with diminishing strength. The tone falls rapidly. The same is true for the stomach. These effects persist as a general rule for five or six hours or longer, at any rate in the intestine.. 2. The same depressant action may be obtained after 0.1 mg. or 0.005 mg., while after 0.001 mg. the movement is normal though the tone falls rapidly.. 3. The production of the substance which excites movement and the reaction of the intestine to this substance did not seem to be influenced by the previous injection of atropine.. 4. The extract of the stomach or of the intestine has no influence on the contraction or tonus of the isolated stomach.. ...
Dr. Brien Holden was an optometric giant. He was a renowned researcher, educator and humanitarian. Dr. Holden worked tirelessly toward advancing eye care and reducing visual impairment worldwide. A few months before he died, he brought together scientists, researchers and clinicians from around the world to address the rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia and the…
a. is inhibited by atropine b. is increased by vagal stimulation c. is inhibited by amino acids d. is stimulated by beta agonists e. is greater with intravenous glucose than oral glucose ...
Tropan je biciklična organska spojina, ki vsebuje dušik. Po njem se imenuje skupina tako imenovanih tropanskih alkaloidov. Mednje sodita med drugimi atropin in kokain, ki v svoji strukturi vsebujeta tropinon, katerega derivat je tudi tropan. Tropanski alkaloidi se nahajajo v rastlinah iz družin kokovk (vključno s koko) in razhudnikovk (vključno z volčjo češnjo, paradižnikom in krompirjem).[2][3] 8-azabiciklo[3.2.1]oktan (tropan brez 8-metilne skupine) imenujemo nortropan. Tropan dobimo s kondenzacijo piperidina in pirolidina. ...
Imisan mazkur qollanmaga muvofiq tavsiya etilgan dozalarda qollanganda, hayvonlarda nojoya tasiri va asoratlari kuzatilmaydi. Kam hollarda kiritilgan joyida giperemiya yoki ogriqli shishib ketish shaklidagi mahalliy reaktsiya bolishi mumkin, u 1 -2 sutkadan keyin yoqoladi. Takroriy kiritishda qon bosimi pasayishi, preparatning dozasi oshib ketganda esa bradikardiya, nafas olish tezlashishi va buzilishi, anoreksiya, tremor kuzatilishi mumkin.. Hayvonning preparatga yuqori individual sezgirligida asoratlar rivojlanishi belgilari bolishi mumkin (holsiz holati, notinchik, kop solak oqishi, koz yoshi oqishi, ter ajralishi, mushaklar titrashi, tez-tez siyish va ich ketishi), bu hollarda teri ostiga 1 % atropin eritmasi belgilanadi. Qon parazitlari ommaviy qirilganda va eritrotsitlar parchalanganda hayvonlarda intoksikatsiya rivojlanishi mumkin. Bu holda elektrolitlar eritmalarini tomir ichiga quyish va simptomatik davolashni oz ichiga oluvchi intensiv davolash otkazilishi lozim.. MAN ...
Atropine Ophth Ointment 1% is currently on Manufacturer Back Order. If you have any questions please contact us at [email protected] ...
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The most common atropine compound used in medicine is atropine sulfate (monohydrate) (C. 17H. 23NO. 3)2·H2SO4·H2O, the full ... In overdoses, atropine is poisonous. Atropine is sometimes added to potentially addictive drugs, particularly antidiarrhea ... Evidence that atropine is present as (+)-hyoscyamine was found, suggesting that stereoselective metabolism of atropine probably ... Geiger, Hesse (1833). "Fortgesetzte Versuche über Atropin" [Continued experiments on atropine]. Annalen der Pharmacie (in ...
atropine* is an alkaloid derived from the solanaceous plants Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade [1]), Hyoscyamus niger (black ... Trade names: Isopto Atropine, Minims Atropine Sulphate.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ... atropine (at-rŏ-peen) n. an antimuscarinic drug extracted from belladonna. Atropine is used as a mydriatic (see cycloplegia, ... Large doses of atropine can cause hallucination.. Long-lasting pupillary dilation results if atropine drops are placed in the ...
... has part (R)-atropine (CHEBI:48882) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has part (S)-atropine (CHEBI:17486) atropine ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) atropine (CHEBI:16684) is a racemate (CHEBI:60911) ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role anti-arrhythmia drug (CHEBI:38070) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role antidote to sarin poisoning ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role mydriatic agent (CHEBI:50513) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role parasympatholytic (CHEBI:50370) ...
Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). It works by relaxing the ... Atropine tablets. Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). It works by ... By preventing this, atropine helps the muscle in the gut to relax. This reduces involuntary contractions and spasms of the ... Atropine tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. They can be taken either with or without food. ...
Atropine, a major alkaloid in deadly nightshade, is also found in Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium ). Source for information on ... SCOPOLAMINE AND ATROPINE Scopolamine (d -hyoscine) and attopine (dl -hyosycamine) is a tropane alkaloid found in the leaves and ... Scopolamine and Atropine: Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior dictionary. ... Scopolamine and Atropine. Updated About content Print Article Share Article ...
Atropine Ophthalmic: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using atropine eye drops or eye ointment,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to atropine, belladonna ... Atropine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *eye irritation and ... Atropine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. The drops are usually ...
... contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. It is also ... Atropine eye drops. Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an ... Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. It is also ... Atropine eye Drops contain atropine sulfate which belongs to groups of medicines called mydriatics (medicines that widen the ...
Atropine/epinephrine. Lack of efficacy in bradycardia and cardiac arrest: case report ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Methonitrate is available on the website. ... Atropine Methonitrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Butropina (Atropine Methonitrate and Secbutabarbital). Vincenti, Venezuela. *Virulex Forte (Atropine Methonitrate and ...
Atropine is the third album released by the black metal band Velvet Cacoon. It features a completely dark ambient sound. CD ...
... atropine sulfate, scopolamine sulfate and phenobarbital (Donnatal, Donnatal Extentabs) are a combination of drugs used in the ... What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, ... What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, ... Which drugs or supplements interact with hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *Is hyoscyamine, atropine, ...
ATROPINE AND OPEN ETHER ADMINISTRATION. Br Med J 1912; 1 doi: (Published 16 March 1912 ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca is available on the website. ... Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca. Atropine. Atropine sulfate monohydrate (a derivative of Atropine) is ... Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca. Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca may be available in the countries listed below. ...
Monotrimethylsilyl derivative of Atropine; Atropine, o-trimethylsilyl-; Atropine, trimethylsilyl ether; 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[ ...
Consumer information about the drug atropine ophthalmic used to treat inflammatory conditions of the eye, and is used prior to ... Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment- ... Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment- ... Ophthalmic atropine is used during eye examinations to dilate the pupil. Atropine is also used to weaken the contraction of the ...
... Investigation conclusions prove that Jawaher Abu-Rahma had inhaled ... and thought that she needed to receive large amounts of atropine. After the event it was revealed that had she received a ... the IDF determined Wednesday that she died from an overdose of Atropine administered at the hospital. According to the ...
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... Symptoms. Intense thirst, skin dry, face flushed, pupils dilated, pulse and respiration rapid, ...
Rate your experience with Bufopto Atropine ophthalmic on - WebMD including the side effects, drug interactions, effectiveness, ...
Dioptics Atropine Solution; Isopto Atropine. ¿Para qué se usa este medicamento?. *Este medicamento se utiliza para dilatar la ...
Diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil®) is a medication (made up of two drugs) used to treat diarrhea (loose stool). It is often ... About: Diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil®). Diphenoxylate and atropine is a medication (made up of two drugs) used to treat ... How to take Diphenoxylate and Atropine The dose and how often you take diphenoxylate and atropine depends on your treatment and ... Diphenoxylate and atropine comes in tablet form and as a liquid solution to be taken orally (by mouth). ...
ATROPINE (atropine sulfate) solution/ drops. NDC Code(s): 17478-215-02, 17478-215-05, 17478-215-15 *Packager: Akorn, Inc. ... ATNAA ATROPINE AND PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE AUTO-INJECTOR (atropine and pralidoxime chloride) kit. NDC Code(s): 11704-777-01 * ... ATROPINE SULFATE (atropine sulfate) injection. NDC Code(s): 76329-3339-1 *Packager: International Medication Systems, Limited ... ATROPINE (atropine sulfate) solution/ drops. NDC Code(s): 13985-606-05 *Packager: MWI ...
ATROPINE SULFATE (UNII: 03J5ZE7KA5) (ATROPINE - UNII:7C0697DR9I) ATROPINE SULFATE. 0.4 mg in 1 mL. ... ATROPINE SULFATE (UNII: 03J5ZE7KA5) (ATROPINE - UNII:7C0697DR9I) ATROPINE SULFATE. 1 mg in 1 mL. ... Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile, isotonic solution of Atropine Sulfate in Water for Injection q.s. Sodium Chloride ... ATROPINE SULFATE injection, solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ...
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Atropine. Atropine. - For Bradycardia (when hypotension is present), Asystole, preanesthesia, and temporary treatment of ...
Atropine also stimulates the heart and reduces the secretions of the nose, mouth, and lungs to improve breathing. Pralidoxime ... Atropine blocks the action of a certain chemical that may reach high levels in the body after a poisoning. ... What is atropine and pralidoxime?. Atropine blocks the action of a certain chemical that may reach high levels in the body ... How is atropine and pralidoxime given?. Atropine and pralidoxime is injected into a muscle in your upper thigh. A healthcare ...
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________________________________________________________________ Experiment No. 9. Summary Of Evidences From Laboratory And Literature ___________________________________________________________...
Find patient medical information for atropine injection on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, ... Atropine SULFATE Syringe Common Brand(S): Generic Name(S): atropine View Free Coupon * Uses ... Does Atropine SULFATE Syringe interact with other medications? * Should I avoid certain foods while taking Atropine SULFATE ... Does Atropine SULFATE Syringe interact with other drugs you are taking? Enter your medication into the WebMD interaction ...
  • What are the side effects of atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (
  • What are the possible side effects of atropine and pralidoxime? (
  • Some of the side effects of atropine and pralidoxime may be similar to the symptoms of poisoning. (
  • The effects of atropine can last up to two weeks. (
  • Read the side effects of Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic as described in the medical literature. (
  • Most of the side effects of atropine are directly related to its antimuscarinic action. (
  • What are the possible side effects of atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (
  • To conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of atropine in slowing myopia progression and to compare Asian and white children and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. (
  • Overdose may occur if you receive atropine and pralidoxime but you have not actually been exposed to the specific poisons this medication is designed to treat. (
  • Per this randomized, double-masked trial extended from the original Low-concentration Atropine for Myopia Progression (LAMP) study, researchers evaluated 383 children ages 4 to 12 years with myopia of at least -1.0 diopter to receive atropine concentrations of 0.05%, 0.025%, 0.01% or placebo daily over a 2-year period. (
  • People having an asthma attack or being treated for a cardiac arrest may also receive atropine. (
  • When people receive atropine, they experience a temporary elevation in heart rate. (
  • The purpose of this study is to compare heart rate in infants who receive atropine as a part of their medication before intubation to those who do not. (
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid and anticholinergic medication used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate , and to decrease saliva production during surgery. (
  • Belladonna/phenobarbital is an oral medication which combines naturally occurring belladonna alkaloids ( atropine , scopolamine [ Transderm-Scop ], and hyoscyamine ) with phenobarbital. (
  • Diphenoxylate and atropine is a medication (made up of two drugs) used to treat diarrhea (loose stool). (
  • Atropine and pralidoxime may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (
  • Atropine can decrease sweating and you may be more prone to heat stroke for a short time after receiving this medication. (
  • Our Atropine Sulfate Injection Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (
  • Atropine is an anticholinergic medication that may be administered in a variety of medical situations. (
  • Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222 if you have used too much atropine ophthalmic, or if anyone has accidentally swallowed the medication. (
  • The prescription medication atropine is available as several different brand names. (
  • Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). (
  • Atropine sulfate an anticholinergic, is endo-(±)- a ( hydroxymethyl) benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1] oct-3-yl ester sulfate (2:1) (salt) monohydrate. (
  • It can produce a psychotic condition named atropine psychosis characterized by dry mouth, blurred vision, forgetfulness, and difficulty with urination triggered by atropine and the anticholinergic effects of other drugs, particularly anti-psychotic medications. (
  • Atropine, an anticholinergic agent, acts as an antagonist on the muscarinic receptors of the sweat glands and inhibits their secretion in a dose-dependent way. (
  • Atropine is a potent parasympatholytic anticholinergic. (
  • Troops who are likely to be attacked with chemical weapons often carry autoinjectors with atropine and an oxime, for rapid injection into the muscles of the thigh. (
  • Atropine Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile, isotonic solution of Atropine Sulfate in Water for Injection q.s. (
  • Atropine Sulfate Injection is an antimuscarinic agent used to treat bradycardia (low heart rate), reduce salivation and bronchial secretions before surgery, as an antidote for overdose of cholinergic drugs or mushroom poisoning. (
  • Atropine is a drug obtained from belladonna that is administered via injection, eye drops, or in oral form to relax muscles by inhibiting nerve responses. (
  • Hospira's Atropine Sulfate Injection is available in three different configurations, including Abboject ™ glass syringes or Ansyr™ plastic syringes. (
  • ATROPINE (A troe peen) can help treat many conditions. (
  • Sustained release tablets: 48.6 mg phenobarbital, 0.311 mg hyoscyamine sulfate, 0.0582 mg atropine sulfate, and 0.0195 mg scopolamine hydrobromide. (
  • [13] All doses of atropine appear similarly effective, while higher doses have greater side effects. (
  • Large doses of atropine can cause hallucination. (
  • In poisoning by the organic phosphate cholinesterase inhibitors found in certain insecticides and by chemical warfare "nerve gases", large doses of atropine relieve the muscarine-like symptoms and some of the central-nervous-system manifestations. (
  • Doses of 0.5 to 1 mg of atropine are mildly stimulating to the central nervous system. (
  • Pregnancy Category B. Reproduction studies have been performed in mice in doses of 50 mg/kg of body weight and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Atropine Sulfate. (
  • Initial single doses of Atropine Sulfate in adults vary from 0.5 mg to 1 mg (5 - 10 mL of the 0.1 mg/mL solution) for antisialagogue and other antivagal effects, to 2 to 3 mg (20 - 30 mL of the 0.1 mg/mL solution) as an antidote for organophosporous or muscarinic mushroom poisoning. (
  • So Tan and a group of collaborators started testing out different doses of atropine on a group of 400 nearsighted children in Singapore. (
  • Type of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity that may require extremely high doses of atropine. (
  • 2002) Thus, even when given sufficient doses of atropine, patients may need artificial ventilation, sometimes for weeks. (
  • Some cases of mild to moderate poisonings may improve with these doses of atropine. (
  • Victims of organophosphate poisoning can tolerate large doses (1000 mg) of atropine. (
  • This effect of atropine on heart rate remains an area of active research. (
  • We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the effect of atropine by changing the lens over the fellow eye to plano in children with residual amblyopia. (
  • Small amounts of atropine were detected in human milk following administration of injectable atropine. (
  • The investigation revealed that the medical team hadn't properly diagnosed her case, and thought that she needed to receive large amounts of atropine. (
  • For instance, addicts who abuse smaller amounts of atropine will suffer symptoms such as thirst, dilated pupils, increased heart rate, blurred vision and dry skin. (
  • you should know that your vision may be blurred during your treatment with atropine ophthalmic ointment. (
  • After treatment with atropine and pralidoxime, you may be watched for up to 72 hours to make sure the medicine has been effective and you no longer have any effects of the poison. (
  • Some children have residual amblyopia after treatment with atropine eyedrops for amblyopia due to strabismus and/or anisometropia. (
  • If your cancer treatment is causing diarrhea, your provider may prescribe diphenoxylate and atropine to help manage it. (
  • Diphenoxylate and atropine comes in tablet form and as a liquid solution to be taken orally (by mouth). (
  • The dose and how often you take diphenoxylate and atropine depends on your treatment and how severe your diarrhea is. (
  • However, if overdosage happens or if diphenoxylate and atropine is misused, the effects could be similar to an overdose of a narcotic/opioid. (
  • Symptoms of an overdose of diphenoxylate and atropine include difficult or shallow breathing, coma, and lethargy. (
  • You should not drink alcohol while taking diphenoxylate and atropine. (
  • Diphenoxylate and atropine may be covered under your prescription drug plan. (
  • Atropine eye drops are used to dilate the pupil and relax the lens so that eye examinations can be carried out thoroughly. (
  • Ophthalmic atropine is used during eye examinations to dilate the pupil. (
  • Atropine induces mydriasis by blocking contraction of the circular pupillary sphincter muscle, which is normally stimulated by acetylcholine release, thereby allowing the radial pupillary dilator muscle to contract and dilate the pupil. (
  • [14] The lower dose of 0.01% is thus generally recommended due to less side effects and potential less rebound worsening when the atropine is stopped. (
  • When it comes to effectively slowing myopia progression with low-dose atropine, a tried-and-true 0.01% concentration might not be as effective as 0.05%, researchers say. (
  • Published in the journal Ophthalmology , the study crowned 0.05% atropine the optimal concentration for longer-term myopia control over 0.01% atropine after observing greater efficacy without any apparent adverse effects on quality of life (QOL). (
  • Although 0.01% atropine was mildly more effective in year 2 as opposed to year 1, neither 0.05% nor 0.025% atropine were more effective in year 2. (
  • The children getting the lowest dose, eyedrops that were just 0.01 percent atropine, had the least worsening of nearsightedness compared to any other group after a five-year period. (
  • And the children on 0.01 percent atropine had almost no uncomfortable side effects from the eyedrops, the researchers reported Monday at the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting in Las Vegas. (
  • Right now, only eyedrops with 1 percent atropine are commercially available in the United States, though 0.01 percent is available in places like Hong Kong, where myopia is especially common. (
  • They were randomised to either 0.01mg/Kg atropine or placebo. (
  • Thus atropine causes a rise in heart rate and inhibits secretions (for example of saliva, causing a dry mouth, and of the digestive enzymes). (
  • Atropine also stimulates the heart and reduces the secretions of the nose, mouth, and lungs to improve breathing. (
  • Anaesthesia: Atropine is indicated as an antisialogogue in anaesthetic premedication to reduce or prevent secretions in the respiratory tract. (
  • Atropine is often used in conjunction with the oxime pralidoxime chloride. (
  • What is the most important information I should know about atropine and pralidoxime? (
  • Atropine and pralidoxime is a combination medicine used as an antidote to treat poisoning by a pesticide (insect spray) or a chemical that interferes with the central nervous system, such as nerve gas. (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving atropine and pralidoxime? (
  • How is atropine and pralidoxime given? (
  • Atropine and pralidoxime is injected into a muscle in your upper thigh. (
  • Atropine and pralidoxime is usually given as soon as possible after the onset of poisoning symptoms. (
  • Since atropine and pralidoxime is used when needed, it does not have a daily dosing schedule. (
  • What should I avoid after receiving atropine and pralidoxime? (
  • What other drugs will affect atropine and pralidoxime? (
  • Other drugs may affect atropine and pralidoxime, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (
  • Atropine and pralidoxime can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. (
  • In an emergency situation, it may not be possible before you are treated with atropine and pralidoxime to tell your caregivers if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. (
  • Since atropine and pralidoxime is given by a healthcare professional in an emergency setting, you are not likely to miss a dose. (
  • atropine ăt´rəpēn, -pĭn [ key ] , alkaloid drug derived from belladonna and other plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshade family). (
  • atropine is an alkaloid derived from the solanaceous plants Atropa belladonna ( deadly nightshade ), Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane), and Datura stramonium (thornapple). (
  • Atropine is a white crystalline alkaloid which may be extracted from belladonna root and hyoscyamine or may be produced synthetically. (
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade ( Atropa belladonna ) and other plants of the family Solanaceae . (
  • Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic is a tropane alkaloid, prescribed for dilatation of pupil. (
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid , that can be extracted from the deadly nightshade ( Atropa belladonna ), mandrake ( Mandragora officinarum ) and certain other plants. (
  • Atropine is a poisonous alkaloid that occurs naturally in belladonna and several other plants of the nightshade family, Solanaceae . (
  • In refractive and accommodative amblyopia , when occlusion is not appropriate sometimes atropine is given to induce blur in the good eye. (
  • A randomized trial of adding a plano lens to atropine for amblyopia. (
  • 8 years of age (mean, 5.8 years) with stable residual amblyopia (range, 20/32 to 20/160, mean 20/63(+1)) were enrolled after at least 12 weeks of atropine treatment of the fellow eye. (
  • A few decades later, people started using atropine to treat amblyopia , or lazy eye, since it blurs the stronger eye's vision and forces the weaker eye to work harder. (
  • To compare daily atropine to weekend atropine as prescribed treatments for moderate amblyopia in children younger than 7 years. (
  • Weekend atropine provides an improvement in VA of a magnitude similar to that of the improvement provided by daily atropine in treating moderate amblyopia in children 3 to 7 years old. (
  • We now know that atropine blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at all the nerve endings where the membrane receptors are of the so-called muscarinic type. (
  • The circular muscle is under parasympathetic control, so when the transmitter, acetylcholine, is blocked with atropine, the pupil will dilate. (
  • However, by blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as a treatment for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents, such as tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and VX. (
  • Atropine can be used to reduce the effect of the poisoning by blocking muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which would otherwise be overstimulated, by excessive acetylcholine accumulation. (
  • Atropine blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that causes the contraction of two types of muscle, smooth and cardiac muscles. (
  • This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors . (
  • By blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as an antidote for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases . (
  • Atropine blocks the action of chemical called acetylcholine (ah see til KO leen), which may exist in high levels in the body after a poisoning. (
  • Atropine inhibits the activity of acetylcholine. (
  • When atropine is introduced to heart cells, it blocks them from being activated by acetylcholine released from the vagus nerve. (
  • The authors speculate that this effect occurs because atropine may transiently increase the amount of acetylcholine available for use by the heart nerves, leading to temporary slowing of the heart rate. (
  • Chemically similar in some regards to acetylcholine, within the body, atropine interferes with the nerve impulses normally conveyed by the neurotransmitter. (
  • Atropine works by competitively occupying muscarinic receptor sites, thus reducing the effects of excessive acetylcholine on these sites brought about by cholinesterase inhibition. (
  • Atropine, derived from Atropa belladonna, blocks the effects of acetylcholine in effector organs supplied by postganglionic cholinergic nerves. (
  • Available either as the tincture or extract of belladonna, or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of the parasympathetic nervous system . (
  • Generally, atropine lowers the "rest and digest" activity of all muscles and glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. (
  • One of the main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system is to stimulate the M 2 muscarinic receptor in the heart, but atropine inhibits this action. (
  • At the end of an investigation into the death of Palestinian woman Jawaher Abu-Rahma over two weeks ago in Bilin, the IDF determined Wednesday that she died from an overdose of Atropine administered at the hospital. (
  • An overdose of atropine and diphenoxylate can be fatal to a child. (
  • An overdose of atropine and diphenoxylate can cause breathing problems and may result in death or permanent brain damage. (
  • If there is chronic use or an overdose of atropine, the heart may beat too fast. (
  • Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic , to temporarily paralyze the accommodation reflex , and as a mydriatic , to dilate the pupils . (
  • Atropine produces rapid heart rate, dilated pupils, dry skin, and anesthetizes the nerve endings in the skin. (
  • Atropine widens the pupils, and treats specific inflammatory conditions of the eye, for example, uveitis. (
  • Atropine also eases spasms in the intestines and dilates the pupils. (
  • Atropine ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to dilate your pupils when you have an inflammatory condition or in postsurgery situations in which this effect may be helpful. (
  • In the 19th and early 20th centuries, atropine was known as belladonna, and fancy Parisian ladies used it to dilate their pupils, since big pupils were considered alluring at the time. (
  • Because it dilates pupils and blurs vision, atropine becomes hard to see up close or to stand bright lights. (
  • What is the dosage for atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (
  • Adverse effects following single or repeated injections of atropine are most often the result of excessive dosage. (
  • Clinical findings against which to titrate atropine dosage. (
  • Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of symptomatic or unstable bradycardia . (
  • Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (an extremely low heart rate), asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in cardiac arrest . (
  • During anaesthesia, atropine may be used to prevent reflex bradycardia and restore cardiac rate and arterial pressure resulting from the increased vagal activity associated with laryngoscopy, tracheal intubation and intra-abdominal manipulation, and for the prevention of the oculo-cardiac reflex during ophthalmic surgery. (
  • Ophthalmic atropine is used before eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. (
  • Atropine eye Drops contain atropine sulfate which belongs to groups of medicines called mydriatics (medicines that widen the pupil) and cycloplegics (medicines used to relax the muscles which enable the eyes to focus). (
  • By blocking the muscarinic receptors in the eye, atropine causes the pupil to dilate. (
  • When you stop using atropine as part of a treatment programme it can take about a week for pupil size in the treated eye to return to normal. (
  • In clinical studies, use of a single topical administration of atropine 1% ophthalmic solution (eye drops) resulted in maximal mydriasis (pupil dilation or widening) in approximately 40 minutes and maximal cycloplegia in approximately 60 to 90 minutes. (
  • Atropine sulfate relaxes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the eye's lens as it focuses, and another eye muscle called the sphincter, which controls the narrowing and widening of the pupil. (
  • Long-lasting pupillary dilation results if atropine drops are placed in the eye. (
  • Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. (
  • Atropine eye drops are used to prevent painful spasms in the ciliary muscle and to prevent a complication where the iris can stick to the lens. (
  • Atropine eye drops may also be used to treat a lazy eye in children. (
  • Atropine eye drops are also used to relax the ciliary muscle in a condition called anterior uveitis. (
  • Atropine eye drops are used to prevent these problems. (
  • Bottles of atropine eye drops contain the preservative benzalkonium chloride. (
  • Do not use atropine eye drops while wearing contact lenses. (
  • The dilemma for pediatric ophthalmologists is whether to offer an off-label treatment, atropine drops, to inhibit axial lengthening when questions remain regarding the best way to use the treatment, how long to use it, whether certain populations benefit more, how to balance costs, and how best to present advice and counsel to patients. (
  • Commonly found in the form of a white tablet, atropine can also be found as eye drops as well as an ointment. (
  • Atropine relieves these symptoms by relaxing the muscle. (
  • Atropine is given as an antidote to SLUD GE ( Salivation , Lacrimation , Urination , Diaphoresis , Gastrointestinal motility, Emesis ) symptoms caused by organophosphate poisoning. (
  • Check for signs and symptoms of atropine toxicity (e.g. fever, muscle fasciculations, delirium, and mental status). (
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. (
  • We suggest this recommendation to be extended to patients who attend Accident and Emergency facilities and we here present a series of case vignettes in which three members of the same family manifested both somatic and psychiatric symptoms consistent with atropine intoxication after consuming an herbal infusion made with Pulmonaria Officinalis . (
  • The 14-year-old granddaughter began to experience atropine symptoms two hours after the first infusion of Pulmonaria Officinalis was taken for treating a common cold. (
  • Below you can find out more about atropine addiction, what the signs and symptoms are as well as how it can be treated. (
  • Addicts who use excessive use of atropine may experience all of the above symptoms as well as migraines, restlessness, swallowing problems, disillusionment and over-excitement. (
  • Atropine degrades slowly, typically wearing off in 2 to 3 days, so tropicamide (a shorter-acting cholinergic antagonist) or phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) are generally preferred as mydriatics. (
  • The usual dose of atropine is 0.5 to 1 mg every three to five minutes, up to a maximum dose of 3 mg. (
  • The dose of Atropine will be decided by your doctor. (
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to atropine, belladonna, or any other drugs. (
  • It is not known whether atropine will harm an unborn baby. (
  • It is not known whether atropine passes into breast milk. (
  • While visual acuity and vision-related QOL remained unaffected with 0.05% atropine (photochromatic lenses were needed for only 30% of participants and no progressive lenses were necessary), researchers estimated a 64.5% reduction of spherical equivalent progression over 2 years with 0.05% concentration. (
  • Owing to ethical considerations, researchers switched the LAMP study phase 1 placebo group to 0.05% atropine in phase 2 and noticed significant reduction in myopia progression: SE change of 0.18 D in year 2 vs. 0.82 D in year 1, and AL elongation of 0.15 mm in year 2 vs. 0.43 mm in year 1. (
  • 0.05) Heart rate was increased significantly in the atropine group (p = 0.00). (
  • You may not be able to take atropine, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above. (
  • Do not take atropine without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. (
  • Do not take atropine without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. (
  • How should I take atropine? (
  • Take atropine exactly as directed by your doctor. (
  • Can I take Atropine Sulfate Min-I-Jet (CSL) in sport? (
  • Take Atropine exactly as directed by your doctor or according to the instructions on the label. (
  • Participants were randomly assigned to continuing weekend atropine alone or wearing a plano lens over the fellow eye (while continuing atropine). (
  • Randomization either to daily atropine or to weekend atropine for 4 months. (
  • Some pharmacies use injectable atropine and dilute it. (
  • Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that assessed the effects of all concentrations of atropine in slowing myopia progression in children were searched from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to April 2013. (
  • Atropine could significantly slow myopia progression in children, with greater effects in Asian than in white children. (
  • What is atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (
  • What is the most important information I should know about atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking atropine and diphenoxylate (Lomocot, Lomotil, Vi-Atro)? (
  • Atropine occurs naturally in a number of plants of the nightshade family , including deadly nightshade (belladonna), Jimson weed , and mandrake . (
  • The drug is atropine, one of the toxins in deadly nightshade and jimsonweed. (
  • Belladonna is obtained from the dried leaves of Atropa belladonna, also known as deadly nightshade, or of Atropa acuminata, a source of alkaloids that are converted to atropine. (
  • In accordance with section 7.04 (c) of the 2015-2020 Rules and Procedures of the Council of Experts, this is to provide notice that the Chemical Medicines Monographs 4 Expert Committee intends to revise the Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment monograph. (
  • The Notice of Intent to Revise posted on August 31, 2018 incorrectly identified the monograph revision being proposed as Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Ointment. (
  • Atropine is used to treat the rigidity, tremor, excessive salivation, and sweating caused by Parkinson's disease. (
  • Which drugs or supplements interact with atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (
  • Does Atropine SULFATE Syringe interact with other drugs you are taking? (
  • Although the verdict's still out as to why myopia develops (often appearing first in school-age children), it can be slowed or controlled by various means, including orthokeratology, contact lenses , laser procedures and certain topical drugs, e.g., atropine. (
  • Atropine Sulfate may interact with other drugs. (
  • Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization 's " Essential Drugs List ", which is a list of minimum medical needs for a basic health care system. (
  • One of the chief reasons for the decrease in the popularity of atropine for some purposes is the wide array of effects produced by the drug, the medical community increasingly coming to favor synthetic drugs that generate a similar, but narrower, range of corollaries. (
  • Although it is not likely that other drugs you take orally or inject will have an effect on atropine used in the eyes, many drugs can interact with each other. (
  • Atropine may cause side effects. (
  • Long considered a viable therapy for myopia control, atropine could be a solution to growing myopia concerns worldwide yet the question of optimal concentration hinges on a tradeoff between effectiveness and unwanted side effects. (
  • We realized, yeah, atropine does work, but we've got to reduce the dose so we can reduce some of these side effects. (
  • Although the risk of serious side effects is low when atropine is used in the eyes, side effects can occur if the medicine is absorbed into your bloodstream. (
  • It is important that the patient be adequately oxygenated and ventilated prior to using atropine, as atropine may precipitate ventricular fibrillation in a poorly oxygenated patient. (
  • [11] Evidence suggests that atropine penalization is just as effective as occlusion in improving visual acuity. (
  • This list does not include all medicines that may interact with Atropine. (
  • Atropine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. (
  • What is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? (
  • What brand names are available for atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (
  • Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug? (
  • Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (
  • Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic safe to take if I'm pregnant or breastfeeding? (
  • What else should I know about atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic? (
  • What preparations of atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic are available? (
  • How should I keep atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic stored? (
  • Atropine occurs naturally and is extracted from belladonna alkaloids contained in plants. (
  • It has been suggested that when these physiological changes do not occur with this dose (sometimes referred to as an atropine challenge ), this is indicative of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity. (
  • Parenteral atropine is not generally recommended for those whose sole manifestation of toxicity is miosis (pupillary constriction). (
  • Atropin er eit lækjemiddel som vert framstelt av belladonnaplanta (Atropa Belladonna) og er ein potensielt giftig medisinsk urt. (
  • Although atropine poisoning has occasionally occurred following overdosage with suicidal intent, and after the ingestion of wild berries of Atropa belladonna , the great majority of reported cases have been therapeutic accidents, resulting from carelessness on the part of physicians, pharmacists, patients and unskilled hospital aides. (
  • 11.4% in atropine group vs. 30.8% in placebo group. (
  • 22.7% in atropine group vs. 5.1% in placebo group. (
  • 9.1% in atropine group vs. 25.6% in placebo group. (
  • 13.6% in atropine group vs. 20.5% in placebo group. (
  • Atropine is contraindicated in patients predisposed to narrow angle glaucoma . (
  • Atropine is not an actual antidote for organophosphate poisoning. (
  • Atropine also has medical purpose and is used in various eye surgeries and as well as an antidote for opium. (
  • Myopia progression is a hot topic in pediatric ophthalmology, whether the treating physician uses atropine, surgical procedures or contact lenses. (
  • A 4 year old patient presents to the ED with a lip laceration, you decide to repair it under ketamine sedation and prepare an appropriate dose of ketamine and atropine. (
  • The authors of a 2004 study published in the journal 'Continuing Education in Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain' reported that atropine may temporarily lower heart rate before an increase occurs. (
  • As early as the 1990s, doctors had some evidence that atropine can slow the progression of nearsightedness. (
  • That opens atropine back up as a practical treatment for myopia, Epley says, "This gives us a tool to slow down that progression of myopia that we didn't have in a safe way before. (