Parasympathetic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Receptor, Muscarinic M3
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Receptor, Muscarinic M2
Receptor, Muscarinic M1
Sympathetic Nervous System
Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (1/2794)The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons. (+info)
Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (2/2794)BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism. (+info)
Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (3/2794)In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model. (+info)
Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (4/2794)1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea. (+info)
Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (5/2794)1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh. (+info)
Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (6/2794)We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug. (+info)
Wavelet transform to quantify heart rate variability and to assess its instantaneous changes. (7/2794)Heart rate variability is a recognized parameter for assessing autonomous nervous system activity. Fourier transform, the most commonly used method to analyze variability, does not offer an easy assessment of its dynamics because of limitations inherent in its stationary hypothesis. Conversely, wavelet transform allows analysis of nonstationary signals. We compared the respective yields of Fourier and wavelet transforms in analyzing heart rate variability during dynamic changes in autonomous nervous system balance induced by atropine and propranolol. Fourier and wavelet transforms were applied to sequences of heart rate intervals in six subjects receiving increasing doses of atropine and propranolol. At the lowest doses of atropine administered, heart rate variability increased, followed by a progressive decrease with higher doses. With the first dose of propranolol, there was a significant increase in heart rate variability, which progressively disappeared after the last dose. Wavelet transform gave significantly better quantitative analysis of heart rate variability than did Fourier transform during autonomous nervous system adaptations induced by both agents and provided novel temporally localized information. (+info)
Assessment of cardiac sympathetic regulation by respiratory-related arterial pressure variability in the rat. (8/2794)1. Mechanical ventilation evokes a corresponding arterial pressure variability (APV) which is decreased by beta-adrenoceptor antagonism. Therefore, in this study we set out to determine whether the respiratory-related APV can be used to assess cardiac sympathetic tone. 2. Computer-generated broad-band mechanical ventilation (0-3 Hz) was applied to Sprague-Dawley rats that had been anaesthetized with ketamine and paralysed with pancuronium. APV and its relationship to lung volume variability (LVV-APV) was systematically quantified with auto- or cross-spectral frequency domain analysis. 3. APV and LVV-APV transfer magnitudes between 0.5 and 1.5 Hz showed dose-dependent suppression by propranolol from 0.01 to 1 mg kg-1, while the static value of arterial pressure remained unchanged. Stroke volume variability, assessed by the use of a pulse contour method, exhibited a similar pattern of suppression by propranolol. In contrast, heart rate variability was not lowered with propranolol. 4. The effect of propranolol on respiratory-related APV persisted even in the presence of combined alpha-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor blockade by phentolamine and atropine. 5. The frequency range of 0.5-1.0 Hz was optimal for LVV-APV transfer magnitude to correlate with cardiac sympathetic tone. 6. We conclude that respiratory-related APV may provide a valid assessment of cardiac sympathetic regulation which is independent of parasympathetic and vascular sympathetic influences in ketamine-anaesthetized and positive pressure-ventilated rats. (+info)
Atropine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including bradycardia (slow heart rate), poisoning by certain drugs or toxins, and certain types of eye surgery. It is also used to treat symptoms of certain medical conditions, such as motion sickness and irritable bowel syndrome. Atropine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in many bodily functions, including muscle contractions, heart rate, and digestion. This can cause a number of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, and difficulty urinating. Atropine is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking atropine, as the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific condition being treated.
Atropine derivatives are a group of drugs that are derived from the alkaloid atropine, which is found in the plant Atropa belladonna. Atropine is a potent anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in many bodily functions, including muscle contraction, digestion, and the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure. Atropine derivatives are used to treat a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and certain types of poisoning. They are also used as a medication to dilate the pupils of the eye and to treat certain types of glaucoma. Some common examples of atropine derivatives include atropine sulfate, diphenhydramine, and scopolamine. Atropine derivatives can have a number of side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and confusion. They can also cause more serious side effects, such as arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) and delirium. As with any medication, it is important to use atropine derivatives only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Receptors, Muscarinic are a type of cell surface receptors that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, digestive system, and central nervous system. There are five subtypes of muscarinic receptors, designated M1 through M5, each with different properties and functions. Activation of muscarinic receptors can produce a wide range of effects, including contraction of smooth muscle, stimulation of glandular secretion, and modulation of neurotransmitter release. In the medical field, muscarinic receptors are important targets for the treatment of various conditions, including asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, and certain types of heart disease. Drugs that interact with muscarinic receptors are often referred to as muscarinic agonists or antagonists, depending on whether they stimulate or block the activity of the receptors.
Hexamethonium compounds are a class of drugs that are used in the medical field as muscle relaxants. They work by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contractions. This results in a decrease in muscle tone and relaxation of the muscles. Hexamethonium compounds are often used to treat conditions such as muscle spasms, urinary retention, and certain types of pain. They are also used as a diagnostic tool to test the function of the autonomic nervous system. However, hexamethonium compounds can have serious side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. They can also cause a condition called malignant hyperthermia, which is a potentially life-threatening reaction to certain anesthetic drugs. As a result, the use of hexamethonium compounds is generally reserved for cases where other treatments are not effective or are not available. They are also used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or respiratory problems.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons in the nervous system. It is synthesized from the amino acid choline and is stored in vesicles within nerve cells. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a nerve cell, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the nerve cell and the next cell it communicates with. Acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the surface of the receiving cell, causing a change in its electrical activity. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. In the medical field, acetylcholine is used as a diagnostic tool to study the function of the nervous system, particularly in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. It is also used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, by increasing the activity of the affected nerves.
Pralidoxime compounds are a class of drugs used in the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Organophosphate poisoning occurs when a person ingests or comes into contact with a chemical compound containing a phosphorus atom bonded to an oxygen atom, which inhibits the activity of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase. This leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the body, which can cause symptoms such as muscle twitching, difficulty breathing, and even death. Pralidoxime compounds work by restoring the activity of acetylcholinesterase by chelating with the phosphorylated enzyme, allowing it to break down acetylcholine and return to its normal function. This helps to reverse the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and prevent further damage to the body. Pralidoxime compounds are typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and may be given in combination with atropine, another medication used to treat organophosphate poisoning. It is important to note that pralidoxime compounds are not effective for all types of organophosphate poisoning, and their use should be determined by a healthcare professional based on the specific circumstances of the poisoning.
Physostigmine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, and Alzheimer's disease. It is a natural alkaloid that is derived from the plant Physostigma venenosum, which is found in the rainforests of Southeast Asia. Physostigmine works by increasing the activity of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain and muscles, which can help to improve muscle strength and coordination, as well as improve memory and cognitive function. It is usually administered as an injection or a tablet, and it can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.
Carbachol is a medication that is used in the medical field to treat certain conditions such as glaucoma, irritable bowel syndrome, and urinary incontinence. It is a cholinergic agonist, which means that it works by stimulating the action of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle contraction, digestion, and the regulation of the heart rate and blood pressure. By stimulating the action of acetylcholine, carbachol can help to relax muscles, increase the production of digestive juices, and slow down the heart rate and blood pressure. It is usually administered as an eye drop for glaucoma, as a suppository for irritable bowel syndrome, or as an injection for urinary incontinence.
Pirenzepine is a medication that is used to treat symptoms of peptic ulcers, such as stomach pain and heartburn. It works by blocking the action of a chemical called acetylcholine, which helps to relax the muscles in the stomach and intestines. This can help to reduce the amount of acid that is produced in the stomach, which can help to relieve symptoms of peptic ulcers. Pirenzepine is available in both tablet and capsule form and is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking pirenzepine, as it can cause side effects such as dizziness, headache, and constipation.
Neostigmine is a medication that is used to treat certain muscle disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, and to reverse the effects of certain medications that cause muscle weakness, such as neuromuscular blockers used during surgery. It works by increasing the activity of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which helps to improve muscle strength and coordination. Neostigmine is available in both injectable and oral forms, and is typically administered by a healthcare professional. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle cramps.
Autonomic agents are computer programs that are designed to perform tasks without human intervention. In the medical field, autonomic agents are often used to automate routine tasks such as patient monitoring, data collection, and analysis. These agents can be programmed to perform specific tasks, such as monitoring a patient's vital signs or analyzing medical images, and can be used to improve the efficiency and accuracy of medical care. Autonomic agents can also be used to provide real-time alerts to medical staff when certain conditions are detected, allowing for prompt intervention and treatment.
Organophosphate poisoning is a type of poisoning that occurs when a person is exposed to organophosphate chemicals. These chemicals are commonly used as pesticides, herbicides, and insecticides. They work by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body. When acetylcholine levels become too high, it can cause overstimulation of the nervous system, leading to symptoms such as muscle twitching, difficulty breathing, and even death. Treatment for organophosphate poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and medications to counteract the effects of the poison. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Methacholine compounds are a class of drugs that are used to test the function of the bronchial muscles in the lungs. They work by stimulating the muscarinic receptors in the airways, which can cause the muscles to contract and narrow the airways. This can be useful in diagnosing conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases that involve inflammation or narrowing of the airways. Methacholine compounds are typically administered as a nebulized solution or as an aerosol, and the response to the drug is measured by observing changes in lung function, such as changes in lung volume or air flow.
Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. It is primarily used to treat high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and certain types of tremors, including essential tremor and tremors caused by medications. Propranolol can also be used to treat other conditions, such as anxiety disorders, certain types of heart rhythm disorders, and migraine headaches. It works by blocking the effects of adrenaline (a hormone that can cause the heart to beat faster and the blood vessels to narrow) on the heart and blood vessels. Propranolol is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is usually taken once or twice a day.
Guanethidine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and pheochromocytoma, a rare tumor of the adrenal gland. It works by blocking the production of norepinephrine, a hormone that causes blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to rise. Guanethidine is typically taken by mouth and is usually given in combination with other medications to treat hypertension. It may also be used to treat other conditions, such as Raynaud's disease, which is a condition that causes the blood vessels in the fingers and toes to narrow, leading to pain and discoloration. Guanethidine can cause side effects, such as dizziness, headache, and low blood pressure, and should be used with caution in people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease or diabetes.
Glycopyrrolate is a medication that is used to treat certain conditions related to the muscles of the eyes, such as spasms or overactivity. It is also used to treat certain types of muscle spasms in the body, such as those that occur in the urinary tract or the intestines. Glycopyrrolate works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical that is involved in muscle contraction. This helps to relax the muscles and reduce spasms or overactivity. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically used on an as-needed basis.
Phentolamine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure, Raynaud's disease, and erectile dysfunction. It is a non-selective alpha-adrenergic antagonist, which means that it blocks the action of certain hormones and neurotransmitters that cause blood vessels to constrict. This can help to relax blood vessels and improve blood flow to the affected area. Phentolamine is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is usually given as a short-acting medication. It is important to note that phentolamine can cause side effects, including dizziness, headache, and rapid heartbeat, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Cholinesterase reactivators are medications that are used to reverse the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, which are drugs that block the enzyme cholinesterase. Cholinesterase is an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for muscle movement and other bodily functions. When cholinesterase is blocked, acetylcholine builds up in the body, leading to symptoms such as muscle weakness, tremors, and difficulty breathing. Cholinesterase reactivators work by restoring the activity of cholinesterase, allowing the enzyme to break down the excess acetylcholine and alleviate the symptoms of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning. There are several different types of cholinesterase reactivators, including pralidoxime, obidoxime, and edrophonium. These medications are typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly in the case of severe poisoning. It is important to note that cholinesterase reactivators are not effective against all types of cholinesterase inhibitors, and they may not be able to reverse the effects of certain types of poisoning.
Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that are used to treat certain neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. These drugs work by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. By inhibiting this enzyme, cholinesterase inhibitors help to increase the levels of acetylcholine in the brain, which can improve cognitive function and muscle control in people with these conditions. There are several different types of cholinesterase inhibitors, including donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. These drugs are usually taken orally and are generally well-tolerated, although they can cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and headache.
Bethanechol is a medication that is used to treat urinary retention, a condition in which a person is unable to empty their bladder completely. It works by stimulating the muscles in the bladder and urinary tract to contract, which helps to empty the bladder. Bethanechol is usually given as an injection or a suppository, and it is typically used in people who are unable to urinate due to surgery, injury, or certain medical conditions. It is important to note that bethanechol can cause side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.
In the medical field, an antidote is a substance that is used to counteract or neutralize the effects of a toxic substance or poison. Antidotes are typically administered to individuals who have ingested, inhaled, or been exposed to a harmful substance in order to prevent or treat the harmful effects of the poison. Antidotes can be used to treat a wide range of toxic substances, including drugs, chemicals, and biological agents. For example, activated charcoal is often used as an antidote to treat poisoning from certain drugs, while atropine is used to counteract the effects of nerve gas poisoning. It is important to note that not all toxic substances have an antidote, and in some cases, the best course of treatment may be supportive care rather than the administration of an antidote. Additionally, some antidotes can themselves be harmful if administered in the wrong dosage or to the wrong individual, so it is important for healthcare professionals to be trained in the proper use of antidotes.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is produced by certain species of marine animals, including pufferfish, cone snails, and some species of sea slugs. TTX is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless compound that is highly toxic to humans and other animals. In the medical field, TTX is primarily used as a research tool to study the function of voltage-gated sodium channels, which are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses. TTX blocks these channels, leading to a loss of electrical activity in nerve cells and muscles. TTX has also been used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as chronic pain and epilepsy. However, its use in humans is limited due to its toxicity and the difficulty in administering it safely. In addition to its medical uses, TTX has also been used as a pesticide and a tool for controlling invasive species. However, its use as a pesticide is controversial due to its potential toxicity to non-target organisms and its persistence in the environment.
Cholinergic fibers are a type of nerve fiber that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) at their terminals. These fibers are primarily involved in the transmission of signals within the nervous system and play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, glandular secretion, and regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Cholinergic fibers can be found throughout the body, including in the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS), and enteric nervous system (ENS). In the CNS, cholinergic fibers are involved in learning, memory, and attention, as well as in the regulation of mood and behavior. In the PNS, cholinergic fibers are involved in the control of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular secretion. In the ENS, cholinergic fibers are involved in the regulation of gut motility and secretion. Disruptions in cholinergic signaling have been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. As such, cholinergic fibers are an important area of research in the field of neuroscience and have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of these disorders.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary bodily functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion, and blood pressure. It is responsible for maintaining homeostasis, or a stable internal environment, in the body. The ANS is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The SNS is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action in response to a perceived threat. The PNS, on the other hand, is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, which helps the body to relax and conserve energy. The ANS communicates with the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of ganglia (clusters of nerve cells) and nerves. The ANS is an important part of the body's overall functioning and plays a critical role in maintaining health and wellness.
Bethanechol compounds are a class of drugs that are used to stimulate the contractions of smooth muscles in the body. They are primarily used to treat conditions such as urinary retention, constipation, and gastrointestinal disorders. Bethanechol works by activating muscarinic receptors in the smooth muscles, which leads to increased muscle contractions. It is available in both oral and injectable forms.
Bradycardia is a medical condition characterized by a slow heart rate, which is defined as a resting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute (bpm). The normal resting heart rate for adults is typically between 60 and 100 bpm. Bradycardia can be classified as sinus bradycardia, which is a slow heart rate that originates from the sinoatrial node, or as non-sinus bradycardia, which is a slow heart rate that originates from another part of the heart. Bradycardia can be asymptomatic or may cause symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath, chest pain, or palpitations. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including electrolyte imbalances, medications, heart disease, thyroid disorders, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment for bradycardia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in others, medications, a pacemaker, or other medical procedures may be recommended.
Oxotremorine is a medication that is used to treat Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. It is a type of anticholinergic drug that works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in muscle movement and other bodily functions. Oxotremorine is typically administered as a tablet or injection and is used to reduce tremors, stiffness, and other symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It can also be used to treat other conditions, such as dystonia and Huntington's disease. However, oxotremorine can cause side effects, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness, and should be used with caution.
Receptors, cholinergic are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These receptors play a role in many physiological processes, including muscle contraction, heart rate, and the regulation of the autonomic nervous system. They are also involved in the transmission of signals between neurons in the central nervous system and between neurons and muscles. In the medical field, cholinergic receptors are important targets for drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and certain types of depression.
Quinuclidinyl Benzilate is a chemical compound that is used as a chemical weapon. It is a nerve agent that works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses, leading to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. It is classified as a Schedule 1 substance under the Chemical Weapons Convention and is illegal to possess or use. In the medical field, it is not used for any therapeutic purpose and exposure to it can be extremely dangerous and potentially lethal.
Cholinergic agonists are drugs that stimulate the activity of the cholinergic system, which is a group of neurons and receptors that use the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to transmit signals in the body. These drugs can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, and urinary incontinence. There are several different types of cholinergic agonists, including muscarinic agonists, which stimulate muscarinic receptors, and nicotinic agonists, which stimulate nicotinic receptors. Muscarinic agonists are often used to treat conditions such as glaucoma, as they can help to increase the production of aqueous humor in the eye, which can help to reduce pressure inside the eye. Nicotinic agonists are often used to treat conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, as they can help to improve memory and cognitive function. Cholinergic agonists can be administered in a variety of ways, including orally, intravenously, and topically. They can also be given as injections or as eye drops. Some cholinergic agonists are available over-the-counter, while others require a prescription from a healthcare provider. It is important to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider when taking cholinergic agonists, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications you are taking.
Scopolamine hydrobromide is a medication that is used to treat motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting. It is a type of anticholinergic medication that works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in muscle contraction and the regulation of the digestive system. Scopolamine hydrobromide is available in various forms, including tablets, patches, and injections, and is typically used to treat conditions such as motion sickness, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and morning sickness. It is important to note that scopolamine hydrobromide can cause side effects, such as dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness, and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
Cholinergic agents are drugs that affect the cholinergic system, which is a group of neurons and receptors that use the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to transmit signals. These agents can either increase or decrease the activity of the cholinergic system, depending on the specific drug and the receptors it targets. There are several types of cholinergic agents, including: 1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: These drugs prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine, allowing it to remain in the synaptic cleft for a longer period of time and increasing its effects. Examples include donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine, which are used to treat Alzheimer's disease. 2. Nicotinic receptor agonists: These drugs bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and activate them, leading to a variety of effects depending on the specific receptors involved. Examples include nicotine, which is used as a smoking cessation aid, and cytisine, which is being studied as a potential treatment for obesity. 3. Muscarinic receptor antagonists: These drugs block the effects of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, leading to a decrease in cholinergic activity. Examples include atropine and scopolamine, which are used as anticholinergics to treat conditions such as motion sickness and to reduce the risk of bleeding during surgery. Cholinergic agents are used to treat a variety of conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. They can also be used to treat certain side effects of other medications, such as dry mouth and constipation.
Cholinergic Antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. These drugs are used to treat a variety of conditions, including glaucoma, myasthenia gravis, and Alzheimer's disease. Cholinergic Antagonists work by binding to receptors on the surface of cells that are sensitive to acetylcholine, preventing the neurotransmitter from binding to the receptors and triggering a response. This can result in a decrease in muscle activity, pupil dilation, and other effects that are mediated by acetylcholine. There are several different types of Cholinergic Antagonists, including muscarinic antagonists, which block the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, and nicotinic antagonists, which block the action of acetylcholine at nicotinic receptors. Some examples of Cholinergic Antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, and memantine.
Muscarine is a naturally occurring alkaloid that is found in certain mushrooms, such as the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and the death cap mushroom (Amanita phalloides). It is also found in some species of snails, particularly those in the genus Conus. In the medical field, muscarine has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects. It is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, which means that it binds to and activates these receptors in the body. Muscarinic receptors are found in many different parts of the body, including the brain, heart, lungs, and digestive system. Muscarine has been studied for its potential use in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and glaucoma. It has also been used as a research tool to study the effects of muscarinic receptors on various physiological processes. However, it is important to note that muscarine is a potent toxin and can be dangerous if ingested in large quantities. Ingestion of muscarine-containing mushrooms can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hallucinations, and in severe cases, death. Therefore, it is important to exercise caution when handling and consuming mushrooms, and to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you have ingested a toxic mushroom.
Dichlorvos is an organophosphate insecticide that is commonly used to control pests such as cockroaches, ants, and flies. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. When acetylcholinesterase is inhibited, acetylcholine builds up in the nervous system, leading to overstimulation and eventually paralysis and death of the insect. In the medical field, dichlorvos is not typically used for human treatment, as it can be toxic to humans and other animals. Exposure to dichlorvos can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, coma, and death. However, dichlorvos is sometimes used as a pesticide in hospitals and other healthcare facilities to control pests that may pose a risk to patients and staff.
In the medical field, Tropanes are a class of organic compounds that are derived from the alkaloid tropine. They are known for their ability to interact with the cholinergic system in the brain, which can lead to a range of effects on the central nervous system. Some of the most well-known tropane compounds include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine. These compounds are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including motion sickness, glaucoma, and overactive bladder. They can also be used as muscle relaxants and as sedatives. However, tropane compounds can also have side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and confusion. In some cases, they can also be toxic in high doses, and they may interact with other medications or medical conditions. As a result, tropane compounds are typically used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Histamine is a chemical substance that is produced by certain cells in the body, including immune cells and cells in the digestive system. It plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including the contraction of smooth muscles, the dilation of blood vessels, and the stimulation of nerve endings. In the medical field, histamine is often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify conditions such as allergies, asthma, and certain types of infections. It is also used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as allergic reactions and certain types of digestive disorders.
In the medical field, "cats" typically refers to Felis catus, which is the scientific name for the domestic cat. Cats are commonly kept as pets and are known for their agility, playful behavior, and affectionate nature. In veterinary medicine, cats are commonly treated for a variety of health conditions, including respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal issues, and dental problems. Cats can also be used in medical research to study various diseases and conditions, such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. In some cases, the term "cats" may also refer to a group of animals used in medical research or testing. For example, cats may be used to study the effects of certain drugs or treatments on the immune system or to test new vaccines.
Pentolinium tartrate is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure. It is a diuretic, which means that it helps the body to get rid of excess fluid by increasing the amount of urine that is produced. Pentolinium tartrate works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body that help to regulate the amount of fluid that is retained. This can help to lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of complications associated with high blood pressure, such as heart attack and stroke.
Soman is a nerve agent that was first synthesized in 1944 by German chemists. It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid that is highly toxic and can be absorbed through the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Soman is classified as a Schedule 1 controlled substance under the United States Controlled Substances Act and is illegal to possess, manufacture, or distribute without a valid prescription. In the medical field, soman is primarily used for research purposes to study the effects of nerve agents on the human body. It is also used in some military and law enforcement training exercises to simulate the effects of nerve agents and to test the effectiveness of protective gear and antidotes. However, the use of soman in these contexts is highly regulated and requires strict safety protocols to prevent accidental exposure.
Bretylium compounds are a class of drugs that are used in the medical field to treat certain types of heart arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. These drugs work by blocking the influx of certain ions, such as sodium and calcium, into cardiac muscle cells, which can help to stabilize the heart rhythm and prevent further arrhythmias from occurring. Bretylium compounds are typically administered intravenously and are used as a last resort when other treatments have failed or are not appropriate. They can cause a number of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure, and may interact with other medications that are being taken.
Mecamylamine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure and to prevent chest pain (angina) in people with heart disease. It works by relaxing blood vessels and decreasing the workload on the heart. Mecamylamine is usually taken by mouth, but it can also be given as an injection. It is not recommended for use in people with certain heart conditions, such as sick sinus syndrome or second- or third-degree heart block. Side effects of mecamylamine may include dizziness, headache, and nausea.
The Muscarinic M3 receptor is a type of protein receptor found in the cells of various organs and tissues in the body. It is a subtype of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The M3 receptor is primarily located in the smooth muscle cells of the heart, as well as in the glands and smooth muscles of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary systems. Activation of the M3 receptor can cause a variety of physiological effects, including contraction of smooth muscle cells, secretion of glandular secretions, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure. In the medical field, the M3 receptor is an important target for the development of drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, irritable bowel syndrome, overactive bladder, and certain types of heart disease. Drugs that target the M3 receptor are known as muscarinic M3 receptor antagonists or antagonists.
Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a hormone that is produced by the cells of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as by neurons in the brain and other parts of the body. It is a polypeptide hormone, which means that it is made up of chains of amino acids. VIP has a number of effects on the body, including: 1. Relaxing smooth muscle: VIP can cause the muscles in blood vessels to relax, which can lead to a decrease in blood pressure. 2. Increasing the production of insulin: VIP can stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin, which is a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels. 3. Regulating the digestive system: VIP can stimulate the production of digestive enzymes and the movement of food through the digestive tract. 4. Modulating the immune system: VIP can help to regulate the immune system and reduce inflammation. VIP is also involved in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of heart rate and the contraction of the uterus during childbirth. It is sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and certain types of diarrhea.
Methysergide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used to treat migraines and cluster headaches, as well as to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy or surgery. Methysergide works by constricting blood vessels in the brain and reducing inflammation, which can help to alleviate the symptoms of migraines and cluster headaches. It can also help to prevent nausea and vomiting by blocking the action of certain chemicals in the brain that trigger these symptoms. Methysergide is available in both oral and injectable forms, and is typically taken on an as-needed basis for the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches. However, it is important to note that methysergide can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and chest pain, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Metiamide is a medication that is used to treat ulcers in the stomach and duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It works by reducing the amount of acid that is produced by the stomach, which can help to heal ulcers and prevent them from coming back. Metiamide is usually taken in combination with other medications, such as antibiotics and antacids, to treat ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. It is available in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Side effects of metiamide may include headache, dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea.
Dimethylphenylpiperazinium iodide is a medication that is used to treat certain types of infections caused by bacteria. It is a type of antibiotic that works by stopping the growth of bacteria. It is usually given by injection into a vein or muscle. Dimethylphenylpiperazinium iodide is not effective against all types of bacteria, and it may not work for everyone. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.
Substance P is a neuropeptide that is involved in the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system. It is a small protein that is produced by sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system and is released into the spinal cord and brain when these neurons are activated by noxious stimuli such as injury or inflammation. Substance P acts on specific receptors on nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain, triggering the release of other neurotransmitters and hormones that contribute to the perception of pain. It is also involved in other physiological processes, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate. In the medical field, substance P is often studied in the context of pain management and the development of new pain medications. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in certain conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, where it may be present in higher levels in the body.
Phenoxybenzamine is a medication that is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and symptoms of an overactive bladder, such as urinary urgency and frequency. It works by relaxing blood vessels and reducing the amount of noradrenaline (a hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict) in the body. This helps to lower blood pressure and improve bladder control. Phenoxybenzamine is usually taken by mouth, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking phenoxybenzamine.
In the medical field, "Receptor, Muscarinic M2" refers to a type of protein receptor found on the surface of cells in the body that is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The M2 muscarinic receptor is one of five subtypes of muscarinic receptors, which are named based on their sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. The M2 muscarinic receptor is primarily found in the heart, smooth muscle, and glands, and plays a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including heart rate, bronchoconstriction, and secretion of saliva and other fluids. Activation of the M2 receptor can produce a range of effects, including relaxation of smooth muscle, slowing of the heart rate, and increased secretion of saliva and other fluids. In the context of medical research and drug development, the M2 muscarinic receptor is an important target for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and certain types of heart disease. Drugs that target the M2 receptor, such as ipratropium bromide and tiotropium bromide, are commonly used to treat these conditions by relaxing bronchial smooth muscle and reducing airway inflammation.
Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood through the body. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is typically expressed as two numbers: systolic pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) and diastolic pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats). Normal blood pressure is considered to be below 120/80 mmHg, while high blood pressure (hypertension) is defined as a systolic pressure of 140 mmHg or higher and/or a diastolic pressure of 90 mmHg or higher. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, and other health problems.
Pilocarpine is a medication that is used to treat glaucoma, a condition that can lead to vision loss and blindness. It is also used to treat symptoms of dry eye, such as burning, itching, and redness. Pilocarpine works by increasing the production of tears, which helps to keep the eyes lubricated and reduce dryness. It is available in both eye drops and oral tablets. Pilocarpine can cause side effects such as blurred vision, eye irritation, and increased saliva production. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when using pilocarpine and to report any side effects to them.
N-Methylscopolamine is a medication that is used to treat certain types of muscle spasms, such as those that occur in the urinary tract or gastrointestinal tract. It is also used to treat certain types of tremors and to relax muscles during surgery. N-Methylscopolamine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical that is involved in muscle contraction. This helps to relax the muscles and reduce spasms. It is available as a tablet, a patch, and an oral solution. Side effects of N-Methylscopolamine may include dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, and difficulty urinating. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when using this medication.
Tachykinins are a group of neuropeptides that are involved in various physiological processes, including the regulation of smooth muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and the release of other hormones. They are primarily produced in the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and central nervous system. The most well-known tachykinins are substance P, neurokinin A (NKA), and neurokinin B (NKB). These peptides bind to specific receptors on the surface of cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the desired physiological response. Tachykinins play a role in a variety of medical conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain, and asthma. They are also involved in the regulation of the immune system and have been studied as potential therapeutic targets for a range of diseases.
Metipranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including high blood pressure, angina (chest pain), and tremors caused by certain neurological disorders. Metipranolol works by blocking the effects of adrenaline (a hormone that causes the body's "fight or flight" response) on the heart and blood vessels, which can help to lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically taken once or twice a day. Like all medications, metipranolol can cause side effects, including dizziness, fatigue, and nausea. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication.
Adjuvants, anesthesia are substances that are used to enhance the effectiveness of an anesthetic agent. They are typically used in conjunction with the anesthetic to provide a more complete and effective block of pain and other sensations during surgery or other medical procedures. There are several different types of adjuvants that can be used with anesthesia, including opioids, non-opioid analgesics, and local anesthetics. Opioids, such as morphine or fentanyl, are used to provide pain relief and sedation during surgery. Non-opioid analgesics, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can also be used to provide pain relief. Local anesthetics, such as lidocaine or bupivacaine, are used to numb a specific area of the body before surgery or other procedures. Adjuvants can be administered in a variety of ways, including intravenously, orally, or topically. They are typically used in combination with an anesthetic agent to provide a more complete and effective block of pain and other sensations during surgery or other medical procedures.
The Muscarinic M1 receptor is a type of protein receptor found in the cells of various organs and tissues in the body. It is a subtype of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor family, which is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The M1 receptor is primarily located in the central nervous system, where it plays a role in regulating various functions such as cognition, mood, and movement. It is also found in the heart, smooth muscle, and glands, where it regulates processes such as heart rate, muscle contraction, and glandular secretion. Activation of the M1 receptor can produce a range of effects, depending on the tissue and organ in which it is located. For example, activation of the M1 receptor in the heart can cause the heart to beat faster and stronger, while activation in the smooth muscle of the airways can cause bronchodilation, or widening of the airways. In the medical field, the M1 receptor is an important target for the development of drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.
Solanaceous alkaloids are a group of naturally occurring alkaloids that are found in plants of the Solanaceae family, which includes tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, and eggplants. These alkaloids have a wide range of pharmacological effects and are used in the treatment of various medical conditions. Some of the most well-known solanaceous alkaloids include atropine, scopolamine, and nicotine. Atropine is a potent anticholinergic drug that is used to treat conditions such as glaucoma, irritable bowel syndrome, and motion sickness. Scopolamine is a sedative that is used to treat motion sickness and to prevent nausea and vomiting during surgery. Nicotine is a stimulant that is used to treat conditions such as smoking cessation and Parkinson's disease. Solanaceous alkaloids can also have toxic effects when consumed in large quantities, and some species of the Solanaceae family, such as the nightshade plant, are known to be poisonous. As a result, it is important to use caution when handling and consuming plants from this family, and to seek medical attention if you experience any adverse effects after consuming them.
Benzilates are esters of benzoic acid and alcohols. They are commonly used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as in food and beverages. In the medical field, benzilates are used as antiseptics and disinfectants to prevent the growth of microorganisms on surfaces and in solutions. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. Some benzilates have been reported to have potential toxic effects, including skin irritation and sensitization, and may cause allergic reactions in some individuals.
Dicyclomine is a medication that is used to treat symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and peptic ulcers. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical that helps to relax the muscles in the digestive tract. This can help to reduce cramping and abdominal pain, as well as improve bowel movements. Dicyclomine is available in tablet and capsule form and is usually taken three to four times a day. It may cause side effects such as dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness.
List of psychoactive plants
Cholinergic blocking drug
Rapid sequence induction
John Wayne Gacy
Equine recurrent uveitis
Spinal cord injury
Department of Pharmacology, University College London
Atropine Ophthalmic: MedlinePlus Drug Information
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- Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. (drugbank.com)
- Generic equivalents for Atropine Sulfate . (drugmartdirect.com)
- It is generally available as a sulfate salt and oral atropine is only available in combination products. (sharkvet.com)
- Atropine sulfate blocks the muscarinic effects of acetylcholine that cause bronchorrhoea, hypersalivation, bronchoconstriction and bradycardia, thereby reducing these effects. (who.int)
- Patients were categorized by age (4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years) and were assigned randomly to receive atropine 0.05%, 0.025%, 0.01%, or placebo. (aao.org)
- Atropine 0.01% was able to alleviate hyperopia most noticeably in the temporal retina. (reviewofoptometry.com)
- The study group used a placebo for one year followed by half a year of atropine 0.01%, while the control group used atropine 0.01% for one year and then switched to placebo eye drops for half a year. (reviewofoptometry.com)
- They concluded that in children with myopia, "Atropine 0.01% eye drops and cycloplegia had more of an effect on temporal relative peripheral refractions. (reviewofoptometry.com)
- The effect of atropine 0.01% eyedrops on relative peripheral refraction in myopic children. (reviewofoptometry.com)
- Evaluation of the Levels of Low-dose Topical Atropine (0.01%) in Aqueous and Vitreous Humor in Human Eyes. (bvsalud.org)
- This is the first human study that confirmed penetration of 0.01% topical atropine in aqueous and vitreous humor in live human eyes . (bvsalud.org)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate penetration of low- dose atropine 0.01% in aqueous and vitreous humor . (bvsalud.org)
- One drop of 0.01% atropine was put in the eye to be operated. (bvsalud.org)
- Measurable concentration of low- dose topical atropine (0.01%) was noted in aqueous and vitreous humor after instillation of a single drop of low- dose atropine . (bvsalud.org)
- How can atropine eye drops slow down the progression of my child's myopia? (amplifyeye.care)
- In addition to other available options for treating childhood myopia , one increasingly popular way to slow the progression is the use of low concentration atropine drops. (amplifyeye.care)
- Are low dose atropine drops a cure for slowing progression in childhood nearsightedness? (amplifyeye.care)
- Low-dose atropine eye drops is an effective approach to slowing the progression of myopia in children who are 5 to 15 years of age. (scotteye.com)
- In such situations, it is suggested by eye doctors that parents turn to Atropine - a form of weekly eye drops treatment - that complements spectacle and contact lens usage in children. (myopia.com.sg)
- Atropine sulphate drops are known to decrease salivary secretion due to their muscarinic antagonistic activity. (sysrevpharm.org)
- The present study was undertaken to quantitatively assess decrease in salivary secretion in children post administration of atropine sulphate drops sublingually, during routine dental procedures. (sysrevpharm.org)
- Case group was given atropine sulphate drops sublingually in a dose dependent manner and control group received distilled water in a similarly calculated dose. (sysrevpharm.org)
- The duration of effect of atropine drops, the route of administration, and reversibility of effect in children can be interpreted as adopting the said drug as an adjunct to conventional saliva control measures. (sysrevpharm.org)
Mechanism of Act1
- In atropine-induced mydriasis, the mechanism of action involves blocking the contraction of the circular pupillary sphincter muscle (which is normally stimulated by acetylcholine release), thereby allowing the radial pupillary dilator muscle to contract and dilate the pupil. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Ophthalmic atropine is used before eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil, the black part of the eye through which you see. (medlineplus.gov)
- you should know that your vision may be blurred during your treatment with atropine ophthalmic ointment. (medlineplus.gov)
- Atropine Injection veterinary 10 mg/ml is relatively inexpensive and can be administered by intravenous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intraosseous, endotracheal, and ophthalmic methods. (sharkvet.com)
- Type of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity that may require extremely high doses of atropine. (cdc.gov)
- 2002) Thus, even when given sufficient doses of atropine, patients may need artificial ventilation, sometimes for weeks. (cdc.gov)
- Some cases of mild to moderate poisonings may improve with these doses of atropine. (cdc.gov)
- One author suggest avoiding large doses of pre-mixed atropine containing alcohol preservatives in children out of concern that alcohol toxicity could complicate the situation. (cdc.gov)
- If Atropine is given slowly (or in low doses) to correct a bradycardia, it could paradoxically accentuate the parasympathetic actions of ACH - so therefore ACH would be considered the victor and thus the heart rate would continue to be slow or potentially get worse. (passwithpass.com)
- Atropine is incapacitating at doses of 10 to 20 mg per person. (manifestingpsychic.com)
- Medicines with these names contain atropine and diphenoxylate: Lofene Logen Lomanate Lomotil Lonox Other medicines may also contain atropine and diphenoxylate. (nih.gov)
- Remember that Atropine is in part of a competitive landscape with Acetylcholine (ACH) - the main neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system. (passwithpass.com)
- Generally, atropine lowers the "rest and digest" activity of all muscles and glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- The main action of the parasympathetic nervous system is to stimulate the M2 muscarinic receptor in the heart, but atropine inhibits this action. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Atropine lives in your protocol for various ailments including symptomatic bradycardia and for rarer occurrences of organophosphate poisoning. (passwithpass.com)
- Intravenous (IV) atropine indications include patients with hypersalivation, bronchial secretions, or bradycardia. (passwithpass.com)
- If the bradycardia is persistent and the patient is symptomatic with signs of AMS, hypotension, or signs of shock, give Atropine in a 1 mg bolus (repeat to a 3 mg max if necessary) If this is ineffective consider TCP and/or vasopressors. (passwithpass.com)
- Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (an extremely low heart rate) and asystole, which is a condition of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in cardiac arrest. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- If the patient is symptomatic, standard advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines for bradycardia, including the use of atropine and transcutaneous pacing, are indicated. (medscape.com)
- He was intubated and initially received 8 mg of atropine to control his secretions. (cdc.gov)
- Automatic injectors: the U.S. Armed Forces uses autoinjectors, containing 2 mg of atropine. (cdc.gov)
- These atropine autoinjectors are packaged with a 2-PAM autoinjector, called Mark I kits. (cdc.gov)
- Troops who are likely to be attacked with chemical weapons often carry autoinjectors with atropine and obidoxime which can be quickly injected into the thigh. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Troops who are likely to be attacked with chemical weapons often carry autoinjectors with atropine and an oxime, for rapid injection into the muscles of the thigh. (manifestingpsychic.com)
- Although age and atropine concentration were significant risk factors for SE progression and AL elongation, there was no interaction between the two, indicating that they influence myopia progression inde-pendently. (aao.org)
- They noted that this atropine concentration was able to alleviate relative hyperopia in the temporal retina and the hyperopic shift before cycloplegia. (reviewofoptometry.com)
- In addition to low concentration atropine for myopia, many children will still require the corrective measures of prescription glasses or contact lenses to achieve optimal vision improvement. (amplifyeye.care)
Cross the blood-brain b1
- These latter effects are due to the fact that atropine is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Atropine is only useful to counter muscarinic effects (pralidoxime and benzodiazepines act on the others). (passwithpass.com)
- Atropine is often used in conjunction with the oxime pralidoxime chloride. (manifestingpsychic.com)
- Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade ( Atropa belladonna ) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Per AHA, Atropine should only be considered a temporizing measure while awaiting a transcutaneous pacemaker for patients with symptomatic high-degree AV block. (passwithpass.com)
- Except for the use of atropine in selected cases of transient AV block, permanent cardiac pacing has replaced medical interventions in the treatment of patients with symptomatic, otherwise untreatable, AV block. (medscape.com)
- Symptomatic patients should be treated with atropine and transcutaneous pacing. (medscape.com)
- Atropine works by competitively occupying muscarinic receptor sites, thus reducing the effects of excessive acetylcholine on these sites brought about by cholinesterase inhibition. (cdc.gov)
- This occurs because atropine is a competitive inhibitor of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- By blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as an antidote for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Atropine Injection veterinary 10 mg/ml is a competitive, reversible antagonist of muscarinic receptors that blocks the effects of acetylcholine and other choline esters. (sharkvet.com)
- However, by blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as a treatment for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve agents, such as tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and VX. (manifestingpsychic.com)
- Atropine is contraindicated in patients predisposed to narrow angle glaucoma. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic, to temporarily paralyze accommodation, and as a mydriatic, to dilate the pupils. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Cisapride (Propulsid)Belladonna contains atropine. (nih.gov)
- Although low-dose atropine has shown promise for myopia control in children, the responses to treatment vary widely. (aao.org)
- These results suggest that among the factors studied, age was the only predictor of response to atropine treatment. (aao.org)
- Atropine has been used for over 100 years as an effective treatment in myopia control, although optimal dosage recommendations are still being debated and studied. (reviewofoptometry.com)
- What is Atropine Treatment for Nearsightedness in Children? (amplifyeye.care)
- Atropine treatment is relatively simple. (amplifyeye.care)
- Additional treatment included a continuous atropine infusion of 9 mg per hour for 5 days and a pralidoxime infusion (500 mg per hour) to a total of 26 g before ventilatory support could be discontinued. (cdc.gov)
- In the second year, those initially given placebo received 0.05% atropine. (aao.org)
- If there are local symptoms just in the eyes or respiratory tract, atropine is not indicated. (passwithpass.com)
- Atropine may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
- Atropine can reduce the effects of cisapride. (nih.gov)
- Both the loss of balance and dry mouth that you describe are potential side effects of atropine administration. (vetinfo.com)
- Mechanism by which atropine counters the effects of the cholinergic toxidrome. (cdc.gov)
- Atropine degrades slowly, typically wearing off in 2 to 3 days, so tropicamide is generally preferred as a mydriatic. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Atropine acts as a competitive, reversible antagonist of muscarinic receptors: an anticholinergic drug. (drugbank.com)
- Symptoms typically resolved rapidly with atropine therapy. (cdc.gov)
- Atropine should be used with caution in animals that have rapid heart rates or if kidney, heart, or liver function is impaired. (sharkvet.com)
- However, atropine should be administered with caution in patients with suspected myocardial ischemia, as ventricular dysrhythmias can occur in this situation. (medscape.com)
- Preferred routes of administration of atropine. (cdc.gov)
- Two experiments investigated the mechanism for changes in measures of behavioral arousal inhibition in rats following administration of atropine. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- The goal of atropine administration is to improve conduction through the AVN by reducing vagal tone via atropine-induced receptor blockade. (medscape.com)
- Atropine was injected 45 minutes later at 75 micrograms/kilogram intravenously (iv) and caused the mean pressure to return to control levels. (cdc.gov)
- At that time, in addition to collecting atropine lower blood pressure all kinds of rare and even extinct natural treasures on the mainland, they can also comprehend the profound meaning of the true law of ice. (sc-celje.si)
- Atropine blocks that action and therefore may speed up the heart rate. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
- Atropine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. (medlineplus.gov)
- It has been suggested that when these physiological changes do not occur with this dose (sometimes referred to as an atropine challenge ), this is indicative of cholinesterase inhibitor toxicity. (cdc.gov)