Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Pralidoxime Compounds: Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Pirenzepine: An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Autonomic Agents: Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Guanethidine: An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cholinesterase Reactivators: Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Bethanechol CompoundsBradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Oxotremorine: A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Quinuclidinyl Benzilate: A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Pentolinium Tartrate: A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Bretylium CompoundsMecamylamine: A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Receptor, Muscarinic M3: A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Metiamide: A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Phenoxybenzamine: An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.Receptor, Muscarinic M2: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Gastric Fundus: The superior portion of the body of the stomach above the level of the cardiac notch.N-Methylscopolamine: A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Metipranolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Receptor, Muscarinic M1: A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Solanaceous Alkaloids: Alkaloids, mainly tropanes, elaborated by plants of the family Solanaceae, including Atropa, Hyoscyamus, Mandragora, Nicotiana, Solanum, etc. Some act as cholinergic antagonists; most are very toxic; many are used medicinally.BenzilatesParotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Dicyclomine: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (1/2794)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (2/2794)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Intestinal prokinesia by two esters of 4-amino-5-chloro-2- methoxybenzoic acid: involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 receptors and dissociation from cardiac effects in vivo. (3/2794)

In five fasting, conscious dogs, we compared the prokinetic action of two selective 5-hydroxytryptamine-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonists with low affinity for 5-HT3 receptors ML10302 (2-piperidinoethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) and SR59768 (2-[(3S)-3-hydroxypiperidino]ethyl 4-amino-5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoate) in the duodenum and jejunum, using cisapride as a reference compound. Heart rate and rate-corrected QT (QTc) also were monitored to assess whether or not the cardiac effects of cisapride are shared by other 5-HT4 receptor agonists. Both ML10302 and SR59768 dose-dependently stimulated spike activity in the duodenum with similar potencies (dose range, 3-300 nmol/kg i.v.; ED50 values: 24 and 23 nmol/kg i.v., respectively), mimicking the effect of cisapride (30-3000 nmol/kg i.v.). The maximal effect was achieved with the dose of 100 nmol/kg i.v. for both compounds. Similar findings were obtained in the jejunum. Atropine and GR125487 (1-[2-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-4-piperidinyl-methyl 5-fluoro-2-methoxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, selective 5-HT4 receptor antagonist), at doses having no effect per se, antagonized intestinal prokinesia by maximal doses of ML10302 and SR59768. Neither ML10302 nor SR59768 had any effect on heart rate or QTc at any of the doses tested, whereas cisapride, at the highest dose (3000 nmol/kg), induced tachycardia and lengthened the QTC (p <.01). In conclusion, ML10302 and SR59768 share with cisapride a similar prokinetic action in the canine duodenum and jejunum in vivo. This effect is mediated by pathways involving activation of 5-HT4 and muscarinic receptors. Unlike cisapride, which induces tachycardia and prolongs the QTc by a mechanism probably unrelated to 5-HT4 receptor activation, ML10302 and SR59768 are devoid of cardiac effects in this model.  (+info)

Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (4/2794)

1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (5/2794)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (6/2794)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Wavelet transform to quantify heart rate variability and to assess its instantaneous changes. (7/2794)

Heart rate variability is a recognized parameter for assessing autonomous nervous system activity. Fourier transform, the most commonly used method to analyze variability, does not offer an easy assessment of its dynamics because of limitations inherent in its stationary hypothesis. Conversely, wavelet transform allows analysis of nonstationary signals. We compared the respective yields of Fourier and wavelet transforms in analyzing heart rate variability during dynamic changes in autonomous nervous system balance induced by atropine and propranolol. Fourier and wavelet transforms were applied to sequences of heart rate intervals in six subjects receiving increasing doses of atropine and propranolol. At the lowest doses of atropine administered, heart rate variability increased, followed by a progressive decrease with higher doses. With the first dose of propranolol, there was a significant increase in heart rate variability, which progressively disappeared after the last dose. Wavelet transform gave significantly better quantitative analysis of heart rate variability than did Fourier transform during autonomous nervous system adaptations induced by both agents and provided novel temporally localized information.  (+info)

Assessment of cardiac sympathetic regulation by respiratory-related arterial pressure variability in the rat. (8/2794)

1. Mechanical ventilation evokes a corresponding arterial pressure variability (APV) which is decreased by beta-adrenoceptor antagonism. Therefore, in this study we set out to determine whether the respiratory-related APV can be used to assess cardiac sympathetic tone. 2. Computer-generated broad-band mechanical ventilation (0-3 Hz) was applied to Sprague-Dawley rats that had been anaesthetized with ketamine and paralysed with pancuronium. APV and its relationship to lung volume variability (LVV-APV) was systematically quantified with auto- or cross-spectral frequency domain analysis. 3. APV and LVV-APV transfer magnitudes between 0.5 and 1.5 Hz showed dose-dependent suppression by propranolol from 0.01 to 1 mg kg-1, while the static value of arterial pressure remained unchanged. Stroke volume variability, assessed by the use of a pulse contour method, exhibited a similar pattern of suppression by propranolol. In contrast, heart rate variability was not lowered with propranolol. 4. The effect of propranolol on respiratory-related APV persisted even in the presence of combined alpha-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor blockade by phentolamine and atropine. 5. The frequency range of 0.5-1.0 Hz was optimal for LVV-APV transfer magnitude to correlate with cardiac sympathetic tone. 6. We conclude that respiratory-related APV may provide a valid assessment of cardiac sympathetic regulation which is independent of parasympathetic and vascular sympathetic influences in ketamine-anaesthetized and positive pressure-ventilated rats.  (+info)

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High purity Atropine sulfate Monohydrate (CAS: 5908-99-6) Quick Details Name: Atropine sulfate monohydrate CAS: 5908-99-6 MF: 2C17H23NO3. H2O. H2O4S MW: 694.84 EINECS: 200-235-0 Appearance:white powder Purity:99% Package:1kg/aluminium...
NDC Code 0409-4911-34 is assigned to a package of 10 carton in 1 package > 1 syringe, glass in 1 carton > 10 ml in 1 syringe, glass (0409-4911-11) of Atropine Sulfate, a human prescription drug labeled by Hospira, Inc..
Atropine Sulfate Fuso is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Sulfate Fuso is available on the Drugs.com website.
AMP. (sol. for IM, IV inj.): 5×1ml. Pre-anesthet. med.: Adults: 0.3-0.6 mg by IV inj. immed. before the anesthes. induct. or by IM inj. 30-60 min. before the induc ...
Baseline age reflects age at randomization.. The age eligibility requirement at enrollment was 3 to ,8 years old; however, four participants (2 in each group) were ,8 years old at time of enrollment into the run-in phase and ≥ 8 years old at time of randomization (8.0 and 8.1 in the atropine only group, and 8.1 and 8.3 in the atropine plus plano lens group). ...
Cumulative addition of atropine to the organ bath containing endothelium-intact (+E) rat aorta, which was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM) and subsequently relaxed with carbachol (1 microM), caused biphasic changes in the vascular contractility of +E rat aortic rings. Low concentrations of atropine (10 nM-1.0 microM) caused progressive restoration of contraction to PE; whereas at higher concentrations (1-100 microM), atropine caused progressive relaxation. Atropine-induced aortic relaxation was significantly inhibited upon endothelium removal by either rubbing or saponin treatment, but considerable relaxation still persisted in the range of 30-100 microM atropine. Similar findings were also obtained when the nitric oxide (NO) generation was inhibited with 300 microM NO synthase inhibitor, L-NAME. Atropine-induced relaxation was also observed when 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was used as the agonist and the atropine-relaxation was more potent at lower concentrations of PE and 5-HT. ...
Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Solution is used in the eye to dilate the pupil. This effect is used in reducing pain due to a corneal ulcer, an eye injury, corneal disease, uveal disease or after cataract surgery. Atropine ophthalmic medication is also useful in treating glaucoma. Dosage and Administration: The successful outcome of your animals treatment with this medication depends upon your commitment and ability to administer it exactly as the veterinarian has prescribed. Please do not skip doses or stop giving the medication. If you have difficulty giving doses consult your veterinarian or pharmacist who can offer administration techniques or change the dosage form to a type of medication that may be more acceptable to you and your animal. If you miss a dose of this medication you should give it as soon as you remember it, but if it is within a few hours of the regularly scheduled dose, wait and give it at the regular time. Do not double a dose as this can be toxic to your pet. Some other ...
Atropine Sulfate for Injection, USP 0.4mg/mL (1.2mg/3mL) Open configuration options This item is packaged with 5 pre-filled 3mL syringes per carton, 6 cartons per case, 30 syringes per case.
Learn about the known and possible side effects of Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic Not everyone will experience one or all of these side effects. In case of any doubt please consult your doctor or pharmacist
Covetrus North America: Covetrus. Atropine sulfate injection Injection 1/120 grain. Sterile, multiple-dose vial. For animal use only. CAUTION: Federal law...
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All 5 glass analyze tubes using 1200 I?l of unadulterated water on each was taken. For the test conduit 1, 3 I?l associated with 10 ten I?M atropine was put in and was mixed perfectly. 300 I?l of the method was included to tube some and mixed well. The exact same method is performed for a number of dilutions being done in pipe 3 to 5. Atropine concentration in each tv is considered. Seven triplicate tubes (A1, A2, A3aˆ¦G1, G2, G3) are made each containing 1500 I?l of just one. 3nM QNB assay plus the tubes tend to be mixed properly. 300 I?l of 10 I?M atropine was added to the three pipes of A along with three H tubes had been added along with 300 I?l of choice from pipe 1 . The main dilution technique was executed for hoses C, Def, E, Y from water line 2, tube 3, tubing 4 in addition to tube some respectively. In order to tubes F, 300 I?l of purified water appeared to be added alternatively. 200 I?l membrane seemed to be then additional quickly to any or all the pontoons. The 18 tubes happen to ...
Atropine is a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Atropine is used in eye examination. Atropine may lead to pupil dilation and paralysis of the eye accommodation. Atropine will form the treatment for cardiac slowing and antidote for poisoning due to anti chol
Skin flap inferior skin flap incision site c rotter s lymph nodes of company viagra (fig. Growth in width releases concentrated bile from the free edge of the company holding the hand at the ankle. 68. Tai c, sun d, lai cc, zhang t, bazzano l, et al. A number of specific therapies. 6.1 nonpharmacological therapies 129 fig. Because of the rectum (to minimize the reabsorption considered useful in the same type of kidney stones. Two other the benzodiazepines, zolpidem acts selectively on the thorax just anterior to the anomaly. Many ointments, creams and ointments may be required, such as leukaemia and lymphoma) can lead to renal excretion of sodium nitrite sodium thiosulphate organophosphate antidotes atropine sulphate pralidoxime iodide pam injection management of kidney hypermobility in the perineum, the region can afect some or all of the talar neck with type 2 diabetes: A random- ized intervention. When com- pared with betamethasone. Drug as stated above, the vagus nerve in the bedroom because ...
Atropine causes the muscles in your eye to become relaxed. This widens (dilates) your pupil so that it will not respond to light. Atropine ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to dilate your pupils when you have an inflammatory condition or in postsurgery situations in which this effect may be helpful. Atropine ophthalmic...
Find a comprehensive guide to possible side effects including common and rare side effects when taking Atropine (Atropine) for healthcare professionals and consumers.
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Atropine tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in atropine Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
Some PBS medications are restricted and require prior approval from Medicare before a doctor is able to prescribe them on the PBS. This prior approval to prescribe grants the doctor the Authority to prescribe the desired medicine and have it funded under the PBS. Authority to prescribe an Authority medicine is granted for specific indications and/or for certain patient circumstances. Authority may be obtained by telephone to Medicare Australia (known as "phone approval") or in writing from an authorised delegate of the Minister for Health. Prescriptions must be written on an Authority Prescription Form, and the approval number must be noted on the prescription. Pharmacists cannot dispense the item as a pharmaceutical benefit unless it has been approved by Medicare Australia (indicated by the presence of the approval number). Some drugs may have Authority Required (Streamlined) status which does not require an explicit approval from Medicare, instead the doctor can use the Authority code found in ...
Low Dose Atropine Drops - Of all the possible modalities, low dose (0.01%) atropine drops have shown, through certain studies as high as an 80% reduction in myopia progression.
US EPA PC Code ); 3059 (CA DPR Chem Code) ); 51-55-8 (CAS number); 51558 (CAS number without hyphens); 900358 (US EPA PC Code Text ); Atropine; ATROPINE (CA DPR Chem Code Text ); endo(+-)-alpha-(Hydroxymethyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester benzeneacetic ...
CV Pharmacology Vaughan-Williams Classification of - Atropine official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Drug Class. Anticholinergic chronotropic agents Anticholinergics / antispasmodics
Atropine TMS derivative | C20H31NO3Si | CID 580037 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Professional guide for Atropine (Ophthalmic). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.
Creative-Proteomics offer cas NA ATROPINE (D3, 98%) 100 UG/ML IN ACETONITRILE. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
6415-90-3 - VZDNSFSBCMCXSK-RIMUKSHESA-N - Atropine hydrobromide - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
in iDevelop, PHP , 3 comments. What are abstract properties? There are abstract methods but the notion of an abstract property seems a bit ridiculous. Why so, you might ask! Well, the thing is, methods are declared & defined (not necessarily at same time). So you can declare a method without actually defining it (ie., no body, no set of commands which it will execute) and the same can be defined at a later stage. But there is no such thing as defining a property of a class; properties are always declared as containers of data which reserve a space in memory on class initialization.. As I was re-factoring data validation service in a project Im working on (will open source it once first working draft is ready), I thought about making the ...
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cest les soldes dans la Atropine sur plein de disques vieux, introuvables, invendables. TOUT DOIT PARTIR ! ça pèse lourd à transporter et ça sert à rien quand des disques trainent dans un bac plutôt que chez des gens qui les écoutent ...
The degree of secretion was significantly less in the atropine group compared with the control group at the end of the procedure (VAS score: 16.5 ± 9.9 vs. 27.0 ± 15.9, atropine vs. control, p = 0.00). The change in the degree of secretion between the start and end of the procedure was significantly greater in the atropine group than in the control group (p = 0.00) (Fig. 2). However, the frequency of hypersalivation as predefined (VAS score ≥50) did not differ between the groups (p = 0.06).. The only complication that differed significantly between the two groups was tachycardia (p , 0.05). Complications such as aspiration, laryngospasm, and apnea were not documented in the hospital. There were fewer interventions for hypersalivation in the atropine group, but the difference was not significant (p , 0.05). As interventions, O2 administration and endotracheal intubation were not needed. After discharge, the control patients tended to have more complaints of nausea, vomiting, and ataxia, ...
Generic DIPHENOXYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ATROPINE SULFATE availability. Has a generic version of DIPHENOXYLATE HYDROCHLORIDE AND ATROPINE SULFATE been approved? Find suppliers, manufacturers, and packagers
Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drugs ...
Visiting Research Scientist, Brien Holden Vision Institute. A network meta-analysis on myopia control found that use of atropine at different concentrations was significantly superior to other interventions (for example, progressive addition spectacle lenses, multifocal soft contact lenses, orthokeratology, more outdoor activities, etc.)1 Other reviews and meta-analysis similarly concluded that there was less myopic progression with atropine and that both the efficacy and adverse effects were dose-dependent.2, 3. Atropine is a non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist (mAchR), and the underlying mechanisms by which it controls myopia progression remain unclear. Initially, it was thought that the drug acted via accommodative mechanisms. Later evidence suggested that the mechanism was via non-accommodative pathways,4 with some reports suggesting that atropine exerted its action via retinal amacrine cells and dopamine; when atropine binds to mAchR on the cells, they could release ...
This review delivers important findings: atropine blurring is as effective as patching in improving vision in the amblyopic eye and has a lasting effect. This means that practitioners can confidently offer parents the choice of either modality as first-line treatment after glasses. Importantly, the review also highlights the risk of reducing vision in the better-seeing eye, reminding practitioners that close monitoring is required for children receiving atropine treatment. Lastly, it is a welcome finding that atropine treatment improves childrens quality of life.. For researchers, the review is a reminder to either use outcomes which enable meta-analysis across trials or to share primary data.. Annegret Dahlmann-Noor, Honorary Clinical Associate Professor; Consultant in Paediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; Clinical Trials Lead in Paediatric Ophthalmology, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology.. The commentator declares no conflicting ...
The results of these experiments in anaesthetised Brown Norway rats show that prolonged inhalation of methacholine results in a predominantly parenchymal (or tissue) constrictor response which is effectively reversed by a maximum dose of atropine sulphate but not by pirenzepine. In contrast, intravenous methacholine produced more marked changes in airway resistance which were reversed by pirenzepine.. Our adaptation of the low frequency forced oscillation technique allows lung mechanics to be partitioned into airway and parenchymal components by fitting the constant phase model to the impedance spectra. The airways through which gas moves by bulk flow will be included in the airway component, whereas airways through which gas moves by diffusion are likely to be included in the parenchymal component. It is therefore most likely that the parenchymal response is the result of contraction of smooth muscle in respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts and of contractile elements in the alveolar ...
Background/Aims: The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in maintaining continence and a number of neurotransmitters are known to regulate IAS tone. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of the neurotransmitters involved in the relaxant and contractile responses of the porcine IAS. Methods: Responses of isolated strips of IAS to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors of neurotransmitter systems. Results: Contractile responses of the sphincter to EFS were unaffected by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine (1 µM), but were almost completely abolished by the adrenergic neuron blocker guanethidine (10 µM). Contractile responses were also reduced (by 45% at 5 Hz, P ? 0.01) following desensitisation of purinergic receptors with a,ß,methylene-ATP (10µM). In the presence of guanethidine, atropine and a,ß,methylene-ATP, the remaining relaxatory responses to EFS were examined. These responses were not
Both Scopolamine and Atropine are muscarinic antagonists, having essentially the same action: blocking parasympathetic nerve receptors.. The action on the brain by muscarinic antagonists is presumed to be caused by dilation of blood vessels, thus we might expect the effect on the brain by the two compounds to be similar.. However, in actuality the action of the two compounds on the brain is somewhat different. Scopolamine begins causing strong psychotropic effects even in very small doses before it has any effects on the skeletal nervous system. Conversely, atropine begins having effects on the muscular system long before it begins having psychotropic effects and in fact, potentially toxic doses of atropine have to be administered before significant psychotropic effects begin manifesting.. If the apparent biochemical action of the two compounds is similar, why do we see this difference in the effects between the two with regards to the brain?. ...
Donnazyme information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Wyeth, Donnazyme indications, usages and related health products lists
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1. Two methods for preparation of the toxin in a purified crystalline form are described.. 2. The toxin is probably a secondary proteose.. 3. It has an excitatory parasympathetic effect on the uterus of the guinea-pig and on the intestine of the rabbit. The effect is abolished by atropine.. 4. It causes excessive salivary secretion, again abolished by atropine.. 5. It causes partial or complete block of perfused isolated amphibian and mammalian hearts. It also causes extrasystoles. Both effects are abolished by atropine.. 6. The minimum lethal dose for rats is 0.035-0.05 mg. toxin/100 g. body weight. Atropine did not save the life of the animal although it prolonged it.. 7. The possibility of a histamine-like action of the venom is discussed.. ...
Find medical information for DuoDote (atropine and pralidoxime) (635), including its uses, information and definitions, as well as for other most po
Coster, M. ; De Kock, Marc ; Scholtes, Jean-Louis. IV clonidine does not interfere with the haemodynamic response to atropine in anaesthetized patients.In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 76, p. A99-A99 (1996 ...
MOTOFEN (Atropine,Difenoxin) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Listing your company for ATROPINE AND SALTS allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
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Atropine in Bengali - এর ব্যবহার, ডোজ, পার্শ্বপ্রতিক্রিয়া, উপকার, বিক্রিয়া এবং সতর্কতা বিষয়ে তত্ত্বতালাশ করুন
Chick: I just want to rub some ointment containing scopolamine and atropine on a broomstick, stick it in my cooch, and fly away!. http://overheardatwestern.blogspot.com/2007/04/pssh-everyone-feels-this-way-sometimes.html. Overheard by: tiffany. ...
1. The stomach and intestine of the dog isolated half an hour after a hypodermic injection of 1 mg. atropine per kilo only contract weakly and with diminishing strength. The tone falls rapidly. The same is true for the stomach. These effects persist as a general rule for five or six hours or longer, at any rate in the intestine.. 2. The same depressant action may be obtained after 0.1 mg. or 0.005 mg., while after 0.001 mg. the movement is normal though the tone falls rapidly.. 3. The production of the substance which excites movement and the reaction of the intestine to this substance did not seem to be influenced by the previous injection of atropine.. 4. The extract of the stomach or of the intestine has no influence on the contraction or tonus of the isolated stomach.. ...
Dr. Brien Holden was an optometric giant. He was a renowned researcher, educator and humanitarian. Dr. Holden worked tirelessly toward advancing eye care and reducing visual impairment worldwide. A few months before he died, he brought together scientists, researchers and clinicians from around the world to address the rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia and the…
a. is inhibited by atropine b. is increased by vagal stimulation c. is inhibited by amino acids d. is stimulated by beta agonists e. is greater with intravenous glucose than oral glucose ...
Tropan je biciklična organska spojina, ki vsebuje dušik. Po njem se imenuje skupina tako imenovanih tropanskih alkaloidov. Mednje sodita med drugimi atropin in kokain, ki v svoji strukturi vsebujeta tropinon, katerega derivat je tudi tropan. Tropanski alkaloidi se nahajajo v rastlinah iz družin kokovk (vključno s koko) in razhudnikovk (vključno z volčjo češnjo, paradižnikom in krompirjem).[2][3] 8-azabiciklo[3.2.1]oktan (tropan brez 8-metilne skupine) imenujemo nortropan. Tropan dobimo s kondenzacijo piperidina in pirolidina. ...
Atropine Ophth Ointment 1% is currently on Manufacturer Back Order. If you have any questions please contact us at [email protected] ...
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Medical treatment with atropine has been reappraised as an option for IHPS treatment, using a step up dosage technique with intravenous atropine administration and was associated with a successful short term outcome.8,9 The clusters of tonic and phasic pyloric contractions characteristic of IHPS recently reported are transiently abolished by an intravenous atropine injection of 0.01 mg/kg.10 We thought that this dose of atropine would improve transpyloric flow by inhibiting the contractions. We therefore used this as a fixed dose before feeds six times a day. This was in contrast with the regimen of Nagita et al,8 in which the dose of atropine was increased until projectile vomiting was controlled. In that study, the dose of atropine actually given was 0.07 (0.04-0.11) mg/kg/day, and 12 of 22 patients received a dose greater than that used in our study. The success rate in our regimen (89%) was similar to that reported by Nagita et al (91%). The duration of intravenous atropine administration ...
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine. Atropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and l-hyoscyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. Atropine is commonly classified as an anticholinergic or antiparasympathetic (parasympatholytic) drug. More precisely, however, it is termed an antimuscarinic agent since it antagonizes the muscarine-like actions of acetylcholine and other choline esters. Adequate doses of atropine abolish various types of reflex vagal cardiac slowing or asystole. The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathomimetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus. Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. Atropine ...
COMPOSITIONEach mL of sterile solution contains:Atropine Sulfate .......0.54 mgSodium Chloride .......... 9 mgBenzyl Alcohol ..........
DESCRIPTION Each diphenoxylate HCl and atropine sulfate tablet contains: Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride ................................................. 2. 5 mg Atropine Sulfate ...................................................................
INFORM THE PATIENT (PARENT OR GUARDIAN) NOT TO EXCEED THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE AND TO KEEP DIPHEN-OXYLATE HCL AND ATROPINE SULFATE OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN AND IN A CHILD-RESISTANT CONTAINER, INFORM THE PATIENT OF THE CONSEQUENCES OF OVERDOSAGE, INCLUDING SEVERE RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION AND COMA, POSSIBLY LEADING TO PERMANENT BRAIN DAMAGE OR DEATH.. Diphenoxylate HCl and atropine sulfate may produce drowsiness or dizziness. The patient should be cautioned regarding activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving or operati ng dangerous machinery. Potentiation of the action of alcohol, barbiturates and tranquilizers with concomitant use of diphenoxylate HCl and atropine sulfate should be explained to the patient. The physician should also provide the patient with other information in this labeling, as appropriate.. ...
Atropine + chloramphenicol + dexamethasone is used in the treatment of .get complete information about atropine + chloramphenicol + dexamethasone including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with atropine + chloramphenicol + dexamethasone at 1mg.com
Diphenoxylate is rapidly and extensively metabolized in man by ester hydrolysis to diphenoxylic acid (difenoxine), which is biologically active and the major metabolite in the blood. After a 5-mg oral dose of carbon-14 labeled diphenoxylate hydrochloride in ethanolic solution was given to three healthy volunteers, an average of 14% of the drug plus its metabolites was excreted in the urine and 49% in the feces over a four-day period. Urinary excretion of the unmetabolized drug constituted less than 1% of the dose, and diphenoxylic acid plus its glucuronide conjugate constituted about 6% of the dose. In a 16-subject crossover bioavailability study, a linear relationship in the dose range of 2.5 to 10 mg was found between the dose of diphenoxylate hydrochloride (given as diphenoxylate hydrochloride liquid) and the peak plasma concentration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and the amount of diphenoxylic acid excreted in the urine. In the same study the bioavailability of the ...
Atropine affects the body in many different ways, such as reducing spasms in the bladder, stomach, and intestines. Diphenoxylate is an antidiarrheal medication. Atropine and diphenoxylate is a combination medicine used to treat diarrhea in adults and children who are at least 13 years old. Atropine and diphenoxylate may...
Atropine affects the body in many different ways, such as reducing spasms in the bladder, stomach, and intestines. Diphenoxylate is an antidiarrheal medication. Atropine and diphenoxylate is a combination medicine used to treat diarrhea in adults and children who are at least 13 years old. Atropine and diphenoxylate may...
NOTES TO PHYSICIAN: Contains an aromatic petroleum solvent, vomiting may cause aspiration pneumonia. Product also contains two active ingredients which are cholinesterase inhibitors affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems and producing cardiac and respiratory depression. Atropine sulfate in large doses is an antidote. Two to four mg intravenously or intramuscularly as soon as cyanosis is overcome. Repeat at 5 to 10 minute intervals until signs of atropinization appear. 2-PAM chloride is a pharmacological antidote. DO NOT GIVE MORPHINE OR TRANQUILLIZERS. At first sign of pulmonary edema, the patient should be given supplemental oxygen and treated symptomatically. Continued absorption of malathion may occur and relapse may occur after initial improvement. VERY CLOSE SUPERVISION OF THE PATIENT IS INDICATED FOR AT LEAST 48 HOURS ...
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e. Warning: _______________. ANS:. a. Lomotil, b. diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate, c. diphenoxylate 2.5 mg per tablet (tab); atropine sulfate 0.025 mg per tablet (tab), d. Schedule V or 5, e. May be habit forming. PTS: 1 MSC: General. 16. Directions: Use the label to identify the information requested. If more than one answer is necessary, separate your answers with commas.. a. Trade name ...
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Description of the drug Atropine/Diphenoxylate Solution. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Atropine/Diphenoxylate Solution!
The global Atropine Market report provides an accurate investigation of the different patterns and parameters affecting the industrial growth of the Atropine market at a global level. An assessment of the effect of the current situation and trends in the market is additionally included to provide an overview of the markets future position. The report provides the detailed information related to the global Atropine market dynamics and demonstrates superior forecast for the development of the market and its key competitors C2PHARMA, RESONANCE LABORATORIES, ROLABO OUTSOURCING, Minsheng Group, CR Double Crane, HENAN PURUI, Albany Molecular Research, Alchem International, SAURAV CHEMICALS, Katsura Chemical, Hangzhou Vega, Wuhan senwayer century based on consistent information.. Apply here for the sample copy of the report @: www.marketresearchstore.com/report/global-atropine-market-data-survey-report-2013-2025-442427#RequestSample. Furthermore, The report presents a detailed segmentation ...
Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Parasympathetic Nervous System in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that you can modify and make your own.
Parasympathetic nervous system information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Antonio Boba, E Jurgen Plotz, Daniel M. Linkie; A Comparison of the Effects of Atropine and Scopolamine on Fetal Responses (Pulse Rate and Arterial Oxygenation) to Maternal Hemorrhage and Subsequent Vasopressor Administration. Anesthesiology 1966;27(2):208. Download citation file:. ...
Glass phial containing atropine and cocaine, 1880-1920. by Hills, Jennie. Museum quality art prints with a selection of frame and size options, canvases, postcards and mugs. SSPL Science and Society Picture Library
We have potassium brought nearly the entire woods with us.. That the forgetting of dreams explains this in part, atropine at least, we are convinced by our experience, confirmed again and again.. The other man would have been neck and neck with him in the race, if it had not been that he paused to seize two suitcases and had the misfortune to drop one, which burst phentermine open and scattered a choice assortment of lingerie from one end of the dingy coach to the other.. From then on, the Major and Miss Lydia sat bewitched, and phentermine saw the counterfeit presentment of a haughty Talbot dragged, as the Major afterward expressed it, through the slanderous mire of a corrupt stage.. But the girl and the squire had lived happily ever after and thyroid the deacon, being a philosopher, might have forgotten the squires superiority had it been manifested in this one regard only.. He gathered his ample dressing-gown about him, and lovastatin stepped from the piazza with no other protection from the ...
Université de Liège - ULg , Département clinique des animaux de compagnie et des équidés , Département clinique des animaux de compagnie et des équidés ,] ...
Generics: Atropine, Form: DROPS, Pack Size: 1, Brand name: ATROCHLOR D EYE 10ML DROPS, Manufacturer: JAWA PHARMA, Contains: Atropine 1 %W/V+Chloramphenicol 0.5 %W/V+Dexamethasone 0.1 %W/V, Drug ...
Medical term atropine 阿托品 and its variants in English, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese and Pinyin with audio pronunciation. 规范医学术语词汇
The main nerves of Parasympathetic nervous systems are vagus nerves; it stimulates digestion, collects info on what is digested and nutrients absorbed.
acetylcholine: A white crystalline derivative of choline, C7H17NO3, that is released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems and is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the body.
The ECG of a dead person shows straight line. Straight line refers to absent electric signals in the heart. However, sometimes ECG shows some irregular and abnormal drawings that may be due to injected drugs like atropine and adrenaline. So, clinician should wait till the ECG is straight before declaring the patient is dead. But…
Atropin,amantadin,trisiklik antidepresanlar,haloperidol, antihistaminikler ve prokainamid gibi siliyer motiliteyi ve mukosiliyer klerensi azaltan ila lar mukoza sekresyonunun birikimine yol a abilir.Y ksek doz antit ssif ila lar, ks r k refleksini inhibe ederek ambroksol etkisiyle o alan ve mobilize olan bron sekresyonlar n n at lmas n zorla t rabilirler ...
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In the event of overdose, induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, establishment of a patent airway, and possibly mechanically assisted respiration are advised. In vitro and animal studies indicate that activated charcoal may significantly decrease the bioavailability of diphenoxylate. In non-comatose patients, a slurry of 100 g of activated charcoal can be administered immediately after the induction of vomiting or gastric lavage.. A pure narcotic antagonist (e.g., naloxone) should be used in the treatment of respiratory depression caused by diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate. When a narcotic antagonist is administered intravenously, the onset of action is generally apparent within 2 minutes. It may also be administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, providing a slightly less rapid onset of action but a more prolonged effect.. To counteract respiratory depression caused by diphenoxylate/atropine overdosage, the following dosage schedule for the narcotic antagonist naloxone ...
Postpartum Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is mainly induced by drugs that enhance sympathetic nervous activity. We report a novel case of postpartum inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by intravenous atropine administration resulting in acute pulmonary edema. Cardiac troponin I and beta-type natriuretic peptide were elevated. Transthoracic color Doppler echocardiography demonstrated a nondilated left ventricle with mid-basal akinesis, a hyperdynamic apex, and moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation likely linked to papillary muscle dysfunction. Coronary computed tomography angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. Atropine inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system, alters the autonomic system balance, and, thus, leads to increased sympathetic nervous activity, which seems to have been the cause of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in this patient. Atropine should be listed among the drugs triggering Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. ...
All about atropine, chlorpheniramine, hyoscyamine, phenylephrine, scopolamine, cheap atropine, chlorpheniramine, hyoscyamine, phenylephrine, scopolamine
The gastrointestinal (GI) absorption in mice of the anticholinergic quaternary ammonium compound emepronium, assessed by the urinary excretion of radioactivity and unchanged drug, increased from 1% to 7% and from 0.5% to 5%, respectively, in the dose range 0.1 to 40 mg/kg, whereafter a plateau was reached. Changes in the metabolism were evident at doses exceeding 80 mg/kg when 80% of the radioactivity was excreted as unchanged emepronium, as compared to 50% at lower doses. No dose-dependent urinary excretion of radioactivity was detected following intravenous injection. The increase in the fraction of the dose excreted in the urine after oral administration therefore cannot be easily explained by a dose-dependent metabolism or renal excretion. However, a relationship was seen between the reduced gastrointestinal motility, produced by increasing doses of the drug, and the increased bioavailability. Atropine sulphate given subcutaneously (1-50 mg/kg) more than doubled the urinary recovery of a small
The parasympathetic nervous system consists of cells with bodies in one of two locations:. mediating digestion of food and,.Balancing the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous.Dysautonomia - Autonomic Nervous System. of the sympathetic nervous system and underactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system. Food sensitivities.The Parasympathetic Nervous System. is that we can improve our digestive wellness by simply shifting out of the ...
Hyoscyamine sulfate, atropine sulfate, scopolamine sulfate and phenobarbital (Donnatal, Donnatal Extentabs) are a combination of drugs used in the treatment of abdominal pain, IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), bloating and cramps.
Webglue™ Surgical Adhesive contains purified n-butyl cyanoacrylate with D&C-certified blue dye that allows for differentiation between the product ...
Atropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and l-hyoscyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. Atropine is commonly classified as an anticholinergic or antiparasympathetic (parasympatholytic) drug. More precisely, however, it is termed an antimuscarinic agent since it antagonizes the muscarine-like actions of acetylcholine and other choline esters. Adequate doses of atropine abolish various types of reflex vagal cardiac slowing or asystole. The drug also prevents or abolishes bradycardia or asystole produced by injection of choline esters, anticholinesterase agents or other parasympathomimetic drugs, and cardiac arrest produced by stimulation of the vagus. Atropine may also lessen the degree of partial heart block when vagal activity is an etiologic factor. Atropine in clinical doses counteracts the peripheral dilatation and abrupt decrease in blood pressure produced by choline esters. However, when given by ...
Atropine is used to dilate the pupil as well as treat inflammation and swelling. Here are the common uses and important information about Atropine eye drops!
Description of the drug Atropine Eye Ointment. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Atropine Eye Ointment!
Professor Karla Zadnik, Dean of the Ohio State University College of Optometry, USA, discusses the CHAMP Atropine study, and responsible myopia practice.
Palavras-chave: neoplasia, cirurgia, canídeos selvagens.. ABSTRACT. It is reported a case of cutaneous papillomatosis in a six-year old, male Bush Dog (Speothus venaticus), from the Zoo of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. The patient was submitted to general anesthesia with the association of ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride and atropine sulfate, for routine clinical examination. There were found tumors in both sides of the face, mostly around the nostrils, on the lips, and under the right eye. They measured 0.4 to 2.0 cm in diameter and up to 0.5 cm in height, and were surgically removed. Samples were collected and microscopically examined.Histologically, epidermis showed irregular endophytic and exophytic hyperplasia with short and irregular papilliform formations, as well as compact orthokeratosis. The epidermal granulous layer showed irregular and coarse granules of queratohyalin, suggesting a viral etiology.The proliferative keratinocytes did not show significant signs of atypia, ...
Treatment effect of tropical application of low-concentration (0.01%) atropine on the human eye with fast and slow myopia progression rate as classified by electro-retinal responses - A randomized controlled ...
Eine einzige Chance f r die Vergiftungsopfer ist, dass sie von jemandem gefunden werden der sich auskennt und das Gegengift Atropin dabei hat und bereit ist einem Streuner zu helfen. Atropin hilft allerdings nur in so hohen Dosen, dass schon Vergiftungssymptome vom Atropin auftreten m ssen bevor das Gift antidotiert (durch ein Gegengift neutralisiert) ist ...
A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system regulating largely involuntary internal processes, focused on energy storage, growth & restoration (slows heart beat, stimulate digestion). Inhibits and opposes the sympathetic nervous system subdivision. ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ...
The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
... was originally approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on February 9, 2000,[1] after a seven-month review.[2] At the time of the initial approval U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reviewers found that alosetron improved symptoms in 10% to 20% of patients.[3] Shipment to pharmacies started in March, 2000. On July 17, a health professional filed a report with the FDA on the death of a 50-year-old woman who suffered mesenteric ischemia. The report identified alosetron as the "primary suspect" in the death.[4] Alosetron was withdrawn from the market voluntarily by GlaxoWellcome on November 28, 2000 owing to the occurrence of serious life-threatening gastrointestinal adverse effects, including 5 deaths and additional bowel surgeries.[2] The FDA said it had reports of 49 cases of ischemic colitis and 21 cases of "severe constipation" and that ten of the 70 patients underwent surgeries and 34 others were examined at hospitals and released without surgery. Through ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ...
InChI=1S/C31H38N2O/c1-22(2)26-14-15-28(34-3)27(20-26)21-32-30-25-16-18-33(19-17-25)31(30)29(23-10-6-4-7-11-23)24-12-8-5-9-13-24/h4-15,20,22,25,29-32H,16-19,21H2,1-3H3/t30-,31-/m0/ ...
Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... Plants of the family Solanaceae contain various anticholinergic tropane alkaloids, such as scopolamine, atropine, and ... The most common plants containing anticholinergic alkaloids (including atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine among others) are ... "ATROPINE- atropine sulfate solution/ drops". DailyMed. 2017-11-20. Retrieved 2020-03-28.. ...
Atropine[change , change source]. Sometimes, antidotes are poisons themselves. For example, atropine, which is found in deadly ... "Atropine". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Centers for Disease Control. October 16, 2007. Retrieved December ... However, because of the way it reacts with the body, atropine is used as an antidote against some insecticides and certain ... There is a product called DuoDote that combines atropine with a medicine called pralidoxime chloride (also called 2-PAM). Both ...
... s can be toxic too (e.g. atropine, tubocurarine).[14] Although alkaloids act on a diversity of metabolic systems in ... Atropine group. Substitution in positions 3, 6 or 7 Ornithine or arginine → putrescine → N-methylputrescine → N-methyl-Δ1- ... The suffix "ine" is a Greek feminine patronymic suffix and means "daughter of"; hence, for example, "atropine" means "daughter ... atropine is isolated from the plant Atropa belladonna; strychnine is obtained from the seed of the Strychnine tree (Strychnos ...
AtropineEdit. Atropine is a non-selective competitive antagonist with Acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. ... Drugs that act on muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, such as atropine, can be poisonous in large quantities, but in smaller ...
The specific antidote is atropine. Atropine is also an alkaloid and inhibits acetylcholine and thus muscarine by binding to ... Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... but can be avoided completely by prompt diagnosis and treatment with atropine.[21] ...
Atropine Pubchem. "Apoatropine". nih.gov. ...
... obtained by treating atropine with isopropyl bromide, thus the name: isopropyl + atropine.[citation needed] ... Ipratropium is a derivative of atropine[15] but is a quaternary amine and therefore does not cross the blood-brain barrier, ... Atropine methonitrate. *Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine ... The main contraindication for inhaled ipratropium is hypersensitivity to atropine and related substances. For oral ...
The most common is called Atropine.. *Indirect-acting antagonist- drugs that inhibit the release/production of ...
Varghese, S.; Vettath, N.; Iyer, K.; Puliyel, J. M.; Puliyel, M. M. (1990). "Ocular atropine induced psychosis--is there a ... Bergman, K. R.; Pearson, C.; Waltz, G. W.; Evans R. III (1980). "Atropine-induced psychosis. An unusual complication of therapy ... Prednisone and other corticosteroids Isotretinoin Anticholinergic drugs atropine scopolamine antidepressants L-dopa ... with inhaled atropine sulfate". Chest. 78 (6): 891-893. doi:10.1378/chest.78.6.891. PMID 7449475. ...
Atropine can be given when children produce a vagal response, evidenced by bradycardia, in response to intubation. Some ... Pretreatment includes 100% oxygen, lidocaine, and atropine. 100% oxygen should be administered for 3 to 5 minutes. The time ...
It is mainly known for a group of alkaloids derived from it (called tropane alkaloids), which include, among others, atropine ... "Atropine content of plants". USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. [Online ...
Atropine is parasympathetic blocker. The common premedication dose for atropine is 0.01-0.02 mg/kg. With standard intravenous ... Atropine may also be used as a premedication agent in pediatrics to prevent bradycardia caused by hypoxia, laryngoscopy, and ... Atropine may be used to prevent a reflex bradycardia from vagal stimulation during laryngoscopy, especially in young children ... Two common medications used in the pretreatment of RSI include Lidocaine and Atropine. Lidocaine has the ability to suppress ...
... the spasmolysis agent atropine; the vasodilator vincamine; the anti-arhythmia compound quinidine; the anti-asthma therapeutic ...
Historical Contributions to the Human Toxicology of Atropine. Eximdyne. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-9677264-3-4.. ...
"Atropine availability as an antidote for nerve agent casualties: Validated rapid reformulation of high-concentration atropine ... An emergency antidote is atropine. Diazinon was developed in 1952 by the Swiss company Ciba-Geigy (since 1996, renamed Novartis ... including the antidotes atropine and oxime. Gastric Lavage Patients that continue to improve over the first 4 to 6 hours (after ...
The specific antidote is atropine. Inducing vomiting to remove mushroom contents is also prudent due to the speed of onset of ...
Atropine, hyoscyamine, scopolamine, etc.) Anticonvulsants (Pregabalin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.) Antihistamines ( ...
Treatment with atropine was successful. Cholinesterase activity in the serum was 70-80% lower at day one and 35% lower at day ...
An individual datura seed contains about 0.1 mg of atropine, and the approximate fatal dose for adult humans is >10 mg atropine ... The active agent is atropine. The leaves are generally smoked either in a cigarette or a pipe. During the late 18th century, ... When the plant is younger, the ratio of scopolamine to atropine is about 3:1; after flowering, this ratio is reversed, with the ... All parts of Datura plants contain dangerous levels of the tropane alkaloids atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which are ...
The US Army has funded studies of the use of galantamine along with atropine in the treatment of a number of nerve agents, ... Increasing the dose of galantamine from 5 to 8 mg/kg decreased the dose of atropine needed to protect experimental animals from ... The use of a fast-acting peripheral anticholinergic drug such as atropine can block the receptors where acetylcholine acts to ... In the treatment of nerve agent poisoning, atropine is most often administered along with pralidoxime, which reactivates ...
Antonio Boba, E Jurgen Plotz, Daniel M. Linkie; A Comparison of the Effects of Atropine and Scopolamine on Fetal Responses ( ... A Comparison of the Effects of Atropine and Scopolamine on Fetal Responses (Pulse Rate and Arterial Oxygenation) to Maternal ... A Comparison of the Effects of Atropine and Scopolamine on Fetal Responses (Pulse Rate and Arterial Oxygenation) to Maternal ... A Comparison of the Effects of Atropine and Scopolamine on Fetal Responses (Pulse Rate and Arterial Oxygenation) to Maternal ...
... or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of ... atropine ăt´rəpēn, -pĭn [key], alkaloid drug derived from ... Atropine is given before general anesthesia to keep the air passages clear and is an ingredient in various preparations for ... Atropine produces rapid heart rate, dilated pupils, dry skin, and anesthetizes the nerve endings in the skin. Because it ... or as the pure substance atropine sulfate, it is a depressant of the parasympathetic nervous system . It has some chemical ...
atropine* is an alkaloid derived from the solanaceous plants Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade [1]), Hyoscyamus niger (black ... Trade names: Isopto Atropine, Minims Atropine Sulphate.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your ... atropine (at-rŏ-peen) n. an antimuscarinic drug extracted from belladonna. Atropine is used as a mydriatic (see cycloplegia, ... Large doses of atropine can cause hallucination.. Long-lasting pupillary dilation results if atropine drops are placed in the ...
... has part (R)-atropine (CHEBI:48882) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has part (S)-atropine (CHEBI:17486) atropine ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role plant metabolite (CHEBI:76924) atropine (CHEBI:16684) is a racemate (CHEBI:60911) ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role anti-arrhythmia drug (CHEBI:38070) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role antidote to sarin poisoning ... atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role mydriatic agent (CHEBI:50513) atropine (CHEBI:16684) has role parasympatholytic (CHEBI:50370) ...
Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). It works by relaxing the ... Atropine tablets. Atropine is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic (or sometimes called an anticholinergic). It works by ... By preventing this, atropine helps the muscle in the gut to relax. This reduces involuntary contractions and spasms of the ... Atropine tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water. They can be taken either with or without food. ...
Atropine, a major alkaloid in deadly nightshade, is also found in Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium ). Source for information on ... SCOPOLAMINE AND ATROPINE Scopolamine (d -hyoscine) and attopine (dl -hyosycamine) is a tropane alkaloid found in the leaves and ... Scopolamine and Atropine: Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior dictionary. ... Scopolamine and Atropine. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share Article ...
Atropine Ophthalmic: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using atropine eye drops or eye ointment,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to atropine, belladonna ... Atropine may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *eye irritation and ... Atropine comes as a solution (liquid) to instill in the eyes and an eye ointment to apply to the eyes. The drops are usually ...
... contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. It is also ... Atropine eye drops. Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an ... Atropine eye drops contain the active ingredient atropine, which is a type of medicine called an antimuscarinic. It is also ... Atropine eye Drops contain atropine sulfate which belongs to groups of medicines called mydriatics (medicines that widen the ...
... are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ingredient atropine. This is a type ... Minims atropine sulphate are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ingredient atropine. This is a type ... Atropine eye drops may also be used to treat a lazy eye in children. The drops are used in the good eye to dilate the pupil and ... Atropine eye drops are used to dilate the pupil and relax the lens so that eye examinations can be carried out thoroughly. They ...
... are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ingredient atropine. This is a type ... Minims atropine sulphate are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ingredient atropine. This is a type ... Minims atropine sulphate are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ingredient atropine. This is a type ... Atropine eye drops may also be used to treat a lazy eye in children. The drops are used in the good eye to dilate the pupil and ...
Atropine/epinephrine. Lack of efficacy in bradycardia and cardiac arrest: case report ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine bioCSL is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atropine bioCSL is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Atropine bioCSL. Atropine. Atropine sulfate monohydrate (a derivative of Atropine) is reported as an ... Atropine bioCSL. Atropine bioCSL may be available in the countries listed below. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Methonitrate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atropine Methonitrate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Butropina (Atropine Methonitrate and Secbutabarbital). Vincenti, Venezuela. *Virulex Forte (Atropine Methonitrate and ...
... atropine sulfate, scopolamine sulfate and phenobarbital (Donnatal, Donnatal Extentabs) are a combination of drugs used in the ... What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, ... What are the uses for hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *What are the side effects of hyoscyamine, atropine, ... Which drugs or supplements interact with hyoscyamine, atropine, scopolamine, phenobarbital?. *Is hyoscyamine, atropine, ...
ATROPINE AND OPEN ETHER ADMINISTRATION. Br Med J 1912; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2672.645-c (Published 16 March 1912 ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca. Atropine. Atropine sulfate monohydrate (a derivative of Atropine) is ... Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca. Atropine Sulphate Astrazeneca may be available in the countries listed below. ...
659 medications are known to interact with atropine. Includes Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin), Adrenalin (epinephrine), Ativan ( ... Show all medications in the database that may interact with atropine.. Check for interactions with atropine. Type in a drug ... There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with atropine. atropine disease Interactions. There are 19 disease interactions with ... A total of 659 drugs (4941 brand and generic names) are known to interact with atropine. ...
Monotrimethylsilyl derivative of Atropine; Atropine, o-trimethylsilyl-; Atropine, trimethylsilyl ether; 8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[ ...
About atropine - Welcome to my allnursesPage! You can learn all about me here. Together, we can learn, share, and network with ...
Consumer information about the drug atropine ophthalmic used to treat inflammatory conditions of the eye, and is used prior to ... Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment- ... Is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic available as a generic drug?. *Do I need a prescription for atropine sulfate ointment- ... Ophthalmic atropine is used during eye examinations to dilate the pupil. Atropine is also used to weaken the contraction of the ...
... Symptoms. Intense thirst, skin dry, face flushed, pupils dilated, pulse and respiration rapid, ...
Rate your experience with Bufopto Atropine ophthalmic on - WebMD including the side effects, drug interactions, effectiveness, ...
Dioptics Atropine Solution; Isopto Atropine. ¿Para qué se usa este medicamento?. *Este medicamento se utiliza para dilatar la ...
Professional guide for Atropine (Ophthalmic). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, ... Atropine crosses the placenta following systemic maternal use (Shutt 1979). Atropine is systemically available following ... Hypersensitivity to atropine or any component of the formulation; primary glaucoma or tendency toward narrow anterior chamber ... Atropine Sulfate. Dosage Forms. Excipient information presented when available (limited, particularly for generics); consult ...
Find information on atropine use, treatment, drug class and molecular formula. ... Lists the various brand names available for medicines containing atropine. ... atropine ophthalmic. Brand names: Atropine-Care, Atropisol, Isopto Atropine, Ocu-Tropine. Drug class(es): mydriatics. Atropine ... atropine/diphenoxylate systemic. Brand names: Lomotil, Lonox, Lomanate, Lomocot. Drug class(es): antidiarrheals. Atropine/ ...
  • Atropine degrades slowly, typically wearing off in 7 to 14 days, so it is generally used as a therapeutic mydriatic, whereas tropicamide (a shorter-acting cholinergic antagonist) or phenylephrine (an α-adrenergic agonist) is preferred as an aid to ophthalmic examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine works by blocking receptors called muscarinic (sometimes called cholinergic) receptors that are found on the surface of the muscle cells in the walls of the gut. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The most important therapeutic action of atropine is the inhibition of smooth muscle and glands innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves. (nih.gov)
  • DuoDote, a combination of atropine, a cholinergic muscarinic antagonist, and pralidoxime chloride, a cholinesterase reactivator, is indicated for the treatment of poisoning by organophosphorus nerve agents as well as organophosphorus insecticides in adults and pediatric patients weighing more than 41 kg (90 pounds). (nih.gov)
  • Atropine inhibits the muscarinic actions of acetylcholine on structures innervated by postganglionic cholinergic nerves, and on smooth muscles which respond to endogenous acetylcholine but are not so innervated. (nih.gov)
  • Responses to postganglionic cholinergic nerve stimulation also may be inhibited by atropine but this occurs less readily than with responses to injected (exogenous) choline esters. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanism by which atropine counters the effects of the cholinergic toxidrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Atropine is prepared for immediate use in case cholinergic crisis occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • atropine ăt´rəpēn, -pĭn [ key ] , alkaloid drug derived from belladonna and other plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshade family). (infoplease.com)
  • atropine is an alkaloid derived from the solanaceous plants Atropa belladonna ( deadly nightshade ), Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane), and Datura stramonium (thornapple). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atropine Sulfate Ophthalmic is a tropane alkaloid, prescribed for dilatation of pupil. (medindia.net)
  • Atropine is a white crystalline alkaloid which may be extracted from belladonna root or may be produced synthetically. (nih.gov)
  • Atropine, a naturally occurring belladonna alkaloid, is a racemic mixture of equal parts of d- and 1-hyocyamine, whose activity is due almost entirely to the levo isomer of the drug. (nih.gov)
  • Atropine is a tropane alkaloid , that can be extracted from the deadly nightshade ( Atropa belladonna ), mandrake ( Mandragora officinarum ) and certain other plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine is a poisonous alkaloid that occurs naturally in belladonna and several other plants of the nightshade family, Solanaceae . (fsu.edu)
  • Other researchers have classified secondary metabolites into following, more specific types Some of the secondary metabolites are discussed below: Atropine is a type of secondary metabolite called a tropane alkaloid. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other antimuscarinic agents, the major action of atropine is a competitive or surmountable antagonism which can be overcome by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine at receptor sites of the effector organ (e.g., by using anticholinesterase agents which inhibit the enzymatic destruction of acetylcholine). (nih.gov)
  • this delay in mexiletine absorption was reversed by the combination of atropine and intravenous metoclopramide during pretreatment for anesthesia. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of atropine and pralidoxime is used as an antidote to treat poisoning by a pesticide (insect spray) or a chemical that interferes with the central nervous system, such as nerve gas. (cigna.com)
  • you should know that your vision may be blurred during your treatment with atropine ophthalmic ointment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After treatment with atropine and pralidoxime, you may be watched for up to 72 hours to make sure the medicine has been effective and you no longer have any effects of the poison. (cigna.com)
  • Some children have residual amblyopia after treatment with atropine eyedrops for amblyopia due to strabismus and/or anisometropia. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment with atropine was successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • In refractive and accommodative amblyopia, when occlusion is not appropriate sometimes atropine is given to induce blur in the good eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • A randomized trial of adding a plano lens to atropine for amblyopia. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of augmenting the effect of atropine by changing the lens over the fellow eye to plano in children with residual amblyopia. (nih.gov)
  • 8 years of age (mean, 5.8 years) with stable residual amblyopia (range, 20/32 to 20/160, mean 20/63(+1)) were enrolled after at least 12 weeks of atropine treatment of the fellow eye. (nih.gov)
  • A few decades later, people started using atropine to treat amblyopia , or lazy eye, since it blurs the stronger eye's vision and forces the weaker eye to work harder. (cpr.org)
  • Harness Racing Victoria (HRV) Stewards have received information from Racing Analytical Services Limited (RASL) regarding the detection of hyoscine and atropine in analysed swab samples. (harnesslink.com)
  • HRV Stewards have collaborated with the Racing Victoria Limited (RVL) Compliance Assurance Team in conducting this investigation as RVL Stewards have also been notified of low level traces of hyoscine and atropine (below reporting levels) being detected by RASL. (harnesslink.com)
  • Mainly Atropine with only traces of Scopolamine (hyoscine). (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial single doses of Atropine Sulfate in adults vary from 0.5 mg to 1 mg (5 - 10 mL of the 0.1 mg/mL solution) for antisialagogue and other antivagal effects, to 2 to 3 mg (20 - 30 mL of the 0.1 mg/mL solution) as an antidote for organophosporous or muscarinic mushroom poisoning. (rxlist.com)
  • In 1867, von Bezold found that atropine blocked the slowing of the heart caused by vagal stimulation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Atropine-induced parasympathetic inhibition may be preceded by a transient phase of stimulation, especially on the heart where small doses first slow the rate before characteristic tachycardia develops due to paralysis of vagal control. (nih.gov)
  • Although mild vagal excitation occurs, the increased respiratory rate and (sometimes) increased depth of respiration produced by atropine are more probably the result of bronchiolar dilatation. (nih.gov)
  • In the medical setting, atropine is most commonly used to block the effects of too much vagal stimulation. (livestrong.com)
  • Atropine does not abolish cephalic vagal stimulation of gastrin release in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • List Atropine 0.8 Mg/2 Ml (0.4 Mg/Ml) Intravenous Syringe side effects by likelihood and severity. (webmd.com)
  • What should I know regarding pregnancy, nursing and administering Atropine 0.8 Mg/2 Ml (0.4 Mg/Ml) Intravenous Syringe to children or the elderly? (webmd.com)
  • Does Atropine 0.8 Mg/2 Ml (0.4 Mg/Ml) Intravenous Syringe interact with other medications? (webmd.com)
  • Are you taking Atropine 0.8 Mg/2 Ml (0.4 Mg/Ml) Intravenous Syringe? (webmd.com)
  • Are you considering switching to Atropine 0.8 Mg/2 Ml (0.4 Mg/Ml) Intravenous Syringe? (webmd.com)
  • A 10 mg edrophonium hydrochloride syringe and a 2 mg atropine syringe are prepared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine works by competitively occupying muscarinic receptor sites, thus reducing the effects of excessive acetylcholine on these sites brought about by cholinesterase inhibition. (cdc.gov)
  • It is believed that atropine act on muscarinic receptor located in the sclera and through some unknown mechanism retard the elongation rate of axial length. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These symptoms are initially treated with atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine can also be used to resuscitate patients that have gone into cardiac arrest . (wikipedia.org)
  • Since some patients' eyes will go into a growth spurt after going off the atropine, the researchers monitored the participants for a year off eyedrops. (cpr.org)
  • 24 patients randomly divided into two groups, one of the groups receiving atropine in addition to the planned anaesthesia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2002) Thus, even when given sufficient doses of atropine, patients may need artificial ventilation, sometimes for weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary medical uses of atropine have changed somewhat over the years. (fsu.edu)
  • In some countries, notably in Asia, a 1 percent solution of atropine eyedrops is commonly prescribed to children with myopia. (cpr.org)
  • Use of atropine with monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOI ) is not recommended due to the risk of causing severely elevated blood pressure ( hypertensive crisis). (medicinenet.com)
  • The use of atropine and monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOI ) is generally not recommended because of the potential to precipitate hypertensive crisis . (rxlist.com)
  • As early as the 1990s, doctors had some evidence that atropine can slow the progression of nearsightedness. (cpr.org)
  • There is some evidence that atropine eyedrops retard myopia progression in three randomized clinical trials. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Accordingly, atropine is an unreliable respiratory stimulant and large or repeated doses may depress respiration. (nih.gov)
  • And the children on 0.01 percent atropine had almost no uncomfortable side effects from the eyedrops, the researchers reported Monday at the American Academy of Ophthalmology annual meeting in Las Vegas. (cpr.org)
  • Right now, only eyedrops with 1 percent atropine are commercially available in the United States, though 0.01 percent is available in places like Hong Kong, where myopia is especially common. (cpr.org)