Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.
A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)
Progressive, autosomal recessive, diffuse atrophy of the choroid, pigment epithelium, and sensory retina that begins in childhood.
A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.
A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.
A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An X-linked recessive form of spinal muscular atrophy. It is due to a mutation of the gene encoding the ANDROGEN RECEPTOR.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Diseases of the uvea.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.
A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord. This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with ORTHOSTASIS and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY. Naip contains a nucleotide binding oligomerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LEUCINE rich repeat.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.
This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (1/3164)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Proteinuria induces tubular cell turnover: A potential mechanism for tubular atrophy. (2/3164)

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and tubular atrophy have both been closely linked with progressive renal failure. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be induced by tubular cell exposure to heavy proteinuria, potentially leading to tubular atrophy. Apoptosis was studied in a rat model of "pure" proteinuria, which does not induce renal impairment, namely protein-overload proteinuria. METHODS: Adult female Lewis rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 2 g of bovine serum albumin (BSA, N = 16) or sham saline injections (controls, N = 8) daily for seven days. Apoptosis was assessed at day 7 in tissue sections using in situ end labeling (ISEL) and electron microscopy. ISEL-positive nuclei (apoptotic particles) were counted in blinded fashion using image analysis with NIH Image. Cell proliferation was assessed by detection of mRNA for histone by in situ hybridization, followed by counting of positive cells using NIH Image. RESULTS: Animals injected with saline showed very low levels of apoptosis on image analysis. BSA-injected rats had heavy proteinuria and showed both cortical and medullary apoptosis on ISEL. This was predominantly seen in the tubules and, to a lesser extent, in the interstitial compartment. Overall, the animals injected with BSA showed a significant 30-fold increase in the number of cortical apoptotic particles. Electron microscopy of tubular cells in a BSA-injected animal showed a progression of ultrastructural changes consistent with tubular cell apoptosis. The BSA-injected animals also displayed a significant increase in proximal tubular cell proliferation. This increased proliferation was less marked than the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Protein-overload proteinuria in rats induces tubular cell apoptosis. This effect is only partially balanced by proliferation and potentially provides a direct mechanism whereby heavy proteinuria can induce tubular atrophy and progressive renal failure.  (+info)

Computerised tomography and intellectual impairment in the elderly. (3/3164)

Sixty-six elderly subjects (mean age 77 years) whose mental state was assessed clinically and by simple psychometric tests have been studied by computerised tomography. The mean maximum ventricular area in the 17 mentally normal subjects was above the upper limit of normal for younger subjects, and there was a broad relationship between increasing ventricular dilatation and increasing intellectual impairment. No such clear relationship was demonstrable for measures of cortical atrophy.  (+info)

Computerised axial tomography in patients with severe migraine: a preliminary report. (4/3164)

Patients suffering from severe migraine, usually for many years, have been examined by the EMI scanner between attacks. Judged by criteria validated originally by comparison with pneumoencephalography, about half of the patients showed evidence of cerebral atrophy. Perhaps of more significance than generalised atrophy was the frequency of areas of focal atrophy and of evidence of infarction.  (+info)

Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. (5/3164)

We have examined neuroanatomical, biochemical and endocrine parameters and spatial learning in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) during ageing. Aged beta2(-/-) mutant mice showed region-specific alterations in cortical regions, including neocortical hypotrophy, loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, astro- and microgliosis and elevation of serum corticosterone levels. Whereas adult mutant and control animals performed well in the Morris maze, 22- to 24-month-old beta2(-/-) mice were significantly impaired in spatial learning. These data show that beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs can contribute to both neuronal survival and maintenance of cognitive performance during ageing. beta2(-/-) mice may thus serve as one possible animal model for some of the cognitive deficits and degenerative processes which take place during physiological ageing and in Alzheimer's disease, particularly those associated with dysfunction of the cholinergic system.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (6/3164)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of gastric atrophy using the syntactic structure analysis. (7/3164)

AIM: To assess the topographical relation between gastric glands, using the minimum spanning tree (MST), to derive both a model of neighbourhood and quantitative representation of the tissue's architecture, to assess the characteristic features of gastric atrophy, and to assess the grades of gastric atrophy. METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections from corporal and antral biopsy specimens (n = 139) from normal patients and from patients with nonatrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis of grades 1, 2, and 3 (Sydney system) were assessed by image analysis system (Prodit 5.2) and 11 syntactic structure features were derived. These included both line and connectivity features. RESULTS: Syntactic structure analysis was correlated with the semiquantitative grading system of gastric atrophy. The study showed significant reductions in the number of points and the length of MST in both body and antrum. The standard deviation of the length of MST was significantly increased in all grades of atrophy. The connectivity to two glands was the highest and most affected by the increased grade of atrophy. The reciprocal values of the Wiener, Randic, and Balaban indices showed significant changes in the volume of gland, abnormality in the shape of glands, and changes in irregularity and branching of the glands in both types of gastric mucosa. There was a complete separation in the MST, connectivity, and index values between low grade and high grade gastric atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Gastric atrophy was characterised by loss of the gland, variation in the volume, reduction in the neighbourhood, irregularity in spacing, and abnormality in the shape of the glands. (2) Syntactic structure analysis significantly differentiated minor changes in gastric gland (low grade atrophy) from high grade atrophy of clinical significance. (3) Syntactic structure analysis is a simple, fast, and highly reproducible technique and appears a promising method for quantitative assessment of atrophy.  (+info)

Infratentorial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and disability in multiple sclerosis. (8/3164)

Loss of tissue volume in the central nervous system may provide an index of fixed neurological dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Recent magnetic resonance studies have shown a modest relationship between clinical disability rating scores and transverse sectional area of the cervical spinal cord. To explore further the relationship between atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis, we estimated the volumes of infratentorial structures from MRIs in a cross-sectional study of 41 patients, 21 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. We used the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology with point counting to estimate the volume of brainstem, cerebellum and upper cervical spinal cord from three-dimensional MRIs acquired with an MPRAGE (Magnetization-prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo) sequence. The volume of the upper (C1-C3) cervical spinal cord was significantly correlated with a composite spinal cord score derived from the appropriate Functional Scale scores of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The cerebellar (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) and brainstem (r = 0.34, P < 0.05) volumes correlated with the Scripp's Neurological Disability Rating Scale scores. The upper cervical cord volumes (r = -0.39, P < 0.01), but not the brainstem or cerebellar volumes, were significantly associated with disease duration. MRI-estimated structural volumes may provide a simple index of axonal and/or myelin loss, the presumed pathological substrates of irreversible impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

Background: Hippocampal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an early characteristic of Alzheimers disease. However, hippocampal atrophy may also occur in other dementias, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD).. Objective: To investigate hippocampal atrophy on MRI in FTLD and its three clinical subtypes, in comparison with Alzheimers disease, using volumetry and a visual rating scale.. Methods: 42 patients with FTLD (17 frontotemporal dementia, 13 semantic dementia, and 12 progressive non-fluent aphasia), 103 patients with Alzheimers disease, and 73 controls were included. Hippocampal volumetry and the easily applicable medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) rating scale were applied to assess hippocampal atrophy.. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance for repeated measures showed an effect of diagnostic group on hippocampal volume. There was a significant diagnosis by side (left v right) interaction. Both FTLD and Alzheimers disease showed hippocampal atrophy compared ...
Lewis, EB, Barnes, J, Scahill, RI, Boyes, RG, Frost, C, Rossor C, , rossor, MN and Fox, NC (2004) Differentiating AD from aging using semi-automated measurment of hippocampal atrophy rates ...
Objective: To characterize and quantify the patterns of temporal lobe atrophy in AD vs semantic dementia and to relate the findings to the cognitive profiles. Medial temporal lobe atrophy is well described in AD. In temporal variant frontotemporal dementia (semantic dementia), clinical studies suggest polar and inferolateral temporal atrophy with hippocampal sparing, but quantification is largely lacking. Methods: A volumetric method for quantifying multiple temporal structures was applied to 26 patients with probable AD, 18 patients with semantic dementia, and 21 matched control subjects. Results: The authors confirmed the expected bilateral hippocampal atrophy in AD relative to controls, with involvement of the amygdala bilaterally and the right parahippocampal gyrus. Contrary to expectations, patients with semantic dementia had asymmetric hippocampal atrophy, more extensive than AD on the left. As predicted, the semantic dementia group showed more severe involvement of the temporal pole ...
Results: We found no evidence of acceleration in whole-brain atrophy rates in any group. There was evidence that hippocampal atrophy rates in MCI subjects accelerate by 0.22%/year2 on average (p = 0.037). There was evidence of acceleration in rates of ventricular enlargement in subjects with MCI (p = 0.001) and AD (p , 0.001), with rates estimated to increase by 0.27 mL/year2 (95% confidence interval 0.12, 0.43) and 0.88 mL/year2 (95% confidence interval 0.47, 1.29), respectively. A post hoc analysis suggested that the acceleration of hippocampal loss in MCI subjects was mainly driven by the MCI subjects that were observed to progress to clinical AD within 3 years of baseline, with this group showing hippocampal atrophy rate acceleration of 0.50%/year2 (p = 0.003). ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate
Alzheimers disease (AD) is characterized by neurofibrillary tangle and neuropil thread deposition, which ultimately results in neuronal loss. A large number of magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported a smaller hippocampus in AD patients as compared to healthy elderlies. Even though this difference is often interpreted as atrophy, it is only an indirect measurement. A more direct way of measuring the atrophy is to use repeated MRIs within the same individual. Even though several groups have used this appropriate approach, the pattern of hippocampal atrophy still remains unclear and difficult to relate to underlying pathophysiology. Here, in this longitudinal study, we aimed to map hippocampal atrophy rates in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and elderly controls. Data consisted of two MRI scans for each subject. The symmetric deformation field between the first and the second MRI was computed and mapped onto the three-dimensional hippocampal surface. The pattern of atrophy rate
Looking for Central progressive retinal atrophy? Find out information about Central progressive retinal atrophy. 1. a. of or relating to the central nervous system b. of or relating to the centrum of a vertebra 2. directed from or towards a point Explanation of Central progressive retinal atrophy
Introduction: Weight loss has been described in 20% to 45% of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and has been associated with adverse outcomes. Various mechanisms for weight loss in AD patients have been proposed, though none has been proven. This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: Patients from the Frisian Alzheimers disease cohort study (a retrospective, longitudinal study of 576 community-dwelling AD patients) were included when a brain MRI was performed on which MTA could be assessed. To investigate the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with MTA, we investigated whether the trajectory of body weight change depends on the severity of MTA at the time of diagnosis (that is baseline). We hypothesized that patients with more severe MTA at baseline would have a lower body weight at baseline and a faster decrease in body weight during the course of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Focal atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies on MRI. T2 - A distinct pattern from Alzheimers disease. AU - Whitwell, Jennifer Lynn. AU - Weigand, Stephen D.. AU - Shiung, Maria M.. AU - Boeve, Bradley F. AU - Ferman, Tanis Jill. AU - Smith, Glenn E.. AU - Knopman, David S. AU - Petersen, Ronald Carl. AU - Benarroch, Eduardo E.. AU - Josephs, Keith Anthony. AU - Jack, Clifford R Jr.. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of degenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease. However, unlike the latter, the patterns of cerebral atrophy associated with DLB have not been well established. The aim of this study was to identify a signature pattern of cerebral atrophy in DLB and to compare it with the pattern found in Alzheimers disease. Seventy-two patients that fulfilled clinical criteria for probable DLB were age- and gender-matched to 72 patients with probable Alzheimers disease and 72 controls. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was ...
A significant percentage of healthy older adults have CSF profiles consistent with AD and increased rates of brain atrophy, suggesting that they may be in the earliest stages of neurodegeneration. Brain atrophy may be a feasible outcome measure for AD prevention studies.
Posterior Cortical Atrophy disease dementia is a type of dementia, related to Alzheimers disease. Learn about Posterior Cortical Atrophy disease signs and symptoms and treatment and get support resources.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The pattern of gray matter atrophy in Parkinsons disease differs in cortical and subcortical regions. AU - Lewis, Mechelle M.. AU - Du, Guangwei. AU - Lee, Eun Young. AU - Nasralah, Zeinab. AU - Sterling, Nicholas W.. AU - Zhang, Lijun. AU - Wagner, Daymond. AU - Kong, Lan. AU - Tröster, Alexander I.. AU - Styner, Martin. AU - Eslinger, Paul J.. AU - Mailman, Richard B.. AU - Huang, Xuemei. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Cortical and subcortical gray matter (GM) atrophy may progress differently during the course of Parkinsons disease (PD). We delineated and compared the longitudinal pattern of these PD-related changes. Structural MRIs and clinical measures were obtained from 76 PD with different disease durations and 70 Controls at baseline, 18-, and 36 months. Both cortical and subcortical (putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus) GM volumes were obtained, compared, and associated with PD clinical measures at baseline. Their volumes and rates of change also were compared ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computerized tomographic evidence of cerebral atrophy in heavy drinkers. AU - Sarabia, Fermin. AU - Bowden, Charles L.. PY - 1980/6. Y1 - 1980/6. N2 - Of 50 heavy drinkers referred for nonalcoholic psychiatric problems, 56% had computerized tomographic evidence of cerebral atrophy. This contrasted with a rate of 6% in patients with schizophrenia and affective illnesses who had taken psychotropic drugs for at least ten years. Further, the severity of atrophy was greater in the group of heavy drinkers. The results support a role for computerized tomography in assessment of patients with chronic alcoholic problems.. AB - Of 50 heavy drinkers referred for nonalcoholic psychiatric problems, 56% had computerized tomographic evidence of cerebral atrophy. This contrasted with a rate of 6% in patients with schizophrenia and affective illnesses who had taken psychotropic drugs for at least ten years. Further, the severity of atrophy was greater in the group of heavy drinkers. The results ...
This effect of relapses on the survival curve is a major confounder and is the reason why I believe that to claim that a particular drug has impact on disability progression it also need to impact on the average EDSS scores across the study and have an impact on objective MRI measures that we have linked to disease progression, for example brain atrophy. I am therefore very impressed that 38% of readers of this blog rated brain atrophy as the most important outcome measure for a DMT. I am not sure in myself that it should be rated this highly at this point in time, simply because we still have a lot for us to learn about its meaning and role in MS. Despite this brain atrophy does offer us a window into the brain and probably correlates with neuroprotective effects of DMTs. This is why DMTs that have a positive impact on brain atrophy are more-than-likely to have a positive impact on long-term disability progression, the outcome measure that is the most important to MSers. ...
In most cases, advanced renal atrophy is one sign of kidney failure or ESRD. From this point, patients usually try to find out best treatment for advanced renal atrophy.
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a group of neurodegenerative dementing disorders characterized by initial predominant visual complaints followed by progressive decline in cognitive functions. The visuospatial and visuoperceptual defects arise from the dysfunction of, respectively, the dorsal (occipito-parietal) and the ventral (occipito-temporal) streams. Clinical symptoms, results of neuropsychological examination, and findings of posterior cerebral atrophy and/or posterior hypoperfusion/hypometabolism contribute to the diagnosis. However, owing to the insidious onset of PCA and the non-specificity of initial symptoms, the diagnosis is often delayed. Specific etiologies include Alzheimers disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, subcortical gliosis, corticobasal degeneration, and prion-associated diseases. Alzheimers disease accounts for at least 80 % of PCA cases. Recent research has concentrated on better defining the clinical presentation of PCA, improving neuroimaging analysis, t
TY - JOUR. T1 - A regional consensus recommendation on brain atrophy as an outcome measure in multiple sclerosis. AU - Alroughani, Raed. AU - Deleu, Dirk. AU - El Salem, Khalid. AU - Al-Hashel, Jasem. AU - Alexander, K. John. AU - Abdelrazek, Mohamed Assem. AU - Aljishi, Adel. AU - Alkhaboori, Jaber. AU - Al Azri, Faisal. AU - Al Zadjali, Nahida. AU - Hbahbih, Majed. AU - Sokrab, Tag Eldin. AU - Said, Mohamed. AU - Rovira, Àlex. PY - 2016/11/24. Y1 - 2016/11/24. N2 - Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes leading to irreversible neurological impairment. Brain atrophy occurs early in the course of the disease at a rate greater than the general population. Brain volume loss (BVL) is associated with disability progression and cognitive impairment in patients with MS; hence its value as a potential target in monitoring and treating MS is discussed. Methods: A group of MS neurologists and neuro-radiologists ...
A new study by UMRAM researchers Professor Kader Karlı Oguz and Arzu Ceylan Has has been published in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorderss November issue. In this study, the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline were investigated. For this purpose thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner.. In this study, It has been found that disease duration and educational years had contributions to some of the cognitive test scores, while age affected some volumetric measures of the brain. So while analyzing the correlations between test performances and volumetric measures, our researchers has controlled these ...
Posterior cortical atrophy is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by progressive decline in visual processing and atrophy of posterior brain regions. With the majority of cases attributable to Alzheimers disease and recent evidence for genetic risk factors specifically related to posterior cortical atrophy, the syndrome can provide important insights into selective vulnerability and phenotypic diversity. The present study describes the first major longitudinal investigation of posterior cortical atrophy disease progression. Three hundred and sixty-one individuals (117 posterior cortical atrophy, 106 typical Alzheimers disease, 138 controls) fulfilling consensus criteria for posterior cortical atrophy-pure and typical Alzheimers disease were recruited from three centres in the UK, Spain and USA. Participants underwent up to six annual assessments involving MRI scans and neuropsychological testing. We constructed longitudinal trajectories of regional brain volumes within posterior ...
While they did not observe a statistically significant correlation between whole-gray matter volumes and the EDSS scores, they did discover an inverse correlation between whole-gray matter volumes and the EDSS bowel and bladder functional system subscore and between gray matter volumes and the EDSS cerebellar functional system subscore. Less gray matter volume was correlated with more disability, they said.. Although several studies have reported that gray matter atrophy is associated with EDSS scores, others have not found such a correlation, the researchers said. The difference in our observations again may be owing to differences in our patient populations.. The study had a number of limitations, including the fact that the cohort consisted entirely of untreated female patients with RRMS. The findings may have been different if the patient population had been male or if the patients had progressive MS, they noted.. The researchers called for further longitudinal studies with larger ...
Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimers disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe. In the placebo group, higher homocysteine levels at baseline are associated with faster GM atrophy, but this deleterious effect is largely prevented by B-vitamin treatment. We additionally show that the beneficial effect of B vitamins is
Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimers disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe. In the placebo group, higher homocysteine levels at baseline are associated with faster GM atrophy, but this deleterious effect is largely prevented by B-vitamin treatment. We additionally show that the beneficial effect of B vitamins is
The beneficial effect of B vitamin treatment on brain atrophy was observed only in subjects with high plasma ω-3 fatty acids. It is also suggested that the beneficial effect of ω-3 fatty acids on brain atrophy may be confined to subjects with good B vitamin status. The results highlight the importan …
Methods Serum and CSF levels of anti-Aβ autoantibodies and CSF biomarkers were evaluated in 68 patients with cognitive impairment, comprising 44 patients with AD, 19 patients with amnestic MCI and five patients with non-Alzheimers dementia. The degree of brain atrophy was assessed using the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for AD, which targets the volume of interest (VOI) in medial temporal structures, including the whole hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and amygdala. ...
In the current study, pathologic classification of DLB was made according to the likelihood classification proposed by the Third Report of the DLB Consortium criteria.6 Using this classification scheme, antemortem MRI hippocampal volumes in patients with high likelihood DLB were indistinguishable from those of control subjects (i.e., individuals with low likelihood AD and no LB-related pathology), whereas low and intermediate likelihood DLB groups showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes during life. Moreover, within the DLB pathologic groups, there was a significant stepwise relationship with greater hippocampal volume from low to intermediate to high likelihood DLB.. These findings are in agreement with the reports on preservation of hippocampal volumes in patients with clinically diagnosed and pathologically confirmed DLB.15,17,28 The current data also show a relationship between hippocampal volume and Braak NFT stage in patients with DLB, suggesting that hippocampal volume is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual impairment in posterior cortical atrophy and dementia with lewy bodies. AU - Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia. AU - Baddeley, Roland J. AU - Lovell, P George. AU - Jones, Roy W. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1016/j.jalz.2009.04.862. DO - 10.1016/j.jalz.2009.04.862. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 5. SP - P458. JO - Alzheimers Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimers Association. JF - Alzheimers Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimers Association. IS - 4, Suppl.. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Looking into posterior cortical atrophy. T2 - Providing insight into Alzheimer disease. AU - Tang-Wai, David F.. AU - Graff-Radford, Neill R.. PY - 2011/5/24. Y1 - 2011/5/24. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79958134802&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79958134802&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821ccd4f. DO - 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31821ccd4f. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 21525423. AN - SCOPUS:79958134802. VL - 76. SP - 1778. EP - 1779. JO - Neurology. JF - Neurology. SN - 0028-3878. IS - 21. ER - ...
Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterized by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal, and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most cases will prove to have Alzheimer
31/03/2021 - 31/03/2023 @ All Day - Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a dementia syndrome in which the most prominent symptom is visual impairment due to degeneration of the posterior regions of the cortex. As may be expected for people experiencing poor vision, the first port of call for patients is often their optometrist. This CPD course describes the symptoms of posterior [...]
Learn more about Posterior Cortical Atrophy causes, sign and symptoms, treatment and diagnosis at FindaTopdoc. Read more information on homeopathic remedies, risks, and prevention.
Aims/Hypothesis: The aims of the study were to examine whether type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with greater brain atrophy and cognitive decline, and whether brain atrophy mediates associations between type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline.Methods: Participants without dementia aged 55-90 years from the Cognition and Diabetes in Older Tasmanians (CDOT) study underwent brain MRI (ventricular and total brain volume) and neuropsychological measures (global function and seven cognitive domains) at three time points over 4.6 years. Mixed models were used to examine longitudinal associations of type 2 diabetes with cognitive and MRI measures, adjusting for covariates. A test of mediation was used to determine whether brain atrophy explained associations between type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline.Results: A total of 705 participants (diabetes: n = 348, mean age 68.2 years [SD 7.0]; no diabetes: n = 357, mean age 72.5 years [SD 7.1]) were available at baseline. Adjusting for age, sex, education ...
It is necessary to understand the symptoms of kidney atrophy! There is no denying the fact that this is a problem for all the people. The confirmation of renal atrophy is an inalienable association for the selection of renal atrophy and hea
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The SSA does not specifically recognize cerebral atrophy in its listing of impairments. But many of the underlying causes of cerebral atrophy are. 512-454-4000
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often represents a prodromal form of dementia, conferring a significantly higher risk of converting to probable Alzheimers disease (AD). The aim of this study is to characterise the differences of grey matter (GM) distribution and dynamics between progressive and stable MCI subjects during a 2 year period preceding the conversion to AD. We included 48 stable MCI and 12 progressive MCI cases based on the availability of 3 serial scans acquired with approximately 1 year scan interval. For the progressive MCI group, the third scan was acquired at the time of the clinical diagnosis of AD, while the first two scans were acquired approximately 2 and 1 years earlier. For the stable MCI group, the three scans were acquired at approximately 1 year intervals during a period free from significant cognitive decline. We used longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for mapping the progression of GM loss over time. For the progressive MCI group, the cross-sectional analysis ...
for more than five years in Europe with good results. Beyond treating the immediate symptoms of vaginal atrophy, it may help bladder irritation and urgency triggered by the vagina staying dry for a long period of time.. Its been called a silent epidemic. Vaginal atrophy, which refers to the thinning of the wall of the vagina, occurs in up to 75% of all women. Yet few are willing to talk about it.. What Happens with Atrophy Before a woman begins menopause, the hormone estrogen keeps the skin of her vagina healthy and stimulates vaginal secretion. However, as she ages and her ovaries stop making this hormone, the walls of her vagina may thin and become red, itchy, and dry. Over time, the vaginal opening itself may also narrow and shrink, causing sex to become increasingly painful. Vaginal atrophy may also lead to or increase your risk of irritable bladder symptoms.. But while certain age-related changes may be inevitable, you dont have to live with this discomfort. Today there are more ...
Description: The mutation causing PRA-cord2 in standard wire-haired dachshunds is sometimes mentioned as crd2-PRA. Cord-PRA is one form of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). CORD (cone-rod dystrophy) is a degenerative retinal disease occurring in humans and dogs. First, degeneration of the cone and then the rod is recorded. The first clinical symptoms of cord2-PRA in wire-haired dachshunds occur between month 10 and year 3. Complete retinal atrophy occurs approximately in the 6th year (Ropstad et al. 2007a) when CORD2 manifests itself as daily blindness. Clinical visual examination (ERG) at 5 weeks already reveals cone damage in affected individuals.. Inheritance: autosomal recessive. Mutation: deletion of 180 bp in exon 5/intron 5 in NPHP4 gene (location 62,913,591- 62,913,770). Sample: EDTA whole blood (1.0 ml) or 2 buccal brushes. For official purposes, the confirmation of the dogs identity by Veterinarian is recommended.. The analysis is suitable for the following breeds: Standard ...
OBJECTIVE: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a method of assessing brain gray matter volume that has previously been applied to various chronic pain conditions. From this previous work, it appears that chronic pain is associated with altered brain morphology. The present study was undertaken to assess these potential alterations in patients with painful hip osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: We studied 16 patients with unilateral right-sided hip pain, before and 9 months after hip arthroplasty. This enabled comparison of gray matter volume in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain versus healthy controls, as well as identification of any changes in volume following alleviation of pain (after surgery). Assessment involved self-completion questionnaires to assess pain, function, and psychosocial variables, and magnetic resonance imaging scanning of the brain for VBM analysis. RESULTS: Significant differences in brain gray matter volume between healthy controls and patients with painful hip arthritis were
Introduction: Our aim was to study whether systemic metabolites are associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain and hippocampal atrophy and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Methods: We studied associations of 143 plasma-based metabolites with MRI measures of brain and hippocampal atrophy and WMH in three independent cohorts (n = 3962). We meta-analyzed the results of linear regression analyses to determine the association of metabolites with MRI measures. Results: Higher glucose levels and lower levels of three small high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were associated with brain atrophy. Higher glucose levels were associated with WMH. Discussion: Glucose levels were associated with brain atrophy and WMH, and small HDL particle levels were associated with brain atrophy. Circulating metabolites may aid in developing future intervention trials.. ...
Differential patterns of spinal cord and brain atrophy in NMO and MS.: NMO showed predominately spinal cord atrophy with mild brain atrophy, while MS demonstrat
Brief Answer: Cerebral atrophy is normal at that age. Detailed Answer: Hi, Thank you for posting your query. I have noted your father in law s symptoms and findings. Cerebral atrophy could be normal at his age. However, if he has memory impairment, then, we should exclude dementia. Cause of black...
Cognitive impairment may result in significant disability in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies on cognition in MS were mainly based on measures of gross brain involvement. This study, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), aims to investigate associations between the regional distribution of grey matter (GM) damage and cognitive performance in patients with MS. Eighteen MS patients underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery and MRI, including T2-weighted scans and T1-weighted volumes. A group of 18 healthy individuals were also investigated by MRI and served as controls for the VBM. A cross-sectional analysis was first performed, to assess the pattern of regional GM atrophy in MS patients. Then, the impact of regional GM damage on patients neuropsychological performance was investigated by multiple regression analyses in the patient group. Correlations between global indexes of brain damage and neuropsychological measures were also ...
To these symptoms were added strokes of epilepsy and an atrophyof the left arm. These cookies do not store any personal information. The politician says his budget proposal will help eliminate the pecuniary inequality between the poor and the rich by increasing the taxes paid by those in the higher income bracket. The definition of atrophy is the weakening, loss, wasting away, break-down or growth halt of something such as a body part, plant, person, place or thing. Muscle atrophy has long been observed among astronauts after space flights. Muscular atrophy leads to a loss of strength and endurance. 18 editor-approved samples. Unlike strong topical steroids, studies have shown that tacrolimus ointment does not cause skin atrophy. In at least this age and country it exists as the atrophy of a cureless decline. Examples of Atrophy in a sentence It was hard to watch my mother atrophy as she experienced the weakening disease of Alzheimers. Example sentences from the Collins Corpus. The only thing I ...
Severe brain atrophy in the elderly as a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection Rieko Okada,1 Takashi Okada,2 Akira Okada,2 Hideyuki Muramoto,3 Masahisa Katsuno,4 Gen Sobue,4 Nobuyuki Hamajima11Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Okada Medical Clinic, 3Muramoto Clinic, 4Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study is to determine whether elderly subjects with severe brain atrophy, which is associated with neurodegeneration and difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), are more susceptible to lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), including pneumonia.Methods: The severity of brain atrophy was assessed by computed tomography in 51 nursing home residents aged 60-96 years. The incidence of LRTI, defined by body temperature ≥38.0°C, presence of two or more respiratory symptoms, and use of antibiotics, was determined over 4 years. The incidence of LRTI was compared according
Based upon the principles narrated below, the doctors and TCM experts working in Chaoyang TCM Brain Atrophy Treatment Hospital spent more than ten years in experiment and clinical application, and gained their success with the successful research result of Brain Atrophy Recovery Pill. More than 7 years of clinical experiments verified its effective rate as high as 93% in treating brain atrophy and dementia. The following are general principles adopted widely in formula invention process:. ...
Question - Diagnosed with brain atrophy. Inserted feeding tube. How does brain atrophy occur and what is life expectancy?, Ask a Neurologist
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Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with gray matter atrophy. Adiposity and physical inactivity are risk factors for T2D and brain atrophy. We studied whether the associations of T2D with total gray matter volume (GMV) and hippocampal volume (HV) are dependent on obesity and physical activity. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we measured waist-hip ratio (WHR), body mass index (BMI), mean steps/day and brain volumes in a community dwelling cohort of people with and without T2D. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined whether WHR, BMI and physical activity mediated or modified the association between T2D, GMV and HV. Results: There were 258 participants with (mean age 67±7 years) and 302 without (mean age 72±7 years) T2D. Adjusting for age, sex and intracranial volume, T2D was independently associated with lower total GMV (p = 0.001) and HV ( ...
It has been proposed that individuals developing Alzheimers disease (AD) first experience a phase expressing subjective complaints of cognitive decline (SCD) without objective cognitive impairment. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), our objective was to verify whether SNIPE probability grading, a new MRI analysis technique, would distinguish between clinical dementia stage of AD: Cognitively healthy controls without complaint (CH), SCD, mild cognitive impairment, and AD. SNIPE score in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex was applied to anatomical T1-weighted MRI of 143 participants from the Consortium pour lidentification précoce de la maladie Alzheimer - Québec (CIMA-Q) study and compared to standard atrophy measures (volumes and cortical thicknesses). Compared to standard atrophy measures, SNIPE score appeared more sensitive to differentiate clinical AD since differences between groups reached a higher level of significance and larger effect sizes. However, no significant difference ...
Scientific medical evidence shows a correlation between Dilantin (phenytion) use and Cerebellum atrophy. ABOUT Cerebellar Atrophy Patients Patients have develop marked cerebellar atrophy following episodes of acute and severe phenytoin intoxication. Phenytoin can accumulate in the cerebral cortex over long periods of time which can cause atrophy of the cerebellum. Cerebellar atrophy related to phenytoin use. Cerebellar Atrophy is a serious progressive condition that the cerebellum shrinks to a much smaller size than the normal one. Phenytion Use & Time of Exposure Cerebellar atrophy is frequently associated with long-term use of phenytoin (Dilantin). Although duration of epilepsy may have an influence in the cerebellar atrophy, clearly the epilespy episodes are less important than the time of exposure to phenytoin. ...
Imaging studies in multiple sclerosis have shown that spinal cord atrophy correlates with clinical disability. The pathological substrate of atrophy has not as yet been investigated adequately. In order to determine the cause of spinal cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis, five different sections of the spinal cord were examined histopathologically in 33 controls and 55 multiple sclerosis cases. In the multiple sclerosis cases in each section the total lesion load and the cross-sectional area of the cord were measured. Multiple regression models were estimated, controlling for sex, age, duration of the disease and location of the cord sections. The multiple sclerosis cords were found to be significantly smaller than the controls. The duration of the disease played the most important role in determining cord atrophy. The degree of atrophy varied in different parts of the cord. Individual lesions played a minor role in local atrophy. Our findings suggest that axonal degeneration, possibly caused by the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regional brain atrophy in HIV‐1 infection. T2 - association with specific neuropsychological test performance. AU - Hestad, K.. AU - McArthur, J. H.. AU - Pan, G. J.Dal. AU - Selnes, O. A.. AU - Nance‐Sproson, T. E.. AU - Aylward, E.. AU - Mathews, V. P.. AU - McArthur, J. C.. PY - 1993/8. Y1 - 1993/8. N2 - Quantified magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was related to neuropsychological (NP) test scores in an asymptomatic HIV‐1 seropositive group, a non‐demented AIDS/ARC group, a group of subjects with HIV‐1 dementia, and a seronegative control group. The MRIs were quantified using three planimetric measures of brain structure: the bicaudate ratio (a measure of caudate region atrophy), the bifrontal ratio (a measure of frontal region atrophy), and the ventricle to brain ratio (a measure of overall cerebral atrophy). Cognitive performance was assessed with standard NP tests. Significant correlations between the MRI ratios and many of the NP tests were observed. Of the tests ...
Looking for online definition of cerebellar atrophy in the Medical Dictionary? cerebellar atrophy explanation free. What is cerebellar atrophy? Meaning of cerebellar atrophy medical term. What does cerebellar atrophy mean?
Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly used to study mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment. In particular, brain atrophy has been proposed as a surrogate marker of dementia. However, little is known regarding confounding factors which might modulate the evolution of brain atrophy during ageing. We therefore determined the rate of atrophy over 6 years for 201 participants (F/M=96/105; 59.8±5.9 yrs) in the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study and probed the impact of baseline variables on its progression. The mean annual brain volume change was -0.40±0.29%. The rate of brain atrophy was significantly higher in subjects of greater age and those with higher HbA 1c , higher body-mass-index, high alcohol intake, severe white matter hyperintensities, and in APOEε4-carriers. Multivariate analysis suggested that baseline brain volume, HbA 1c and the extent of white matter hyperintensities explain a major proportion of variance in the rates of brain atrophy. These results indicate that neurologically
Neuroimaging techniques are increasingly used to study mechanisms leading to cognitive impairment. In particular, brain atrophy has been proposed as a surrogate marker of dementia. However, little is known regarding confounding factors which might modulate the evolution of brain atrophy during ageing. We therefore determined the rate of atrophy over 6 years for 201 participants (F/M=96/105; 59.8±5.9 yrs) in the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study and probed the impact of baseline variables on its progression. The mean annual brain volume change was -0.40±0.29%. The rate of brain atrophy was significantly higher in subjects of greater age and those with higher HbA1c, higher body-mass-index, high alcohol intake, severe white matter hyperintensities, and in APOEε4-carriers. Multivariate analysis suggested that baseline brain volume, HbA1cand the extent of white matter hyperintensities explain a major proportion of variance in the rates of brain atrophy. These results indicate that neurologically
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Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is certainly a neurodegenerative symptoms seen as a impaired higher visible processing skills; nevertheless motor unit features even more connected with corticobasal syndrome could also occur frequently. rigidity. Limb apraxia was more asymmetrical and regular in PCA-motor seeing that was myoclonus. Tremor and alien limb phenomena just occurred within this subgroup. The subgroups didnt differ in neuropsychological check efficiency or apolipoprotein E4 allele regularity. Greater asymmetry of atrophy occurred in PCA-motor involving best frontoparietal and peri-rolandic cortices putamen and thalamus Otamixaban particularly. The 9 sufferers (including 4 PCA-motor) with pathology or cerebrospinal liquid all showed proof Alzheimers disease. Our data claim that PCA sufferers with electric motor features possess better atrophy of contralateral sensorimotor areas but remain likely to possess root Alzheimers disease. < 0.05. Maps displaying statistically significant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spinal Cord Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis. T2 - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. AU - Casserly, Courtney. AU - Seyman, Estelle E.. AU - Alcaide-Leon, Paula. AU - Guenette, Melanie. AU - Lyons, Carrie. AU - Sankar, Stephanie. AU - Svendrovski, Anton. AU - Baral, Stefan. AU - Oh, Jiwon. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord atrophy (SCA) is an important emerging outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, there is limited consensus on the magnitude and rate of atrophy. The objective of this study was to synthesize the available data on measures of SCA in MS. METHODS: Using published guidelines, relevant literature databases were searched between 1977 and 2017 for case-control or cohort studies reporting a quantitative measure of SCA in MS patients. Random-effects models pooled cross-sectional measures and longitudinal rates of SCA in MS and healthy controls (HCs). Students t-test assessed differences between pooled measures in ...
In early Alzheimers disease (AD), the hippocampal region is the area most severely affected by cellular and structural alterations, yet glucose hypometabolism predominates in the posterior association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus. One prevalent hypothesis to account for this discrepancy is that posterior cingulate hypometabolism results from disconnection from the hippocampus through disruption of the cingulum bundle. However, only partial and indirect evidence currently supports this hypothesis. Thus, using structural magnetic resonance imaging and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in 18 patients with early AD, we assessed the relationships between hippocampal atrophy, white matter integrity, and gray matter metabolism by means of a whole-brain voxel-based correlative approach. We found that hippocampal atrophy is specifically related to cingulum bundle disruption, which is in turn highly correlated to hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex but also of
Subcortical and Cortical Gray Matter Atrophy in a Large Sample of Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis ...
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best biomarker of inflammatory disease activity in relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) so far but the association with disability is weak. Appearance of new MRI-lesions is used to evaluate response to immunotherapies in individual patients as well as being the most common primary outcome in phase-2 trials. Measurements of brain atrophy show promising outcomes in natural cohort studies and some phase-2 trials. From a theoretical perspective they might represent irreversible neurodegeneration and be more closely associated with disability. However, these atrophy measurements are not yet established as prognostic factors in real-life clinical routine. High field MRI has improved image quality and resolution and new methods to measure atrophy dynamics have become available. Objective To investigate the predictive value of MRI classification criteria in to high/low atrophy and inflammation groups, and to explore predictive capacity of two
Posterior cortical atrophy is a syndromic diagnosis. It is characterised by progressive impairment of higher (cortical) visual function with imaging evidence of degeneration affecting the occipital, parietal and posterior temporal lobes bilaterally. Most caseswill prove to have Alzheimer pathology. The aim of this review is to summarise the development of the concept of this disorder since it was first introduced. A critical discussion of the evolving diagnostic criteria is presented and the differential diagnosis with regard to the underlying pathology is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the visual dysfunction that defines the disorder, and the classical deficits, such as simultanagnosia and visual agnosia, as well as the more recently recognised visual field defects, are reviewed, along with the evidence on their neural correlates. The latest developments on the imaging of PCA are summarised, with special attention to its role on the differential diagnosis with related conditions.
BACKGROUND: An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins.. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159).. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B(6) and B(12) in 271 individuals (of 646 screened) over 70 y-old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187) volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d), vitamin B(12) (0.5 mg/d) and ...
The Evolution of Alexia in Two Cases of Posterior Cortical Atrophy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
PubMedID: 26280173 | A Longitudinal Study of Disability, Cognition and Gray Matter Atrophy in Early Multiple Sclerosis Patients According to Evidence of Disease Activity. | PloS one | 8/17/2015
Cardiogenic Syncope & Focal Atrophy of Choroid & Prolonged PR Interval Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Sick Sinus Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Muscle Atrophy can be measured through the use of CT Scans, pain or loss of weight.. TENS & EMS to treat Muscle Atrophy?. Through the use of Electrical Muscle stimulation, doctors are able to reverse and prevent muscle atrophy by stimulating the muscles without the need for adverse stress and discomfort. For years experts have looked for effective ways to cure and prevent muscle atrophy. Whether through the use of chemical enhancers, such as anabolic steroids or through physical therapy, doctors and scientists have repeatedly turned to the stimulation effects of EMS therapy from TENS units in order to prevent and treat atrophy.. The widespread acceptance of EMS as an Atrophy fighting tool is highly supported by emerging research. For example, a study conducted in 2011 concluded that. EMS is effective in maintaining and increasing muscle thickness, and strength post-surgery in order to prevent muscle atrophy.. Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies. More often than not, muscle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automatic temporal lobe atrophy assessment in prodromal AD: Data from the DESCRIPA study. AU - Chincarini, Andrea. AU - Bosco, Paolo. AU - Gemme, Gianluca. AU - Esposito, Mario. AU - Rei, Luca. AU - Squarcia, Sandro. AU - Bellotti, Roberto. AU - Minthon, Lennart. AU - Frisoni, Giovanni. AU - Scheltens, Philip. AU - Froelich, Lutz. AU - Soininen, Hilkka. AU - Visser, Pieter-Jelle. AU - Nobili, Flavio. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. KW - MRI. KW - Image analysis. KW - Memory clinics. KW - Naturalistic population. KW - Alzheimers disease. KW - Medial temporal lobe. KW - Hippocampus. U2 - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. DO - 10.1016/j.jalz.2013.05.1774. M3 - Article. C2 - 24035058. VL - 10. SP - 456. EP - 467. JO - Alzheimers & Dementia. JF - Alzheimers & Dementia. SN - 1552-5260. IS - 4. ER - ...
Frailty Characteristics in Chronic HIV Patients are Markers of White Matter Atrophy Independently of Age and Depressive Symptoms: A Pilot Study
TY - JOUR. T1 - Automated mapping of hippocampal atrophy in 1-year repeat MRI data from 490 subjects with Alzheimers disease, mild cognitive impairment, and elderly controls. AU - The Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. AU - Morra, Jonathan H.. AU - Tu, Zhuowen. AU - Apostolova, Liana G.. AU - Green, Amity E.. AU - Avedissian, Christina. AU - Madsen, Sarah K.. AU - Parikshak, Neelroop. AU - Toga, Arthur W.. AU - Jack, Clifford R.. AU - Schuff, Norbert. AU - Weiner, Michael W.. AU - Thompson, Paul M.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - As one of the earliest structures to degenerate in Alzheimers disease (AD), the hippocampus is the target of many studies of factors that influence rates of brain degeneration in the elderly. In one of the largest brain mapping studies to date, we mapped the 3D profile of hippocampal degeneration over time in 490 subjects scanned twice with brain MRI over a 1-year interval (980 scans). We examined baseline and 1-year follow-up scans of 97 AD subjects (49 ...
We used whole-exome sequencing to identify variants other than APOE associated with the rate of hippocampal atrophy in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. An in-silico predicted missense variant in REST (rs3796529) was found exclusively in subjects with slow hippocampal volume loss and validated using unbiased whole-brain analysis and meta-analysis across 5 independent cohorts. REST is a master regulator of neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation that has not been previously implicated in Alzheimers disease. These findings nominate REST and its functional pathways as protective and illustrate the potential of combining next-generation sequencing with neuroimaging to discover novel disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.
This report describes the case of a 57-year old man who was in an accident in which his vehicle was rear-ended by a tractor-trailer, leading to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other injuries. Nine months after the accident, an MRI of the brain was interpreted by the radiologist as showing two specific T2 hyperintensities in the left frontal lobe. NeuroQuant® volumetric analysis of the same MRI data showed markedly reduced hippocampal volume compared with an age-matched normal control group, which is consistent with atrophy due to TBI. The hippocampal damage in this patient probably caused his posttraumatic amnesia and short-term memory impairment, which was consistent with the neuropsychological test results for this patient. ​. Ross DE, Ochs AL, Seabaugh J, Henshaw T (2012): NeuroQuant® revealed hippocampal atrophy in a patient with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 24: E33. To view an abstract of this paper, click here. ...
ABSTRACT. The purpose of this research is to develop a morphologically determined scale-the Tomography Dementia Rating scale (TDR) to diagnose AD stages, based on the measurement of the severity of voluminal atrophic changes of the temporal lobes of the brain detected among patients during CT and MRI at various stages of the disease. The research included 140 patients aged 28 - 79. Test Group comprised 81 patients aged 34 - 79 suffering from various AD stages. Control Group consisted of 59 patients aged 28 - 78 who had various types of brain lesions with manifestations of dementia and cognitive impairment but who did not suffer from AD. CT and MRI data obtained has made it possible to create a scale that allows determining the severity of atrophic changes in the temporal lobes at each stage of AD development: 1) Pre-clinical AD stage-TDR-0: temporal lobes atrophy with a 4% - 8% decrease in tissue mass (corresponds to 26 - 28 MMSE points); 2) Early AD Stage-mild dementia-TDR-1: temporal lobes ...
During a 2-year period, 31 cases of a hereditary retinal degeneration in dogs bred in India were found mainly suspected for progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) with typical history of initial nyctalopia followed by hemeralopia. Out of 31 PRA suspected dogs, 8 dogs (26%) were from the age group of 1-5 years, 15 (48%) 6-10 years and the rest (26%) 11-15 years. The most predominant breed was Spitz (18 dogs, 58%). Detailed ophthalmologic examinations included Schirmers tear test, fluorescein stain, applanation tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy and ocular ultrasound in appropriate cases. Ophthalmoscopic and fundoscopic changes included hyperreflectivity and discoloration of the tapetal area, marked attenuation of retinal vessels, depigmentation in non-tapetal area and optic disc atrophy with scalloped borders. Electroretinograms (ERG) recorded in 13 PRA-affected cases revealed non-recordable extinguished (flatline) ERG responses. A reduction mainly of a- and b-wave amplitudes in the ERG indicated a
Hippocampus displayed progressively gender-associated damage in Alzheimers disease. However, gender effects have been largely neglected in studies of amnestic type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI)patients who were believed to represent an early stage of this disease. The goal of this study was to use in vivo neuroimaging techniques to determine whether there were any evidences of gender differences in hippocampal atrophy in aMCI. A region of interest-based magnetic resonance imaging approach ...
Breast atrophy is the normal or spontaneous atrophy or shrinkage of the breasts.[1] Breast atrophy commonly occurs in women during menopause when estrogen levels decrease.[2][3][4] It can also be caused by hypoestrogenism and/or hyperandrogenism in women in general,[1] such as in antiestrogen treatment for breast cancer, in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),[5][6] and in malnutrition such as that associated with eating disorders like anorexia nervosa or with chronic disease.[1][7][8] It can also be an effect of weight loss.[8][9] In the treatment of gynecomastia in males and macromastia in women, and in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for trans men,[10] breast atrophy may be a desired effect. Examples of treatment options for breast atrophy, depending on the situation/when appropriate, can include estrogens, antiandrogens, and proper nutrition or weight gain.[citation needed] ...
Dilantin has side effects and toxicity which evidence suggests may cause permanent changes to the brain and skull that include Cerebellar Atrophy or Cerebral atrophy (atrophy of the brain).
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA) is a leading hereditary cause of blindness in pedigree dogs as is its counterpart retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in humans. PRA shows genetic heterogeneity, as does RP, with several distinct forms already recognized and several more remaining to be investigated. The retina is a thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball. The vertebrate retina contains photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) that respond to light. The cones mediate high-resolution vision and colour vision. The rods mediate lower-resolution, black-and-white, night vision. The degeneration of the retina results in loss of vision, often leading to blindness. One can distinguish between late onset forms of PRA and early onset (whelp-age) dysplastic changes. The clinical and ophthalmologic signs of both forms are similar. Affected dogs suffer from bilateral Mydriasis, the reflection of the Tapetum lucidum is increased and the retinal vascular network appears atrophic. Currently, there is no
An Overview Progressive Retinal Atrophy, or PRA, is a condition of the retina in the eye. PRA encompasses many diseases which all progress over time and eventually lead to blindness. The retina works in the eye much as the film in a camera works. It changes the light it receives into images which are then sent down the optic nerve to be interpreted by the brain. When a dog has PRA the retina either stops developing prematurely or the light receptors degenerate early in life. With this condition both eyes are equally affected. The different forms of PRA vary in the age at which they first develop and in the rate at which they progress. Cases can be early onset with rapid progression to late onset with slow progression or any combination of the sorts. Every case is different and definite age of onset or how quickly progression will occur can never be known for sure. Since PRA has been identified, numerous dog breeds have been found to have the disease. Some breeds that PRA is commonly found in are ...
References. 1. Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Beiser AS, et al. Association of plasma total homocysteine levels with subclinical brain injury: cerebral volumes, white matter hyperintensity, and silent brain infarcts at volumetric magnetic resonance imaging in the Framingham Offspring Study. Arch Neurol. 2008;65(5):642-649.. 2. Oulhaj A, Refsum H, Beaumont H, et al. Homocysteine as a predictor of cognitive decline in Alzheimers disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010;25(1):82-90.. 3. Ellinson M, Thomas J, Patterson A. A critical evaluation of the relationship between serum vitamin B, folate and total homocysteine with cognitive impairment in the elderly. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2004;17(4):371-383.. 4. Blasko I, Jellinger K, Kemmler G. Conversion from cognitive health to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease: prediction by plasma amyloid beta 42, medial temporal lobe atrophy and homocysteine. Neurobiol Aging. 2008;29(1):1-11.. 5. Nilsson K, Gustafson L, Hultberg B. Plasma homocysteine and cognition in ...
A veterinarian or veterinary ophthalmologist can often diagnose an advanced case of PRA in dogs with a thorough eye exam. Earlier in the course of the disease, however, a test known as an electroretinogram (ERG) is necessary. If your veterinarian is concerned that other systemic or ocular dog diseases could be to blame for your dogs poor vision, additional tests may be necessary.. Unfortunately, there is no treatment for PRA in dogs, and most with the disease eventually become blind. An owner can do a lot to help a dog with progressive retinal atrophy, however. Try to keep the dogs surroundings as consistent as possible. Food and water should always be offered in the same location. If you do need to move furniture or make any other similar changes, do so as gradually as possible. Close doors or place baby gates across the openings to stairwells, decks, or balconies to prevent falls. Blind dogs can still go outside in a fenced back yard, but make sure that they cannot access any bodies of ...
A new DNA mutation has been discovered and perfectly link to the Progressive Retinal Atrophy of the Bengal cat. Test your Bengal now.
Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA3) is an inherited condition that several breeds of dog are predisposed to, which ultimately causes total blindness.
Allison Sommers, Jeremy Hush and Susannah Kelly share an interest in creating poetic imagery out of macabre subject matter. The three artists are presenting new bodies of work for their collaborative show, Irresistible Atrophies, opening at Portlands Antler Gallery on October 30. Hushs mixed-media paintings are rife with folkloric themes. Obscure objects and sage animals are presented in ways that allude to pagan rituals. His use of muted earth tones complements Sommerss largely monochromatic, deep red color palette. Sommers artist creates depictions of unraveling, decomposing flesh, rendering biomorphic, otherworldly bodies that seem humanoid rather than human. Kellys somber, graphite portraits delve into despair. Her characters are often pictured with props symbolic of their emotional turbulence.. Irresistible Atrophy will be on view at Antler Gallery October 30 through November 25.. Jeremy Hush:. ...
Background and Purpose: White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts.; Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up.; Results: Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less ...
The method researchers used to assess brain atrophy across 25 published studies, called colocalization-likelihood estimation (CLE), was developed by Peter E. Turkeltaub, MD, PhD, an associate professor of neurology at Georgetown and a co-author of the study.. The researchers found that the frontal region (including anterior cingulate cortex, or ACC) is the most frequently affected brain region in HIV+ adults, whereas the neural injury to the caudate/striatum was consistently linked to neurocognitive impairment.. These results suggest a two-stage model of HAND in the context of brain atrophy, with a frontal/ACC stage that links to HIV disease and likely other comorbidities, such as substance abuse, and a caudate/striatum stage that links to neurocognitive impairment. These two areas likely play different roles in HAND, Jiang says.. It is our theory, and others, that the frontal/ACC area damage is due to a number of factors, but which importantly includes damage to the dopaminergic region, he ...
Default STUDY: Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis could be ameliorated by aerobic exercise Get out there and crank it as best you can, folks. Your brain and health depend on it. - D Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis could be ameliorated by aerobic exercise ECTRIMS Online Library. Savsek L. Oct 25, 2017; 199869Abstract: EP1849 Type: ePoster Abstract Category: Therapy - symptomatic - 35 Enhancing CNS plasticity Objective: Although most disease modifying drugs exert high
This report represents the initial findings from what is designed to be a longitudinal study to delineate the natural history of amyloid deposition in eoFAD. To our knowledge, this is the first report of amyloid imaging in asymptomatic carriers of PS1 mutations, some of whom are more than 10 years younger than the age at which onset of cognitive symptoms would be expected (e.g., 48 years for the PS1C410Y mutation carriers). The findings suggest that amyloid deposition in these two families begins in the striatum well before the onset of cognitive symptoms.. Previous studies using structural MRI and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET determination of cerebral metabolic rate for glucose have shown changes in presymptomatic and symptomatic eoFAD subjects. Fox and colleagues (Schott et al., 2003; Ridha et al., 2006) reported that changes in hippocampal atrophy rate were evident 5.5 years before a diagnosis of AD. Two early reports showed decreased cerebral metabolism by FDG-PET in symptomatic eoFAD ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hippocampal atrophy. T2 - Another common pathogenic mechanism of depressive disorders and epilepsy?. AU - Kanner, Andres M.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84864313672&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84864313672&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.5698/1535-7511-11.5.149. DO - 10.5698/1535-7511-11.5.149. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 22020737. AN - SCOPUS:84864313672. VL - 11. SP - 149. EP - 150. JO - Epilepsy Currents. JF - Epilepsy Currents. SN - 1535-7597. IS - 5. ER - ...
Mechanisms of muscle atrophy are complex and their understanding might help finding therapeutic solutions for pathologies such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We meta-analyzed transcriptomic experiments of muscles of ALS patients and mouse models, uncovering a p53 deregulation as common denominator. We then characterized the induction of several p53 family members (p53, p63, p73) and a correlation between the levels of p53 family target genes and the severity of muscle atrophy in ALS patients and mice. In particular, we observed increased p63 protein levels in the fibers of atrophic muscles via denervation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. At a functional level, we demonstrated that TAp63 and p53 transactivate the promoter and increased the expression of Trim63 (MuRF1), an effector of muscle atrophy. Altogether, these results suggest a novel function for p63 as a contributor to muscular atrophic processes via the regulation of multiple genes, including the muscle atrophy gene Trim63.
How to treat muscular atrophy with natural medicine MUSCLE ATROPHY NATURAL TREATMENT Characteristics of muscle atrophy Muscle atrophy are degenerations produced in the muscle as a result of a lack of activity. These lesions involve the lack of muscle power that eventually shrinks and loses its fo
Brief Summary: On June. 01, 2014, Saleh Abd, came from Saudi Arabia, who suffered from ALS. He had muscles atrophy over his upper limbs and muscles jumpings for one and a half years. He was hospitalized in our hospital. He got great improvement after 25 days TCM treatment. He could walk 200 meters after the treatment, while he could only walk 70 meters with a stick when arrived here.. Record of Hospitalization. Name: Saleh Abd Sex: Male. Age: 48 Marital Status: Married. Nationality: Saudi Arabia Date of Admission: Jun. 01, 2014. Companion: his brother First Medical Record. Date: June 01, 2014 Time: 10:00 a.m.. Saleh Abd, male, 48 years old, had suffered from muscle atrophy over his upper limbs and muscles jumpings for one and a half years. The patient was hospitalized in our hospital with ALS for TCM treatment at 21:30 p.m. on May 31, 2014. Essential for Diagnosis:. 1. The patient had suffered from muscle atrophy over his upper limbs and muscle jumpings for one and a half years. There were no ...
Mild diffuse cerebral atrophy is a symptomatic brain condition generally involving the loss, or deterioration of, neurons and the connections between them, usually indicating the presence of other...
CLEFT PALATE and CEREBRAL ATROPHY related symptoms, diseases, and genetic alterations. Get the complete information with our medical search engine for
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene.[58] Symptoms ... Spinal muscular atrophy is linked to genetic mutations in the SMN1 (Survival of Motor Neuron 1) gene. The SMN protein is widely ... Disease: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA ... This article will cover the epigenetics and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA ...
Hypertrophy and atrophy[edit]. Main articles: Hypertrophy and Atrophy. Example of an atrophied muscle ...
Muscle atrophies[edit]. Main article: Muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can ... Gland atrophy[edit]. The adrenal glands atrophy during prolonged use of exogenous glucocorticoids like prednisone. Atrophy of ... Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy ... A diminished muscular trophic condition is designated as atrophy. Atrophy is reduction in size of cell, organ or tissue, after ...
Atrophy in males[edit]. In the male the paramesonephric ducts atrophy, but traces of their anterior ends are represented by the ... Atrophy in female[edit]. In the female the mesonephric bodies and ducts atrophy. The nonfunctional remains of the mesonephric ... A large part of the head end of the mesonephros atrophies and disappears; of the remainder the anterior tubules form the ... Thus, the mesonephric duct remains after the atrophy of the pronephros duct. ...
Gut atrophy[edit]. Infants who are sustained on TPN without food by mouth for prolonged periods are at risk for developing gut ... atrophy.[23] Other complications[edit]. Other complications are either related to catheter insertion, or metabolic, including ...
Bengal progressive retinal atrophy (PRA-b)[edit]. Bengal cats are known to be affected by several genetic diseases, one of ... The most pressing concerns when breeding Bengals are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), progressive retinal atrophy and ... which is Bengal progressive retinal atrophy, also known as Bengal PRA or PRA-b. Anyone breeding Bengal cats should carry out ...
Atrophy *e.g., Muscular atrophy. *Debility (or asthenia). *Lassitude. *Lethargy. *Muscle tremors ...
"plant" radical) "wilt; wither; atrophy; tire, grow weary; (metaphorically) decline, fade" ...
Atrophy *e.g., Muscular atrophy. *Debility (or asthenia). *Lassitude. *Lethargy. *Muscle tremors ...
Atrophy: refers to a loss of tissue, and can be epidermal, dermal, or subcutaneous.[30] With epidermal atrophy, the skin ... appears thin, translucent, and wrinkled.[29] Dermal or subcutaneous atrophy is represented by depression of the skin.[29] ...
Atrophy *e.g., Muscular atrophy. *Debility (or asthenia). *Lassitude. *Lethargy. *Muscle tremors ...
... and atrophy of specific areas of the brain are linked to epilepsy but it is unclear if epilepsy causes these changes or if ...
"Atrophy". The Post-Standard. Syracuse, New York. April 12, 1964.. *^ a b Nester, Daniel (April 2005). "An interview with ... Paglia entered Harpur College at Binghamton University in 1964.[22] The same year, Paglia's poem "Atrophy" was published in the ...
"Muscle fatigue, nNOS and muscle fiber atrophy in limb girdle muscular dystrophy". Acta Myologica. 33 (3): 119-126. ISSN 1128- ...
Optic Atrophy. *Argyll Robertson pupil[1] *Argyll Robertson pupil constricts with accommodation but it is not reactive to light ...
muscle atrophy. *bowing deformity. *swelling. *increased or decreased bone growth. [5] [6] The most common symptom is pain that ...
G13.2) Systemic atrophy primarily affecting central nervous system in myxoedema. *(G13.8) Systemic atrophy primarily affecting ... G12.0) Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (spinal muscular atrophy type 1). *(G12.1) Other inherited spinal muscular atrophy *Progressive ... G10-G13) Systemic atrophies primarily affecting the central nervous system[edit]. *(G10) Huntington's disease ... G13) Systemic atrophies primarily affecting central nervous system in diseases classified elsewhere *(G13.0) Paraneoplastic ...
As such, the HPA axis starts to become suppressed and atrophy. If this occurs the people should be tapered off prednisone ... Schakman O, Gilson H, Kalista S, Thissen JP (November 2009). "Mechanisms of muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoids". Hormone ...
There is marked muscle atrophy, severely limited mobility of the affected area, and flexor tendon contractions (contractions of ... The limb, or limbs, can experience muscle atrophy, loss of use, and functionally useless parameters that require amputation. ... Type I, formerly known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), Sudeck's atrophy, or algoneurodystrophy, does not exhibit ... atrophy); tremors; dystonia; allodynia; hyperalgesia; decreased/restricted ability and painful movement of affected body part.[ ...
"FDA approves innovative gene therapy to treat pediatric patients with spinal muscular atrophy, a rare disease and leading ...
"Everyone Gets Atrophy". Troy Miller. Mitchell Hurwitz. May 29, 2018 (2018-05-29). 5AJD03. ...
Dejerine-Thomas olivopontocerebellar atrophy: A sporadically occurring form of chronic progressive ataxia. ...
"Cat Progressive Retinal Atrophy". Vgl.ucdavis.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-27.. *^ Lyons LA (December 2012). "Genetic testing in ...
Mac Bride MB, Rhodes DJ, Shuster LT (January 2010). "Vulvovaginal atrophy". Mayo Clin. Proc. 85 (1): 87-94. doi:10.4065/mcp. ...
The lower extremities often show atrophy and seldom show hypertrophy resulting in limb circumference discrepancy.[citation ... Cutaneous atrophy • Neurological anomalies • Vascular anomalies (nevus flammeus /Sturge-Weber/Klippel-Trénauna Adams Oliver ...
Spinal muscular atrophy caused by UBE1 gene mutation; weakness due to loss of the motor neurons of the spinal cord and ... Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; muscle cramps and progressive weakness. *Lesch-Nyhan syndrome; neurologic dysfunction, ...
Cerebral atrophy: is seen frequently. Genetics: pathogenic mutations in any of the seven genes known to be involved in AGS. At ... 2004). "Congenital glaucoma and brain stem atrophy as features of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome". Am J Med Genet. 129A: 303-7. doi ... and cerebral atrophy; thus indicating that the disease process became active before birth i.e. in utero. These infants can have ... abnormalities of the cerebral white matter and diffuse brain atrophy. An excess of white cells, chiefly lymphocytes, was found ...
ISBN 978-1-4377-3600-7. Grunseich, C; Fischbeck, KH (November 2015). "Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy". Neurologic Clinics. ... proportion of male gynecomastia cases may be seen with rare inherited disorders such as spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and ...
The Australian Cattle Dog is one of the dog breeds affected by progressive retinal atrophy. It has the most common form, ... Petersen-Jones, Simon M. (2003). "Progressive Retinal Atrophy: an overview". Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the ...
"NASA Information: Muscle Atrophy" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 20 November 2015.. *^ "Earth Living Is Tough for Astronaut Used to ...
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) attacks nerve cells in the spinal cord, weakening voluntary muscles. Read about the genetics, ... Spinal Muscular Atrophy (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) (Muscular ... Spinal muscular atrophy: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy: ... Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Spinal muscular atrophy with lower ...
Muscle atrophies[edit]. Main article: Muscle atrophy. Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can ... Gland atrophy[edit]. The adrenal glands atrophy during prolonged use of exogenous glucocorticoids like prednisone. Atrophy of ... Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy ... A diminished muscular trophic condition is designated as atrophy. Atrophy is reduction in size of cell, organ or tissue, after ...
Neurogenic atrophy, which has a similar effect, is muscle atrophy resulting from damage to the nerve which stimulates the ... Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. During atrophy, ... Muscular atrophy increases the risks of falling in conditions such as inclusion body myositis (IBM) . Muscular atrophy affects ... Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and ...
atrophy* The word comes from the Greek, meaning ill-fed. In biomedical terms it means wasting - loss of mass from a tissue or ... See also multiple system atrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, Sudeks atrophy.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the ... atrophy (ăt´rəfē), diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, or organ from its fully developed normal size. Temporary atrophy ... It is used as a verb: muscles, for example, can atrophy with simple disuse; or as a noun (they undergo disuse atrophy); or, ...
This group is for those with Multiple System Atrophy, for their caregivers, and for those interested in the disease. It is an ... MSA INFO - Multiple System Atrophy is a Public Group with 110 members.. *MSA INFO - Multiple System Atrophy ...
... makes it difficult for a child to move around, walk, or breathe. Although there is no cure, ... Spinal muscular atrophy, or SMA, is an inherited condition that causes nerve cells in the lower part of the brain and spinal ... Type III, also called Kugelberg-Welander disease or juvenile spinal muscular atrophy, begins to affect kids as early as 18 ... In many cases, progressive muscle weakness and atrophy, parental concerns, and repeated doctor visits because of respiratory ...
Read about spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a condition that makes the muscles weaker and causes problems with movement that get ... Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition that makes the muscles weaker and causes problems with movement. ... If you or your child has spinal muscular atrophy, your clinical team will pass on information about you or your child to the ...
... atrophy: Atrophy of muscle or of muscle and bone: Local atrophy of muscle, bone, or other tissues results from disuse or ... In atrophy: Atrophy of muscle or of muscle and bone. Local atrophy of muscle, bone, or other tissues results from disuse or ... an early account of progressive muscular atrophy, which is sometimes called Cruveilhiers atrophy, or Cruveilhiers disease. ... Alternative Titles: Cruveilhiers atrophy, Cruveilhiers disease. Learn about this topic in these articles:. Assorted ...
... atrophy) in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). It is caused by a loss of specialized nerve cells, called motor ... Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disorder characterized by weakness and wasting ( ... Spinal muscular atrophy affects 1 per 8,000 to 10,000 people worldwide. Spinal muscular atrophy type I is the most common type ... Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disorder characterized by weakness and wasting (atrophy. ) in muscles used for movement ( ...
"The atrophy and anti-neuroplastic processes associated with cognitive decline are thought to begin in the medial temporal lobe ... Prolonged periods of sitting in middle age is tied to brain atrophy, new research shows. ... Cite this: Prolonged Sitting Tied to Brain Atrophy - Medscape - Apr 17, 2018. ...
Care of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is directed to the treatment of symptoms. Dopaminergic agents, such as levodopa, ... Drugs & Diseases , Neurology , Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy Q&A How is olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) treated?. Updated: ... Multiple systems atrophy and nonfamilial olivopontocerebellar atrophy are the same disease. Ann Neurol. 1995 May. 37(5):553-4. ... Infantile olivopontocerebellar atrophy with spinal muscular atrophy (infantile OPCA + SMA). Clin Neuropathol. 1990 Jan-Feb. 9(1 ...
Abstract Following the 2011-12 Russian elections that sparked a wave of protests ended the era of Putins status quo, a newly awakened Russia is now asking of series of questions, such as how to transform the current system and who will be the actors to lead the transformation. Putins regime is clearly now in decline, but it is unclear whether the death knell has sounded for the "Russian System"- a combination of personal rule, the merger of power and assets, and a self-perpetuating statist-militarist model. Once can conclude, however, that the Russian system cannot be reformed from the top and that real transformation will come only through pressure from citizens. ...
Learn about Posterior Cortical Atrophy disease signs and symptoms and treatment and get support resources. ... Posterior Cortical Atrophy disease dementia is a type of dementia, related to Alzheimers disease. ... Posterior Cortical Atrophy. Posterior Cortical Atrophy A topic in the Alzheimers Association series on understanding dementia ... About Posterior Cortical Atrophy. Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) refers to gradual and progressive degeneration of the outer ...
Clitoral atrophy refers to the clitoris shrinking and losing sensation. Here, learn when this can happen, how a doctor ... What is clitoral atrophy?. Share on Pinterest. A person with clitoral atrophy may experience a reduced response to sexual ... Doctors refer to this as clitoral atrophy. There are many possible causes of clitoral atrophy, including disuse, hormonal ... Clitoral atrophy refers to the clitoris shrinking and losing sensation. It can happen for a number of reasons, including:. *a ...
Survey shows negative effect of vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms on quality of life for women With symptoms such as dryness, ... British post-menopausal women less likely to access appropriate treatment for vaginal atrophy New data, published today in ... EMAS clinical guide on low-dose vaginal estrogens for postmenopausal vaginal atrophy Elsevier, a world-leading provider of ... VagiCap improves quality of life, satisfaction for postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy Newly released patient ...
Olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by prominent cerebellar and extrapyramidal ... Multiple systems atrophy and nonfamilial olivopontocerebellar atrophy are the same disease. Ann Neurol. 1995 May. 37(5):553-4. ... encoded search term (Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy) and Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Infantile olivopontocerebellar atrophy with spinal muscular atrophy (infantile OPCA + SMA). Clin Neuropathol. 1990 Jan-Feb. 9(1 ...
... is a progressive neurological condition in which specific areas of the brain undergo neural ... Multiple-system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurological condition in which specific areas of the brain undergo neural ... Nerve cells in the affected brain areas deteriorate and shrink (atrophy). Microscopy studies have shown that structures ... Multiple-System Atrophy (MSA). News-Medical. 09 August 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Multiple-system-Atrophy-(MSA ...
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How do doctors diagnose spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)?. All babies born in Massachusetts are screened for SMA shortly after ...
dreams of helping find a cure for spinal muscular atrophy within the next two years. And his ... Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a degenerative disease that affects 4 out of every 100,000 people and is the leading genetic ... dreams of helping find a cure for spinal muscular atrophy within the next two years. And his dream is close to coming true. Dr ... StorageMart partners with The Muscular Dystrophy Association to Pin for a Cure for Spinal Muscular Atrophy in the hopes of ...
... is a condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy. Theres no cure, but therapy and other treatments can help most people ... Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy (when muscles get smaller). ... Because the muscles dont move, they get smaller (or atrophy).. What Causes SMA?. Most kinds of SMA are caused by a problem ...
Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression. Y I Sheline, P W Wang, M H Gado, J G Csernansky, and M W Vannier ... These results suggest that depression is associated with hippocampal atrophy, perhaps due to a progressive process mediated by ...
Vaginal atrophy is inflammation, dryness, and thinning of the vaginal walls. It is most common in menopause and can cause loss ... suggests that probiotics might help relieve the symptoms of vaginal atrophy.. Some women with vaginal atrophy might also ... Premenopause that occurs alongside conditions that reduce estrogen levels can cause vaginal atrophy.. Vaginal atrophy can occur ... Vaginal atrophy is easier to prevent than treat.. Being sexually active, even if you are alone, helps maintain muscle tone and ...
For diagnosing spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), certain tests are carried out to check if your child has this condition. ... Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition that results in weakness and wasting of muscles in infants. ... Is Spinal Muscular Atrophy Treatable?. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a type of motor neuron disease that is hereditary. ... How Do You Diagnose Spinal Muscular Atrophy?. * Tests for Spinal Muscular Atrophy *. ...
... the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System - a piece of equipment that he will get to use on the International Space ...
However, I noticed that my temples have shrunken in (atrophy) as I had a full... ... Is this facial atrophy permanent or will it reversed when I pick up chewing again? Also, did the muscle spasms contribute to ... Is this facial atrophy permanent or will it reversed when I pick up chewing again? Also, did the muscle spasms contribute to ... Muscle atrophy (temporalis). After two root canals, I developed muscle spasms that eventually resolve with a couple of weeks of ...
Question: Do you have any information on multiple system atrophy? Do you know of any studies or drug trials? Dr. Hibberds ... Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive degenerative disorder that is general term of several conditions previously ... There is an active NIH supported MSA atrophy base of clinical trials available at the NIH and through the NINDS (National ... named as Shy-Drager syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, and striatonigral degeneration. Now, the more general term MSA is ...
Lyrics to Process Of Elimination by Atrophy: Our forefathers came with a vision and dream, to settle on this land / They built ...
Families of children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy urge health trust to explain why they are denied access to potentially life- ... Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Families plea over drugs. By Marie-Louise Connolly BBC News NI Health Correspondent ... The families of three NI children who have Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) are calling on the Belfast Health Trust to explain why ...
The Multiple System Atrophy Coalition has elected new officers of its board of directors during their annual general ... About Multiple System Atrophy Multiple system atrophy is a rare and fatal disorder with less than 15,000 Americans diagnosed ... About the Multiple System Atrophy Coalition The Multiple System Atrophy Coalition is a positive beacon of hope standing up to a ... The Multiple System Atrophy Coalition has elected new officers of its board of directors during their annual general meeting. ...
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autonomic failure (cardiovascular and/or urinary), parkinsonism, cerebellar impairment and corticospinal signs with a median survival of 6-9 years. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • MSA INFO - Multiple System Atrophy is a Public Group with 110 members. (yahoo.com)
  • Evolution of sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy into multiple system atrophy. (medscape.com)
  • Towards translational therapies for multiple system atrophy. (medscape.com)
  • Systemic proteasome inhibition triggers neurodegeneration in a transgenic mouse model expressing human a-synuclein under oligodendrocyte promoter: implications for multiple system atrophy. (medscape.com)
  • Accuracy of portable polygraphy for the diagnosis of sleep apnea in multiple system atrophy. (medscape.com)
  • Neuropathology of multiple system atrophy: New thoughts about pathogenesis. (medscape.com)
  • Multiple-system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurological condition in which specific areas of the brain undergo neural degeneration. (news-medical.net)
  • Question: Do you have any information on multiple system atrophy? (newsmax.com)
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive degenerative disorder that is general term of several conditions previously named as Shy-Drager syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, and striatonigral degeneration. (newsmax.com)
  • New officers focused on uniting the multiple system atrophy community to defeat the rare and terminal, neurodegenerative disorder. (prweb.com)
  • The Multiple System Atrophy Coalition has elected new officers of its board of directors during their annual general meeting. (prweb.com)
  • Incorporated in 1999, The Multiple System Atrophy Coalition is a growing nonprofit 501 (c) 3 organization dedicated to serving patients, caregivers and families affected by the neurological disorder Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) through direct support programs as well as providing grants to research. (prweb.com)
  • Joining the Board of Directors in 1999, Don became connected to multiple system atrophy through his career in the pharmaceutical industry. (prweb.com)
  • Carol was a caregiver for her husband Rob, who was diagnosed with Multiple System Atrophy in 1998 and died in 2009. (prweb.com)
  • As a long time grassroots advocate for MSA awareness and support, she has helped countless families find needed information about the disease since the mid-1990's when her mother-in-law was stricken with the cerebellar form of multiple system atrophy. (prweb.com)
  • She has strongly promoted March as Multiple System Atrophy Awareness Month since 2010 and this past year pushed for the successful introduction of House Resolution 518 to the US Congress by Rep. Keith Ellison of Minnesota. (prweb.com)
  • There are multiple forms of atrophic disorders but, according to the Mayo Clinic, the two most prominent are multiple system atrophy (also called MSA) and vaginal atrophy . (wisegeek.com)
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal, adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of uncertain etiology, clinically characterized by various combinations of Levo-dopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, and cerebellar, motor, and autonomic dysfunctions. (uni-muenster.de)
  • OPCA has been classified based on clinical, genetic, and neuropathological findings and there is significant controversy and confusion in the medical literature because of its association with two distinct groups of disorders, specifically multiple system atrophy (MSA) and spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). (rarediseases.org)
  • In Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), the accumulation and spread of α-synuclein prions leads to the progressive degeneration seen in patients. (pnas.org)
  • In the neurodegenerative disease multiple system atrophy (MSA), α-synuclein misfolds into a self-templating conformation to become a prion. (pnas.org)
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autonomic dysfunction, tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) and ataxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple system atrophy can be explained as cell loss and gliosis or a proliferation of astrocytes in damaged areas of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a group of genetic diseases that damages and kills motor neurons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the types of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and what are their symptoms? (medlineplus.gov)
  • How is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) diagnosed? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the treatments for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)? (medlineplus.gov)
  • A diminished muscular trophic condition is designated as atrophy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of atrophying muscle diseases include muscular dystrophy , myotonia congenita , and myotonic dystrophy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscular atrophy decreases qualities of life as the sufferer becomes unable to perform certain tasks or worsen the risks of accidents while performing those (like walking). (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscular atrophy affects a high number of the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy, or SMA, is an inherited condition that causes nerve cells in the lower part of the brain and spinal cord to break down and die. (kidshealth.org)
  • Type III , also called Kugelberg-Welander disease or juvenile spinal muscular atrophy, begins to affect kids as early as 18 months of age or as late as adolescence. (kidshealth.org)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition that makes the muscles weaker and causes problems with movement. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you or your child has spinal muscular atrophy, your clinical team will pass on information about you or your child to the National Congenital Anomaly and Rare Diseases Registration Service (NCARDRS). (www.nhs.uk)
  • In his study of muscular atrophy, Charcot described the symptoms of locomotor ataxia, a degeneration of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and of the sensory nerve trunks. (britannica.com)
  • an early account of progressive muscular atrophy, which is sometimes called Cruveilhier's atrophy, or Cruveilhier's disease. (britannica.com)
  • There are many types of spinal muscular atrophy that are caused by changes in the same genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other forms of spinal muscular atrophy and related motor neuron diseases, such as spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy , spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance , X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy , and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 are caused by mutations in other genes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type 0 is evident before birth and is the rarest and most severe form of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some infants with spinal muscular atrophy type 0 also have heart defects that are present from birth (congenital). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type I (also called Werdnig-Hoffmann disease) is the most common form of the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most children with spinal muscular atrophy type I do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type II (also called Dubowitz disease) is characterized by muscle weakness that develops in children between ages 6 and 12 months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individuals with spinal muscular atrophy type II cannot stand or walk unaided. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The life span of individuals with spinal muscular atrophy type II varies, but many people with this condition live into their twenties or thirties. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type III (also called Kugelberg-Welander disease) typically causes muscle weakness after early childhood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with spinal muscular atrophy type III typically have a normal life expectancy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type IV is rare and often begins in early adulthood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy affects 1 per 8,000 to 10,000 people worldwide. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy type I is the most common type, accounting for about half of all cases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause all types of spinal muscular atrophy described above. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infantile olivopontocerebellar atrophy with spinal muscular atrophy (infantile OPCA + SMA). (medscape.com)
  • How do doctors diagnose spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)? (massgeneral.org)
  • StorageMart partners with The Muscular Dystrophy Association to 'Pin for a Cure' for Spinal Muscular Atrophy in the hopes of raising $5,000. (prweb.com)
  • Dr. Christian Lorson, PhD. dreams of helping find a cure for spinal muscular atrophy within the next two years. (prweb.com)
  • Dr. Lorson has been conducting groundbreaking research at the University of Missouri in Columbia, MO and has identified spinal muscular atrophy pathways that, when treated, can profoundly improve and nearly correct the course of this debilitating disease. (prweb.com)
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a degenerative disease that affects 4 out of every 100,000 people and is the leading genetic cause of death in infants. (prweb.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition that causes muscle weakness and atrophy (when muscles get smaller). (kidshealth.org)
  • How Do You Diagnose Spinal Muscular Atrophy? (medicinenet.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition that results in weakness and wasting of muscles in infants. (medicinenet.com)
  • For diagnosing spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), certain tests are carried out to check if your child has this condition. (medicinenet.com)
  • If you or your child exhibit typical symptoms of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a genetic blood test can confirm the condition. (medicinenet.com)
  • As a result, the brain can't send a signal to the muscles to make them move, leading to muscular atrophy. (medicinenet.com)
  • The families of three NI children who have Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) are calling on the Belfast Health Trust to explain why they are being denied access to what they say is a potentially life-changing drug. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 gene, SMN1. (nih.gov)
  • Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy: "Spinal Muscular Atrophy. (webmd.com)
  • Cleveland Clinic: "Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA): Management and Treatment. (webmd.com)
  • Muscular Dystrophy Association: "Facts About Spinal Muscular Atrophy. (webmd.com)
  • Assistive tools can help with balance, increase mobility, or just make everyday tasks more manageable for someone with spinal muscular atrophy. (webmd.com)
  • We hypothesized that muscular atrophy is an integral part of diabetic neuropathy that is easily detected in the feet and is closely related to the severity of neuropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic condition affecting the motor neurons (nerve cells) in the spinal cord. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Medical advances have led to targeted treatments for spinal muscular atrophy. (spineuniverse.com)
  • SMA's hallmark symptom is muscular weakness (atrophy), but it may lead to other conditions affecting different bodily systems (eg, respiratory, orthopaedic, cardiac). (spineuniverse.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy also varies in severity, and in many cases, there's not simply one treatment used for SMA. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by a problem with the SMA survival motor neuron gene 1 (SMN1), which produces a protein that feeds the motor neurons in the spinal cord. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Risdiplam, an investigational oral medication for the treatment of all types of spinal muscular atrophy, is under priority review for possible approval by the FDA. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Among the specialists trained to treat spinal muscular atrophy is a pulmonary specialist (windpipe, lungs), as SMA can weaken respiratory muscles. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive (principal form), progressive, neuromuscular disease, caused by a defect in the survival motor neuron 1 gene. (springer.com)
  • Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Zerres K, Ignatius J, Rietschel M. Pregnancy and spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy and severely reduced pulmonary function. (springer.com)
  • Pugh CP, Healey SK, Crane JM, Young D. Successful pregnancy and spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Breuer C, Zerres K. Stable motor and lung function throughout pregnancy in a patient with infantile spinal muscular atrophy type II. (springer.com)
  • Yim R, Kirschner K, Murphy E, Parson J, Winslow C. Successful pregnancy in a patient with spinal muscular atrophy and severe kyphoscoliosis. (springer.com)
  • Prenatal diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD1) in a twin pregnancy. (springer.com)
  • Clinical commentary: obstetric and respiratory management of pregnancy with severe spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Howarth L, Glanville T. Management of a pregnancy complicated by type III spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Anesthesia for cesarean section in a patient with spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Sachs A. (2018) Spinal Muscular Atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Although it is known that deletions or mutations of the SMN1 gene on chromosome 5 cause decreased levels of the SMN protein in subjects with proximal autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the exact sequence of pathological events leading to selective motoneuron cell death is not fully understood yet. (springer.com)
  • Battaglia G, Princivalle A, Forti F, Lizier C, Zeviani M (1997) Expression of the SMN gene, the spinal muscular atrophy determining gene, in the mammalian central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Beattie CE, Carrel TE, McWhorter ML (2007) Fishing for a mechanism: using zebrafish to understand spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Brichta L, Hofmann Y, Hahnen E, Siebzehnrubl FA, Raschke H, Blumcke I, Eyupoglu IY, Wirth B (2003) Valproic acid increases the SMN2 protein level: a well-known drug as a potential therapy for spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Brichta L, Garbes L, Jedrzejowska M, Grellscheid SN, Holker I, Zimmermann K, Wirth B (2008) Nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay of survival motor neuron 1 causes spinal muscular atrophy. (springer.com)
  • Briese M, Esmaeili B, Sattelle DB (2005) Is spinal muscular atrophy the result of defects in motor neuron processes? (springer.com)
  • A mouse model for spinal muscular atrophy. (nih.gov)
  • Homozygous mutation of SMN1 is associated with proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a severe motor neuron disease characterized by early childhood onset of progressive muscle weakness. (nih.gov)
  • A child suffering from muscular atrophy may experience frequent falls. (wisegeek.com)
  • A person suffering from muscular atrophy may have difficulties performing basic tasks, such as teeth brushing. (wisegeek.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy is a group of inherited diseases that affect the muscles responsible for voluntary movement in the body. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Depending on the age of onset, severity and genetic cause there are several different types of the disease: spinal muscular atrophy Types 1, 2, 3 and 4, X-linked spinal muscular atrophy, and spinal muscular atrophy, lower-extremity dominant (SMA-LED). (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Symptoms of spinal muscular atrophy Type 1 are evident at birth or within the first few months of life. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy Type 2 is less severe than type I and begins to develop in a child's first 6-12 months of life. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Symptoms of spinal muscular atrophy Type 3 can begin to appear in early childhood or well into adolescence. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The onset of spinal muscular atrophy Type 4 often does not occur until after the age of 30. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Because X-linked spinal muscular atrophy is carried on the X chromosome, it only affects men. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Kennedy's disease is one type of X-linked spinal muscular atrophy. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • People with two parents who are carriers of the abnormal SMN1 gene are at an increased risk of developing spinal muscular atrophy I, II, III and IV. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Other types of spinal muscular atrophy, such as SMA-LED and most of those that do not appear until adulthood are dominant traits and require only one copy of the abnormal gene in order for symptoms to appear. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy often begins with a thorough physical exam. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Treatments for spinal muscular atrophy will vary depending on the type of diagnosis and the age of onset. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) is a rare disorder of the lower motor neurons. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • The absence of true ankylosis permits surgery for arytenoid mobilization and VC medialization, but with protracted paralysis, muscular atrophy and fibrosis may be limiting factors to medialization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brionni Alexander is the only child in Scotland with type one Spinal Muscular Atrophy , an incurable genetic condition. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Designed to address the needs of patients suffering from numerous respiratory complications, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, severe asthma, pleurisy, muscular atrophy , respiratory failure, neuromuscular disease and other diseases or injuries that impair respiration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has plagued humanity for generations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Such enlarged genetic segments have also been discovered in spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy , a rare inherited muscle-wasting syndrome. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Further, the analyst sees the potential for upside from additional Phase 2 data on spinal muscular atrophy agent RG7916 and from a trial design update on plans to generate dystrophin production data for Translarna in pursuit of accelerated approval. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2015', provides an overview of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)'s therapeutic pipeline. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 4,5) Specific genetic tests are available for X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy (Kennedy's disease), which causes a slowly progressive lower motor neurone syndrome, sensory neuropathy, and partial androgen insensitivity leading to gynaecomastia and the recessive form of proximal spinal muscular atrophy which can occasionally come on in adult life. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • New research on how motor-neuron cell-death occurs in patients with spinal muscular atrophy offers an important clue in identifying potential medicines to treat this leading genetic cause of death in infants and toddlers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy is a genetic disease in which the motor neurons in the spinal cord degenerate. (reference.com)
  • If your child has spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), you're going to have to tell your friends, family members, and the staff at your child's school about their condition at some point. (healthline.com)
  • My child has a neuromuscular condition called spinal muscular atrophy, or SMA for short. (healthline.com)
  • For a list of other conditions with similar names, see Spinal muscular atrophies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy ( SMA ) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterised by loss of motor neurons and progressive muscle wasting , often leading to early death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy manifests in various degrees of severity, which all have in common progressive muscle wasting and mobility impairment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited disorder and is passed on in an autosomal recessive manner (see video explanation of autosomal recessive inheritance). (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, diseases of the muscles such as muscular dystrophy or myopathies can cause atrophy, as well as damage to the nervous system such as in spinal cord injury or stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technavio has published a new report on the drug development pipeline for spinal muscular atrophy, including a detailed study of the pipeline molecules. (businesswire.com)
  • LONDON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Technavio has announced their latest pipeline analysis report on the spinal muscular atrophy market . (businesswire.com)
  • The report includes a detailed analysis of the pipeline molecules under investigation within the defined data collection period to treat spinal muscular atrophy. (businesswire.com)
  • Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disorder that results in the weakening of the muscles and affects muscle movement. (businesswire.com)
  • With the rising incidences of the disease, the drug development for spinal muscular atrophy is expected to rise during the next few years. (businesswire.com)
  • Based on therapeutic modality, more than 45% of the molecules that are being investigated for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy are small molecule. (businesswire.com)
  • muscular atrophy of a person affected with paralysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prolonged periods of sitting in middle age is tied to brain atrophy, new research shows. (medscape.com)
  • Being physically fit can prevent brain atrophy and may ward off dementia, according to a study published in the December 2012 issue of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise . (runnersworld.com)
  • Incorporating physical activity into your daily routine can be a helpful step to prevent conditions caused by brain atrophy, such as dementia," said the primary investigator, Atsumu Yuki, Ph.D., of the Center for Development of Advanced Medicine for Dementia in Japan. (runnersworld.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with brain atrophy and cerebrovascular disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We aimed to define the regional distribution of brain atrophy in T2DM and to examine whether atrophy or cerebrovascular lesions are feasible links between T2DM and cognitive function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, few studies have clarified the regional distribution of brain atrophy attributable to T2DM ( 14 - 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Understanding the pattern of brain atrophy in T2DM may provide clues toward the underlying neurodegenerative process. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, although some studies demonstrated associations of T2DM with brain atrophy or cerebrovascular disease, no data describe how MRI measures of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease mediate the difference in cognitive function between those with and without T2DM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two genetic variants linked to Alzheimer's disease have been more specifically tied to brain atrophy that is characteristic of the disease. (psychcentral.com)
  • A new study, led by Liana Apostolova, M.D., a professor at the Indiana University School of Medicine, also found that the proteins produced by the genes and circulating in the blood were associated with brain atrophy and could be used in Alzheimer's-related tests in the future. (psychcentral.com)
  • How is olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) treated? (medscape.com)
  • Care of olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) is directed to the treatment of symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Konigsmark BW, Weiner LP. The olivopontocerebellar atrophies: a review. (medscape.com)
  • Olivopontocerebellar atrophy Optic atrophy Spinomuscular atrophy Hypertrophy List of biological development disorders W. T. Councilman (1913). (wikipedia.org)
  • The major variants are striatonigral degeneration (MSA with predominant parkinsonism / MSA-P) and olivopontocerebellar atrophy (MSA with prominent cerebellar ataxia / MSA-C). However, the clinical and pathological features of MSA are broader than previously considered. (uni-muenster.de)
  • The term olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) has historically been used to describe a group of disorders that affect the central nervous system and are termed neurodegenerative diseases because they result in a progressive deterioration of nerve cells in certain parts of the brain. (rarediseases.org)
  • There are several lifestyle changes that could help women relieve the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Limited research on 87 women suggests that probiotics might help relieve the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They will alleviate symptoms of vaginal atrophy. (webmd.com)
  • However, what is interesting is that 10% to 40% of women on HRT may still have symptoms of vaginal atrophy and need vaginal estrogen. (webmd.com)
  • One of the symptoms of vaginal atrophy is vaginal dryness. (healthcentral.com)
  • Disuse atrophy of muscles and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can occur after prolonged immobility, such as extended bedrest , or having a body part in a cast (living in darkness for the eye, bedridden for the legs etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disuse of the muscles, such as when muscle tissue is immobilized for even a few days of unuse - when the patient has a primary injury such as an immobilized broken bone (set in a cast or immobilized in traction), for example - will also lead rapidly to disuse atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition falls into two categories: disuse atrophy, in which the loss of muscle tissue is due to reduced physical activity, and neurogenic atrophy, in which the nerve that connects to the muscle is injured or diseased. (livestrong.com)
  • Disuse atrophy occurs in office workers because they get little exercise sitting all day. (livestrong.com)
  • Disuse atrophy is a natural consequence of aging, but this does not mean that you should passively accept lost strength. (livestrong.com)
  • Multiple illnesses, such as arthritis, can trigger disuse atrophy because patients become inactive or spend a lot of time in bed. (livestrong.com)
  • According to a 2002 study done by researchers at the School of Nursing at the Johns Hopkins University, disuse atrophy begins within four hours after bed rest commences. (livestrong.com)
  • These results suggest that depression is associated with hippocampal atrophy, perhaps due to a progressive process mediated by glucocorticoid neurotoxicity. (pnas.org)
  • We also found that the levels of the protein products of these genes, circulating in the peripheral blood, were associated with the cortical and hippocampal atrophy," she said. (psychcentral.com)
  • an extensive literature suggests that hippocampal atrophy of the magnitude found in these disorders can give rise to such cognitive deficits. (nih.gov)
  • When it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support due to other disease, it is termed pathological atrophy , although it can be a part of normal body development and homeostasis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle atrophy occurs by a change in the normal balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • One symptom of SMA that might not be as obvious is the muscle thinning that occurs because they aren't being used (this is the atrophy part of the disorder). (kidshealth.org)
  • Most cases of Alzheimer's disease occur in people age 65 or older, whereas the onset of posterior cortical atrophy commonly occurs between ages 50 and 65. (alz.org)
  • In a series of experiments in long-term diabetic patients, we have observed that muscle weakness in the lower-leg muscles occurs to a substantial degree in chronic neuropathic patients, closely related to muscle atrophy, whereas nonneuropathic patients have normal muscle strength and striated muscle mass ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vaginal atrophy occurs most often after menopause. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Vaginal atrophy normally occurs in older women who have finished their menopausal stage. (wisegeek.com)
  • When it occurs as a result of disease or loss of trophic support because of other diseases, it is termed pathological atrophy, although it can be a part of normal body development and homeostasis as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, gray matter atrophy occurs early in the temporal, parietal, and limbic cortices before spreading to involve frontal and occipital regions in Alzheimer disease ( 17 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Vaginal bleeding often occurs in patients with vulvovaginal atrophy after intercourse. (wisegeek.com)
  • Disuse causes rapid muscle atrophy and often occurs during injury or illness that requires immobilization of a limb or bed rest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurogenic atrophy is the most severe form of muscle atrophy and occurs more suddenly. (livestrong.com)
  • Cerebral atrophy is a common form of degeneration that begins when brain cells and brain tissue begin to waste away. (wisegeek.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is a type of focal cerebral atrophy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Mild diffuse cerebral atrophy is a symptomatic brain condition generally involving the loss, or deterioration of, neurons and the connections between them, usually indicating the presence of other brain diseases. (reference.com)
  • Focal, or localized, cerebral atrophy results in decreased functionality in that area of the brain. (reference.com)
  • Cerebral atrophy can be caused by injury or disease. (reference.com)
  • According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, cerebral atrophy is commonly associated with many diseases that affect the brain, including Alzheimer's disease, cerebral palsy, Huntington's disease, leukodystrophies, mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, multiple sclerosis, and infectious diseases such as AIDS and encephalitis.Symptoms often include dementia, seizures and a group of language disorders called aphasias. (reference.com)
  • Research has been conducted to determine causes for neuron deterioration and atrophy within the brain in the hope of developing preventative measures, treatments and even cures for the diseases that cause cerebral atrophy. (reference.com)
  • Cerebral atrophy is a condition in which an individual continuously loses brain cells, according to Healthgrades. (reference.com)
  • Cerebral Atrophy! (healingwell.com)
  • With symptoms such as dryness, burning, or itching of the vagina, vulvovaginal atrophy is estimated to affect up to 98% of postmenopausal women, many of whom will fail to report symptoms to their healthcare providers or seek help. (news-medical.net)
  • The prevalence of vulvovaginal atrophy is about 75% to 90% among postmenopausal women and therefore, all of us are affected. (webmd.com)
  • Vulvovaginal atrophy is the thinning of tissue in the vulva and vagina. (wisegeek.com)
  • Symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy are most often treated with vaginal moisturizers and lubricants. (wisegeek.com)
  • Most cases of vulvovaginal atrophy develop during key hormonal points in a woman's life. (wisegeek.com)
  • Research has found that non-vaginal delivery during birth increases the risk of vulvovaginal atrophy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Smoking is another risk factor for vulvovaginal atrophy. (wisegeek.com)
  • In most cases, the severity of vulvovaginal atrophy is low enough to be non-threatening and does not require medical attention. (wisegeek.com)
  • More serious cases of vulvovaginal atrophy, however, will require a significant increase in estrogen levels in order to eliminate any vaginal discomfort. (wisegeek.com)
  • This type of atrophy can usually be reversed with exercise unless severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, diseases such as cancer and AIDS induce a body wasting syndrome called cachexia , which is notable for the severe muscle atrophy seen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another type - closer to 'ill-feeding' - is ischaemic atrophy from deprivation of blood supply, such as may happen in parts of the brain after stroke or severe head injury, or in heart muscle in coronary artery disease . (encyclopedia.com)
  • In severe atrophy this may allow the brainstem to be tugged/pushed over toward the atrophied side, compressing the cerebral crus against the tentorial edge and causing weakness in a fashion similar to that which generates Kernohan's notch and hemiplegia ipsilateral to large supratentorial mass lesions. (bio.net)
  • Doctors often prescribe estrogen creams to women with severe postmenopausal vaginal atrophy . (wisegeek.com)
  • Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is mild to severe damage to the optic nerve that can adversely affect central vision, peripheral vision and color vision. (aapos.org)
  • The longer these genes are active, the more severe the atrophy becomes. (prnewswire.com)
  • Previous work had found that the denervated muscles were more responsive to the cytokine TWEAK, and the same group now reports that the scaffold and ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 is involved in the activation of various signaling molecules implicated in muscle atrophy, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). (sciencemag.org)
  • In response to denervation or the model of cancer-induced cachexia, TRAF6-depleted muscles also showed significantly less or no transcriptional induction of genes encoding two ubiquitin ligases implicated in muscle atrophy, as well as of genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy. (sciencemag.org)
  • Optic nerve atrophy (ONA) is a clinical sign that is not specific for any single pathology and is therefore not an etiologic diagnosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Similar to Alzheimer's disease, the causes of posterior cortical atrophy are unknown, and no obvious genetic mutations have been shown to be linked to the condition. (alz.org)
  • Using magnetic resonance imaging tools to measure brain size and genetic analysis, the researchers looked for associations between the genetic variants and atrophy in the cortical and hippocampal regions of the brain, which are established physical biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. (psychcentral.com)
  • When a muscle atrophies, this leads to muscle weakness, since the ability to exert force is related to mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • This damage keeps the muscle from contracting, which leads to muscle weakness and atrophy. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Muscle atrophy leads to muscle weakness and causes disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some women with vaginal atrophy might also develop urinary problems, and probiotics might also be helpful in managing vaginal dryness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In multiple paradigms that cause muscle atrophy (denervation or mouse models of cancer-induced cachexia or diabetes), TRAF6 transcription, protein abundance, and ubiquitylation increased in the atrophying muscles. (sciencemag.org)
  • The present pilot study is designed to assess the extent to which BOTOX and MYOBLOC cause muscle atrophy in spastic patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Smoking decreases estrogen levels and increases the risk of developing vaginal atrophy, as well as other conditions, such as osteoporosis . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart failure and liver disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skeletal muscle atrophy is a major health concern and can be caused by denervation, immobility, or chronic disease states, such as diabetes and cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Muscle atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a study published in the "American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology & Metabolism," skeletal muscle atrophy is common among as many as two-thirds of alcohol abusers. (livestrong.com)
  • Women tend to be more susceptible to skeletal muscle atrophy. (livestrong.com)
  • Skeletal muscle atrophy is further exacerbated by malnutrition, which is also common among alcohol abusers. (livestrong.com)
  • Also, time in a circa zero g environment without exercise will lead to atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • extensive TV viewing may lead to atrophy of children's imaginations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When the muscles don't get direction on how to move, they become inactive, get smaller, and begin to waste away (a condition known as atrophy). (kidshealth.org)
  • Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed development, moderate intellectual disability, and optic atrophy. (nih.gov)
  • Causes of atrophy include mutations (which can destroy the gene to build up the organ), poor nourishment, poor circulation , loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ , excessive amount of apoptosis of cells, and disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of atrophying nerve diseases include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease , poliomyelitis , amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease), and Guillain-Barré syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known whether posterior cortical atrophy is a unique disease or a possible variant form of Alzheimer's disease. (alz.org)
  • In many people with posterior cortical atrophy, the affected part of the brain shows amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, similar to the changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease but in a different part of the brain. (alz.org)
  • In other people with posterior cortical atrophy, however, the brain changes resemble other diseases such as Lewy body dementia or a form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . (alz.org)
  • Some studies have found that about 5 percent of people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have posterior cortical atrophy. (alz.org)
  • There is an ongoing discussion in the field whether posterior cortical atrophy should be considered a form of Alzheimer's disease or a distinct disease entity. (alz.org)
  • Furthermore, people with posterior cortical atrophy have degeneration in different parts of the brain than people with typical forms of Alzheimer's disease, although there is often overlap between the two conditions. (alz.org)
  • It is also not known if the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are also risk factors for posterior cortical atrophy. (alz.org)
  • Because posterior cortical atrophy resembles Alzheimer's disease in some patients, it has been suggested that drugs used to temporarily alleviate brain dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease may be helpful in posterior cortical atrophy, but this is not proven. (alz.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Cortical atrophy in T2DM resembles patterns seen in preclinical Alzheimer disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Optic atrophy is not a disease, but rather a sign of a potentially more serious condition. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In contrast, cachexia is a wasting syndrome caused by an underlying disease such as cancer that causes dramatic muscle atrophy and cannot be completely reversed with nutritional therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study is believed to be the first to directly link common variants of the genes - ABCA7 and MA4A6A - to atrophy in cortical and hippocampal regions of the brain, which are associated with memory and other key functions, according to the researcher. (psychcentral.com)
  • It's also believed to be the first to link the atrophy to protein levels in the blood produced by the genes. (psychcentral.com)
  • Eliminating or reducing the activity of these genes would block or reduce the atrophy response, which could be an attractive new strategy for addressing loss of heart muscle during extended periods of space travel. (prnewswire.com)
  • More research is needed to develop methods or drugs that can interrupt this signaling pathway through these genes to stop cardiac atrophy once detected. (prnewswire.com)
  • Atrophy of the breasts can occur with prolonged estrogen reduction, as with anorexia nervosa or menopause . (wikipedia.org)
  • Testicular atrophy can occur with prolonged use of enough exogenous sex steroids (either androgen or estrogen ) to reduce gonadotropin secretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newly released patient satisfaction survey results from a study of a novel investigational vaginal estrogen treatment show promise for improving quality of life and satisfaction for postmenopausal women who experience pain during sex and other symptoms associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). (news-medical.net)
  • Vaginal atrophy can occur at any age, although one main cause is reduced estrogen production in the ovaries during menopause . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Women with premenopause alongside other medical conditions that reduce the levels of estrogen in the body can also develop vaginal atrophy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Vaginal atrophy (atrophic vaginitis) is thinning, drying and inflammation of the vaginal walls that may occur when your body has less estrogen. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Neurogenic atrophy, which has a similar effect, is muscle atrophy resulting from damage to the nerve which stimulates the muscle, causing a shriveling around otherwise healthy limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most difficult type of muscle atrophy to treat is neurogenic atrophy, in which nerves connected to the muscles are diseased or injured, but patient advocacy groups often have exercise ideas. (livestrong.com)
  • Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur with diseases of the motor nerves or diseases of the muscle tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides problems with sex, urinary tract infections (UTI), vaginal infections, and having pelvic exams by the gynecologist are other problems that can occur from having vaginal atrophy. (webmd.com)
  • The displacement and/or distortion of the pupil characteristic of essential iris atrophy does not occur in Cogan corneal dystrophy. (rarediseases.org)
  • Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) refers to gradual and progressive degeneration of the outer layer of the brain (the cortex) in the part of the brain located in the back of the head (posterior). (alz.org)
  • Atrophy is a degeneration of either all or one part of the body, and is often referred to as "wasting. (wisegeek.com)
  • Essential iris atrophy is a very rare, progressive disorder of the eye characterized by a pupil that is out of place and/or distorted areas of degeneration on the iris (atrophy), and/or holes in the iris. (rarediseases.org)
  • Major symptoms of essential iris atrophy may include a displaced and/or distorted pupil, patchy areas of degeneration (atrophy) on the iris, and/or holes in the iris. (rarediseases.org)
  • What is cerbral atrophy? (reference.com)
  • It is odd thought since cerbral atrophy is a factor of MS you would think there would be more discussions about it. (healingwell.com)
  • With no FDA-approved therapies yet for the treatment of geographic atrophy (GA), some companies and institutions, eager to change that fact, are initiating or resurrecting past research approaches to discern effective methods of combating this advanced form of dry AMD. (wabi.tv)
  • Almost a decade ago, Allergan (Dublin) began to study its glaucoma drug brimonidine (now known as Alphagan) as a potential treatment for Geographic Atrophy because it had demonstrated neuroprotective qualities in the company's animal studies. (wabi.tv)
  • His conclusion: Inhibiting the FAS-pathway through medical intervention is key to stopping unwanted photoreceptor cell death (apoptosis) in retinal detachment, wet and dry AMD, geographic atrophy, and diabetic retinopathy. (wabi.tv)
  • Dr. Zacks says ONL1204 should also be able to provide neuroprotection in geographic atrophy, treating the root cause of vision loss which is photoreceptor cell death. (wabi.tv)
  • The Janssen (Beerse, Belgium) drug development division of Johnson & Johnson has for several years been pursuing an initiative using cell therapy in an attempt to reverse the vision loss associated with geographic atrophy. (wabi.tv)
  • Bilateral geographic atrophy: Spontaneous visual improvement afte. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Winkler C. A case of olivo-pontine cerebellar atrophy and our conceptions of neo- and palaio-cerebellum. (medscape.com)
  • Posterior Cortical Atrophy A topic in the Alzheimer's Association series on understanding dementia. (alz.org)
  • Both cortical and central atrophy were rated on CT scan. (bio.net)
  • There is no standard definition of posterior cortical atrophy and no established diagnostic criteria, and so it is not possible to know how many people have the condition. (alz.org)
  • However, because posterior cortical atrophy often goes unrecognized, the true percentage may be as high as 15 percent. (alz.org)
  • Researchers and physicians are working to establish a standard definition and diagnostic criteria for posterior cortical atrophy (PDF). (alz.org)
  • The symptoms of posterior cortical atrophy can vary from one person to the next and can change as the condition progresses. (alz.org)
  • Other symptoms can include difficulty performing mathematical calculations or spelling, and many people with posterior cortical atrophy experience anxiety, possibly because they know something is wrong. (alz.org)
  • In the early stages of posterior cortical atrophy, most people do not have markedly reduced memory, but memory can be affected in later stages. (alz.org)
  • Misdiagnosis of posterior cortical atrophy is common, owing to its relative rarity and unusual and variable presentation. (alz.org)
  • Additionally, people with posterior cortical atrophy frequently first seek the opinion of an ophthalmologist who may indicate a normal eye examination by their usual tests. (alz.org)
  • There are no standard diagnostic criteria for posterior cortical atrophy, although diagnostic criteria are being developed (PDF). (alz.org)
  • Brain imaging has shown that the posterior cortex is thinner in people with posterior cortical atrophy than healthy people of the same age. (alz.org)
  • There are no treatments for posterior cortical atrophy known to slow or halt its progression. (alz.org)
  • Optic atrophy is a condition that affects the optic nerve, which carries impulses from the eye to the brain. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Optic atrophy results from damage to the optic nerve from many different kinds of pathologies. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • How is optic nerve atrophy diagnosed? (aapos.org)
  • What else can be done for a child with optic nerve atrophy? (aapos.org)
  • Vaginal Atrophy (Atrophic Vaginitis) Pipeline Therapeutics. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Vaginal Atrophy (Atrophic Vaginitis), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Vaginal Atrophy (Atrophic Vaginitis) and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Atrophy also happens in the normal course of events to cells or tissues which have fulfilled their useful life (such as umbilical blood vessels after birth or ovaries after the menopause) or as cells die off progressively with age (as in kidneys and brain). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anyone who develops symptoms of clitoral atrophy during menopause or after a hysterectomy should let their doctor know. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because the condition causes both vaginal and urinary symptoms, doctors use the term "genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM)" to describe vaginal atrophy and its accompanying symptoms. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This atrophy, and that of the breasts concurrently, is consistent with the homeostatic (normal development) role of atrophy in general, as after menopause the body has no further functional biological need to maintain the reproductive system which it has permanently shut down. (wikipedia.org)
  • I have not read this anywhere, nor have I ever heard of a correlation between temporal atrophy and lower extremity weakness, but the phenomenon associated with Kernahan's notch is well established. (bio.net)
  • During atrophy, there is a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways, and an activation of protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The particular protein degradation pathway which seems to be responsible for much of the muscle loss seen in a muscle undergoing atrophy is the ATP-dependent ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microscopy studies have shown that structures referred to as glial inclusion bodies are seen in cells affected by this atrophy and that these bodies over-express a protein called alpha-synuclein. (news-medical.net)
  • Although muscle-specific knockout of TRAF6 did not cause any overt muscle phenotypes, muscle atrophy due to denervation was mostly prevented by TRAF6 depletion, on the basis of muscle mass, histology, force production, and specific protein degradation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Testing on mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle that is involved in muscle atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower levels of the protein results in loss of function of neuronal cells in the anterior horn of the spinal cord and subsequent system-wide atrophy of skeletal muscles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle atrophy results from an imbalance between protein synthesis and protein degradation, although the mechanisms are incompletely understood and are variable depending on the cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overexpression of thrombospondin-1 in the hearts of mice lead to rapid and lethal loss of heart mass, called atrophy, by directly activating the signaling protein called PERK. (prnewswire.com)
  • Long-term malnutrition can lead to muscle atrophy and 'body wasting syndrome. (wisegeek.com)
  • Malnutrition first causes fat loss but may progress to muscle atrophy in prolonged starvation and can be reversed with nutritional therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the activation of NF-κB in TRAF6-knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts by TWEAK was mostly abolished, which suggests that TRAF6 is likely to link this atrophy-inducing cytokine to downstream signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Primary mixed atrophy is observed in patients with cryptorchidism (both in cryptorchid testis as well as in contralateral testis), in patients with retractile testes, and in patients with chromosomal abnormalities (Down's syndrome, 47XXY, 46XX, giant Y chromosome, and Klinefelter's syndrome). (auanet.org)
  • The ICE syndromes (essential iris atrophy, Chandler syndrome, and Cogan-Reese syndrome) are distinct from one another. (rarediseases.org)
  • CS is one of three syndromes affecting the eyes (progressive iris atrophy and Cogan-Reese syndrome are the other two) that make up the iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE syndrome). (rarediseases.org)