Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Optic Atrophy: Atrophy of the optic disk which may be congenital or acquired. This condition indicates a deficiency in the number of nerve fibers which arise in the RETINA and converge to form the OPTIC DISK; OPTIC NERVE; OPTIC CHIASM; and optic tracts. GLAUCOMA; ISCHEMIA; inflammation, a chronic elevation of intracranial pressure, toxins, optic nerve compression, and inherited conditions (see OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY) are relatively common causes of this condition.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Multiple System Atrophy: A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Olivopontocerebellar Atrophies: A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)Gyrate Atrophy: Progressive, autosomal recessive, diffuse atrophy of the choroid, pigment epithelium, and sensory retina that begins in childhood.Geographic Atrophy: A form of MACULAR DEGENERATION also known as dry macular degeneration marked by occurrence of a well-defined progressive lesion or atrophy in the central part of the RETINA called the MACULA LUTEA. It is distinguishable from WET MACULAR DEGENERATION in that the latter involves neovascular exudates.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Optic Atrophy, Autosomal Dominant: Dominant optic atrophy is a hereditary optic neuropathy causing decreased visual acuity, color vision deficits, a centrocecal scotoma, and optic nerve pallor (Hum. Genet. 1998; 102: 79-86). Mutations leading to this condition have been mapped to the OPA1 gene at chromosome 3q28-q29. OPA1 codes for a dynamin-related GTPase that localizes to mitochondria.SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Bulbo-Spinal Atrophy, X-Linked: An X-linked recessive form of spinal muscular atrophy. It is due to a mutation of the gene encoding the ANDROGEN RECEPTOR.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Gastritis, Atrophic: GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Optic Atrophies, Hereditary: Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).Cerebellar Ataxia: Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Uveal Diseases: Diseases of the uvea.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Facial Hemiatrophy: A syndrome characterized by slowly progressive unilateral atrophy of facial subcutaneous fat, muscle tissue, skin, cartilage, and bone. The condition typically progresses over a period of 2-10 years and then stabilizes.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.Shy-Drager Syndrome: A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord. This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with ORTHOSTASIS and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Spinocerebellar Degenerations: A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein: An inhibitor of apoptosis protein that was initially identified during analysis of CHROMOSOME DELETIONS associated with SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY. Naip contains a nucleotide binding oligomerization domain and a carboxy-terminal LEUCINE rich repeat.Pepsinogen A: This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.Myoclonic Epilepsies, Progressive: A heterogeneous group of primarily familial disorders characterized by myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, progressive intellectual deterioration, and neuronal degeneration. These include LAFORA DISEASE; MERRF SYNDROME; NEURONAL CEROID-LIPOFUSCINOSIS; sialidosis (see MUCOLIPIDOSES), and UNVERRICHT-LUNDBORG SYNDROME.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Pepsinogen C: This is one of the 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans. It is found in prostate and seminal fluid whereas PEPSINOGEN A is not.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Frontotemporal Dementia: The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.

Indirect evidence for cholinergic inhibition of intestinal bicarbonate absorption in humans. (1/3164)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that in the fasting state, proximal intestinal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, is tonically inhibited by a cholinergic atropine sensitive mechanism. SUBJECTS: The experiments were performed in 34 healthy volunteers and in eight patients with intestinal villus atrophy. METHODS: HCO3- absorption was measured with a modified triple lumen perfusion technique in the distal duodenum, the most proximal portion of the small intestine. The study was designed to compensate for the inhibitory effects of atropine on intestinal motor activity. RESULTS: Atropine had three effects on HCO3- transport: it reduced HCO3- concentration at the proximal aspiration site, it displaced the relation between HCO3- concentration and HCO3- absorption to the left, and it induced a significant acidification of the perfusate at the distal aspiration site. The magnitude of the stimulatory effect on HCO3- absorption was similar to the difference between patients with intestinal villus atrophy and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that, in the fasting state, duodenal HCO3- absorption, which depends on villus Na+/H+ exchanger activity, may be tonically inhibited by an atropine sensitive cholinergic mechanism.  (+info)

Proteinuria induces tubular cell turnover: A potential mechanism for tubular atrophy. (2/3164)

BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and tubular atrophy have both been closely linked with progressive renal failure. We hypothesized that apoptosis may be induced by tubular cell exposure to heavy proteinuria, potentially leading to tubular atrophy. Apoptosis was studied in a rat model of "pure" proteinuria, which does not induce renal impairment, namely protein-overload proteinuria. METHODS: Adult female Lewis rats underwent intraperitoneal injection of 2 g of bovine serum albumin (BSA, N = 16) or sham saline injections (controls, N = 8) daily for seven days. Apoptosis was assessed at day 7 in tissue sections using in situ end labeling (ISEL) and electron microscopy. ISEL-positive nuclei (apoptotic particles) were counted in blinded fashion using image analysis with NIH Image. Cell proliferation was assessed by detection of mRNA for histone by in situ hybridization, followed by counting of positive cells using NIH Image. RESULTS: Animals injected with saline showed very low levels of apoptosis on image analysis. BSA-injected rats had heavy proteinuria and showed both cortical and medullary apoptosis on ISEL. This was predominantly seen in the tubules and, to a lesser extent, in the interstitial compartment. Overall, the animals injected with BSA showed a significant 30-fold increase in the number of cortical apoptotic particles. Electron microscopy of tubular cells in a BSA-injected animal showed a progression of ultrastructural changes consistent with tubular cell apoptosis. The BSA-injected animals also displayed a significant increase in proximal tubular cell proliferation. This increased proliferation was less marked than the degree of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Protein-overload proteinuria in rats induces tubular cell apoptosis. This effect is only partially balanced by proliferation and potentially provides a direct mechanism whereby heavy proteinuria can induce tubular atrophy and progressive renal failure.  (+info)

Computerised tomography and intellectual impairment in the elderly. (3/3164)

Sixty-six elderly subjects (mean age 77 years) whose mental state was assessed clinically and by simple psychometric tests have been studied by computerised tomography. The mean maximum ventricular area in the 17 mentally normal subjects was above the upper limit of normal for younger subjects, and there was a broad relationship between increasing ventricular dilatation and increasing intellectual impairment. No such clear relationship was demonstrable for measures of cortical atrophy.  (+info)

Computerised axial tomography in patients with severe migraine: a preliminary report. (4/3164)

Patients suffering from severe migraine, usually for many years, have been examined by the EMI scanner between attacks. Judged by criteria validated originally by comparison with pneumoencephalography, about half of the patients showed evidence of cerebral atrophy. Perhaps of more significance than generalised atrophy was the frequency of areas of focal atrophy and of evidence of infarction.  (+info)

Increased neurodegeneration during ageing in mice lacking high-affinity nicotine receptors. (5/3164)

We have examined neuroanatomical, biochemical and endocrine parameters and spatial learning in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) during ageing. Aged beta2(-/-) mutant mice showed region-specific alterations in cortical regions, including neocortical hypotrophy, loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, astro- and microgliosis and elevation of serum corticosterone levels. Whereas adult mutant and control animals performed well in the Morris maze, 22- to 24-month-old beta2(-/-) mice were significantly impaired in spatial learning. These data show that beta2 subunit-containing nAChRs can contribute to both neuronal survival and maintenance of cognitive performance during ageing. beta2(-/-) mice may thus serve as one possible animal model for some of the cognitive deficits and degenerative processes which take place during physiological ageing and in Alzheimer's disease, particularly those associated with dysfunction of the cholinergic system.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (6/3164)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of gastric atrophy using the syntactic structure analysis. (7/3164)

AIM: To assess the topographical relation between gastric glands, using the minimum spanning tree (MST), to derive both a model of neighbourhood and quantitative representation of the tissue's architecture, to assess the characteristic features of gastric atrophy, and to assess the grades of gastric atrophy. METHODS: Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections from corporal and antral biopsy specimens (n = 139) from normal patients and from patients with nonatrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis of grades 1, 2, and 3 (Sydney system) were assessed by image analysis system (Prodit 5.2) and 11 syntactic structure features were derived. These included both line and connectivity features. RESULTS: Syntactic structure analysis was correlated with the semiquantitative grading system of gastric atrophy. The study showed significant reductions in the number of points and the length of MST in both body and antrum. The standard deviation of the length of MST was significantly increased in all grades of atrophy. The connectivity to two glands was the highest and most affected by the increased grade of atrophy. The reciprocal values of the Wiener, Randic, and Balaban indices showed significant changes in the volume of gland, abnormality in the shape of glands, and changes in irregularity and branching of the glands in both types of gastric mucosa. There was a complete separation in the MST, connectivity, and index values between low grade and high grade gastric atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Gastric atrophy was characterised by loss of the gland, variation in the volume, reduction in the neighbourhood, irregularity in spacing, and abnormality in the shape of the glands. (2) Syntactic structure analysis significantly differentiated minor changes in gastric gland (low grade atrophy) from high grade atrophy of clinical significance. (3) Syntactic structure analysis is a simple, fast, and highly reproducible technique and appears a promising method for quantitative assessment of atrophy.  (+info)

Infratentorial atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging and disability in multiple sclerosis. (8/3164)

Loss of tissue volume in the central nervous system may provide an index of fixed neurological dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. Recent magnetic resonance studies have shown a modest relationship between clinical disability rating scores and transverse sectional area of the cervical spinal cord. To explore further the relationship between atrophy and disability in multiple sclerosis, we estimated the volumes of infratentorial structures from MRIs in a cross-sectional study of 41 patients, 21 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. We used the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology with point counting to estimate the volume of brainstem, cerebellum and upper cervical spinal cord from three-dimensional MRIs acquired with an MPRAGE (Magnetization-prepared Rapid Acquisition Gradient Echo) sequence. The volume of the upper (C1-C3) cervical spinal cord was significantly correlated with a composite spinal cord score derived from the appropriate Functional Scale scores of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = -0.50, P < 0.01). The cerebellar (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) and brainstem (r = 0.34, P < 0.05) volumes correlated with the Scripp's Neurological Disability Rating Scale scores. The upper cervical cord volumes (r = -0.39, P < 0.01), but not the brainstem or cerebellar volumes, were significantly associated with disease duration. MRI-estimated structural volumes may provide a simple index of axonal and/or myelin loss, the presumed pathological substrates of irreversible impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

  • For people with hearing loss , a brain atrophy can get increasingly severe because individuals are required to use more effort in order to comprehend speech compared to a person with normal hearing. (healthyhearing.com)
  • Due to rareness of congenital microvillous atrophy (CMA), it is crucial to distinguish it from other diseases with persistent and severe diarrhea as soon as possible. (scirp.org)
  • There has been a resurgence of the degenerative eye disease, Progressive Retinal Atrophy in recent years, having been fairly dormant for the past twenty years or so when it was known simply as Retinal Atrophy before the full progressive nature was realised. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • Once a cat has actually developed Progressive Retinal Atrophy, it can usually be diagnosed by Veterinary examination, and the characteristic changes caused by the disease are visible in the back of the eye by using an ophthalmoscope. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • As it is not a distinct disease entity, there is no uniform mode of presentation and the finding of atrophy is often incidental when imaging is taken for some other indication. (radiopaedia.org)
  • An increase rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older people who suffer from cognitive decline. (tissuerecovery.com)
  • We additionally show that the beneficial effect of B vitamins is confined to participants with high homocysteine (above the median, 11 µmol/L) and that, in these participants, a causal Bayesian network analysis indicates the following chain of events: B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results show that B-vitamin supplementation can slow the atrophy of specific brain regions that are a key component of the AD process and that are associated with cognitive decline. (ox.ac.uk)
  • If you are suffering from vaginal dryness, rather than atrophy, then a combination cream of both progesterone and oestrogen such as 20-1 can be helpful. (bio-hormone-health.com)
  • Since brain atrophy is the loss or damage of brain cells, there is no treatment available to cure this complication. (healthyhearing.com)
  • In the placebo group, higher homocysteine levels at baseline are associated with faster GM atrophy, but this deleterious effect is largely prevented by B-vitamin treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Similarly, those suffering from mental disorders often recover, at least partly, from brain atrophy when they begin to recover from their psychological condition. (brrlaw.com)
  • Being physically fit can prevent brain atrophy and may ward off dementia, according to a study published in the December 2012 issue of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise . (runnersworld.com)
  • Incorporating physical activity into your daily routine can be a helpful step to prevent conditions caused by brain atrophy, such as dementia," said the primary investigator, Atsumu Yuki, Ph.D., of the Center for Development of Advanced Medicine for Dementia in Japan. (runnersworld.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with brain atrophy and cerebrovascular disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We aimed to define the regional distribution of brain atrophy in T2DM and to examine whether atrophy or cerebrovascular lesions are feasible links between T2DM and cognitive function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, few studies have clarified the regional distribution of brain atrophy attributable to T2DM ( 14 - 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Understanding the pattern of brain atrophy in T2DM may provide clues toward the underlying neurodegenerative process. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Moreover, although some studies demonstrated associations of T2DM with brain atrophy or cerebrovascular disease, no data describe how MRI measures of atrophy and cerebrovascular disease mediate the difference in cognitive function between those with and without T2DM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two genetic variants linked to Alzheimer's disease have been more specifically tied to brain atrophy that is characteristic of the disease. (psychcentral.com)
  • A new study, led by Liana Apostolova, M.D., a professor at the Indiana University School of Medicine, also found that the proteins produced by the genes and circulating in the blood were associated with brain atrophy and could be used in Alzheimer's-related tests in the future. (psychcentral.com)
  • Avacincaptad pegol ( Zimura , IVERIC bio) slows the progression of geographic atrophy, results from a phase 3 clinical trial show, giving hope that there will soon be an approved treatment for one of the most common causes of vision loss. (medscape.com)
  • The experimental drug reduced the mean rate of geographic atrophy growth by 28% over 18 months. (medscape.com)
  • Although anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs have dramatically improved the outlook for patients with wet age-related macular degeneration, no drug has yet been approved to treat the more common dry form of the disease, which can lead to geographic atrophy and severe vision loss. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers have struggled to pinpoint the causes of geographic atrophy. (medscape.com)
  • For their study, Rezaei, Csaky, and Keith Westby, chief operating officer at IVERIC bio, assessed avacincaptad in patients with nonfoveal geographic atrophy secondary to dry age-related macular degeneration. (medscape.com)
  • All study participants had a multifocal geographic atrophy lesion between 2.5 mm² and 17.5 mm², part of which was 1500 μm from the foveal center, that could be photographed in its entirety. (medscape.com)
  • The size of geographic atrophy lesions were measured, with fundus autofluorescence, at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18 months. (medscape.com)
  • The difference in growth of geographic atrophy areas remained significant even after adjustment for missing data. (medscape.com)
  • To be able to reduce the growth of this geographic atrophy is a major step forward for these patients," Rezaei said. (medscape.com)
  • The trial was not designed to measure differences in visual acuity because the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only requires evidence of a difference in lesion size to approve a drug for geographic atrophy, Rezaei reported. (medscape.com)
  • With no FDA-approved therapies yet for the treatment of geographic atrophy (GA), some companies and institutions, eager to change that fact, are initiating or resurrecting past research approaches to discern effective methods of combating this advanced form of dry AMD. (wabi.tv)
  • Almost a decade ago, Allergan (Dublin) began to study its glaucoma drug brimonidine (now known as Alphagan) as a potential treatment for Geographic Atrophy because it had demonstrated neuroprotective qualities in the company's animal studies. (wabi.tv)
  • His conclusion: Inhibiting the FAS-pathway through medical intervention is key to stopping unwanted photoreceptor cell death (apoptosis) in retinal detachment, wet and dry AMD, geographic atrophy, and diabetic retinopathy. (wabi.tv)
  • Dr. Zacks says ONL1204 should also be able to provide neuroprotection in geographic atrophy, treating the root cause of vision loss which is photoreceptor cell death. (wabi.tv)
  • The Janssen (Beerse, Belgium) drug development division of Johnson & Johnson has for several years been pursuing an initiative using cell therapy in an attempt to reverse the vision loss associated with geographic atrophy. (wabi.tv)
  • Bilateral geographic atrophy: Spontaneous visual improvement afte. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A, Fundus photograph shows focal geographic atrophy of the RPE (arrowhead) and drusen in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration. (aao.org)
  • Examples of atrophying nerve diseases include Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease , poliomyelitis , amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease), and Guillain-Barré syndrome . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not known whether posterior cortical atrophy is a unique disease or a possible variant form of Alzheimer's disease. (alz.org)
  • In many people with posterior cortical atrophy, the affected part of the brain shows amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, similar to the changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease but in a different part of the brain. (alz.org)
  • In other people with posterior cortical atrophy, however, the brain changes resemble other diseases such as Lewy body dementia or a form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . (alz.org)
  • Some studies have found that about 5 percent of people diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have posterior cortical atrophy. (alz.org)
  • There is an ongoing discussion in the field whether posterior cortical atrophy should be considered a form of Alzheimer's disease or a distinct disease entity. (alz.org)
  • Furthermore, people with posterior cortical atrophy have degeneration in different parts of the brain than people with typical forms of Alzheimer's disease, although there is often overlap between the two conditions. (alz.org)
  • It is also not known if the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are also risk factors for posterior cortical atrophy. (alz.org)
  • Because posterior cortical atrophy resembles Alzheimer's disease in some patients, it has been suggested that drugs used to temporarily alleviate brain dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease may be helpful in posterior cortical atrophy, but this is not proven. (alz.org)
  • Ethnic Variations in Duodenal Villous Atrophy Consistent With Celiac Disease. (youtube.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is a type of focal cerebral atrophy. (wisegeek.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS Cortical atrophy in T2DM resembles patterns seen in preclinical Alzheimer disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Cerebral atrophy can be caused by injury or disease. (reference.com)
  • Using magnetic resonance imaging tools to measure brain size and genetic analysis, the researchers looked for associations between the genetic variants and atrophy in the cortical and hippocampal regions of the brain, which are established physical biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. (psychcentral.com)
  • Optic atrophy is not a disease, but rather a sign of a potentially more serious condition. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Physical activity may help prevent atrophy of the hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory that often shrinks in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • Also, time in a circa zero g environment without exercise will lead to atrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • extensive TV viewing may lead to atrophy of children's imaginations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This type of atrophy can often be reversed with exercise and better nutrition. (umm.edu)
  • There are many diseases and conditions which cause atrophy of muscle mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testosterone replacement (or anabolic steroids as well) can cause atrophy (shrinkage) of the testicles. (thebody.com)
  • Cerebral atrophy is a common form of degeneration that begins when brain cells and brain tissue begin to waste away. (wisegeek.com)
  • Mild diffuse cerebral atrophy is a symptomatic brain condition generally involving the loss, or deterioration of, neurons and the connections between them, usually indicating the presence of other brain diseases. (reference.com)
  • Focal, or localized, cerebral atrophy results in decreased functionality in that area of the brain. (reference.com)
  • Cerebral atrophy is a condition in which an individual continuously loses brain cells, according to Healthgrades. (reference.com)
  • Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) refers to gradual and progressive degeneration of the outer layer of the brain (the cortex) in the part of the brain located in the back of the head (posterior). (alz.org)
  • Atrophy is a degeneration of either all or one part of the body, and is often referred to as "wasting. (wisegeek.com)
  • In her early 50s my mom was diagnosed with with a form of sporadic ataxia known as multiple systems atrophy. (crowdrise.com)
  • During atrophy, there is a down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways, and an activation of protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the activation of NF-κB in TRAF6-knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts by TWEAK was mostly abolished, which suggests that TRAF6 is likely to link this atrophy-inducing cytokine to downstream signaling pathways. (sciencemag.org)
  • Researchers and physicians are working to establish a standard definition and diagnostic criteria for posterior cortical atrophy (PDF). (alz.org)
  • Researchers aim to look at the muscle atrophy and muscle sparing in the transgenic mice. (nasa.gov)
  • Researchers are currently studying various medications that can be used to slow down the process of atrophy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Besides problems with sex, urinary tract infections (UTI), vaginal infections, and having pelvic exams by the gynecologist are other problems that can occur from having vaginal atrophy. (webmd.com)
  • Vaginal Atrophy (Atrophic Vaginitis) Pipeline Therapeutics. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Vaginal Atrophy (Atrophic Vaginitis), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Vaginal Atrophy (Atrophic Vaginitis) and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The study's authors found that the presence of atrophy was more reliably detected through imaging techniques than with girth measurements but that the atrophy did exist to such an extent that quadriceps-strengthening exercises could be "an important consideration" in rehabilitation. (apta.org)