Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Ventricular Septum: The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Atrial Septum: The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Catheter Ablation: Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac: Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Myxoma: A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Refractory Period, Electrophysiological: The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Pulmonary Atresia: A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Atrial Flutter: Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Bundle of His: Small band of specialized CARDIAC MUSCLE fibers that originates in the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE and extends into the membranous part of the interventricular septum. The bundle of His, consisting of the left and the right bundle branches, conducts the electrical impulses to the HEART VENTRICLES in generation of MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Atrial Appendage: Ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Diagonal Band of Broca: Cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the paraterminal gyrus in the septal area with the hippocampus and lateral olfactory area.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vena Cava, Inferior: The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.Coronary Sinus: A short vein that collects about two thirds of the venous blood from the MYOCARDIUM and drains into the RIGHT ATRIUM. Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial: Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Atypical atrial flutter originating from the right atrium and heart's septum have also been described. Play media While atrial ... Prolonged atrial flutter with fast heart rates may lead to decompensation with loss of normal heart function (heart failure). ... Heart rate is a measure of the ventricular rather than atrial activity. Impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles ... This leads to pooling of the blood in the heart and can lead to the formation of blood clots in the heart which pose a ...
Heart section showing ventricles and ventricular septum. Ventricles have thicker walls than atria and generate higher blood ... Right heart. *(venae cavae, coronary sinus) → right atrium (atrial appendage, fossa ovalis, limbus of fossa ovalis, crista ... Left heart. *(pulmonary veins) → left atrium (atrial appendage) → mitral valve → left ventricle → aortic valve (aortic sinus ... A ventricle is one of two large chambers toward the bottom of the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium ...
Atrial myxoma Cutaneous myxoma Odontogenic myxoma Myxomas are usually located in either the left or right atrium of the heart; ... The surgeon removes the myxoma, along with at least 5 surrounding millimeters of atrial septum. The septum is then repaired, ... The most common location for attachment of the stalk is the fossa ovalis region of the interatrial septum. An atrial myxoma may ... Seino Y, Ikeda U, Shimada K (1993). "Increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in cardiac myxomas". Br Heart J. 69 (6): 565-7 ...
... but this foramen is ultimately closed by the fusion of the aortic septum with the ventricular septum. Heart showing expansion ... of the atria. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) Overview at ... The primitive ventricle becomes divided by the septum inferius which develops into the interventricular septum. The septum ... Its dorsal part increases more rapidly than its ventral portion, and fuses with the dorsal part of the septum intermedium. For ...
... is a laceration of the ventricles or atria of the heart, of the interatrial or interventricular septum, or ... It is most commonly seen as a serious sequela of an acute myocardial infarction (heart attack). It can also be caused by trauma ... A study of 50 hearts". Eur J Cardiol. 3 (4): 349-58. PMID 1193118. Becker RC, Gore JM, Lambrew C, Weaver WD, Rubison RM, French ... Another method for classifying myocardial ruptures is by the anatomical portion of the heart that has ruptured. By far the most ...
Heart veins that go directly to the right atrium: the anterior cardiac veins, the smallest cardiac veins (Thebesian veins). The ... the left atrium and ventricle, and the interventricular septum. The circumflex artery arises from the left coronary artery and ... The anatomy of the veins of the heart is very variable, but generally it is formed by the following veins: heart veins that go ... The anastomoses in the heart are very small. Therefore, this ability is somewhat restricted in the heart so a coronary artery ...
The septum primum is on the left side of the heart in the left atrium while the septum secundum is much thicker and is located ... The septum primum is a septum that grows down between the single primitive atrium of the developing heart to separate it into ... This defect can arise as a result of defects of the septum primium and the septum secundum. For the septum primum, the problem ... During development, blood shunts from the floor of the right atrium through the foramen ovale in the septum secundum then up ...
... (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. Some flow is ... However, a hole in the septum called the foramen ovale, allows blood from the right atrium to enter the left atrium during ... the atria are separated by a dividing wall, the interatrial septum. If this septum is defective or absent, then oxygen-rich ... blood shunts from the left atrium to the right atrium. This extra blood from the left atrium may cause a volume overload of ...
The interatrial septum is a piece of tissue that separates the left and right atria of the heart, which contain oxygenated and ... Studies in mouse, human and fruitfly have shown that this gene is essential for early heart development, adult heart function ... "Murine T-box transcription factor Tbx20 acts as a repressor during heart development, and is essential for adult heart ... Any mutations in this gene can result in various forms of congenital heart disease. One of the more serious examples is the ...
This is found at the bottom of the right atrium in the atrioventricular septum-the boundary between the right atrium and the ... "gill hearts" also known as branchial hearts, and one "systemic heart". The brachial hearts have two atria and one ventricle ... In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed in ... The right atrium and the right ventricle together are sometimes referred to as the right heart. Similarly, the left atrium and ...
The atrium (an adjacent/upper heart chamber that is smaller than a ventricle) primes the pump. Interventricular means between ... Its posterior wall is formed by the ventricular septum, which bulges into the right ventricle, so that a transverse section of ... A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the ... The heart and its performance are also commonly measured in terms of dimensions, which in this case means one-dimensional ...
The heart valves and the chambers are lined with endocardium. Heart valves separate the atria from the ventricles, or the ... MV: Mitral valve, TV: Tricuspid valve, AV: Aortic valve, Septum: Interventricular septum. Continuous lines demarcate septum and ... "Heart Valves". American Heart Association, Inc - 10000056 Heart and Stroke Encyclopedia. American Heart Association, Inc. ... See also: Heart development. In the developing heart, the valves between the atria and ventricles, the bicuspid and the ...
Once a baby is born and the lungs begin to fill with air, the blood flow of the heart changes; a tissue flap (septum primium) ... Lutembacher affects more specifically the atria of the heart and the mitral or bicuspid valve. The disorder itself is known ... The second heart sound (S2) split is caused by the increase right heart blood flow through the ASD causing a late closing of ... fever where damage is done to the heart valves such as the mitral valve and resultant in an opening of heart wall between atria ...
The septum primum, a septum which grows down to separate the primitive atrium into the left atrium and right atrium, grows in ... In the developing heart, the atria are initially open to each other, with the opening known as the primary interatrial foramen ... Typically this defect will cause a shunt to occur from the left atrium to the right atrium. Children born with this defect may ... size over the course of heart development. The primary interatrial foramen is the gap between the septum primum and the septum ...
The fossa ovalis is a depression in the right atrium of the heart, at the level of the interatrial septum, the wall between ... If there is a clot in the right side of the heart, it can cross the PFO, enter the left atrium, and travel out of the heart and ... This change in pressure pushes the septum primum against the atrial septum, closing the foramen. The septum primum and atrial ... With the child's first breath, the lung sends oxygenated blood to the left atrium. As a result, pressure in the left atrium is ...
Initially the atria are separated from one another by the septum primum except for a small opening below the septum, the ostium ... This forces the septum primum against the septum secundum, functionally closing the foramen ovale. In time the septa eventually ... Blood then only passes from the right to left atrium by way of a small passageway in the septum secundum and then through the ... Oxygenated blood from the placenta travels through the umbilical cord to the right atrium of the fetal heart. As the fetal ...
In addition, the atrial septum which distinguishes the 2 atria is absent. These impairments, in addition to congestion in the ... is a cardiac development defect in which the heart has 2 bilateral left atria and atrial appendages in the muscle wall. Left ... is a cardiac development defect in which the heart has bilateral right atria and atrial attachments in the muscle wall, as ... most commonly observed in relation to the atria of the heart. Individuals with situs inversus or situs solitus do not ...
... valves of the heart, both atria, atrial septum, left atrial appendage, and coronary arteries. TEE has a very high sensitivity ... American Heart Association; Heart Rhythm Society (2011). "ACCF/ASE/AHA/ASNC/HFSA/HRS/SCAI/SCCM/SCCT/SCMR 2011 Appropriate Use ... Most commonly used during open heart procedures, if the patient's status warrants it, TEE can be used in the setting of any ... Comparatively, transthoracic ultrasound must first traverse skin, fat, ribs and lungs before reflecting off the heart and back ...
To the right of the septum primum and also coming down from the roof of the primitive atrium, descends a semilunar-shaped ... Heart chamber formation: The cell fates of the heart chambers are characterized before heart looping but cannot be ... All five embryonic dilatations of the primitive heart develop into the adult structures of the heart. The heart tube undergoes ... From the roof of the primitive atrium descends the septum primum, which grows towards the endocardial cushions within the ...
... is a type of congenital heart defect where the right atrium is closely associated with the left ventricle in ... Fontes VF, de Souza JA, Pontes Jùnior SC (1990). "Criss-cross heart with intact ventricular septum". Int. J. Cardiol. 26 (3): ... and it is possible for the heart to have relatively normal functioning. ... space, and the left atrium is closely associated with the right ventricle. Although it is classified as a defect, the criss- ...
Interatrial septum, the wall of tissue that is a sectional part of the left and right atria of the heart Interventricular ... septum, the wall separating the left and right ventricles of the heart Lingual septum, a vertical layer of fibrous tissue that ... In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ... In rare instances, a septum is a cross-wall. Thus it divides a structure into smaller parts. The Septum (cell biology) is the ...
The septum is a wall of tissue which separates the left heart from the right heart. Defects in the interatrial septum or the ... the ultimate location of the heart) and the atria moving towards the head. On day 28, areas of tissue in the heart tube begin ... Congenital heart defects are known by a number of names including congenital heart anomaly, congenital heart disease, heart ... A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the ...
The septum secundum, semilunar in shape, grows downward from the upper wall of the atrium immediately to the right of the ... cardev-039-Embryo Images at University of North Carolina Overview at edu.mt MedEd at Loyola GrossAnatomy/thorax0/Heart_ ... Shortly after birth it fuses with the septum primum, and consequently the foramen ovale is closed, but sometimes the fusion is ... The limbus fossae ovalis denotes the free margin of the septum secundum. This article incorporates text in the public domain ...
During heart development of a human embryo, the single primitive atrium becomes divided into right and left by a septum, the ... Blood flow between atria will continue through the foramen ovale (heart). Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the ... The septum primum (from Latin, meaning 'first septum') grows downward into the single atrium. The gap below it is known as the ... Typically this defect will cause a shunt to occur from the left atrium to the right atrium. Children born with this defect may ...
The interatrial septum separates the right atrium from the left atrium and this is marked by a depression in the right atrium - ... The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart. There are two atria in the human heart, which receive blood - ... Humans have a four-chambered heart consisting of the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. The atria ... the left atrium from the lungs, and the right atrium from the venous circulation. The atria receive blood, and when the heart ...
This ensures that there is enough of a connection between the two atria of the heart to provide open blood flow and mixing of ... The atrial septum is removed, the aortic arch is reconstructed to remove any hypoplasia, and then the main pulmonary artery is ... There may be little or no detectable flow into or out of the left side of the heart. There are two screening periods, one ... If untreated, HLHS is lethal, as a result of the inability of the left heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal organ ...
An atrial myxoma is a non-cancerous tumor in the upper left or right side of the heart. It grows on the wall (atrial septum) ... About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart, usually beginning in the wall that divides the two upper chambers ... A myxoma is a primary heart (cardiac) tumor. This means that the tumor started within the heart. Most heart tumors start ... of the heart. The rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas are sometimes associated with tricuspid stenosis and ...
Interatrial septum definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ... interatrial septum in·ter·a·tri·al septum (ĭntər-ātrē-əl). n. The wall between the atria of the heart. ...
Heart Atria / pathology. Heart Neoplasms* / diagnosis, physiopathology, surgery. Heart Septum / pathology. Heart Ventricles / ... A second resolving tumour in the interventricular septum was also detected during the investigation. Although there are no ...
The heart is an organ, about the size of a fist. It is made of muscle and pumps blood through the body. Learn more about how it ... Structure of the Heart. The heart has four chambers (two atria and two ventricles). There is a wall (septum) between the two ... Arteries and veins go into and out of the heart. Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood to the heart. ... Oxygen-rich blood flows from the lungs back into the left atrium (LA), or the left upper chamber of the heart, through four ...
small, Atria , [[Atrium (heart),Atria]] , [[Left atrium]] , [[Right atrium]] , [[Interatrial septum]] , [[Musculi ... small, Atria , [[Atrium (heart),Atria]] , [[Left atrium]] , [[Right atrium]] , [[Interatrial septum]] , [[Musculi ... Atria , Atria , Left atrium , Right atrium , Interatrial septum , Musculi pectinati Ventricles , Ventricles , Left ventricle , ... Heart Development , Primitive heart tube , Truncus arteriosus , Bulbus cordis , Primitive ventricle , Primitive atrium , Sinus ...
A heart pacemaker which is arranged to stimulate the apical area of the heart. Stimulation of this area provides synchronous ... Pacing the apical area of the heart by pacing electrodes 14 allows the septum, and free walls of the left atrium and left ... The apex of the heart is where the free walls of left and right ventricles meet the intraventricular septum. This left ... A heart pacemaker which is arranged to stimulate the apical area of the heart. Stimulation of this area provides synchronous ...
Heart Atrium, left (2) * Heart Atrium, right (2) * Heart Interventricular Septum (2) ...
... pacing the heart before, after, or during the defibrillation shock or shocks, and placing the shock electrodes in locations ... to the atria of the heart and then the defibrillation shock to the atria at a time sufficient to allow contraction of the atria ... a first atrial defibrillation electrode carried by the catheter and positioned at the atrial septum of the heart; ... the atria of the heart followed by the defibrillation shock to the atria at a time sufficient to allow contraction of the atria ...
If right heart pressure increased > embolus crosses into left atrium from right > travels up into cerebral vessel > occlusion ... How can a probe-patent interatrial septum contribute to a cerebral infarct? ...
During heart development of a human embryo, the single primitive atrium becomes divided into right and left by a septum, the ... Blood flow between atria will continue through the foramen ovale (heart). Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the ... The septum primum (from Latin, meaning first septum) grows downward into the single atrium. The gap below it is known as the ... Typically this defect will cause a shunt to occur from the left atrium to the right atrium. Children born with this defect may ...
The left atrium is almost entirely on the back of the heart. The interventricular and interatrial septa are at approximately a ... Heart J., 28:435-447, 1966). B.T., brachiocephalic trunk; C.C., left common carotid artery; I.V.S., interventricular septum; L. ... The right heart (blue arrow) lies in front of the left heart (red arrow). The outline of the arch of the aorta (with the ... A., left atrium; L.5., left subclavian artery; L.V., left ventricle; M., mitral valve; R.A., right atrium; R.V., right ...
Atypical atrial flutter originating from the right atrium and hearts septum have also been described. Play media While atrial ... Prolonged atrial flutter with fast heart rates may lead to decompensation with loss of normal heart function (heart failure). ... Heart rate is a measure of the ventricular rather than atrial activity. Impulses from the atria are conducted to the ventricles ... This leads to pooling of the blood in the heart and can lead to the formation of blood clots in the heart which pose a ...
In an easy A-Z format, find definitions on heart defects, heart conditions, treatments, and more. ... A guide to medical terms about the heart and circulatory system. ... called the septum) that separates the left atrium and the right ... The heart has a left atrium and a right atrium.. atrial septal (AY-tree-uhl SEP-tuhl) defect (ASD): ASD is a hole in the heart ... atria (AY-tree-uh): The two chambers at the top of the heart are called the atria. The atria are the chambers that fill with ...
... called the septum) that separates the left atrium and the right atrium. ... atria (say: AY-tree-yuh): The two chambers at the top of the heart are called the atria. The atria are the chambers that fill ... septum (say: SEP-tum): The septum is a thick wall of muscle that divides the heart. It separates the left and right sides of ... The heart has a left atrium and a right atrium.. atrial septal (say: AY-tree-uhl SEP-tuhl) defect (ASD): ASD is a hole in the ...
210000002837 Heart Atria Anatomy 0.000 description 1 * 210000003361 Heart Septum Anatomy 0.000 description 1 ... A61N1/362-Heart stimulators * A61N1/3627-Heart stimulators for treating a mechanical deficiency of the heart, e.g. congestive ... In an exemplary embodiment of the invention, the remote area is in the same heart chamber or in a different heart chamber and ... A61N1/3621-Heart stimulators for treating or preventing abnormally high heart rate ...
Rotate the heart to expose the left atrium. Cut between the pulmonary veins to expose this chamber. Expose the left ventricle ... Beginning at the coronary sulcus, incise around the apex of the heart to the left of the interventricular septum. If you have ... Once again, orient yourself to the heart. Here is the aorta. Open the right atrium by making a vertical incision through the ... Remove the clotted blood from the atrium. Next, make an incision from the pulmonary trunk down toward the acute margin on the ...
This is why your heart beats faster when you run. ... Your heart 2. Your veins 3. Your arteries The circulatory ... A few of the parts of the heart are ventricles, arteries, valves, the septum, and the atria. The pumping sound of the heart ... Heart Is the heart the only organ in the circulatory system. ?. no because it also have the blood and the blood vessels there ... BLOOD VESSELS/VEINS- After the Heart pumps the blood it goes to Blood Vessels. BLOOD/CAPILLARIES- Without Blood the heart ...
Heart section showing ventricles and ventricular septum. Ventricles have thicker walls than atria and generate higher blood ... Right heart. *(venae cavae, coronary sinus) → right atrium (atrial appendage, fossa ovalis, limbus of fossa ovalis, crista ... Left heart. *(pulmonary veins) → left atrium (atrial appendage) → mitral valve → left ventricle → aortic valve (aortic sinus ... A ventricle is one of two large chambers toward the bottom of the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium ...
Lane 1, atrioventricular node; lane 2, atrioventricular septum; lane 3, aorta; lane 4, apex of the heart; lane 5, left atrium; ... Method for treating heart failure with stresscopin-like peptides EP2362881A2 (en) * 2008-11-04. 2011-09-07. Janssen ... 2b and 2 c, the stresscopin 1 transcript could be amplified in various regions of human heart whereas the stresscopin 2 ... In spite of an association with heart disease, type II diabetes, cancer, and other conditions, few persons are able to ...
is a hole in the septum (wall) between the upper chambers (atria) of your childs heart. The hole may be small or large. An ASD ... This makes his heart work harder to pump blood. Over time, an ASD can damage your childs heart and lungs. ... Replace butter and margarine with heart-healthy oils such as olive oil and canola oil. Other heart-healthy foods include ... Fatty fish such as salmon and tuna are also heart healthy.. *Ask your childs healthcare provider if you need to limit his ...
Open heart surgery 2003 to remove left atrial tumor with removal and patch of the entire atrial septum. Arrhythmias (PVCs, PACs ... Enlargement of both Atriums. High Pulmonary vessel pressure. Mitral valve prolapse, Mitral and Tricuspid valve regurgitations. ... Open heart surgery 2003 to remove left atrial tumor with removal and patch of the entire atrial septum. Arrhythmias (PVCs, PACs ... Open heart surgery 2003 to remove left atrial tumor with removal and patch of the entire atrial septum. Arrhythmias (PVCs, PACs ...
The American Heart Association explains the common types of congenital defects including Aortic Valve Stenosis, AVS, Atrial ... ASD is a defect in the septum between the hearts two upper chambers (atria). The septum is a wall that separates the hearts ... In a normal heart, the blood follow this cycle: body-heart-lungs-heart-body. When a person has a truncus arteriosus, the blood ... Common Types of Heart Defects. Congenital heart defects are structural problems arising from abnormal formation of the heart or ...
atrioventricular septum. Wall separating the right atrium and left atrium of the heart, over a small surface.. ...
The heart was divided into atria, ventricles and septum and weighted separately. Right ventricle hypertrophy (RVH) was assessed ... The impact of heart irradiation on dose-volume effects in the rat lung. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2007;69:552-9. ... Radiation damage to the heart enhances early radiation-induced lung function loss. Cancer Res 2005;65:6509-11. ... Early radiation response of the canine heart and lung. Radiat Res 1991;125:34-40. ...
... and heart problems.People with Holt-Oram syndrome have abnormally developed bones in their upper limbs. Explore symptoms, ... that separates the right and left sides of the heart. A hole in the septum between the upper chambers of the heart (atria) is ... ASD), and a hole in the septum between the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles) is called a ventricular septal defect. (VSD ... Cardiac conduction disease can occur along with other heart defects (such as ASD or VSD) or as the only heart problem in people ...
  • The developing fetal heart accounts for a large percentage of the volume of the early thorax. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Evaluation of fetal heart dimensions from 12 weeks to term. (springer.com)
  • During fetal development, if the septum does not develop properly, it leaves a hole. (henryford.com)
  • This prolongs the communication between the placenta and fetal heart, allowing for a sort of autotransfusion of remaining blood from the placenta to the fetus. (bionity.com)
  • A fetal echocardiogram is a specialized ultrasound that allows doctors to see the baby's heart in great detail and plan the best care for the baby while still in utero. (rchsd.org)
  • A valve from the heart to the body that does not properly open and close and may also leak blood. (heart.org)
  • When the blood flowing out from the heart is trapped by a poorly working valve, pressure may build up inside the heart and cause damage. (heart.org)
  • A malformed heart valve that does not properly close to keep the blood flow moving in the right direction. (heart.org)
  • In most cases, replacement of the heart valve requires the patient to be on some form of anti-coagulation therapy to prevent clots developing on or around the device. (prezi.com)
  • In addition, congenital (conditions at birth), post-surgical, or other heart or valve conditions can lead to stroke. (empowher.com)
  • If bacteria travel through the blood and get stuck on a heart valve, this can cause this infection in the heart. (childrensmn.org)
  • As blood leaves each chamber of the heart, it passes through a valve. (medicinenet.com)
  • Valvuloplasty is a procedure done to repair a stiff heart valve. (uclahealth.org)
  • An implant for supplementing, repairing, or replacing a native heart valve leaflet or leaflets provides a scaffold, which defines a pseudo-annulus. (google.com)
  • No. 6,893,459 and entitled "Heart Valve Annulus Device and Methods of Using Same," which is incorporated herein by reference. (google.com)
  • This application is also a continuation-in-part of Patent Cooperation Treaty Application Serial No. PCT/US 02/31376, filed Oct. 1, 2002 and entitled "Systems and Devices for Heart Valve Treatments," which claimed the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. (google.com)
  • The invention is directed to devices, systems, and methods for improving the function of a heart valve, e.g., in the treatment of mitral valve regurgitation. (google.com)
  • fingerlike extensions from wall of heart, prevents inversion and stabilizes valve. (studystack.com)
  • Extrapolating from these local velocities, it has seemed reasonable to assume that flow in the left atrium would follow the logical shortest distance between its atrial inlet and the outlet at the mitral valve. (bmj.com)
  • Greetings, so today we wanted to start a discussion about the cardiovascular system, and in particular we're going to talk about the heart and the structure of the heart, and how the heart activities are coordinated by an electrical conduction system. (coursera.org)
  • Secondly we want to talk about this pacemaker activity, because, as you all know, the heart has an intrinsic beat, and that's due to these pacemaker cells or this electrical conduction system. (coursera.org)
  • 7-12 In comparison, little information is available on the specialized conduction system of the mouse heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • delivering the defibrillation shock to the atria after the preparatory shock during contraction of the atria, wherein the preparatory shock has a strength less than the defibrillation shock. (google.de)
  • It's a very fast and irregular contraction of the atria. (celebritydiagnosis.com)
  • Instead, the signal begins in another part of the atria and doesn't travel through the normal pathways and it spreads throughout the atria in a fast and disorganized manner. (celebritydiagnosis.com)