The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.
Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A transient dilatation of the lymphatic vessels.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
A benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue, consisting chiefly of polyhedral and stellate cells that are loosely embedded in a soft mucoid matrix, thereby resembling primitive mesenchymal tissue. It occurs frequently intramuscularly where it may be mistaken for a sarcoma. It appears also in the jaws and the skin. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.

Morphological basis for the study of the interatrial septum in the human fetus. (1/81)

OBJECTIVE: To describe morphological features of the interatrial septum in normal fetuses, especially foramen ovale (FO) and septum primum (SP), in order to compare septum primum excursion with foramen ovale diameter. METHODS: Septum primum excursion (SPE) toward the left atrium (LA) and foramen ovale diameter (FOD) were measured in the hearts of ten formaldehyde-fixed human fetuses ranging from 28 to 36 weeks of gestation. Histological sections were obtained from the foramen ovale (FO), septum primum (SP), septum secundum (SS), left atrium (LA), and right atrium (RA). RESULTS: FOD and SPE measurements were the following: FOD 3.1-3.5 mm and SPE 2.8-3.1 mm in three fetuses with presumed gestational age (GA) of 28 weeks; FOD 3.3-3.5 mm, and SP excursion 4.0-5.0 mm in four fetuses with presumed GA of 34 weeks, plus FOD 3.3-4.5 mm and SPE 6.0-9.0 in three fetuses with presumed GA of 36 weeks. Cardiac muscular fibers were identified in both the septum primum and secundum. CONCLUSION: Based on its muscular components, it may be suggested that SP is active in character, influencing blood flow through the FO, SP mobility, and its excursion into the LA.  (+info)

Migraineurs with patent foramen ovale have larger right-to-left shunt despite similar atrial septal characteristics. (2/81)

The objective of the study was to assess differences in proportion of large right-to-left shunt (RLS) and atrial septal characteristics between migraineurs and non-migraineurs referred for transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PF0). This retrospective study took place in a large metropolitan medical centre. The patients were migraineurs with aura (n=52), migraineurs without aura (n=19) and non-migraineurs (n=149). RLS was evaluated before closure using bilateral power m-mode transcranial Doppler at rest and after calibrated, sustained Valsalva manoeuvre, and graded with a validated 0-5 scale. Intracardiac echocardiography was used to assess atrial septal characteristics. Migraineurs had a higher proportion of large RLS (Grade IV or V) than nonmigraineurs at rest and after calibrated Valsalva (rest, p=0.04; Valsalva, p=0.01). Atrial septal characteristics were similar between groups. Migraine is associated with larger RLS at rest and strain; however migraine status does not predict PFO characteristics.  (+info)

Completely endoscopic removal of a dislocated Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device. (3/81)

Surgical treatment of residual shunts after transcatheter occlusion of atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale is reported in approximately one to two percent of these percutaneous interventions. Minimally invasive surgery on the atrial septum is getting more and more common but little data is available on Amplatzer device explantation through limited access. No completely endoscopic device removal has been described previously. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman in whom an Amplatzer device was removed in a robotic totally endoscopic fashion through ports only using the daVinci telemanipulation system.  (+info)

The structure and components of the atrial chambers. (4/81)

We discuss the implications of accurate knowledge of the human atrial chambers for those seeking to model atrial structure, and correlate the muscular activity with electrical signals. We stress first the importance of describing atrial components in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a feature sadly ignored by generations of morphologists. When considered relative to the body, the right atrium is positioned anteriorly relative to its alleged left-sided counterpart. We then described how each atrium possesses a venous component, an appendage, a vestibule, these parts being supported by the body of the atrium, and how the two chambers are separated by the septum. We extend this information by describing the detailed structure of each atrium, and then emphasise that it is only the floor of the oval fossa, and its antero-inferior rim, that are true septal structures. The so-called 'septum secundum' is the superior interatrial fold. Emphasis is then given to the muscular connections between the atriums, these unions obviously underscoring the potential for interatrial conduction. We then continue by discussing the structure of the atrial walls, which vary markedly in their thickness. It is the alignment of the myocytes within these walls that determines the velocity of conduction through them. In this setting, we also discuss the morphological features that distinguish between working myocytes and the myocytes of the conduction system, stressing the importance of rules established almost 100 years ago.  (+info)

Septal atrial pacing for the prevention of atrial fibrillation. (5/81)

AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) produces significant morbidity and mortality. The current method of permanent pacing of the right atrium (RA) may cause delayed interatrial conduction and predispose to AF. We hypothesized that atrial septal pacing would reduce AF compared with high RA pacing. METHODS AND RESULTS: The patients were randomized into two groups. After randomization, patients received a dual-chamber rate-responsive device capable of mode-switching with advanced telemetry features. Devices were programmed in a standardized manner. To be eligible, the patients were required to have a conventional indication for a permanent pacemaker and recurrent paroxysmal AF. Group 1 was paced from high RA and Group 2 was paced from the atrial septum. Analysis of 43 patients who have completed 6 months of follow-up and 22 patients who completed 12 months of follow-up showed no significant differences in the number of mode-switching episodes or in AF burden between groups (P = NS by Mann-Whitney) although there was a trend for less AF with septal pacing. There were no differences in thresholds, sensing, or lead impedance. Lead parameters remained stable over time and there were no displacements of the electrodes after implantation. No patient experienced lead-related complications. A significant variability in AF burden was noted in this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of an atrial-active fixation lead on the atrial septum is safe and feasible. However, this study showed no significant difference between septal pacing and high atrial pacing, using the endpoints of AF duration and number of AF episodes.  (+info)

Right atrial preventive and antitachycardia pacing for prevention of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients without bradycardia: a randomized study. (6/81)

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The change in the fluoroscopy-guided transseptal puncture site and difficult punctures in catheter ablation of recurrent atrial fibrillation. (7/81)

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Successful ablation of focal left atrial tachycardia using Stereotaxis Niobe remote magnetic navigation system. (8/81)

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The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped. This includes the mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta. The left ventricle is too small or absent, and the aorta is narrowed or poorly formed. As a result, blood cannot be adequately pumped to the body. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs mixes with oxygen-poor blood in the heart, and the body does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. HLHS is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention and often surgical intervention.

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Lymphangiectasis is a medical condition characterized by the dilation and abnormal expansion of lymphatic vessels, which are responsible for transporting lymph fluid throughout the body. These dilated lymphatic vessels can be found in various tissues and organs, including the intestines, lungs, or other parts of the body.

In the case of intestinal lymphangiectasis (also known as Waldmann's disease), the lymphatic vessels in the small intestine become enlarged, leading to impaired absorption of nutrients and lymph fluid. This can result in protein-losing enteropathy, malnutrition, diarrhea, and edema (swelling) due to the loss of proteins and lymphatic fluids into the gastrointestinal tract.

Pulmonary lymphangiectasis is a rare congenital disorder where the lymphatic vessels in the lungs are abnormally developed and dilated, causing respiratory distress, recurrent lung infections, and chylous effusions (accumulation of milky lymph fluid in the pleural space surrounding the lungs).

Treatment for lymphangiectasis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may involve dietary modifications, medications to manage symptoms, or surgical interventions in some cases.

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

The term "septum" in the context of the brain refers to the septal nuclei, which are a collection of neurons located in the basal forebrain. Specifically, they make up the septal area, which is part of the limbic system and plays a role in reward, reinforcement, and positive motivational states.

There isn't a structure called the "septum of brain" in medical terminology. However, there are several structures in the brain that contain a septum or have a partitioning septum within them, such as:

1. Septal nuclei (as mentioned above)
2. The nasal septum, which is a thin wall of bone and cartilage that separates the two nostrils in the nose
3. The interventricular septum, which is a thin muscular wall that separates the left and right lateral ventricles within the brain
4. The membranous septum, a part of the heart's structure that separates the left and right ventricles

Confusion might arise due to the term "septum" being used in different contexts. In this case, there is no specific medical definition for 'Septum of Brain'.

The ventricular septum is the thick, muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart. Its main function is to prevent the oxygen-rich blood in the left ventricle from mixing with the oxygen-poor blood in the right ventricle.

A congenital heart defect called a ventricular septal defect (VSD) can occur when there is an abnormal opening or hole in the ventricular septum, allowing blood to flow between the two ventricles. This can result in various symptoms and complications, depending on the size of the defect and the amount of blood that passes through it. VSDs are typically diagnosed and treated by pediatric cardiologists or cardiac surgeons.

The Septum Pellucidum is a thin, delicate, and almost transparent partition in the brain that separates the lateral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces within the brain. It consists of two laminae (plates) that fuse together during fetal development, forming a single structure. The Septum Pellucidum is an essential component of the brain's ventricular system and plays a role in maintaining the structural integrity of the brain. Any abnormalities or damage to the Septum Pellucidum can lead to neurological disorders or cognitive impairments.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

A myxoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the heart, specifically in the heart's chambers or valves. It is the most common primary cardiac tumor in adults and typically affects the left atrium. Myxomas are composed of gelatinous, mucoid material and may have a stalk-like attachment to the endocardium (the inner lining of the heart).

Myxomas can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, coughing, and fever. These symptoms are due to obstruction of blood flow within the heart or embolization (detachment and travel) of tumor fragments to other parts of the body. Surgical removal is usually required to treat myxomas, as they can lead to serious complications if left untreated.

Streptococcus constellatus is a type of Gram-positive coccus bacteria that belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the "streptococci of uncertain taxonomic position" or S. milleri group. These bacteria are part of the normal flora in the human mouth, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause opportunistic infections when they enter other parts of the body, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

S. constellatus has been associated with a variety of infections, including abscesses, endocarditis, meningitis, septicemia, and dental and respiratory tract infections. It is important to note that the clinical significance of S. constellatus can vary, as it may sometimes be found as a commensal organism or as part of a polymicrobial infection. Proper identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are crucial for appropriate treatment.

The nasal septum is the thin, flat wall of bone and cartilage that separates the two sides (nostrils) of the nose. Its primary function is to support the structures of the nose, divide the nostrils, and regulate airflow into the nasal passages. The nasal septum should be relatively centered, but it's not uncommon for a deviated septum to occur, where the septum is displaced to one side, which can sometimes cause blockage or breathing difficulties in the more affected nostril.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a medical condition where the foramen ovale, an opening between the left and right atria of the heart in a fetus, does not close completely after birth. This results in a small flap-like opening that allows blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium. While this condition is typically harmless in itself, it can potentially allow blood clots to pass from the right side of the heart to the left, which could then travel to the brain and cause a stroke. Patent Foramen Ovale is usually an incidental finding during tests for other conditions.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a medical procedure that involves the use of an artificial device to regulate and stimulate the contraction of the heart muscle. This is often necessary when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart is beating too slowly or irregularly.

The artificial pacemaker consists of a small generator that produces electrical impulses and leads that are positioned in the heart to transmit the impulses. The generator is typically implanted just under the skin in the chest, while the leads are inserted into the heart through a vein.

There are different types of artificial cardiac pacing systems, including single-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate either the right atrium or right ventricle, and dual-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate both chambers of the heart. Some pacemakers also have additional features that allow them to respond to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or sleep.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a safe and effective treatment for many people with abnormal heart rhythms, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

Carotid artery thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside the carotid artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. This condition can lead to serious complications such as a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," if the clot dislodges and travels to the brain, blocking the flow of blood and oxygen.

Carotid artery thrombosis can result from various factors, including atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the artery walls), hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, smoking, and genetic predisposition. Symptoms may include neck pain or stiffness, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and sudden severe headaches. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications, endovascular procedures to remove the clot, or surgery to clean out the artery (carotid endarterectomy).

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Right atrial mass-multimodality imaging-Massive lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum. Clin Case Rep. 2020;00:1-2. https ... is the fat deposition in the infoldings of the interatrial septum adjacent to the true atrial septum. It is shaped like a " ... Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the endocardial cushion can lead to an ostium primum atrial septal defect. This is ... An Atrial septal defect is a relatively common heart malformation that occurs when the interatrial septum fails to develop ...
An atrial septectomy is the surgical removal of the atrial septum; this is performed when a patent foramen ovale (PFO), or ... or atrial septal defect (ASD) and inflated to enlarge the opening in the atrial septum; this creates a shunt which allows a ... The foramen ovale is a hole in the atrial septum which allows blood from the right atrium to flow into the left atrium; after ... Differences in the shape of the atrial septum and/or ventricular outflow tracts affect the relative positions of the aorta and ...
At same time, if necessary, the atrial and ventricular septum communications must be enlarged. When possible Glenn procedure is ...
"Partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage associated with mitral stenosis with an intact atrial septum. A distinctive ... "Atrial septal defect experiences in the clinical evaluation of 15 consecutive cases of the secundum variety". The American ... a concept of the electrocardiographic findings in atrial septal defect". The American Journal of Medicine. 22 (5): 784-790. doi ...
... left atrial isomerism in the defect of partial atrioventricular septum". Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 22 (1): 125-6. doi:10.1590/ ... The atrioventricular septum is a septum of the heart between the right atrium (RA) and the left ventricle (LV). Although the ... When considering only the membranous septum, it is also known as the "atrioventricular component of the membranous septum". It ... This septum divides the atrioventricular canal. In some cases, defects can be identified with an echocardiogram. Incomplete ...
This change in pressure pushes the septum primum against the atrial septum, closing the foramen. The septum primum and atrial ... If the atrial septum does not close properly, it leads to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). This type of defect generally works ... The fossa ovalis is a depression in the right atrium of the heart, at the level of the interatrial septum, the wall between ... A flap of tissue called the septum primum acts as a valve over the foramen ovale during that time. After birth, the ...
The surgeon removes the myxoma, along with at least 5 surrounding millimeters of atrial septum. The septum is then repaired, ... The most common location for attachment of the stalk is the fossa ovalis region of the interatrial septum. An atrial myxoma may ... Atrial myxoma Cutaneous myxoma Odontogenic myxoma Myxomas are usually located in either the left or right atrium of the heart; ... A left atrial myxoma will cause an increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.[citation needed] The differential diagnosis ...
When forming intra-atrial septa, atrio-ventricular valves will begin to grow. A muscular interventricular septum begins to grow ... but over time the left venous valve and the septum spurium fuse with the developing atrial septum. The upper right venous valve ... The remains of the upper septum primum, will become the valves of the foramen ovale. The passage between the two atrial ... This crest is the first part of the septum primum. The two ends of the septum extend into the interior of the endocardial ...
Congenital heart defects such as a thinned atrial septum, coarctation of the aorta, patent ductus arteriosus; a connection ... atrial fibrillation, or those who have had ischemic stroke. Warfarin blocks the action of vitamin K, causing an inhibition of ... thinned or absent nasal septum, choanal atresia; a narrowing the airway at the posterior nasal cavity, cleft lip and ...
"IgG4-related sclerosing disease involving the superior vena cava and the atrial septum of the heart". Yonsei Medical Journal. ...
In fetuses with hypoplastic left ventricles and an intact interatrial septum, percutaneous atrial septostomy has been attempted ... a genetic syndrome or those with a highly restrictive atrial septum. For patients without these additional risk factors, 5 year ... The neonate is reliant on blood flowing through an atrial septal defect to mix oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, and on a ... In neonates with a small atrial septal defect, termed "restrictive", there is inadequate mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated ...
The ideal site for TSP is the region of the fossa ovalis in the inter-atrial septum. Occasionally, however, the sharp needle ... the left ventricular filling is dependent on the atrial kick. The loss of the atrial kick due to atrial fibrillation (i.e., ... Atrial fibrillation is a common complication of resulting left atrial enlargement, which can lead to systemic thromboembolic ... The interatrial septum is punctured and the catheter passed into the left atrium using a "trans-septal technique." The balloon ...
Certain defects of the atrial septum have been described recently that could also be related to these mutations. Two cases of ... "Alpha-cardiac actin mutations produce atrial septal defects". Human Molecular Genetics. 17 (2): 256-265. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm302 ...
... and disappears with the formation of the atrial septum. The septum primum, a septum which grows down to separate the primitive ... It progressively decreases in size as the septum grows downwards, and disappears with the formation of the atrial septum. The ... Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the endocardial cushion can lead to an ostium primum atrial septal defect. This is ... The primary interatrial foramen is the gap between the septum primum and the septum intermedium, which gets progressively ...
Ganglia located at the lower end of the atrial septum; sometimes called the ventricular ganglia. "Bidder's organ": A spherical ...
Lastly, a common aspect of Raghib syndrome is an atrial septal defect. This is when there is a hole in the septum dividing the ... Surgeons reroofed the coronary sinus, reconstructed the atrial septum to prevent drainage, and redirected the PLSVC to the ... Atrial patches can be applied to areas of concern such as the roof of the left atrium or where the coronary sinus should be. ... The main concern with an atrial septal defect, is it can cause the right side of the heart to become overworked. This is ...
In patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, obstruction of blood flow at the atrial septum should be examined and ... Rodbard and Wagner connected the right atrial appendage to the right pulmonary artery in an early report on this surgical ...
Experiments in chick embryos found an association between ACTC1 knockdown and a reduction in the atrial septa. Polymorphisms in ... Another mutation has in the ACTC1 gene has been associated with atrial septal defects. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Alpha-cardiac actin mutations produce atrial septal defects". Human Molecular Genetics. 17 (2): 256-65. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm302 ...
Streaming this blood across the atrial septum via the foramen ovale increases the oxygen content of blood in the left atrium. ... and in the extent to which it encroaches on neighboring structures such as the atrial septum. At one end of the spectrum, the ... Very rarely, such a configuration of a large eustachian valve may mimic a right atrial cystic tumor. The superior vena cava ( ... Malaterre HR, Kallee K, Perier Y. Eustachian valve mimicking a right atrial cystic tumor. Int J Card Imaging 2000;16(4):305-7. ...
The ostium primum atrial septal defect is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. This ... Patients with atrial Septal Defects may have atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, or atrial flutter, but these abnormal ... which is the portion of the heart where the atrial septum meets the ventricular septum and the mitral valve meets the tricuspid ... The hole can then be closed safely with a good long term prognosis.[citation needed] Notes "Atrial Septal Defect Types - Mayo ...
This procedure allows for better imaging of the aorta, pulmonary artery, heart valves, atria, atrial septum, left atrial ...
Gene deletion of FAM227A was linked to lung abnormality, atrial septum defect, small size for gestational age, and ...
... had developed a palliative procedure which consisted in opening the atrial septum. Being that in TGA the atrial septum prevents ... in which the atrial septum is excised, and the atrial baffle is created by the placement of a single elephant trunk-shaped ... After this complex plastic reconstruction using flaps from the right atrial tissue and the interatrial septum and lets the ... This procedure, a form of atrial switch, was developed and first performed by Senning in 1957 as a treatment for d-TGA (dextro- ...
... within the atrial septum. If the AV node also fails, Purkinje fibers are occasionally capable of acting as the default or " ...
... is expressed in the dorsal atrial wall, from which the primary atrial septum will emerge, and later in the septum and left ... These pathologies occur in the presence of other transcription factors important for atrial septum formation such as Nkx2.5, ... Pitx2 and Tbx5.Deleting Osr1 in second heart field demonstrated absence of the atrial septum. It is also demonstrated that Osr1 ... in the Odd1 gene show that Odd1 is essential for heart and intermediate mesoderm development.Osr1 regulates atrial septum ...
It can also be advanced across the atrial septum into the left atrium to visualize the left atrial appendage during left atrial ... ICE is often used as a part of the cardiac procedure of crossing the interatrial septum with a transseptal puncture to permit ... From the right atrium, visualization of the interatrial septum, all four cardiac chambers, all four valves, and the pericardial ... right atrial volume index RVOT - right ventricular outflow tract RVD - basal RV diameter IVC - inferior vena cava GLS - global ...
Congenital defects such as a thinned atrial septum, ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, dysplastic kidney and ...
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection with left intact atrial septum: surgical treatment of a rare case. European Journal ... In 1995 performed a rare surgery correction known as isolated congenital inversion atrial in situs inversus on a girl of only ...
That lesion affects the crux cardis, a structure formed by the crossing of the atrial and ventricular septa and by the ...
This type of defect is usually associated with Down syndrome.[citation needed] A sinus venosus ASD is a type of atrial septum ... If the atrial septal defect is causing the right ventricle to enlarge a secundum atrial septal defect should generally be ... The catheter is guided through the atrial septal wall and one disc (left atrial) is opened and pulled into place. Once this ... Bubbles only flow from right atrium to left atrium if the right atrial pressure is greater than left atrial). Because better ...
PAPVC with intact atrial septum (isolated PAPVC). This is a very rare finding and mostly involves the anomalous drainage of the ... Usually, the atrial septum is intact. About 25% cases have other associated congenital heart defects. ... The anomalous pulmonary vein, usually the right upper or middle pulmonary vein can either override the intra atrial septum ( ... Because of the abnormal positioning of the intra-atrial septum, the right-sided pulmonary veins anastomose to the anatomically ...
Right atrial mass-multimodality imaging-Massive lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum. Clin Case Rep. 2020;00:1-2. https ... is the fat deposition in the infoldings of the interatrial septum adjacent to the true atrial septum. It is shaped like a " ... Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the endocardial cushion can lead to an ostium primum atrial septal defect. This is ... An Atrial septal defect is a relatively common heart malformation that occurs when the interatrial septum fails to develop ...
An atrial myxoma is a noncancerous tumor in the upper left or right side of the heart. It most often grows on the wall that ... An atrial myxoma is a noncancerous tumor in the upper left or right side of the heart. It most often grows on the wall that ... This wall is called the atrial septum. ... An atrial myxoma is a noncancerous tumor in the upper left or ... Atrial myxomas are sometimes linked with valve obstruction stenosis and atrial fibrillation. ...
Synonym: Defect in The Atrial Septum. Synonym: Hole in Heart Wall Separating Two Upper Heart Chambers ... Atrial Septal Defect. Synonym: An Opening in The Wall Separating The Top Two Chambers of The Heart ... Atrial septal defect Patent ductus arteriosus Tracheal stenosis Trigonocephaly Upslanted palpebral fissure ...
Learn more about how our pediatric-trained cardiothoracic surgery team diagnoses and treats children born with an atrial septal ... Atrial Septal Defect What is an Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)? An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall, or septum, ... Sinus venosus: This occurs in the upper part of the atrial septum near the veins that drain into the left and right atriums. ... Primum ASD: This occurs in the lower part of the atrial septum near the tricuspid and mitral valves. ...
3D Echocardiography of the Atrial Septum: Anatomical Features and Landmarks for the Echocardiographer. Pushparajah, K., Miller ...
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum. Circulation 109:2326-30 [Google Scholar] ... Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum. Circulation 109:2326-30 [Google Scholar] ... Results of in utero atrial septoplasty in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Prenat. Diagn. 28:1023-28 [Google ... Results of in utero atrial septoplasty in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Prenat. Diagn. 28:1023-28 [Google ...
Access to the mitral valve is trans septal, cutting through the right atrium and the inter atrial septum. Other approaches ... Excision of left atrial tumours such as myxoma. *Interventricular septal wall resection in hypertrophic obstructive ... Venous cannulation is performed through the right atrial appendage or through the internal jugular and femoral veins for ... is not divided and antegrade arterial and venous cannulation of the right atrial appendage is usually adopted. (Fig- 2) ...
27th , 1894 . Bidders Ganglion - ganglion on the cardiac nerves , situated at the lower end of the atrial septum . ...
CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; HCM = hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; IVS = interventricular septum; LA = left atrium; ... Features of cardiac amyloidosis on TTE include small cavity size; increased LV wall thickness; atrial dilation; thickening of ... In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the most common site of hypertrophy is where the basal anterior septum and the contiguous ... interventricular septum; LA = left atrium; LV = left ventricle; PW = posterior wall; RV = right ventricle; TTE = transthoracic ...
... integrity of ventricular and atrial septum Anatomy 1 RV RA LA LV ... Septal atrial defects: secundum atrial septal defect, difficult ... Four chamber view - heart size and orientation - cardiac apex position - ventricular septum angulation - dimension of cardiac ... 7.Septal defects 2 a) Wide septal atrial and ventricular defect . b) malrotation of the cardiac axis ... a unique central valve and a defect of the ventricular septum which appear to unevenly divide the heart (unbalanced ventricles ...
... and the atrial septum was incised and exposed to visualize the mitral valve, using a specially designed atrial retractor. The ... Patients who underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting, ascending aortic surgery, atrial fibrillation ablation, or ... atrial fibrillation; and New York Heart Association class III or IV. ... atrial septal defect repair and procedures other than isolated mitral and aortic valve surgery were excluded. We performed ...
Frih-Ayed M, Boughammoura-Bouatay A, Ben Hamda K, Chebel S, Ben Farhat M. [Hypertrophy of the atrial septum in the ... evidence of lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum. J Neurol. 1998 Nov. 245(11):723-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Patients undergoing a Norwood Procedure with high PVR, such as an intact atrial septum, or those with systemic atrioventricular ...
... transcatheter closure of the following defects of the atrial septum: ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs); patent ... ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs).. *patent foramen ovale (PFO) to reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic stroke in ... The advanced conformable solution for patent foramen ovale (PFO) and ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. ...
In addition, it also identified two other tumors, one in the atrial septum (Figure 1G, white arrow) and another in the ... For better tissue characterization and assessment of the atrial septum and adjacent epicardium, a cardiac magnetic resonance ( ... Metastatic tumor of the interventricular septum mimicking myocardial calcification: The role of multimodality imaging. Riveland ... can mimic a tumor in the basal interventricular septum (IVS)1 on transthoracic echocardiography. However, we should also be ...
Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an opening in one of several parts of the interatrial septum, causing a left-to-right shunt. ... Atrial... read more , or atrial fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is a rapid, irregularly irregular atrial ... atrial flutter Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter is a rapid regular atrial rhythm due to an atrial macroreentrant circuit. Symptoms ...
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome with restrictive atrial septum and advanced heart block documented with a novel fetal ...
IVS = Intra-ventricular septum. IAS = Intra-atrial septum. IVC = Inferior vena cava. HV = Hepatic vein ... In both severe pressure and volume overload RV dilatation is seen with a D-shaped septum on the PSAX view. In normal ... PSAX view of a D-shaped septum in both systole and diastole - indicating both pressure and volume overload ... An IVC diameter ,2.1cm with collapsibility ,50% with a sniff suggests right atrial pressure (RAP) 0-5mmHg ...
Atrial/diagnosis/pathology/physiopathology, Heart Septum/embryology, Humans, Stroke/etiology, Ultrasonography, Doppler, ... A PFO is often associated with atrial septal aneurysm and Chiari network, although these anatomic variations are uncommon. ...
Abnormalities of the atrial septum. *Abnormalities of the ventricular septum. *Abnormal origins of the great arteries ...
Cove Point contains comprehensive information on all congenital heart defects, including Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), ... Atrial Septal Defect (Ostium Primum Type). Hole in the lower atrial septum. Atrioventricular Canal Defect (AVC) - Partial. ... Atrial Septal Defect (ostium primum type), one common atrioventricular valve, plus a hole in the upper ventricular septum ( ... Atrial Septal Defect (ostium primum type) plus a cleft or deformity in the mitral valve. Atrioventricular Canal Defect (AVC) - ...
The low atrial, that posterior septum, as well as the atrial lobe, where you could also say is potentially that wall. Is that ... And now what do we have? Weve got another left atrial posterior septum. So the way this is lined out to say additional ... And what I wanted to point out Ill give you a second to kind of read up to it but you can see that weve done the atrial ... mapping on two separate occasions with the focal atrial tachycardia in the area of the scar in the low posterior septum. And we ...
Long term after closure of atrial septum defect. Prof. J. Roos - Hesselink. ...
Defects of heart septum + Atrial septal defects + Ventricular septal defects + AV septal defects ... The diaphragm is formed from the structures of septum transversum, body wall and pleuroperitoneal membranes. ...
Heart Septum. This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ... A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE ... VentricularBody Surface Potential MappingQuailHeart SeptumModels, CardiovascularMesodermAtrial FunctionCatheter AblationGene ... A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. ...
We removed a circular section of the left atrial wall. The right atrial wall and interatrial septum were removed; this improved ... Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia ... Operation was performed through median sternotomy and right sided left atrial incision. Left atrial appendage was closed with ... Aggressive atrial volume reduction for bilateral giant atria improves respiratory function. Sawazaki, Masaru; Tomari, Shiro; ...
The atrial septum may be occasionally visualized in this view. SVC = superior vena cava; ATL = anterior tricuspid leaflet; RV ... IVS interventricular septum. Remainder of abbreviations are the same as in Fig. 6.. information concerning cardiac structures ... Circulation 54:716, 1976 8. Lieppe W, Scallian R, Behar VS, et al: Two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with atrial ... 11 demonstrates the advantage of the mide sector arc in detecting substernal structures such as interatrial septum, right ...
  • MRI shows extension of the mass into interventricular septum and ventricular wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrioventricular Septal Defect Atrioventricular (AV) septal defect consists of an ostium primum type atrial septal defect and a common AV valve, with or without an associated inlet (AV septal type) ventricular septal defect. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Persistent moderate to large ASDs result in large shunts, leading to right atrial and right ventricular volume overload. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Given the now substantial body of knowledge regarding the fetal physiology and natural history of these lesions in utero and the success of balloon aortic and pulmonary valvuloplasty in preventing or reversing newly onset ventricular dysfunction postnatally in infants, there is a theoretical rationale for intervention to relieve valvar stenosis or to enlarge a restrictive atrial septal opening in fetal life. (medscape.com)
  • Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation). (lookformedical.com)
  • 1. Measure atrial and ventricular rates. (doctorlib.info)
  • El flujo de sangre anormal en el interior del corazón puede estar causado por defectos en el TABIQUE AURICULAR, TABIQUE VENTRICULAR o ambos. (bvsalud.org)
  • The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both. (bvsalud.org)
  • pulmonary circulation as a ventricular septal search, writing, revising and defect and atrial septal defect.1 editing. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mutations in genes related to myocyte contraction and ventricular septum development in non-syndromic tetralogy of Fallot. (cdc.gov)
  • The interatrial septum is the wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interatrial septum is a septum that lies between the left atrium and right atrium of the human heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interatrial septum lies at angle of 65 degrees from right posterior to left anterior because right atrium is located at the right side of the body while left atrium is located at the left side of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interatrial septum represents the posterior wall of the right atrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interatrial septum forms during the first and second months of fetal development. (wikipedia.org)
  • An Atrial septal defect is a relatively common heart malformation that occurs when the interatrial septum fails to develop properly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lipomatous atrial septal hypertrophy (LASH) is the fat deposition in the infoldings of the interatrial septum adjacent to the true atrial septum. (wikipedia.org)
  • On CT scan, it shows homogeneous, dumbbell mass which is non-enhancing at the interatrial septum. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISBN 0-443-07168-3 "Septum, interatrial. (wikipedia.org)
  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an opening in the interatrial septum, causing a left-to-right shunt and volume overload of the right atrium and right ventricle. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other centers have reproduced the initial successes,[15, 16] as well as provided evidence that fetal valvuloplasty in conditions of atretic or stenotic valves of the aorta and pulmonary artery can facilitate the chance of biventricular circulation after birth, whereas septoplasty for intact or severely restrictive interatrial septum may improve postnatal stability and chances of survival after initial palliative surgery. (medscape.com)
  • She also had atrial septal defect, aneurism of interatrial septum and nephrolithiasis. (symptoma.com)
  • Look also at the interatrial septum. (medscape.com)
  • A transesophageal echocardiogram was performed, showing an interatrial tipo ostium ostium secundum atrial septal defect and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension with a right-left shunt. (bvsalud.org)
  • If left untreated, however, atrial septal defects may cause problems in adulthood. (choa.org)
  • ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs). (goremedical.com)
  • The causes of heart defects such as atrial septal defect among most babies are unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • When an atrial septal defect is present, blood flows through the hole primarily from the left atrium to the right atrium. (choa.org)
  • An atrial septal defect is present at birth, but many babies do not have any signs or symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • An atrial septal defect (pronounced EY-tree-uhl SEP-tuhl DEE-fekt) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. (cdc.gov)
  • This form is almost always associated with a sinus venosus type of atrial septal defect (ASD) . (medscape.com)
  • Persistence of the ostium secundum is the most common atrial septal defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the endocardial cushion can lead to an ostium primum atrial septal defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the second most common type of atrial septal defect and is commonly seen in Down syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Children's, our pediatric-trained team of cardiothoracic surgeons is trained to diagnose and treat children born with atrial septal defect. (choa.org)
  • What is an Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)? (choa.org)
  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall, or septum, between the two upper chambers of the heart. (choa.org)
  • The advanced conformable solution for patent foramen ovale (PFO) and ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. (goremedical.com)
  • Common murmurs: pulmonary valve stenosis, atrial septal defect (ASD), pulmonary flow murmur, pulmonary artery stenosis, AS, coarctation of the aorta, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR). (doctorlib.info)
  • An atrial septal defect is one type of congenital heart defect. (cdc.gov)
  • If one of these openings does not close, a hole is left, and it is called an atrial septal defect. (cdc.gov)
  • In a study in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 13 of every 10,000 babies born had an atrial septal defect. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 This means about 5,240 babies are born each year in the United States with an atrial septal defect. (cdc.gov)
  • An atrial septal defect may be diagnosed during pregnancy or after the baby is born. (cdc.gov)
  • An atrial septal defect might be seen during an ultrasound (which creates pictures of the body), but it depends on the size of the hole and its location. (cdc.gov)
  • If an atrial septal defect is suspected, a specialist will need to confirm the diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • It is possible that an atrial septal defect might not be diagnosed until adulthood. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the most common ways an atrial septal defect is found is by detecting a murmur when listening to a person's heart with a stethoscope. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment for an atrial septal defect depends on the age of diagnosis, the number of or seriousness of symptoms, size of the hole, and presence of other conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • If a child is diagnosed with an atrial septal defect, the health care provider may want to monitor it for a while to see if the hole closes on its own. (cdc.gov)
  • A health care provider may recommend the atrial septal defect be closed for a child with a large atrial septal defect, even if there are few symptoms, to prevent problems later in life. (cdc.gov)
  • Associated with an ostium secundum Atrial Septal Defect in an Adult Woman. (bvsalud.org)
  • For better tissue characterization and assessment of the atrial septum and adjacent epicardium, a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was performed (Figure 1E-G), confirming findings observed on echocardiography. (uib.no)
  • A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES . (lookformedical.com)
  • Sinus venosus: This occurs in the upper part of the atrial septum near the veins that drain into the left and right atriums. (choa.org)
  • Interventricular septum Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, 39th ed. (2005). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, there has been focus on how a round-shaped metastatic or dystrophic myocardial calcification, a rare type of myocardial pathology with different imaging appearances, can mimic a tumor in the basal interventricular septum (IVS)1 on transthoracic echocardiography. (uib.no)
  • Before the ostium primum is completely occluded, a second opening called the ostium secundum begins to form in the septum primum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ostium secundum progressively enlarges and the size of the septum primum diminishes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anomalous pulmonary vein, usually the right upper or middle pulmonary vein can either override the intra atrial septum (anomalous drainage) or can drain separately into the superior vena cava (true anomalous connection). (medscape.com)
  • Patients undergoing a Norwood Procedure with high PVR, such as an intact atrial septum, or those with systemic atrioventricular valve or neo-aortic valve regurgitation could potentially benefit from a trileaflet valve in a 5 or 6 mm ring-reinforced ePTFE conduit. (ctsnet.org)
  • Atrial myxomas are sometimes linked with valve obstruction stenosis and atrial fibrillation . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The symptoms and signs of left atrial myxomas often mimic mitral stenosis (narrowing of the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Modification of early techniques has since allowed percutaneous access for catheter-based interventions and has met with technical success, not only in fetal aortic valve stenosis but also in pulmonic valve atresia and stenosis and in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) with an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum. (medscape.com)
  • Venous cannulation is performed through the right atrial appendage or through the internal jugular and femoral veins for bicaval access. (escardio.org)
  • With this approach, the internal mammary artery (IMA) is not divided and antegrade arterial and venous cannulation of the right atrial appendage is usually adopted. (escardio.org)
  • Left atrial appendage was closed with running suture. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of the abnormal positioning of the intra-atrial septum, the right-sided pulmonary veins anastomose to the anatomically right-sided atrium, which is the atrium that also receives the inferior vena cava. (medscape.com)
  • El síndrome de Eisenmenger es la forma más severa de presentación de hipertensión arterial pulmonar secundaria a defectos alerta.v7i1.16816 cardíacos congénitos no reparados, aunque su prevalencia es baja, continúa siendo un reto para los sistemas de salud de los países en vías de desarrollo por su complejidad en el manejo. (bvsalud.org)
  • You can actually see the flow heading towards the LVOT during atrial systole, obviously not enough that it opens the valve, but you could see it. (medscape.com)
  • Operation was performed through median sternotomy and right sided left atrial incision. (bvsalud.org)
  • Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. (bvsalud.org)
  • Atrial Abnormalities in Brugada Syndrome: Evaluation With ECG Imaging. (cdc.gov)
  • The atrial septum is deviated and there's la and lv volume overload. (sonopath.com)
  • Formation of the septum occurs in several stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secundum ASD: This occurs in the middle part of the atrial septum. (choa.org)
  • Primum ASD: This occurs in the lower part of the atrial septum near the tricuspid and mitral valves. (choa.org)
  • You'll notice that not only is the LVOT flow variable from beat to beat but also the pre-ejection flow, or the flow that occurs with the atrial kick, seems to be changing in parallel. (medscape.com)
  • but, if pathologic conditions cause right atrial pressure to exceed left atrial pressure, blood may flow through the foramen ovale from right to left. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left atrial isomerism with a common atrium is observed. (medscape.com)
  • An atrial myxoma is a noncancerous tumor in the upper left or right side of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Children are rarely symptomatic, but long-term complications after 20 years of age include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, paradoxical emboli, and atrial arrhythmias. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The first is the development of the septum primum, a crescent-shaped piece of tissue forming the initial divider between the right and left atria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right atrial myxomas rarely produce symptoms until they have grown to be quite large (5 inches wide, or 13 cm). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, it also identified two other tumors, one in the atrial septum (Figure 1G, white arrow) and another in the pericardium (Figure 1G, red arrow), highlighting the importance of multimodality imaging. (uib.no)
  • It can also show the blood flow through the atrial septal opening and find out how big the opening is. (choa.org)
  • You'll notice that in this slide, as the LVOT flow increases in velocity, there is a parallel increase in velocity in the atrial kick that comes before it. (medscape.com)